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The Info List - Spalacidae





Spalacinae Myospalacinae Rhizomyinae

The Spalacidae, or spalacids, are a family of rodents in the large and complex superfamily Muroidea. They are native to eastern Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, and southeastern Europe. It includes the blind mole-rats, bamboo rats, mole-rats, and zokors. This family represents the oldest split (excluding perhaps the Platacanthomyinae) in the muroid superfamily, and comprises animals adapted to a subterranean way of life. These rodents were thought to have evolved adaptations to living underground independently until recent genetic studies demonstrated they form a monophyletic group. Members of the Spalacidae
Spalacidae
are often placed in the family Muridae
Muridae
along with all other members of the Muroidea.

Contents

1 Characteristics

1.1 Characteristics

2 Classification 3 References

Characteristics[edit] Spalacids are mouse- to rat-sized rodents, adapted to burrowing and living underground. They have short limbs, wedge-shaped skulls, strong neck muscles, large incisor teeth, and small eyes and external ears. In the zokors, which dig primarily with their feet, rather than their teeth, the front claws are also massively enlarged. These features are least extreme in the bamboo rats, which spend at least some of their time above ground, foraging for food. They are most highly developed in the blind mole-rats, whose eyes are completely covered by skin, and entirely lack external ears or tails. All of the spalacid species dig extensive underground burrows, which may include storage chambers for food, latrine chambers, and breeding nests. They are generally solitary animals, and do not share their tunnel complexes with other individuals. All the species are herbivores, feeding on roots, bulbs, and tubers. They give birth to litters of up to six young after a gestation period between three and seven weeks, depending on the species. As with many other muroids, the young are born blind, hairless, and helpless. They may stay with the mother for several months before setting off to establish their own burrows, although some species disperse as soon as they are weaned.[1] Characteristics[edit] Norris et al.[2] listed several characteristics present in all members of this family which distinguish them from the rest of the muroids, (the clade Eumuroida). These are "the reduction or absence of external eyes, reduced pinnae, stocky body, short tail (<50% head and body length), broad rostrum, triangular-shaped braincase, infraorbital canal ovoid shape and does not extend ventrally to the roof of the palate, zygomatic plate absent or much reduced, nasolacrimal canal inside infraorbital canal, incisive foramina small to medium-sized, extensive neck musculature and prominent points of attachment on the occipitum, minimal reduction in M3 relative to M1 and M2, and a distinct orientation of the manubrium of the malleus bone." Classification[edit] The spalacids are classified in three subfamilies, six genera, and 37 species. FAMILY SPALACIDAE

Subfamily
Subfamily
Myospalacinae
Myospalacinae
- zokors

Genus
Genus
Myospalax

Myospalax
Myospalax
myospalax species group

False zokor, M. aspalax Siberian zokor, M. myospalax

Myospalax
Myospalax
psilurus species group

Transbaikal zokor, M. psilurus

Genus
Genus
Eospalax

Chinese zokor, E. fontanierii Rothschild's zokor, E. rothschildi Smith's zokor, E. smithii

Subfamily
Subfamily
Rhizomyinae

Tribe Rhizomyini
Rhizomyini
- bamboo rats

Genus
Genus
Rhizomys

Hoary bamboo rat, R. pruinosus Chinese bamboo rat, R. sinensis Large bamboo rat, R. sumatrensis

Genus
Genus
Cannomys

Lesser bamboo rat, C. badius

Genus
Genus
Brachyrhizomys (Miocene to Pleistocene)

Tribe Tachyoryctini

Genus
Genus
Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
- African mole-rats

Ankole African mole-rat, T. ankoliae Mianzini African mole-rat, T. annectens Aberdare Mountains African mole-rat, T. audax Demon African mole-rat, T. daemon Kenyan African mole-rat, T. ibeanus Big-headed African mole-rat, T. macrocephalus Navivasha African mole-rat, Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
naivashae King African mole-rat, T. rex Rwanda African mole-rat, T. ruandae Rudd's African mole-rat, T. ruddi Embi African mole-rat, T. spalacinus Northeast African mole-rat, T. splendens Storey's African mole-rat, T. storeyi

Subfamily
Subfamily
Spalacinae

Genus
Genus
Spalax
Spalax
- blind mole-rats

Sandy mole-rat, S. arenarius Mount Carmel blind mole-rat, S. carmeli Middle East
Middle East
blind mole-rat, S. ehrenbergi or Nannospalax ehrenbergi Upper Galilee Mountains blind mole-rat, S. galili Giant mole-rat, S. giganteus Golan Heights blind mole-rat, S. golani Balkan mole-rat, S. graecus Judean Mountains blind mole-rat, S. judaei Lesser mole-rat, S. leucodon Greater mole-rat, S. microphthalmus Munzur mole-rat, S. munzuri Nehring's blind mole-rat, S. nehringi Kazakhstan blind mole-rat, S. uralensis Podolsk mole-rat, S. zemni

References[edit]

^ Corbet, Gordon (1984). Macdonald, D., ed. The Encyclopedia of Mammals. New York: Facts on File. pp. 666–671. ISBN 0-87196-871-1.  ^ Norris, R.W.; et al. (2004). "The phylogenetic position of the zokors (Myospalacinae) and comments on the families of muroids (Rodentia)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 31 (3): 972–978. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2003.10.020. PMID 15120394. 

Jansa, S. A. and M. Weksler. 2004. Phylogeny of muroid rodents: relationships within and among major lineages as determined by IRBP gene sequences. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 31:256-276. Michaux, J., A. Reyes, and F. Catzeflis. 2001. Evolutionary history of the most speciose mammals: molecular phylogeny of muroid rodents. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 17:280-293. Steppan, S. J., R. A. Adkins, and J. Anderson. 2004. Phylogeny and divergence date estimates of rapid radiations in muroid rodents based on multiple nuclear genes. Systematic Biology, 53:533-553.

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Extant families in order Rodentia

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Euarchontoglires

Sciuromorpha ("Squirrel-like")

Aplodontiidae (Mountain beaver) Gliridae (Dormice) Sciuridae (Squirrels, chipmunks, marmots, susliks and prairie dogs)

Castorimorpha ("Beaver-like")

Castoroidea Castoridae
Castoridae
(Beavers)

Geomyoidea Geomyidae (Pocket gophers) Heteromyidae
Heteromyidae
(Kangaroo rats and mice, pocket mice)

Myomorpha ("Mouse-like")

Dipodoidea Dipodidae
Dipodidae
(Jerboas, jumping mice and birch mice)

Muroidea Platacanthomyidae
Platacanthomyidae
(Oriental dormice) Spalacidae
Spalacidae
(Zokors, bamboo rats, mole rats, blind mole rats) Calomyscidae (Mouse-like hamsters) Nesomyidae
Nesomyidae
(Malagasy rats and relatives) Cricetidae
Cricetidae
(Hamsters and relatives) Muridae
Muridae
(House mouse and relatives)

Anomaluromorpha ("Anomalure-like")

Anomaluridae (Anomalures) Pedetidae
Pedetidae
(Springhares)

Hystricomorpha ("Porcupine-like")

Ctenodactylidae (Gundis) Diatomyidae
Diatomyidae
(Laotian rock rat) Hystricidae (Old World porcupines)

Phiomorpha Bathyergidae (Blesmols) Petromuridae (Dassie rat) Thryonomyidae (Cane rats)

Caviomorpha
Caviomorpha
(New World hystricognaths) Erethizontidae (New World porcupines) Caviidae
Caviidae
(Cavies) Cuniculidae (Pacas) Dasyproctidae
Dasyproctidae
(Agoutis and acouchis) Dinomyidae
Dinomyidae
(Pacarana) Capromyidae (Hutias) Ctenomyidae (Tuco-tucos) Echimyidae
Echimyidae
(Spiny rats and coypus) Octodontidae
Octodontidae
(Degus and relatives) Abrocomidae (Chinchilla rats) Chinchillidae
Chinchillidae
(Chinchillas and viscachas)

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Extant species of family Spalacidae

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Rodentia Suborder: Myomorpha Superfamily: Muroidea

Myospalacinae (Zokors)

Myospalax

M. myospalax group: False zokor
False zokor
( Myospalax
Myospalax
aspalax) Siberian zokor
Siberian zokor
( Myospalax
Myospalax
myospalax)

M. psilurus group: Transbaikal zokor
Transbaikal zokor
( Myospalax
Myospalax
psilurus)

Eospalax

Chinese zokor
Chinese zokor
( Eospalax
Eospalax
fontanierii) Rothschild's zokor
Rothschild's zokor
( Eospalax
Eospalax
rothschildi) Smith's zokor
Smith's zokor
( Eospalax
Eospalax
smithii)

Rhizomyinae

Rhizomys (Bamboo rats)

Hoary bamboo rat
Hoary bamboo rat
( Rhizomys
Rhizomys
pruinosus) Chinese bamboo rat
Chinese bamboo rat
( Rhizomys
Rhizomys
sinensis) Large bamboo rat
Large bamboo rat
( Rhizomys
Rhizomys
sumatrensis)

Cannomys (Bamboo rats)

Lesser bamboo rat
Lesser bamboo rat
( Cannomys
Cannomys
badius)

Tachyoryctes (Mole rats)

Ankole African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
ankoliae) Mianzini African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
annectens) Aberdare Mountains African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
audax) Demon African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
daemon) Kenyan African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
ibeanus) Big-headed African mole-rat
Big-headed African mole-rat
( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
macrocephalus) Navivasha African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
naivashae) King African mole-rat
King African mole-rat
( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
rex) Rwanda African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
ruandae) Rudd's African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
ruddi) Embi African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
spalacinus) East African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
splendens) Storey's African mole-rat ( Tachyoryctes
Tachyoryctes
storeyi)

Spalacinae (Blind mole-rats)

Spalax

Sandy mole-rat
Sandy mole-rat
( Spalax
Spalax
arenarius) Mount Carmel blind mole-rat ( Spalax
Spalax
carmeli) Middle East
Middle East
blind mole-rat ( Spalax
Spalax
ehrenbergi) Upper Galilee Mountains blind mole-rat ( Spalax
Spalax
galili) Giant mole-rat
Giant mole-rat
( Spalax
Spalax
giganteus) Golan Heights blind mole-rat ( Spalax
Spalax
golani) Balkan mole-rat
Balkan mole-rat
( Spalax
Spalax
graecus) Judean Mountains blind mole-rat Spalax
Spalax
(judaei) Lesser mole-rat
Lesser mole-rat
( Spalax
Spalax
leucodon) Greater mole-rat
Greater mole-rat
( Spalax
Spalax
microphthalmus) Munzur mole-rat ( Spalax
Spalax
munzuri) Nehring's blind mole-rat
Nehring's blind mole-rat
( Spalax
Spalax
nehringi) Kazakhstan blind mole-rat
Kazakhstan blind mole-rat
( Spalax
Spalax
uralensis) Podolsk mole-rat
Podolsk mole-rat
( Spalax
Spalax
zemni)

Category

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q557935 ADW: Spalacidae EoL: 4468708 EPPO: 1SPAXF Fossilworks: 77298 GBIF: 3240686 ITIS: 970144 MSW: 13000007

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