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SOUTHERN MIN, or MINNAN (simplified Chinese : 闽南语; traditional Chinese : 閩南語), is a branch of Min Chinese
Min Chinese
spoken in certain parts of China
China
including southern Fujian
Fujian
(the Minnan region
Minnan region
), eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
, Hainan
Hainan
, and southern Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and in Taiwan
Taiwan
. The Minnan dialects are also spoken by descendants of emigrants from these areas in diaspora , most notably the Philippines
Philippines
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
.

In common parlance, Southern Min
Southern Min
usually refers to Hokkien
Hokkien
, including Amoy and Taiwanese Hokkien
Hokkien
; both are combinations of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speeches. The Southern Min
Southern Min
dialect group also includes Teochew , though Teochew has limited mutual intelligibility with Hokkien. Hainanese
Hainanese
is not mutually intellgible with other Southern Min
Southern Min
and is often considered a separate branch of Min. Southern Min
Southern Min
is not mutually intelligible with Eastern Min
Eastern Min
, Pu-Xian Min , any other Min branch, Hakka , Cantonese
Cantonese
, Shanghainese
Shanghainese
or Mandarin .

CONTENTS

* 1 Geographic distribution

* 1.1 China
China
and Taiwan
Taiwan
* 1.2 Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia

* 2 Classification

* 3 Varieties

* 3.1 Hokkien
Hokkien
* 3.2 Teochew * 3.3 Datian

* 4 Phonology * 5 Writing systems * 6 History * 7 Comparisons with Sino-Xenic character pronunciations

* 8 See also

* 8.1 Related languages

* 9 References * 10 Further reading * 11 External links

GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION

CHINA AND TAIWAN

Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects are spoken in the southern part of Fujian
Fujian
, three southeastern counties of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, the Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo
Ningbo
in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
, and the Chaoshan
Chaoshan
(Teo-swa) region in Guangdong
Guangdong
. The variant spoken in Leizhou
Leizhou
, Guangdong
Guangdong
as well as Hainan
Hainan
is Hainanese
Hainanese
and is not mutually intelligible with other Southern Min
Southern Min
or Teochew. Hainanese
Hainanese
is classified in some schemes as part of Southern Min and in other schemes as separate. Puxian Min was originally based on the Quanzhou dialect
Quanzhou dialect
, but over time became heavily influenced by Eastern Min
Eastern Min
, eventually losing intellegility with Minnan.

A forms of Southern Min
Southern Min
spoken in Taiwan, collectively known as Taiwanese , Southern Min
Southern Min
is a first language for most of the Hoklo people , the main ethnicity of Taiwan. The correspondence between language and ethnicity is not absolute, as some Hoklo have very limited proficiency in Southern Min
Southern Min
while some non-Hoklo speak Southern Min
Southern Min
fluently.

SOUTHEAST ASIA

There are many Southern Min
Southern Min
speakers also among Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. Many ethnic Chinese immigrants to the region were Hoklo from southern Fujian
Fujian
and brought the language to what is now Burma
Burma
, Indonesia
Indonesia
(the former Dutch East Indies
Dutch East Indies
) and present-day Malaysia
Malaysia
and Singapore
Singapore
(formerly British Malaya
British Malaya
and the Straits Settlements ). In general, Southern Min
Southern Min
from southern Fujian
Fujian
is known as HOKKIEN , HOKKIENESE, FUKIEN or FOOKIEN in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and is mostly mutually intellegible with Hokkien
Hokkien
spoken elsewhere. Many Southeast Asian ethnic Chinese also originated in the Chaoshan
Chaoshan
region of Guangdong
Guangdong
and speak Teochew language , the variant of Southern Min from that region. Philippine Hokkien
Hokkien
is reportedly the native language of up to 98.5% of the Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
community in the Philippines
Philippines
, among whom it is also known as LAN-NANG or LáN-LâNG-Oē ("our people’s language"), although Hoklo people
Hoklo people
consist of only around 60% of the Chinese Filipino
Chinese Filipino
population.

Southern Min-speakers form the majority of Chinese in Singapore, with the largest group being Hokkien
Hokkien
and the second largest being Teochew . Despite the similarities the two groups are rarely seen as part of the same "Minnan" Chinese subgroups.

CLASSIFICATION

The variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
spoken in Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province are most akin to that spoken in Quanzhou. The variants spoken in Taiwan
Taiwan
are similar to the three Fujian
Fujian
variants and are collectively known as Taiwanese .

Those Southern Min
Southern Min
variants that are collectively known as "Hokkien" in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
also originate from these variants. The variants of Southern Min
Southern Min
in the Chaoshan
Chaoshan
region of eastern Guangdong
Guangdong
province are collectively known as TEOCHEW or CHAOZHOU. Teochew is of great importance in the Southeast Asian Chinese diaspora
Chinese diaspora
, particularly in Malaysia
Malaysia
, Thailand
Thailand
, Cambodia
Cambodia
, Vietnam
Vietnam
, Sumatra
Sumatra
and West Kalimantan . The Philippines
Philippines
variant is mostly from the Quanzhou
Quanzhou
area as most of their forefathers are from the aforementioned area.

The Southern Min
Southern Min
language variant spoken around Shanwei
Shanwei
and Haifeng differs markedly from Teochew and may represent a later migration from Zhangzhou. Linguistically, it lies between Teochew and Amoy. In southwestern Fujian
Fujian
, the local variants in Longyan
Longyan
and Zhangping form a separate division of Minnan on their own. Among ethnic Chinese inhabitants of Penang
Penang
, Malaysia
Malaysia
and Medan
Medan
, Indonesia
Indonesia
, a distinct form based on the Zhangzhou dialect
Zhangzhou dialect
has developed. In Penang
Penang
, it is called PENANG HOKKIEN while across the Malacca Strait
Malacca Strait
in Medan
Medan
, an almost identical variant is known as MEDAN HOKKIEN .

VARIETIES

There are three principal branches of Southern Min: Hokkien
Hokkien
(also known as Quanzhang 泉漳), Datian (大田), and Teochew also known as Chaoshan
Chaoshan
or Teo-Swa (潮汕).

HOKKIEN

Main article: Hokkien
Hokkien

Xiamen (Amoy) dialect is a blend of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou dialects. Taiwanese Minnan is also a blend of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou dialect. Taiwanese in northern Taiwan
Taiwan
tends to be based on Quanzhou
Quanzhou
dialect, whereas the Taiwanese spoken in southern Taiwan
Taiwan
tends to be based on Zhangzhou dialect. There are minor variations in pronunciation and vocabulary between Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speech. The grammar is basically the same. Additionally, extensive contact with the Japanese language has left a legacy of Japanese loanwords. In contrast, Teochew speech is significantly different from Quanzhou
Quanzhou
and Zhangzhou speech in both pronunciation and vocabulary.

TEOCHEW

Main article: Teochew dialect
Teochew dialect

Teochew, or Chaoshan, includes Swatow dialect . It has very low intelligibility with Amoy dialect
Amoy dialect
.

DATIAN

Main article: Datian Min

Datian Min, spoken in Datian County , Sanming Prefecture, northwest of Quanzhou
Quanzhou
, has a minimally mutual intelligibility with other Minnan, partially because of influence from Central Min and other Min branches. It is thus sometimes classified as a separate branch of Min.

PHONOLOGY

Main articles: Hokkien
Hokkien
§ Phonology , and Teochew dialect
Teochew dialect
§ Phonetics and phonology

Southern Min
Southern Min
has one of the most diverse phonologies of Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Mandarin or Cantonese. Vowels, on the other hand, are more-or-less similar to those of Mandarin. In general, Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects have five to six tones , and tone sandhi is extensive. There are minor variations within Hokkien, and the Teochew system differs somewhat more.

Southern Min's nasal finals consist m, n, ŋ, ~.

WRITING SYSTEMS

See also: Written Hokkien
Hokkien

Southern Min
Southern Min
dialects lack a standardized written language. Southern Min speakers are taught how to read Standard Chinese
Standard Chinese
in school. As a result, there has not been an urgent need to develop a writing system. In recent years, an increasing number of Southern Min
Southern Min
speakers have become interested in developing a standard writing system (either by using Chinese Characters, or using Romanized script).

HISTORY

The Min homeland of Fujian
Fujian
was opened to Chinese settlement by the defeat of the Minyue state by the armies of Emperor Wu of Han
Emperor Wu of Han
in 110 BC. The area features rugged mountainous terrain, with short rivers that flow into the South China
China
Sea . Most subsequent migration from north to south China
China
passed through the valleys of the Xiang and Gan rivers to the west, so that Min varieties have experienced less northern influence than other southern groups. As a result, whereas most varieties of Chinese can be treated as derived from Middle Chinese , the language described by rhyme dictionaries such as the _ Qieyun
Qieyun
_ (601 AD), Min varieties contain traces of older distinctions. Linguists estimate that the oldest layers of Min dialects diverged from the rest of Chinese around the time of the Han dynasty . However, significant waves of migration from the North China
China
Plain occurred:

* The Uprising of the Five Barbarians during the Jin dynasty , particularly the Disaster of Yongjia in 311 AD, caused a tide of immigration to the south. * In 669, Chen Zheng and his son Chen Yuanguang from Gushi County in Henan
Henan
set up a regional administration in Fujian
Fujian
to suppress an insurrection by the She people
She people
. * Wang Chao was appointed governor of Fujian
Fujian
in 893, near the end of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
, and brought tens of thousands of troops from Henan . In 909, following the fall of the Tang dynasty, his son Wang Shenzhi founded the Min Kingdom , one of the Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms
Ten Kingdoms
period .

Jerry Norman identifies four main layers in the vocabulary of modern Min varieties:

* A non-Chinese substratum from the original languages of Minyue , which Norman and Mei Tsu-lin believe were Austroasiatic
Austroasiatic
. * The earliest Chinese layer, brought to Fujian
Fujian
by settlers from Zhejiang
Zhejiang
to the north during the Han dynasty. * A layer from the Northern and Southern Dynasties
Northern and Southern Dynasties
period, which is largely consistent with the phonology of the _Qieyun_ dictionary. * A literary layer based on the koiné of Chang\'an , the capital of the Tang dynasty
Tang dynasty
.

COMPARISONS WITH SINO-XENIC CHARACTER PRONUNCIATIONS

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Minnan (or Hokkien) can trace its origins through the Tang Dynasty
Tang Dynasty
, and it also has roots from earlier periods. Minnan (Hokkien) people call themselves "Tang people", (唐人, pronounced as "唐儂" _Thn̂g-lâng_) which is synonymous to "Chinese people". Because of the widespread influence of the Tang culture during the great Tang dynasty, there are today still many Minnan pronunciations of words shared by the Sino-xenic pronunciations of Vietnamese , Korean and Japanese languages.

ENGLISH HAN CHARACTERS MANDARIN CHINESE TAIWANESE MINNAN TEOCHEW CANTONESE KOREAN VIETNAMESE JAPANESE

Book 冊 Cè Chhek/Chheh ze1 caak3 Chaek (책) Tập/Sách Saku/Satsu/Shaku

Bridge 橋 Qiáo Kiâu/Kiô giê5 kiu4 Gyo (교) Cầu/Kiều Kyō

Dangerous 危險 Wēixiǎn Guî-hiám guîn5/nguín5 hiem2 ngai4 him2 Wiheom (위험) Nguy hiểm Kiken

Embassy 大使館 Dàshǐguǎn Tāi-sài-koán dai6 sái2 guêng2 daai6 si3 gun2 Daesagwan (대사관) Đại Sứ Quán Taishikan

Flag 旗 Qí Kî kî5 kei4 Gi (기) Cờ/Kỳ Ki

Insurance 保險 Bǎoxiǎn Pó-hiám Bó2-hiém bou2 him2 Boheom (보험) Bảo hiểm Hoken

News 新聞 Xīnwén Sin-bûn sing1 bhung6 san1 man4 Shinmun (신문) Tân Văn Shinbun

Student 學生 Xuéshēng Ha̍k-seng Hak8 sêng1 hok6 saang1 Haksaeng (학생) Học sinh Gakusei

University 大學 Dàxué Tāi-ha̍k/Tōa-o̍h dai6 hag8/dua7 oh8 daai6 hok6 Daehak (대학) Đại học Daigaku

SEE ALSO

* Language portal * China
China
portal

* Chinese in Singapore
Singapore
* Languages of China
China
* Languages of Taiwan
Taiwan
* Languages of Thailand
Thailand
* Malaysian Chinese
Malaysian Chinese

RELATED LANGUAGES

* Fuzhou dialect
Fuzhou dialect
(Min Dong branch) * Lan-nang (Philippine dialect of Minnan) * Medan
Medan
Hokkien
Hokkien
(North-Sumatra, Indonesia
Indonesia
dialect of Minnan) * Penang
Penang
Hokkien
Hokkien
* Singaporean Hokkien
Hokkien
* Southern Malaysia
Malaysia
Hokkien
Hokkien
* Taiwanese Minnan

REFERENCES

* ^ Mikael Parkvall, "Världens 100 största språk 2007" (The World's 100 Largest Languages in 2007), in _ Nationalencyklopedin
Nationalencyklopedin
_ * ^ 大眾運輸工具播音語言平等保障法 * ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin; Bank, Sebastian, eds. (2016). "Minnan Chinese". _ Glottolog 2.7 _. Jena: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History. * ^ CAI ZHU, HUANG GUO (1 October 2015). _Chinese language_. Xiamen: Fujian
Fujian
Education Publishing House. ISBN 7533469518 . access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Minnan/ Southern Min
Southern Min
at _ Ethnologue _ (18th ed., 2015) * ^ Norman (1991) , pp. 328. * ^ Norman (1988) , pp. 210, 228. * ^ Norman (1988) , pp. 228–229. * ^ Ting (1983) , pp. 9–10. * ^ Baxter & Sagart (2014) , pp. 33, 79. * ^ Yan (2006) , p. 120. * ^ Norman & Mei (1976) . * ^ Norman (1991) , pp. 331–332. * ^ Norman (1991) , pp. 334–336. * ^ Norman (1991) , p. 336. * ^ Norman (1991) , p. 337. * ^ Iûⁿ, Ún-giân. "Tâi-bûn/Hôa-bûn Sòaⁿ-téng Sû-tián" 台文/華文線頂辭典 . Retrieved 1 October 2014.

FURTHER READING

* Branner, David Prager (2000). _Problems in Comparative Chinese Dialectology — the Classification of Miin and Hakka_. Trends in Linguistics series, no. 123. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-015831-0 . * Chung, Raung-fu (1996). _The segmental phonology of Southern Min in Taiwan_. Taipei: Crane Pub. Co. ISBN 957-9463-46-8 . * DeBernardi, Jean (1991). "Linguistic nationalism: the case of Southern Min". _ Sino-Platonic Papers _. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. 25. OCLC
OCLC
24810816 . * Chappell, Hilary, ed. (2001). _Sinitic Grammar_. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829977-X . "Part V: Southern Min
Southern Min
Grammar" (3 articles).

EXTERNAL LINKS

_ MIN NAN CHINESE EDITION _ of Wikipedia
Wikipedia
, the free encyclopedia

_ SOUTHERN MIN TEST _ of Wikibooks
Wikibooks
at Wikimedia Incubator

_ Wikibooks
Wikibooks
has a book on the topic of: MINNAN _

_ Look up MINNAN _ in Wiktionary, the