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South West Africa
South West Africa
(Afrikaans: Suidwes-Afrika; Dutch: Zuidwest-Afrika; German: Südwestafrika) was the name for modern-day Namibia
Namibia
when it was subsumed under South Africa, from 1915 to 1990. Previously the colony of German South West Africa
German South West Africa
from 1884, it was made a League of Nations mandate
League of Nations mandate
of the British-ruled Union of South Africa following Germany's losses in World War I. Despite the mandate being abolished by the UN in 1966, South African rule continued until 1990, when the territory became independent as the Republic of Namibia with the exception of Walvis Bay
Walvis Bay
and the Penguin Islands, which were united with the rest of the country in 1994.

Contents

1 German colony 2 South African rule

2.1 UN mandate terminated 2.2 Bantustans

3 See also 4 References

German colony[edit] Main article: German South West Africa As a German colony from 1884, it was known as German South West Africa (Deutsch-Südwestafrika). Germany had a difficult time administering the territory, which experienced many insurrections, especially those led by guerilla leader Jacob Morenga. The main port, Walvis Bay, and the Penguin Islands
Penguin Islands
were annexed by Britain in 1878, becoming part of the Cape Colony
Cape Colony
in 1884.[1] Following the creation of the Union of South Africa
South Africa
in 1910, Walvis Bay
Walvis Bay
became part of the Cape Province.[2] As part of the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty
Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty
in 1890, a corridor of land taken from the northern border of Bechuanaland, extending as far as the Zambezi river, was added to the colony. It was named the Caprivi Strip (Caprivizipfel) after the German Chancellor Leo von Caprivi.[3] South African rule[edit] In 1915, during South West Africa Campaign
South West Africa Campaign
of the First World War, South Africa
South Africa
captured the German colony. After the war, it was declared a League of Nations
League of Nations
Class C Mandate territory under the Treaty of Versailles, with the Union of South Africa
South Africa
responsible for the administration of South West Africa. From 1922, this included Walvis Bay, which, under the South West Africa
South West Africa
Affairs Act, was governed if it were part of the mandated territory.[4] South West Africa remained a League of Nations Mandate
League of Nations Mandate
until World War II.[citation needed] The Mandate was supposed to become a United Nations
United Nations
Trust Territory when League of Nations
League of Nations
Mandates were transferred to the United Nations following the Second World War. The Prime Minister, Jan Smuts, objected to South West Africa
South West Africa
coming under UN control and refused to allow the territory's transition to independence, instead seeking to make it South Africa's fifth province in 1946.[5] Although this never occurred, in 1949, the South West Africa
South West Africa
Affairs Act was amended to give representation in the Parliament of South Africa to whites in South West Africa, which gave them six seats in the House of Assembly and four in the Senate.[6] This was to the advantage of the National Party, which enjoyed strong support from the predominantly Afrikaners and ethnic German white population in the territory.[7] Between 1950 and 1977, all of South West Africa's parliamentary seats were held by the National Party.[8] An additional consequence of this was the extension of apartheid laws to the territory.[9] This gave rise to several rulings at the International Court of Justice, which in 1950 ruled that South Africa was not obliged to convert South West Africa
South West Africa
into a UN trust territory, but was still bound by the League of Nations Mandate
League of Nations Mandate
with the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly assuming the supervisory role. The ICJ also clarified that the General Assembly was empowered to receive petitions from the inhabitants of South West Africa
South West Africa
and to call for reports from the mandatory nation, South Africa.[10] The General Assembly constituted the Committee on South West Africa
South West Africa
to perform the supervisory functions.[11] In another Advisory Opinion issued in 1955, the Court further ruled that the General Assembly was not required to follow League of Nations voting procedures in determining questions concerning South West Africa.[12] In 1956, the Court further ruled that the Committee had the power to grant hearings to petitioners from the mandated territory.[13] In 1960, Ethiopia
Ethiopia
and Liberia
Liberia
filed a case in the International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
against South Africa
South Africa
alleging that South Africa
South Africa
had not fulfilled its mandatory duties. This case did not succeed, with the Court ruling in 1966 that they were not the proper parties to bring the case.[14][15] UN mandate terminated[edit] There was a protracted struggle between South Africa
South Africa
and forces fighting for independence, particularly after the formation of the South West Africa
South West Africa
People's Organisation (SWAPO) in 1960. In 1966, the General Assembly passed resolution 2145 (XXI) which declared the Mandate terminated and that the Republic of South Africa had no further right to administer South West Africa.[16] In 1971, acting on a request for an Advisory Opinion from the United Nations Security Council, the ICJ ruled that the continued presence of South Africa in Namibia
Namibia
was illegal and that South Africa
South Africa
was under an obligation to withdraw from Namibia
Namibia
immediately. It also ruled that all member states of the United Nations
United Nations
were under an obligation not to recognise as valid any act performed by South Africa
South Africa
on behalf of Namibia.[17] South West Africa
South West Africa
became known as Namibia
Namibia
by the UN when the General Assembly changed the territory's name by Resolution 2372 (XXII) of 12 June 1968.[18] SWAPO
SWAPO
was recognised as representative of the Namibian people and gained UN observer status[19] when the territory of South West Africa was already removed from the list of Non-Self-Governing Territories. In 1977, South Africa
South Africa
transferred control of Walvis Bay
Walvis Bay
back to the Cape Province, thereby making it an exclave.[20] The territory became the independent Republic of Namibia
Namibia
on 21 March 1990, although Walvis Bay
Walvis Bay
and the Penguin Islands
Penguin Islands
were only incorporated into Namibia
Namibia
in 1994.[21] Bantustans[edit] The South African authorities established 10 bantustans in South West Africa in the late 1960s and early 1970s in accordance with the Odendaal Commission, three of which were granted self-rule.[22] These bantustans were replaced with separate ethnicity based governments in 1980.

Map of the black reservations in Namibia
Namibia
as of 1978

The bantustans were:

Basterland Bushmanland Damaraland East Caprivi
East Caprivi
(self-rule 1976) Hereroland
Hereroland
(self-rule 1970) Kaokoland Kavangoland
Kavangoland
(self-rule 1973) Namaland Ovamboland Tswanaland

See also[edit]

List of colonial governors of South West Africa History of Namibia South West African People's Organisation
South West African People's Organisation
(SWAPO) South West African Territorial Force
South West African Territorial Force
(SWATF) South West African Police (SWAPOL) Koevoet German African Party Democratic Co-operative Party Economic Party (South West Africa) Independent Economic Party (Namibia) South West African Labour and Farmers' Party

References[edit]

^ Succession of States and Namibian territories, Y. Makonnen in Recueil Des Cours, 1986: Collected Courses of the Hague Academy of International Law, Academie de Droit International de la Haye, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1987, page 213 ^ Debates of Parliament, Hansard, Volume 9, Issues 19-21, Government Printer, 1993, page 10179 ^ Caprivi Strip
Caprivi Strip
Namibia. Namibian.org. Retrieved on 2012-12-18. ^ Walvis Bay: exclave no more, Ieuan Griffiths, Geography, Vol. 79, No. 4 (October 1994), page 354 ^ The South West Africa/ Namibia
Namibia
Dispute: Documents and Scholarly Writings on the Controversy Between South Africa
South Africa
and the United Nations, John Dugard, University of California Press, 1973, page 124 ^ Official Documents of the 4th Session of the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly, United Nations, 1949, page 11 ^ Afrikaner
Afrikaner
Politics in South Africa, 1934-1948, Newell M. Stultz, University of California Press, 1974, page 161 ^ Mediating Conflict: Decision-making and Western Intervention in Namibia, Vivienne Jabri, Manchester University Press, 1990, page 46 ^ Witness from the frontline: aggression and resistance in Southern Africa, Ben Turok Institute for African Alternatives, 1990, page 86 ^ "International Status of South West Africa
South West Africa
– Advisory Opinion". Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-02.  ^ List of United Nations
United Nations
Organisations and Resolutions concerning Namibia ^ "Voting Procedure on Questions Relating to Reports and Petitions Concerning the Territory of South West Africa
South West Africa
– Advisory Opinion". Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-15. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ "Admissibility of Hearings of Petitioners by the Committee on South West Africa – Advisory Opinion". Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-15. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ " South West Africa
South West Africa
Cases (Preliminary Objections) Ethiopia
Ethiopia
v. South Africa and Liberia
Liberia
v. South Africa". Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-02.  ^ " South West Africa
South West Africa
Cases (Second Phase) Ethiopia
Ethiopia
v. South Africa
South Africa
and Liberia
Liberia
v. South Africa". Archived from the original on October 2, 2006. Retrieved 2006-07-15. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ UN General Assembly, res n° 2154 (XXI), 17 November 1966. Available at http://www.un.org/documents/ga/res/21/ares21.htm [recovered october 1, 2015] ^ "Cour internationale de Justice International Court of Justice". www.icj-cij.org. Retrieved 2017-09-08.  ^ Legal Repertory of Practice of United Nations
United Nations
Organs Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine. ^ UNGA Resolution A/RES/31/152 Archived 2011-07-28 at the Wayback Machine. Observer status for the South West Africa
South West Africa
People's Organisation ^ The Green and the dry wood: The Roman Catholic Church (Vicariate of Windhoek) and the Namibian socio-political situation, 1971-1981, Oblates of Mary Immaculate, 1983, page 6 ^ Treaty between the Government of the Republic of South Africa
South Africa
and the Government of the Republic of Namibia
Namibia
with respect to Walvis Bay and the off-shore Islands, 28 February 1994 ^ World Statesman

v t e

Administrative divisions of South Africa
South Africa
(1910–1994)

Provinces of South Africa

Province of the Cape of Good Hope Province of the Orange Free State Province of the Transvaal Province of Natal

Non-independent homelands

Gazankulu KaNgwane KwaNdebele KwaZulu Lebowa Qwaqwa

Independent homelands1

Transkei Bophuthatswana Venda Ciskei

Dependent territories

Mandate of South-West Africa

1 Transkei, Bophuthatswana, Venda
Venda
and Ciskei
Ciskei
were originally part of South Africa; they later declared independence with South African consent in the late 1970s and early 1980s. Their independence was recognized by the South African government but they were internationally recognized as part of South Africa.

v t e

Mandates of the League of Nations
League of Nations
(1919–46)

Class A

Palestine

Transjordan

Syria and Lebanon Mesopotamia

not enacted

Class B

Ruanda-Urundi Tanganyika British Cameroons French Cameroons British Togoland French Togoland

Class C

New Guinea Nauru South Pacific Mandate South-West Africa Western Samoa

See also: United Nations
United Nations
Trust Territories (post-1946)

v t e

British Empire

Legend Current territory Former territory * Now a Commonwealth realm Now a member of the Commonwealth of Nations Historical flags of the British Empire

Europe

1542–1800 Ireland (integrated into UK) 1708–1757, 1763–1782 and 1798–1802 Minorca Since 1713 Gibraltar 1800–1813 Malta (Protectorate) 1813–1964 Malta (Colony) 1807–1890 Heligoland 1809–1864 Ionian Islands 1878–1960 Cyprus 1921–1937 Irish Free State

North America

17th century and before 18th century 19th and 20th century

1579 New Albion 1583–1907 Newfoundland 1605–1979 *Saint Lucia 1607–1776 Virginia Since 1619 Bermuda 1620–1691 Plymouth 1623–1883 Saint Kitts 1624–1966 *Barbados 1625–1650 Saint Croix 1627–1979 *Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1628–1883 Nevis 1629–1691 Massachusetts Bay 1632–1776 Maryland since 1632 Montserrat 1632–1860 Antigua 1635–1644 Saybrook 1636–1776 Connecticut 1636–1776 Rhode Island 1637–1662 New Haven

1643–1860 Bay Islands Since 1650 Anguilla 1655–1850 Mosquito Coast 1655–1962 *Jamaica 1663–1712 Carolina 1664–1776 New York 1665–1674 and 1702–1776 New Jersey Since 1666 Virgin Islands Since 1670 Cayman Islands 1670–1973 *Bahamas 1670–1870 Rupert's Land 1671–1816 Leeward Islands 1674–1702 East Jersey 1674–1702 West Jersey 1680–1776 New Hampshire 1681–1776 Pennsylvania 1686–1689 New England 1691–1776 Massachusetts Bay

1701–1776 Delaware 1712–1776 North Carolina 1712–1776 South Carolina 1713–1867 Nova Scotia 1733–1776 Georgia 1754–1820 Cape Breton Island 1762–1974 *Grenada 1763–1978 Dominica 1763–1873 Prince Edward Island 1763–1791 Quebec 1763–1783 East Florida 1763–1783 West Florida 1784–1867 New Brunswick 1791–1841 Lower Canada 1791–1841 Upper Canada Since 1799 Turks and Caicos Islands

1818–1846 Columbia District/Oregon Country1 1833–1960 Windward Islands 1833–1960 Leeward Islands 1841–1867 Canada 1849–1866 Vancouver Island 1853–1863 Queen Charlotte Islands 1858–1866 British Columbia 1859–1870 North-Western Territory 1860–1981 *British Antigua
Antigua
and Barbuda 1862–1863 Stickeen 1866–1871 British Columbia 1867–1931 * Dominion
Dominion
of Canada2 1871–1964 Honduras 1882–1983 * Saint Kitts
Saint Kitts
and Nevis 1889–1962 Trinidad and Tobago 1907–1949 Newfoundland3 1958–1962 West Indies Federation

1. Occupied jointly with the United States. 2. In 1931, Canada and other British dominions obtained self-government through the Statute of Westminster. See Name of Canada. 3. Gave up self-rule in 1934, but remained a de jure Dominion until it joined Canada in 1949.

South America

1631–1641 Providence Island 1651–1667 Willoughbyland 1670–1688 Saint Andrew and Providence Islands4 1831–1966 Guiana Since 1833 Falkland Islands5 Since 1908 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands5

4. Now a department of Colombia. 5. Occupied by Argentina during the Falklands War
Falklands War
of April–June 1982.

Africa

17th and 18th centuries 19th century 20th century

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 1792–1961 Sierra Leone 1795–1803 Cape Colony

Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 1806–1910 Cape of Good Hope 1807–1808 Madeira 1810–1968 Mauritius 1816–1965 The Gambia 1856–1910 Natal 1862–1906 Lagos 1868–1966 Basutoland 1874–1957 Gold Coast 1882–1922 Egypt

1884–1900 Niger Coast 1884–1966 Bechuanaland 1884–1960 Somaliland 1887–1897 Zululand 1890–1962 Uganda 1890–1963 Zanzibar 1891–1964 Nyasaland 1891–1907 Central Africa 1893–1968 Swaziland 1895–1920 East Africa 1899–1956 Sudan

1900–1914 Northern Nigeria 1900–1914 Southern Nigeria 1900–1910 Orange River 1900–1910 Transvaal 1903–1976 Seychelles 1910–1931 South Africa 1914–1960 Nigeria 1915–1931 South-West Africa 1919–1961 Cameroons6 1920–1963 Kenya 1922–1961 Tanganyika6 1923–1965 and 1979–1980 Southern Rhodesia7 1924–1964 Northern Rhodesia

6.  League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate. 7. Self-governing Southern Rhodesia
Southern Rhodesia
unilaterally declared independence in 1965 (as Rhodesia) and continued as an unrecognised state until the 1979 Lancaster House Agreement. After recognised independence in 1980, Zimbabwe was a member of the Commonwealth until it withdrew in 2003.

Asia

17th and 18th century 19th century 20th century

1685–1824 Bencoolen 1702–1705 Pulo Condore 1757–1947 Bengal 1762–1764 Manila and Cavite 1781–1784 and 1795–1819 Padang 1786–1946 Penang 1795–1948 Ceylon 1796–1965 Maldives

1811–1816 Java 1812–1824 Banka and Billiton 1819–1826 Malaya 1824–1948 Burma 1826–1946 Straits Settlements 1839–1967 Aden 1839–1842 Afghanistan 1841–1997 Hong Kong 1841–1946 Sarawak 1848–1946 Labuan 1858–1947 India 1874–1963 Borneo

1879–1919 Afghanistan (protectorate) 1882–1963 North Borneo 1885–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1888–1984 Brunei 1891–1971 Muscat and Oman 1892–1971 Trucial States 1895–1946 Federated Malay States 1898–1930 Weihai 1878–1960 Cyprus

1907–1949 Bhutan (protectorate) 1918–1961 Kuwait 1920–1932 Mesopotamia8 1921–1946 Transjordan8 1923–1948 Palestine8 1945–1946 South Vietnam 1946–1963 North Borneo 1946–1963 Sarawak 1946–1963 Singapore 1946–1948 Malayan Union 1948–1957 Federation of Malaya Since 1960 Akrotiri and Dhekelia
Akrotiri and Dhekelia
(before as part of Cyprus) Since 1965 British Indian Ocean Territory
British Indian Ocean Territory
(before as part of Mauritius and the Seychelles)

League of Nations
League of Nations
mandate. Iraq's mandate was not enacted and replaced by the Anglo-Iraqi Treaty

Oceania

18th and 19th centuries 20th century

1788–1901 New South Wales 1803–1901 Van Diemen's Land/Tasmania 1807–1863 Auckland Islands9 1824–1980 New Hebrides 1824–1901 Queensland 1829–1901 Swan River/Western Australia 1836–1901 South Australia since 1838 Pitcairn Islands

1841–1907 New Zealand 1851–1901 Victoria 1874–1970 Fiji10 1877–1976 Western Pacific Territories 1884–1949 Papua 1888–1901 Rarotonga/Cook Islands9 1889–1948 Union Islands9 1892–1979 Gilbert and Ellice Islands11 1893–1978 Solomon Islands12

1900–1970 Tonga 1900–1974 Niue9 1901–1942 *Australia 1907–1947 *New Zealand 1919–1942 and 1945–1968 Nauru 1919–1949 New Guinea 1949–1975 Papua and New Guinea13

9. Now part of the *Realm of New Zealand. 10. Suspended member. 11. Now Kiribati
Kiribati
and *Tuvalu. 12. Now the *Solomon Islands. 13. Now *Papua New Guinea.

Antarctica and South Atlantic

Since 1658 Saint Helena14 Since 1815 Ascension Island14 Since 1816 Tristan da Cunha14 Since 1908 British Antarctic Territory15 1841–1933 Australian Antarctic Territory
Australian Antarctic Territory
(transferred to the Commonwealth of Australia) 1841–1947 Ross Dependency
Ross Dependency
(transferred to the Realm of New Zealand)

14. Since 2009 part of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha; Ascension Island
Ascension Island
(1922–) and Tristan da Cunha
Tristan da Cunha
(1938–) were previously dependencies of Saint Helena. 15. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South

.