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The Info List - Sorghum


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SORGHUM is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae
Poaceae
. Seventeen of the twenty-five species are native to Australia
Australia
, with the range of some extending to Africa
Africa
, Asia
Asia
, Mesoamerica
Mesoamerica
, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans .

One species is grown for grain , while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands . Sorghum
Sorghum
is in the subfamily Panicoideae
Panicoideae
and the tribe Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane ).

CONTENTS

* 1 Cultivation and uses

* 1.1 Research

* 2 Nutrition * 3 Diversity * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links

CULTIVATION AND USES

One species, Sorghum bicolor , native to Africa
Africa
with many cultivated forms now, is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses" ), animal fodder , the production of alcoholic beverages , and biofuels. Most varieties are drought - and heat-tolerant, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of pastures in many tropical regions. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa
Africa
, Central America
Central America
, and South Asia
Asia
, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world.

Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide , hordenine , and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plants' growth. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and/or nitrates at later stages in growth.

Another Sorghum
Sorghum
species, Johnson grass (S. halapense), is classified as an invasive species in the US by the Department of Agriculture .

RESEARCH

Sorghum
Sorghum
is efficient in converting solar energy to chemical energy , and also uses less water compared to other grain crops. Biofuel
Biofuel
, using sweet sorghum as a high sugar content from its stalk for ethanol production, is being developed with biomass which can be turned into charcoal , syngas , and bio-oil .

NUTRITION

A 100 gram amount of raw sorghum provides 329 calories , 72% carbohydrates , 4% fat , and 11% protein (table). Sorghum
Sorghum
supplies numerous essential nutrients in rich content (20% or more of the Daily Value , DV), including protein; fiber ; the B vitamins
B vitamins
niacin , thiamin and vitamin B6 ; and several dietary minerals , including iron (26% DV) and manganese (76% DV) (table). Sorghum
Sorghum
nutrient contents generally are similar to those of raw oats (see nutrition table). Among other similarities to oats, sorghum contains no gluten , making it useful for gluten-free diets .

DIVERSITY

Accepted species

* Sorghum
Sorghum
amplum – northwestern Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
angustum – Queensland * Sorghum
Sorghum
arundinaceum – Africa, Indian Subcontinent, Madagascar, islands of western Indian Ocean * Sorghum bicolor – cultivated sorghum, often individually called sorghum, also known as durra, jowari, or milo. - native to Sahel region of Africa; naturalized in many places * Sorghum
Sorghum
brachypodum – Northern Territory of Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
bulbosum – Northern Territory, Western Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
burmahicum – Thailand, Myanmar * Sorghum
Sorghum
controversum – India * Sorghum × drummondii – Sahel and West Africa * Sorghum
Sorghum
ecarinatum – Northern Territory, Western Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
exstans – Northern Territory of Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
grande – Northern Territory, Queensland * Sorghum
Sorghum
halepense – Johnson grass – North Africa, islands of eastern Atlantic, southern Asia
Asia
from Lebanon to Vietnam; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, the Americas * Sorghum
Sorghum
interjectum – Northern Territory, Western Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
intrans – Northern Territory, Western Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
laxiflorum – Philippines, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, New Guinea, northern Australia * Sorghum leiocladum – Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria * Sorghum
Sorghum
macrospermum – Northern Territory of Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
matarankense – Northern Territory, Western Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
nitidum – East Asia, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Micronesia * Sorghum
Sorghum
plumosum – Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia * Sorghum
Sorghum
propinquum – China , Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Christmas Island, Micronesia, Cook Islands * Sorghum
Sorghum
purpureosericeum – Sahel from Mali to Tanzania; Yemen, Oman, India * Sorghum
Sorghum
stipoideum – Northern Territory, Western Australia * Sorghum timorense – Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, New Guinea, northern Australia * Sorghum
Sorghum
trichocladum – Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras * Sorghum
Sorghum
versicolor – eastern + southern Africa
Africa
from Ethiopia to Namibia; Oman * Sorghum
Sorghum
virgatum – dry regions from Senegal to Israel

Sorghum, grain NUTRITIONAL VALUE PER 100 G (3.5 OZ)

ENERGY 1,377 kJ (329 kcal)

CARBOHYDRATES 72.1 g

DIETARY FIBER 6.7 g

FAT 3.5 g

PROTEIN 10.6 g

VITAMINS

THIAMINE (B1) (29%) 0.33 mg

RIBOFLAVIN (B2) (8%) 0.1 mg

NIACIN (B3) (25%) 3.7 mg

PANTOTHENIC ACID (B5) (8%) 0.4 mg

VITAMIN B6 (34%) 0.44 mg

FOLATE (B9) (5%) 20 μg

MINERALS

CALCIUM (1%) 13 mg

IRON (26%) 3.4 mg

MAGNESIUM (46%) 165 mg

MANGANESE (76%) 1.6 mg

PHOSPHORUS (41%) 289 mg

POTASSIUM (8%) 363 mg

SODIUM (0%) 2 mg

ZINC (18%) 1.7 mg

------------------------- Full Report of USDA Database entry

* Units * μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams * IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Formerly included

Many species once considered part of Sorghum, but now considered better suited to other genera include: Andropogon
Andropogon
, Arthraxon , Bothriochloa , Chrysopogon , Cymbopogon , Danthoniopsis , Dichanthium , Diectomis , Diheteropogon , Exotheca , Hyparrhenia , Hyperthelia , Monocymbium , Parahyparrhenia , Pentameris , Pseudosorghum , Schizachyrium , and Sorghastrum .

SEE ALSO

* 3-Deoxyanthocyanidin * Apigeninidin * Baijiu – Chinese alcoholic beverage distilled from sorghum * List of antioxidants in food * Millet
Millet
* Push–pull technology pest control strategy for maize and sorghum

REFERENCES

* ^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". Retrieved 4 September 2016. * ^ Sally L. Dillon, Peter K. Lawrence, Robert J. Henry, Larry Ross, H. James Price, J. Spencer Johnston. " Sorghum
Sorghum
laxiflorum and S. macrospermum, the Australian native species most closely related to the cultivated S. bicolor based on ITS1 and ndhF sequence analysis of 25 Sorghum
Sorghum
species". SOUTHERN CROSS PLANT SCIENCE. Southern Cross University. Retrieved 28 February 2016. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ) * ^ Moench, Conrad. 1794. Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici et Agri Marburgensis : a staminum situ describendi page 207 in Latin * ^ Tropicos, Sorghum
Sorghum
Moench * ^ Flora of China Vol. 22 Page 600 高粱属 GAO LIANG SHU SORGHUM MOENCH, METHODUS. 207. 1794 * ^ " Sorghum
Sorghum
in Flora of Pakistan @ efloras.org". Retrieved 4 September 2016. * ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Sorghum * ^ Australia, Atlas of Living. " Sorghum
Sorghum
- Atlas of Living Australia". Retrieved 4 September 2016. * ^ "Sorghum". County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2016. * ^ Mutegi, Evans; Sagnard, Fabrice; Muraya, Moses; Kanyenji, Ben; Rono, Bernard; Mwongera, Caroline; Marangu, Charles; Kamau, Joseph; Parzies, Heiko; de Villiers