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Sorghum
Sorghum
is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae. Seventeen of the twenty-five species are native to Australia,[2] with the range of some extending to Africa, Asia, Mesoamerica, and certain islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans.[3][4][5][6][7][8] One species is grown for grain, while many others are used as fodder plants, either cultivated in warm climates worldwide or naturalized, in pasture lands.[9] Sorghum
Sorghum
is in the subfamily Panicoideae
Panicoideae
and the tribe Andropogoneae
Andropogoneae
(the tribe of big bluestem and sugarcane).

Contents

1 Cultivation and uses

1.1 Research

2 Nutrition 3 Diversity 4 See also 5 References 6 External links

Cultivation and uses[edit] One species, Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor,[10] native to Africa
Africa
with many cultivated forms now,[11] is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of pastures in many tropical regions. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world.[12] Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plants' growth. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and/or nitrates at later stages in growth.[13] Another Sorghum
Sorghum
species, Johnson grass
Johnson grass
(S. halapense), is classified as an invasive species in the US by the Department of Agriculture.[14] Research[edit] Sorghum
Sorghum
is efficient in converting solar energy to chemical energy, and also uses less water compared to other grain crops.[15][16] Biofuel, using sweet sorghum as a high sugar content from its stalk for ethanol production, is being developed with biomass which can be turned into charcoal, syngas, and bio-oil.[17][18] In 2018 researchers identified a mutation that affects a sorghum gene which regulates hormone production. Plants with the mutation produced low levels of jasmonic acid, a development-regulating hormone, particularly during flower development. Sorghum
Sorghum
seeds mature from clusters of flowers. These flowers develop from a branched structure at the top of the plant, the panicle. Each panicle can produce hundreds of flowers, which come in two types — sessile spikelets (SS), which are fertile, and pedicellate spikelets (PS), which produce no seeds. In the mutated sorghum, however, both sessile and pedicellate spikelets produced seeds. Lab tests showed that jasmonic acid prevents PSs from producing seeds — the lower hormone levels allow them to become fertile. The mutation triples the plant's productivity.[19] Nutrition[edit] A 100-gram amount of raw sorghum provides 329 calories, 72% carbohydrates, 4% fat, and 11% protein (table). Sorghum
Sorghum
supplies numerous essential nutrients in rich content (20% or more of the Daily Value, DV), including protein; fiber; the B vitamins
B vitamins
niacin, thiamin and vitamin B6; and several dietary minerals, including iron (26% DV) and manganese (76% DV) (table). Sorghum
Sorghum
nutrient contents generally are similar to those of raw oats (see nutrition table). Among other similarities to oats, sorghum contains no gluten, making it useful for gluten-free diets. Diversity[edit]

Accepted species[20]

Sorghum
Sorghum
amplum – northwestern Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
angustum – Queensland Sorghum
Sorghum
arundinaceum – Africa, Indian Subcontinent, Madagascar, islands of western Indian Ocean Sorghum
Sorghum
bicolor – cultivated sorghum, often individually called sorghum, also known as durra, jowari, or milo. - native to Sahel region of Africa; naturalized in many places Sorghum
Sorghum
brachypodum – Northern Territory of Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
bulbosum – Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
burmahicum – Thailand, Myanmar Sorghum
Sorghum
controversum – India Sorghum × drummondii
Sorghum × drummondii
– Sahel and West Africa Sorghum
Sorghum
ecarinatum – Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
exstans – Northern Territory of Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
grande – Northern Territory, Queensland Sorghum
Sorghum
halepense – Johnson grass
Johnson grass
– North Africa, islands of eastern Atlantic, southern Asia
Asia
from Lebanon to Vietnam; naturalized in East Asia, Australia, the Americas Sorghum
Sorghum
interjectum – Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
intrans – Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
laxiflorum – Philippines, Lesser Sunda Islands, Sulawesi, New Guinea, northern Australia Sorghum leiocladum
Sorghum leiocladum
– Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria Sorghum
Sorghum
macrospermum – Northern Territory of Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
matarankense – Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
nitidum – East Asia, Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Micronesia Sorghum
Sorghum
plumosum – Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia Sorghum
Sorghum
propinquum – China , Indian Subcontinent, Southeast Asia, New Guinea, Christmas Island, Micronesia, Cook Islands Sorghum purpureosericeum
Sorghum purpureosericeum
– Sahel from Mali to Tanzania; Yemen, Oman, India Sorghum
Sorghum
stipoideum – Northern Territory, Western Australia Sorghum timorense – Lesser Sunda Islands, Maluku, New Guinea, northern Australia Sorghum
Sorghum
trichocladum – Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras Sorghum
Sorghum
versicolor – eastern + southern Africa
Africa
from Ethiopia to Namibia; Oman Sorghum
Sorghum
virgatum – dry regions from Senegal to Israel

Sorghum, grain

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)

Energy 1,377 kJ (329 kcal)

Carbohydrates

72.1 g

Dietary fiber 6.7 g

Fat

3.5 g

Protein

10.6 g

Vitamins

Thiamine
Thiamine
(B1)

(29%) 0.33 mg

Riboflavin
Riboflavin
(B2)

(8%) 0.1 mg

Niacin
Niacin
(B3)

(25%) 3.7 mg

Pantothenic acid
Pantothenic acid
(B5)

(8%) 0.4 mg

Vitamin
Vitamin
B6

(34%) 0.44 mg

Folate
Folate
(B9)

(5%) 20 μg

Minerals

Calcium

(1%) 13 mg

Iron

(26%) 3.4 mg

Magnesium

(46%) 165 mg

Manganese

(76%) 1.6 mg

Phosphorus

(41%) 289 mg

Potassium

(8%) 363 mg

Sodium

(0%) 2 mg

Zinc

(18%) 1.7 mg

Full Report of USDA Database entry

Units μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams IU = International units

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.

Formerly included[citation needed]

Many species once considered part of Sorghum, but now considered better suited to other genera include: Andropogon, Arthraxon, Bothriochloa, Chrysopogon, Cymbopogon, Danthoniopsis, Dichanthium, Diectomis, Diheteropogon, Exotheca, Hyparrhenia, Hyperthelia, Monocymbium, Parahyparrhenia, Pentameris, Pseudosorghum, Schizachyrium, and Sorghastrum. See also[edit]

3-Deoxyanthocyanidin Apigeninidin Baijiu
Baijiu
– Chinese alcoholic beverage distilled from sorghum List of antioxidants in food Millet Push–pull technology pest control strategy for maize and sorghum

References[edit]

^ "World Checklist of Selected Plant
Plant
Families: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew". Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ Sally L. Dillon; Peter K. Lawrence; Robert J. Henry; et al. "Sorghum laxiflorum and S. macrospermum, the Australian native species most closely related to the cultivated S. bicolor based on ITS1 and ndhF sequence analysis of 25 Sorghum
Sorghum
species". SOUTHERN CROSS PLANT SCIENCE. Southern Cross University. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ Moench, Conrad. 1794. Methodus Plantas Horti Botanici et Agri Marburgensis : a staminum situ describendi page 207 in Latin ^ Tropicos, Sorghum
Sorghum
Moench ^ Flora of China
Flora of China
Vol. 22 Page 600 高粱属 gao liang shu Sorghum Moench, Methodus. 207. 1794 ^ " Sorghum
Sorghum
in Flora of Pakistan @ efloras.org". Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, genere Sorghum ^ Australia, Atlas of Living. " Sorghum
Sorghum
- Atlas of Living Australia". Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ "Sorghum". County-level distribution maps from the North American Plant
Plant
Atlas (NAPA). Biota of North America Program (BONAP). 2013. Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ Mutegi, Evans; Sagnard, Fabrice; Muraya, Moses; et al. (2010-02-01). "Ecogeographical distribution of wild, weedy and cultivated Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in Kenya: implications for conservation and crop-to-wild gene flow". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution. 57 (2): 243–253. doi:10.1007/s10722-009-9466-7.  ^ " Sorghum bicolor
Sorghum bicolor
in Flora of China
Flora of China
@ efloras.org". Retrieved 4 September 2016.  ^ "Sorghum". New World Encyclopedia. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 4 November 2016.  ^ Cyanide (prussic acid) and nitrate in sorghum crops - managing the risks. Primary industries and fisheries. Queensland Government. http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/4790_20318.htm. 21 April 2011. ^ Johnson Grass, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Accessed 2257 UDT, 12 March 2009. ^ "HudsonAlpha and collaborators expand sorghum research program - HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology". HudsonAlpha Institute for Biotechnology. 2017-01-25. Retrieved 2017-03-02.  ^ Dweikat, Ismail (2017). " Sweet sorghum
Sweet sorghum
is a drought-tolerant feedstock with the potential to produce more ethanol/acre than corn". Department of Agronomy and Horticulture, University of Nebraska–Lincoln. Retrieved 2017-03-02.  ^ "Purdue leading research using advanced technologies to better grow sorghum as biofuel". Purdue University, Agriculture News. June 2015. Retrieved 2017-03-02.  ^ "Sweet Sorghum
Sorghum
for Biofuel
Biofuel
Production". eXtension. 2017. Retrieved 2017-03-02.  ^ MICU, ALEXANDRU (2018-02-26). "One tiny mutation could triple the world's production of grain". ZME Science. Retrieved 2018-02-26.  ^ "The Plant
Plant
List: Sorghum". Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Missouri Botanic Garden. Retrieved 28 February 2017. 

Watson, Andrew M. Agricultural Innovation in the Early Islamic World: The Diffusion of Crops and Farming Techniques, 700–1100. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. ISBN 0-521-24711-X.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sorghum.

Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on

Sorghum

 "Sorghum". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). 1911.  Species Profile- Johnsongrass ( Sorghum
Sorghum
halepense), National Invasive Species Information Center, United States National Agricultural Library. Lists general information and resources for Johnsongrass. FAO Report (1995) " Sorghum
Sorghum
and millets in human nutrition" Sorghum
Sorghum
on US Grains Council Web Site Sweet Sorghum
Sorghum
Ethanol
Ethanol
Association, organization for the promotion and development of sweet Sorghum
Sorghum
as a source for biofuels, especially ethanol

v t e

Cereals and pseudocereals

Cereals

Gramineae

Barley Fonio Job's tears Maize
Maize
(Corn) Millets Oats Rice Rye Sorghum Teff Triticale Zizania

Wheat
Wheat
(Triticum)

Bread Durum Khorasan Red Fife Norin 10 Winter

Farro

Einkorn Emmer Spelt

Pseudocereals

Polygonaceae

Buckwheat Tartary buckwheat

Amaranthaceae

Amaranth

A. caudatus A. cruentus A. hypochondriacus Celosia

Chenopodiaceae

Quinoa Pitseed goosefoot Cañihua

Lamiaceae

Chia

Fabaceae

Wattleseed

See also Triticeae Neolithic founder crops Neolithic Revolution History of agriculture Natufian culture Fertile Crescent Tell Abu Hureyra Tell Aswad Domestication Green Revolution Genetic engineering Selective breeding Crop wild relative

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q12111 APDB: 194981 EoL: 108216 EPPO: 1SORG FloraBase: 21083 FoC: 130722 GBIF: 2705180 GrassBase: gen00593 GRIN: 11304 IPNI: 19032-1 ITIS: 42106 NCBI: 4557 PLANTS: SORGH2 Tropicos: 400

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