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References

  1. ^ "CDU und SPD verlieren Mitglieder - Grüne legen deutlich zu". Zeit (in Germany). 16 January 2020. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  2. ^ "Greek debt crisis: Violence in Athens ahead of Germany vote". BBC News Online. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  3. ^ Merkel, Wolfgang; Petring, Alexander; Henkes, Christian; Egle, Christoph (2008). Social Democracy in Power: the capacity to reform. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-415-43820-9.
  4. ^ Almeida, Dimitri (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. CRC Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-136-34039-0. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  5. ^ Ashley Lavelle (2013). The Death of Social Democracy: Political Consequences in the 21st Century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4094-9872-8. Retrieved 18 July 2013.
  6. ^ Christopher R. Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 (Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2004), p. 7.
  7. ^ "Progressive Alliance: Sozialdemokraten gründen weltweites Netzwerk". Der Spiegel. Hamburg, Germany. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  8. ^ "Sozialdemokratie: "Progressive Alliance" gegründet". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  9. ^ "Sozialistische Internationale hat ausgedient: SPD gründet "Progressive Alliance"". 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
  10. ^ Christopher R. Browning, The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi Jewish Poicy, September 1939-March 1942 (Lincoln, NB: University of Nebraska Press and Jerusalem: Yad Vashem, 2004), p. 7.
  11. ^ Eatwell, Roger; Wright, Anthony (1999). Contemporary Political Ideologies (2nd ed.). London: Continuum. p. 87. ISBN 9781855676053.
  12. ^ "GHDI". Nohlen & Stöver.
  13. ^ In, for example, the International Socialist Congress, Stuttgart 1907.
  14. ^ V. R. Berghahn, Germany and the Approach of War in 1914 (1974) pp 178-85
  15. ^ Dieter Groh, "The 'Unpatriotic Socialists' and the State." Journal of Contemporary History 1.4 (1966): 151-177. online.
  16. ^ Winkler, Der lange Weg nach Westen, Beck Verlag Munich, 2000, p. 362
  17. ^ Haffner, Sebastian (2002). Die deutsche Revolution 1918/19 (German). Kindler. ISBN 3-463-40423-0.
  18. ^ The Social Democratic Party of Germany 1848–2005 by Heinrich Potthoff and Susanne Miller
  19. ^ Heiden, Konrad (1944). Der Fuehrer: Hitler's Rise to Power. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company. pp. 23-24.
  20. ^ Kolb, Eberhard (2005). The Weimar Republic. Psychology Press. p. 226. ISBN 978-0-415-34441-8. Retrieved 10 February 2012.
  21. ^ "Biografie Hermann Müller(-Franken) (German)". Bayerische Nationalbibliothek. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
  22. ^ "Die Eiserne Front". reichsbanner.de. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  23. ^ Kitson, Alison. Germany, 1858–1990: Hope, Terror, and Revival, pages 153–154 (Oxford U. Press 2001).
  24. ^ William Shirer, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich (Touchstone Edition) (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990)
  25. ^ Entscheidung für die SED 1946 – ein Verrat an sozialdemokratischen Idealen?, in: Jahrbuch für Forschungen zur Geschichte der Arbeiterbewegung, No. I/2004.
  26. ^ . Federal Returning Officer http://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/bundestagswahlen/fruehere_bundestagswahlen/btw1949.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  27. ^ "Godesberg Program in English (PDF)" (PDF). German History Documents.
  28. ^ Hofmann, Arne. The emergence of détente in Europe: Brandt, Kennedy and the formation of Ostpolitik. (Routledge, 2007).
  29. ^ . Federal Returning Officer http://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/bundestagswahlen/fruehere_bundestagswahlen/btw1972.html. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  30. ^ Jan Eisel (28 September 2012). "Deutscher Bundestag – Das Misstrauensvotum gegen Helmut Schmidt".
  31. ^ Wolfgang Grof: "In der frischen Tradition des Herbstes 1989". Die SDP/SPD in der DDR: Von der Gründung über die Volkskammerarbeit zur deutschen Einheit
  32. ^ . Federal Returning Officer http://www.bundeswahlleiter.de/en/bundestagswahlen/fruehere_bundestagswahlen/btw1998.html.Saskia Esken and Norbert Walter-Borjans. The previous leader was Andrea Nahles. She announced her pending resignation on 2 June 2019.

    As Germany is a federal republic, each of Germany's states have their own SPD party at the state level. The current leaders of the SPD state parties are the following: