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The Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(German: Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, SPD; [zoˈtsi̯aːldemoˌkʁaːtɪʃə paɐ̯ˌtaɪ ˈdɔʏtʃlants]), is a social-democratic[2][3][4][5] political party in Germany. Led by Andrea Nahles
Andrea Nahles
from 2018 to 2019, the party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in Germany
Germany
along with the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). The Social Democrats have governed at the federal level in Germany
Germany
as part of a grand coalition with the CDU and the Christian Social Union (CSU) since December 2013 following the results of the 2013 and 2017 federal elections. The party participates in 11 state governments and 7 of them are governed by SPD Minister-Presidents. The SPD is a member of the Party of European Socialists
Party of European Socialists
and initiated the founding of the international Progressive Alliance
Progressive Alliance
for social-democratic parties on 22 May 2013[8][9][10] after criticising the Socialist International for its acceptance of authoritarian parties. Established in 1863, the SPD is by far the oldest existent political party represented in the German Parliament and was one of the first Marxist-influenced parties in the world.

Contents

1 History 2 Party platform

2.1 Internal factions

3 Base of support

3.1 Social structure 3.2 Geographic distribution

4 Election results

4.1 General German elections 4.2 European Parliament 4.3 State Parliaments (Länder)

5 Leadership of the Social Democratic Party 6 See also 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

History[edit] Main article: History of the Social Democratic Party of Germany SPD membership statistics (in thousands) since 1945 The General German Workers' Association
General German Workers' Association
(Allgemeiner Deutscher Arbeiterverein, ADAV) founded in 1863 and the Social Democratic Workers' Party (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SDAP) founded in 1869 later merged in 1875 under the name Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
Germany
(Sozialistische Arbeiterpartei Deutschlands, SAPD). From 1878 to 1890 the Anti-Socialist Laws
Anti-Socialist Laws
banned any grouping or meeting that aimed at spreading socialist principles, but the party still gained support in elections. In 1890, when the ban was lifted and it could again present electoral lists, the party adopted its current name. In the years leading up to World War I
World War I
(1914–1918) the party remained ideologically radical in official principle, although many party officials tended to moderation in everyday politics. In the 1912 German federal election
1912 German federal election
the SPD claimed not only the most votes but also the most Reichstag seats of any German party. Despite the agreement of the Second International
Second International
to oppose militarism,[11] the Social Democrats supported war in 1914. In response to this and to the Bolshevik Revolution
Bolshevik Revolution
of November 1917 in Russia, members of the left-wing and of the far-left of the SPD formed alternative parties, first the Spartacus League
Spartacus League
(1914–1919), then the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(USPD, April 1917–1931) while the more conservative faction became known as the Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(MSPD, 1917–1922). From 1918 the SPD played an important role in the political system of the Weimar Republic, although it took part in coalition governments only in few years (1918–1921, 1923 and 1928–1930). Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
banned the SPD in 1933 under the Enabling Act and the National Socialist régime imprisoned, killed or forced into exile SPD party officials. In exile, the party used the name Sopade. The Social Democrats had been the only party to vote against the Enabling Act, while the Communist Party was blocked from voting. In 1945 the Allied administrations in the Western zones initially allowed the establishment of four parties, which resulted in the (re-)formation of the Christian Democratic Union, the Free Democratic Party, the Communist Party and the SPD. In the Soviet zone of occupation the Soviets forced the Social Democrats to form a common party with the Communists, resulting in the Socialist Unity Party of Germany
Germany
(SED). In the Western zones, West Germany's Federal Constitutional Court later banned the Communist Party (1956). Since 1949, the SPD has been one of the two major parties in the Federal Republic of Germany, alongside the Christian Democratic Union. From 1969 to 1982 and from 1998 to 2005, the Chancellors of Germany
Germany
have been Social Democrats whereas in other years the Chancellors were Christian Democrats. Shortly before the reunification of Germany
Germany
in 1990, the East German Social Democratic Party (founded in 1989) merged with the West German SPD.

Party platform[edit] The SPD was established as a Marxist party in 1875. However, the Social Democrats underwent a major shift in policies reflected in the differences between the Heidelberg Program of 1925 which "called for the transformation of the capitalist system of private ownership of the means of production to social ownership"[12] and the Godesberg Program
Godesberg Program
of 1959 which aimed to broaden its voter base and move its political position toward the centre.[13] After World War II, under the leadership of Kurt Schumacher
Kurt Schumacher
the SPD re-established itself as a socialist party representing the interests of the working class and the trade unions. However, with the Godesberg Program
Godesberg Program
the party evolved from a socialist working-class party to a modern social-democratic party working within liberal capitalism.

Sigmar Gabriel, Vice Chancellor of Germany
Germany
(2013–2018) and former chairman of the SPD The current party platform of the SPD espouses the goal of social democracy, which is seen as a vision of a societal arrangement in which freedom and social justice are paramount. According to the party platform, freedom, justice and social solidarity form the basis of social democracy. The coordinated social market economy should be strengthened and its output should be distributed fairly. The party sees that economic system as necessary in order to ensure the affluence of the entire population. The SPD also tries to protect the society's poor with a welfare state. Concurrently, it advocates a sustainable fiscal policy that does not place a burden on future generations while eradicating budget deficits. In social policy, the Social Democrats stand for civil and political rights in an open society. In foreign policy, the party aims at ensuring global peace by balancing global interests with democratic means, thus European integration is one of the main priorities of the party. The SPD supports economic regulations to limit potential losses for banks and people. They support a common European economic and financial policy and to prevent speculative bubbles as well as environmentally sustainable growth.[14]

Internal factions[edit] The SPD is mostly composed of members belonging to either of the two main wings, namely the Keynesian social democrats and Third Way moderate social democrats belonging to the Seeheimer Kreis. While the more moderate Seeheimer Kreis generally support the Agenda 2010 programs introduced by Chancellor Gerhard Schröder, the Keynesian social democrats continue to defend classical left-wing policies and the welfare state. The classical left-wing of the SPD claims that in recent years the welfare state has been curtailed through reform programs such as the Agenda 2010, Hartz IV and the more economic liberal stance of the SPD, which were endorsed by centrist social democrats.[citation needed] As a reaction to the Agenda 2010, there was in 2005 the ascension of an inner party dissident movement which led ultimately to the foundation of the new party Labour and Social Justice
Justice
– The Electoral Alternative (Arbeit & soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative, WASG). The WASG was later merged into The Left (Die Linke) in 2007.[15]

Base of support[edit] Social structure[edit] Before World War II, as the main non-revolutionary left-wing party the Social Democrats fared best among non- Catholic
Catholic
workers as well as intellectuals favouring social progressive causes and increased economic equality. Led by Kurt Schumacher
Kurt Schumacher
after World War II, the SPD initially opposed both the social market economy and Konrad Adenauer's drive towards Western integration fiercely, but after Schumacher's death it accepted the social market economy and Germany's position in the Western alliance in order to appeal to a broader range of voters. It still remains associated with the economic causes of unionised employees and working class voters. In the 1990s, the left and moderate wings of the party drifted apart, culminating in a secession of a significant number of party members which later joined the socialist party WASG, which later merged into The Left (Die Linke).

Geographic distribution[edit] 2017 federal election SPD results Geographically, much of the SPD's current-day support comes from large cities, especially of northern and western Germany
Germany
and Berlin. The metropolitan area of the Ruhr Area, where coal mining and steel production were once the biggest sources of revenues, have provided a significant base for the SPD in the 20th century. In the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, the SPD has governed without interruption since 1949. In southern Germany, the SPD typically garners less support except in the largest cities. At the 2009 federal election, the party lost its only constituency in the entire state of Bavaria (in Munich). Small town and rural support comes especially from the traditionally Protestant areas of northern Germany
Germany
and Brandenburg (with notable exceptions such as Western Pomerania
Western Pomerania
where CDU leader Angela Merkel
Angela Merkel
was re-elected in 2005) and a number of university towns. A striking example of the general pattern is the traditionally Catholic
Catholic
Emsland, where the Social Democrats generally gain a low percentage of votes, whereas the Reformed Protestant region of East Frisia directly to the north, with its strong traditional streak of Anti-Catholicism, is one of their strongest constituencies. Further south, the SPD also enjoys solid support in northern Hesse
Hesse
(Hans Eichel was mayor of Kassel, then Hesse's Minister-President and finally Finance Minister in the Schröder administration while Brigitte Zypries
Brigitte Zypries
served as Justice
Justice
Minister), parts of Palatinate ( Kurt Beck
Kurt Beck
was party leader until 7 September 2008) and the Saarland (political home of one-time candidate for federal chancellor Oskar Lafontaine, defected from the SPD in 2005).

Election results[edit] Election results and governments since 1949 General German elections[edit] The SPD, at times called SAPD, participated in general elections determining the members of parliament. For the elections until 1933, the parliament was called Reichstag, except of the one of 1919 which was called the National Assembly and after 1949 when it was called Bundestag. Note that changes in borders (1871, 1919, 1920, 1949, 1957 and 1990) varied the number of eligible voters whereas electoral laws also changed the ballot system (only constituencies until 1912, only party lists until 1949 and mixed system thereafter), the suffrage (women vote since 1919), the number of seats (fixed or flexible) and the length of the legislative period (three or four years). The list begins after the SPD was formed in 1875, when labour parties unified to only form the SPD (then SAPD, current name since 1890).

Election year

Constituency votes

Party list votes

% ofoverall votes (until 1912)party list votes (as of 1919)

Overall seats won

+/–

Government

1877

493,447

9.1 (4th)

13 / 397

In opposition

1878

437,158

7.6 (5th)

9 / 397

4

In opposition

1881

311,961

6.1 (7th)

13 / 397

4

In opposition

1884

549,990

9.7 (5th)

24 / 397

11

In opposition

1887

763,102

10.1 (5th)

11 / 397

13

In opposition

1890

1,427,323

19.7 (1st)

35 / 397

24

In opposition

1893

1,786,738

23.3 (1st)

44 / 397

9

In opposition

1898

2,107,076

27.2 (1st)

56 / 397

12

In opposition

1903

3,010,771

31.7 (1st)

81 / 397

25

In opposition

1907

3,259,029

28.9 (1st)

43 / 397

38

In opposition

1912

4,250,399

34.8 (1st)

110 / 397

67

In opposition

In coalition

In coalition

1919

11,509,048

37.9 (1st)

165 / 423

55

In coalition

1920

6,179,991

21.9 (1st)

102 / 459

63

providing parliamentary support

In coalition

providing parliamentary support

In coalition

In opposition

May 1924

6,008,905

20.5 (1st)

100 / 472

2

In opposition

December 1924

7,881,041

26.0 (1st)

131 / 493

31

In opposition

providing parliamentary support

In opposition

1928

9,152,979

29.8 (1st)

153 / 491

22

In coalition

1930

8,575,244

24.5 (1st)

143 / 577

10

In opposition

July 1932

7,959,712

21.6 (2nd)

133 / 608

10

In opposition

November 1932

7,247,901

20.4 (2nd)

121 / 584

12

In opposition

March 1933

7,181,629

18.3 (2nd)

120 / 667

1

In opposition

November 1933

Banned. National Socialist German Workers Party sole legal party.

1936

Banned. National Socialist German Workers Party sole legal party.

1938

Banned. National Socialist German Workers Party sole legal party.

1949

6,934,975

29.2 (2nd)

131 / 402

11

In opposition

1953

8,131,257

7,944,943

28.8 (2nd)

162 / 509

22

In opposition

1957

11,975,400

11,875,339

31.8 (2nd)

181 / 519

19

In opposition

1961

11,672,057

11,427,355

36.2 (2nd)

203 / 521

22

In opposition

1965

12,998,474

12,813,186

39.3 (2nd)

217 / 518

14

In coalition

1969

14,402,374

14,065,716

42.7 (2nd)

237 / 518

20

In coalition

1972

18,228,239

17,175,169

45.8 (1st)

242 / 518

5

In coalition

1976

16,471,321

16,099,019

42.6 (2nd)

224 / 518

18

In coalition

1980

16,808,861

16,260,677

42.9 (2nd)

228 / 519

4

In coalition

1983

15,686,033

14,865,807

38.2 (2nd)

202 / 520

26

In opposition

1987

14,787,953

14,025,763

37.0 (2nd)

193 / 519

9

In opposition

1990

16,279,980

15,545,366

33.5 (2nd)

239 / 662

46

In opposition

1994

17,966,813

17,140,354

36.4 (2nd)

252 / 672

13

In opposition

1998

21,535,893

20,181,269

40.9 (1st)

298 / 669

43

In coalition

2002

20,059,967

18,484,560

38.5 (1st)[16]

251 / 603

47

In coalition

2005

18,129,100

16,194,665

34.2 (2nd)

222 / 614

29

In coalition

2009

12,077,437

9,988,843

23.0 (2nd)

146 / 622

76

In opposition

2013

12,835,933

11,247,283

25.7 (2nd)

193 / 630

42

In coalition

2017

11,426,613

9,538,367

20.5 (2nd)

153 / 709

40

In coalition

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Constituency results, 1912

Constituency results, 1919 Weimar National Assembly

Constituency results, 1928

Constituency results, 1998

Constituency results, 2017

European Parliament[edit]

Election year

No. ofoverall votes

% ofoverall vote

No. ofoverall seats won

+/–

1979

11,370,045

40.8 (1st)

33 / 81

1984

9,296,417

37.4 (2nd)

32 / 81

1

1989

10,525,728

37.3 (1st)

30 / 81

2

1994

11,389,697

32.2 (1st)

40 / 99

10

1999

8,307,085

30.7 (2nd)

33 / 99

7

2004

5,547,971

21.5 (2nd)

23 / 99

10

2009

5,472,566

20.8 (2nd)

23 / 99

0

2014

7,999,955

27.2 (2nd)

27 / 96

4

2019

5,914,953

15.8 (3rd)

16 / 96

11

State Parliaments (Länder)[edit]

State Parliament

Election year

No. ofoverall votes

% ofoverall vote

Seats

Government

No.

±

Position

Baden-Württemberg

2016

679,872

12.7 (4th)

19 / 138

16

4th

Opposition

Bavaria

2018

1,317,942

9.7 (5th)

22 / 205

20

5th

Opposition

Berlin

2016

352,369

21.6 (1st)

38 / 160

10

1st

SPD–Left–Greens

Brandenburg

2014

315,177

31.9 (1st)

30 / 88

1

1st

SPD–Left

Bremen

2019

365,315

24.9 (2nd)

23 / 84

7

2nd

SPD–Greens–The Left

Hamburg

2015

1,611,274

45.6 (1st)

58 / 121

4

1st

SPD–Greens

Hesse

2018

570,166

19.8 (3rd)

29 / 137

8

3rd

Opposition

Lower Saxony

2017

1,413,990

36.9 (1st)

55 / 137

6

1st

SPD–CDU

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

2016

246,393

30.6 (1st)

28 / 71

2

1st

SPD–CDU

North Rhine-Westphalia

2017

2,649,205

31.2 (2nd)

69 / 199

30

2nd

Opposition

Rhineland-Palatinate

2016

771,848

36.2 (1st)

39 / 101

3

1st

SPD–FDP–Greens

Saarland

2017

157,841

29.6 (2nd)

17 / 51

0

2nd

CDU–SPD

Saxony

2014

202,374

12.4 (3rd)

18 / 126

4

3rd

CDU–SPD

Saxony-Anhalt

2016

119,377

10.6 (4th)

11 / 87

15

4th

CDU–SPD–Greens

Schleswig-Holstein

2017

400,635

27.2 (2nd)

21 / 73

1

2nd

Opposition

Thuringia

2014

116,889

12.4 (3rd)

12 / 91

6

3rd

Left–SPD–Greens

Leadership of the Social Democratic Party[edit] The party is led by the Leader of the Social Democratic Party. They are supported by six Deputy Leaders and the party executive. The previous leader was Andrea Nahles. She announced her pending resignation on 2 June 2019. The current Deputy Leaders are Manuela Schwesig, Ralf Stegner, Olaf Scholz, Thorsten Schäfer-Gümbel, Natascha Kohnen
Natascha Kohnen
and Maria Luise "Malu" Dreyer. Dreyer, Schwesig, and Schäfer-Gümbel are currently serving as acting leaders of the party. As Germany
Germany
is a federal republic, each of Germany's states have their own SPD party at the state level. The current leaders of the SPD state parties are the following:

State

Leader

Seats

Government

Baden-Württemberg

Andreas Stoch

19 / 143

In opposition

Bavaria

Natascha Kohnen

22 / 205

In opposition

Berlin

Michael Müller

38 / 160

In coalition

Brandenburg

Dietmar Woidke

30 / 88

In coalition

Bremen

Sascha Karolin Aulepp

30 / 83

In coalition

Hamburg

Melanie Leonhard

58 / 121

In coalition

Hesse

Thorsten Schäfer-Gümbel

37 / 110

In opposition

Lower Saxony

Stephan Weil

55 / 137

In coalition

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern

Manuela Schwesig

26 / 71

In coalition

North Rhine-Westphalia

Sebastian Hartmann

69 / 199

In opposition

Rhineland-Palatinate

Roger Lewentz

39 / 101

In coalition

Saarland

Anke Rehlinger

17 / 51

In coalition

Saxony

Martin Dulig

18 / 126

In coalition

Saxony-Anhalt

Burkhard Lischka

11 / 87

In coalition

Schleswig-Holstein

Serpil Midyatli

21 / 73

In opposition

Thuringia

Wolfgang Tiefensee

13 / 91

In coalition

See also[edit]

Socialism
Socialism
portal Germany
Germany
portal Bundestag
Bundestag
(Federal Assembly of Germany) Elections in the Free State of Prussia List of political parties in Germany Mierscheid Law Party finance in Germany Politics of Germany Weimar Republic References[edit]

^ Grüne feiern Mitglieder-Rekord – auch zwei andere Parteien können zulegen

^ a b Nordsieck, Wolfram (2017). "Germany". Parties and Elections in Europe..mw-parser-output cite.citation font-style:inherit .mw-parser-output .citation q quotes:"""""""'""'" .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/65/Lock-green.svg/9px-Lock-green.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-gray-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg/9px-Lock-red-alt-2.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration color:#555 .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help .mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a background:url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg/12px-Wikisource-logo.svg.png")no-repeat;background-position:right .1em center .mw-parser-output code.cs1-code color:inherit;background:inherit;border:inherit;padding:inherit .mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error display:none;font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error font-size:100% .mw-parser-output .cs1-maint display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em .mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration,.mw-parser-output .cs1-format font-size:95% .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left padding-left:0.2em .mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right padding-right:0.2em

^ a b Merkel, Wolfgang; Petring, Alexander; Henkes, Christian; Egle, Christoph (2008). Social Democracy
Democracy
in Power: the capacity to reform. London: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-415-43820-9.

^ a b Almeida, Dimitri (2012). The Impact of European Integration on Political Parties: Beyond the Permissive Consensus. CRC Press. p. 71. ISBN 978-1-136-34039-0. Retrieved 14 July 2013.

^ a b Ashley Lavelle (2013). The Death of Social Democracy: Political Consequences in the 21st Century. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-4094-9872-8. Retrieved 18 July 2013.

^ Krell, Christian (2009). Sozialdemokratie und Europa: Die Europapolitik von SPD, Labour Party und Parti Socialiste. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften/Springer-Verlag.

^ "Greek debt crisis: Violence in Athens ahead of Germany
Germany
vote". BBC News Online. 26 February 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2015.

^ "Progressive Alliance: Sozialdemokraten gründen weltweites Netzwerk". Der Spiegel. Hamburg, Germany. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.

^ "Sozialdemokratie: "Progressive Alliance" gegründet". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.

^ "Sozialistische Internationale hat ausgedient: SPD gründet "Progressive Alliance"". 22 May 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2015.

^ In, for example, the International Socialist Congress, Stuttgart 1907.

^ Brustein, William (1996). Logic of Evil: The Social Origins of the Nazi Party
Nazi Party
1925–1933. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. p. 131.

^ Cooper, Alice Holmes. Paradoxes of Peace: German Peace Movements since 1945. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press. p. 85.

^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)

^ Nils Schnelle (2007). Die WASG – Von der Gründung bis zur geplanten Fusion mit der Linkspartei. Munich.

^ "Schroeder wins second term". Retrieved 17 October 2018.

Further reading[edit] Orlow, Dietrich. Common Destiny: A Comparative History of the Dutch, French, and German Social Democratic Parties, 1945–1969 (2000) online. Carl E. Schorske, German Social Democracy, 1905–1917: The Development of the Great Schism (Harvard University Press, 1955). Vernon L. Lidtke, The Outlawed Party: Social Democracy
Democracy
in Germany, 1878–1890 (Princeton University Press, 1966). Berlau, Abraham. German Social Democratic Party, 1914–1921 (Columbia University Press, 1949). Maxwell, John Allen. "Social Democracy
Democracy
in a Divided Germany: Kurt Schumacher and the German Question, 1945-1952." Ph.D dissertation, West Virginia University, Department of History, Morgantown, West Virginia, 1969. McAdams, A. James. " Germany
Germany
Divided: From the Wall to Reunification." Princeton University Press, 1992 and 1993. Erich Matthias, The Downfall of the Old Social Democratic Party in 1933 pages 51–105 from Republic to Reich The Making of the Nazi Revolution Ten Essays edited by Hajo Holborn, (New York: Pantheon Books, 1972). Eric D. Weitz, Creating German Communism, 1890-1990: From Popular Protests to Socialist State. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1997. David Priestand, Red
Red
Flag: A History of Communism," New York: Grove Press, 2009. External links[edit]

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group: Progressive Alliance
Progressive Alliance
of Socialists and DemocratsPartiesMember states SPÖ PS sp.a BSP/БСП SDP EDEK/ΕΔΕΚ ČSSD A SDE SDP PS SPD PA.SO.K./ΠΑ.ΣΟ.Κ. MSZDP MSZP Lab PD PSI Saskaņa LSDP LSAP PL PvdA SLD UP PS PSD SMER-SD SD PSOE SAP Lab SDLP Member parties (non-EU) AP Associated parties (EU) PBSD/БСДП Associated parties (non-EU) PS SDP BiH S VV DPS SDP SDSM/СДСМ DS SP/PS CHP HDP Observer parties (EU) LSDSP Observer parties (non-EU) PS ARF ESDP/الديمقراطي GD HaAvoda/העבודה Meretz/מרצ PDM USPT CTP Fatah/فتح PSD FDTL Presidents Wilhelm Dröscher Robert Pontillon Joop den Uyl Vítor Constâncio Guy Spitaels Willy Claes Rudolf Scharping Robin Cook Poul Nyrup Rasmussen Sergei Stanishev Leaders in the European Parliament Guy Mollet Hendrik Fayat Pierre Lapie Willi Birkelbach Käte Strobel Francis Vals Georges Spénale Ludwig Spénale Ernest Glinne Rudi Arndt Jean-Pierre Cot Pauline Green Enrique Barón Crespo Martin Schulz Hannes Swoboda Gianni Pittella Udo Bullmann

European Commissioners Vytenis Andriukaitis
Vytenis Andriukaitis
(Health and Food Safety) Neven Mimica (International Cooperation and Development) Federica Mogherini
Federica Mogherini
(Foreign Affairs and Security Policy) Pierre Moscovici
Pierre Moscovici
(Economic and Financial Affairs, Taxation and Customs) Maroš Šefčovič
Maroš Šefčovič
(Energy Union) Frans Timmermans
Frans Timmermans
(Rule of Law and Charter of Fundamental Rights) Karmenu Vella
Karmenu Vella
(Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries) see Juncker Commission Heads of government Mette Frederiksen
Mette Frederiksen
(Denmark) Joseph Muscat
Joseph Muscat
(Malta) António Costa
António Costa
(Portugal) Viorica Dăncilă
Viorica Dăncilă
(Romania) Peter Pellegrini
Peter Pellegrini
(Slovakia) Pedro Sánchez (Spain) Stefan Löfven
Stefan Löfven
(Sweden)

vtePolitical parties in Germany
Germany
until the end of World War ISocialist General German Workers' Association
General German Workers' Association
(ADAV) Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany
Social Democratic Workers' Party of Germany
(SDAP) Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(SPD) Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(USPD) Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(MSPD) Catholic Centre Party (Zentrum) LiberalSocial liberal German Progress Party (DFP) Democratic People's Party (DVP) German People's Party
German People's Party
(DtVP) Liberal Union (LV) German Free-minded Party
German Free-minded Party
(DFsP) Free-minded People's Party (FVP) Free-minded Union (FV) National-Social Association
National-Social Association
(NSV) Democratic Union (DV) Progressive People's Party (FVP) National liberal National Liberal Party (NLP) Imperial Liberal Party
Imperial Liberal Party
(LRP) Conservative Free Conservative Party (FKP) German Conservative Party
German Conservative Party
(DkP) Christian Social Party (CSP) German Fatherland Party Antisemitic German Reform Party (DRP) German Social Party (DSP) German Social Reform Party (DSRP) Regionalist Saxon People's Party German-Hanoverian Party
German-Hanoverian Party
(DHP) Bavarian Peasants' League (BB)

vtePolitical parties in Germany
Germany
in the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
(1918–1933) Communist

Communist Party of Germany
Germany
(KPD) Communist Workers Party of Germany
Germany
(KAPD) Communist Party Opposition (KPO)

Socialist Social Democratic Democratic Socialist

Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(SPD) Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(USPD) Majority Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(MSPD) Old Social Democratic Party of Germany
Germany
(ASPD) Socialist Workers' Party of Germany
Germany
(SAPD)

Catholic

Bavarian People's Party
Bavarian People's Party
(BVP) Centre Party (Zentrum) Christian People's Party (CVP)

Agrarian

Bavarian Peasants' League (BB) Agricultural League Schleswig-Holstein
Schleswig-Holstein
Farmers and Farmworkers Democracy
Democracy
(SHBLD) Christian National Peasants' and Farmers' Party (CNBL) German Farmers' Party (DBP)

Liberal

German Democratic Party
German Democratic Party
(DDP) German People's Party
German People's Party
(DVP) German State Party
German State Party
(DStP)

Conservative

German National People's Party
German National People's Party
(DNVP) People's Right Party (VRP) Christian Social People's Service
Christian Social People's Service
(CSVD) Conservative People's Party (KVP)

Völkische and Nazi

German Workers' Party
German Workers' Party
(DAP) German Social Party (DSP) German Socialist Party (DSP) National Socialist German Workers' Party
German Workers' Party
(NSDAP) German Völkisch Freedom
Freedom
Party (DVFP) National Socialist Freedom
Freedom
Movement (NSFB)

Miscellaneous

German-Hanoverian Party
German-Hanoverian Party
(DHP) Economic Party (WP)

Authority control BNF: cb11867469p (data) GND: 2022139-3 ISNI: 0000 0001 2353 4548 LCCN: n80067141 NDL: 00278064 NKC: kn20010711415 SUDOC: 050601717 VIAF: 151021191 WorldCat Identities
WorldCat Identities
(via

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