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Lutra
Lutra
perspicillata

Smooth-coated otter, Tungabhadra River Bank, Humpi, Karnataka, India

The smooth-coated otter ( Lutrogale
Lutrogale
perspicillata) is a species of otter, the only extant representative of the genus Lutrogale. The species is found in most of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and eastwards to Southeast Asia, with a disjunct population in Iraq.[1] As its name indicates, the fur of this species is smoother and shorter than that of other otter species.

Contents

1 Characteristics 2 Distribution and habitat 3 Ecology and behavior

3.1 Reproduction

4 Threats 5 Conservation 6 In culture 7 References 8 External links

Characteristics[edit] Smooth-coated otters are relatively large for otters, from 7 to 11 kg (15 to 24 lb) in weight and 59 to 64 cm (23 to 25 in) in head-body length, with a tail 37 to 43 cm (15 to 17 in) long. They may be distinguished from other species of otters by a more rounded head and a hairless nose in the shape of a distorted diamond. The tail is flattened, in contrast to the more rounded tails of other species. The legs are short and strong, with large webbed feet bearing strong claws. As their name suggests, they have unusually short and sleek fur; this is dark to reddish brown along the back, while the underside is light brown to almost grey in color. Females have two pairs of teats.[2] Distribution and habitat[edit] The smooth-coated otter has been recorded in Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, southwest China, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesian islands of Borneo, Sumatra, Java
Java
and Brunei. An isolated population is also found in the marshes of Iraq.[1] It occurs in areas where fresh water is plentiful — wetlands and seasonal swamps, rivers, lakes, and rice paddies. Where only otter species occurs, the smooth-coated otter lives in almost any suitable habitat, but where it is sympatric with other otter species, it avoids smaller streams and canals in favour of larger water bodies.[2] Although it is often found in saltwater near the coast, especially on smaller islands, it requires a nearby source of fresh water.[3] There are three recognised otter subspecies:[2]

L. p. perspicillata – most of India, Nepal, southwestern Yunnan, most of Southeast Asia, Sumatra, Java L. p. maxwelli – southern Iraq L. p. sindica – Sind, Pakistan

Fossils belonging to the genus Lutrogale
Lutrogale
are known from the early Pleistocene
Pleistocene
in Java. Two fossil species, an earlier form, L. robusta, and the more recent L. palaeoleptonyx, are known. They probably fed primarily on shellfish, rather than on fish as the current species does.[2] Ecology and behavior[edit]

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
at Kabini River in India

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
in Nagarhole National Park

Smooth-coated-otters

Smooth-coated otters are social and hunt in groups.[3] They are mainly diurnal, and have a short lull in activity during midday.[4] They spend the night in dens dug in dense vegetation, under tree roots, or among boulders. They use scent to communicate both within the otter species, and with other animals. Each otter possesses a pair of scent glands at the base of the tail which are used to mark land or objects, such as rocks or vegetation, near feeding areas in a behavior called sprainting. They also communicate through vocalisations such as whistles, chirps, and wails.[2] Some may construct permanent holts near water, in a layout similar to that of a beaver dam, with an underwater entrance and a tunnel that leads to a nest above the water.[citation needed] Fish comprise over 70% of their diet, but they also eat reptiles, frogs, insects, crustaceans, and small mammals.[3] Especially in areas where other species of otter are also found, they prefer larger fish, typically between 5 and 30 cm (2.0 and 11.8 in) in length.[3][5] They sometimes hunt in groups of up to 11 individuals.[2] In the Kuala Selangor Nature Park, an otter group was observed hunting. They formed an undulating, slightly V-shaped line, pointing in the direction of movement and nearly as wide as the creek. The largest individuals occupied the middle section. In this formation, they undulated wildly through the creek, causing panic‑stricken fish to jump out of the water a few metres ahead. They suddenly dived and grasped the fish with their snouts. Then they moved ashore, tossed the fish up a little on the muddy part of the bank, and swallowed it head‑first in one piece.[6] A group of otters can have a feeding range of 7 to 12 km2.[citation needed] A single adult consumes about 1 kg of food per day in captivity.[citation needed] Reproduction[edit]

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
young at Wingham Wildlife Park

Smooth-coated otters form small family groups of a mated pair with up to four offspring from previous seasons.[7] Copulation
Copulation
occurs in water and lasts less than one minute.[8] So long as the food supply is sufficient, they breed throughout the year, but where otters are dependent on monsoons for precipitation, breeding occurs between October and February. A litter of up to five pups is born after a gestation period of 60 to 63 days.[2] However, on 14 June 2014, a smooth-coated otter called Ping at Wingham Wildlife Park in the UK gave birth to a litter of seven young.[9] The mothers give birth to and raise their young in a burrow near water. They may either construct such a burrow themselves, or they may take over an abandoned one. At birth, the pups are blind and helpless, but after 10 days, their eyes open, and they are weaned at about three to five months. They reach adult size at about a year of age, and sexual maturity at two or three years.[2] In Singapore, it was discovered that female Asian small-clawed otters interbred with male smooth-coated otters, resulting in the first documented case of hybridization between otter species in the wild. The resulting offspring and their descendants bred back into the smooth-coated otter population, but maintained many of the genes found in their small-clawed otter ancestors. Today, a population of at least 60 of these hybrid otters exists in Singapore, but the question remains as to how widespread the hybridization is between these two species actually is, and the resulting effects it has.[10] Threats[edit] Major threats to Asian otter population are loss of wetland habitats due to construction of large-scale hydroelectric projects, reclamation of wetlands for settlements and agriculture, reduction in prey biomass, poaching, and contamination of waterways by pesticides. In most Asian countries, increased human population during the last century, inadequate and ineffective rural development programmes have not been able to address the problems of poverty, forcing people to be more and more dependent on natural resources. Consequently, most of the wetlands and waterways do not have adequate prey base for sustaining otter populations. Wetlands and waterways are polluted by eutrophication and accumulation of persistent pesticides such as chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates through agricultural runoffs. Increased pesticide use is not only regarded as a major obstacle to the development of rice-fish culture, but also poses a danger to all predators feeding on aquatic prey in the area. In the entire South and Southeast Asia, severe conflict exists between otters and humans, because of poverty and recent increases in aquaculture activities leading to indiscriminate killing of otters. Many important habitats of smooth-coated otters have been lost to development activities. In Southeast Asian countries, intentional otter trapping does not seem to occur, though it is prevalent in India, Nepal, and Bangladesh.[1] Due to the draining of the Mesopotamian Marshes
Mesopotamian Marshes
during the presidency of Saddam Hussein, the Iraqi population of otters was feared to have perished. A biodiversity site review in 2009 found tracks of an otter, suggesting the population may have survived,[11] and comprehensive surveys in 2005–2012 found that it survived at several locations (even extending its range to Iraqi Kurdistan, far north of its previously known distribution).[12] Conservation[edit] Lutrogale
Lutrogale
perspicillata has been listed on CITES Appendix II
CITES Appendix II
since 1977. It is a protected species in almost all the range countries, which prohibits its killing. Most range countries are not able to control the clandestine trade leading to extensive poaching.[1] The smooth-coated otter is listed as a vulnerable species. Their range and population are shrinking due to loss of wetland habitat and contamination of waterways by pesticides. The otters are protected in India
India
under the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972. Smooth-coated otters are used for commercial fishing in southern Bangladesh. These otters are bred in captivity, trained, and used to chase fish into fishing nets. This fishing technique is currently used by about 300 fishermen, with an additional 2,000 people indirectly dependent on the technique for their livelihood.[13] Otters studied along the Chambal River in India
India
have shown to be most vulnerable during winter due to their breeding habits and rearing of young in these months. Currently human presence is noted to be highest during these months due to the local winter crops. The otters are shown to be highly disturbed in the presence of humans, making counting through spraint detection, tracks, and visual sightings hard to give accurate population numbers in conservation studies in India. Smooth-coated otters have been given some protection along the Chambal River under protection stated for local aquatic fauna, but continual effort to protect them includes prohibition of tree removal along rocky stretches along river sides.[14] In culture[edit] The smooth-coated otter was featured on the BBC documentary, Planet Earth, in the episode entitled "Fresh Water" (aired in the UK on March 19, 2006, and in the US on April 15, 2007). In this episode, it is shown openly pestering an adult crocodile.[citation needed] They are also shown in Singapore
Singapore
in the final episode of Planet Earth II
Planet Earth II
during a segment on the "greening" of cities. Ring of Bright Water by Gavin Maxwell
Gavin Maxwell
describes how the author brought a smooth-coated otter from Iraq
Iraq
to Scotland. References[edit]

^ a b c d e de Silva, P.; Khan, W.A.; Kanchanasaka, B.; Reza Lubis, I.; Feeroz, M.M. & Al-Sheikhly, O.F. (2015). "Lutrogale perspicillata". The IUCN Red List
IUCN Red List
of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2015: e.T12427A21934884. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2015-2.RLTS.T12427A21934884.en. Retrieved 15 January 2018.  ^ a b c d e f g h Hwang, Y. T. & Larivière, S. (2005). "Lutrogale perspicillata" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 786: 1–4. doi:10.1644/786.1.  ^ a b c d Kruuk, H.; Kanchanasaka, B.; O'Sullivan, S.; Wanghongsa, S. (1994). "Niche separation in three sympatric otters Lutra perspicillata, L. lutra and Aonyx
Aonyx
cinerea in Huai Kha Khaeng, Thailand". Biological Conservation. 69 (1): 115–120. doi:10.1016/0006-3207(94)90334-4.  ^ Foster-Turley, P. (1992). Conservation aspects of the ecology of Asian small-clawed and smooth otters on the Malay Peninsula. International Union for the Conservation of Nature, Otter
Otter
Specialist Group Bulletin 7: 26–29. ^ Anoop, K. R. & Hussain, S. A. (2005). "Food and feeding habits of smooth-coated otters ( Lutra
Lutra
perspicillata) and their significance to the fish population of Kerala, India". Journal of Zoology. 266 (1): 15–23. doi:10.1017/S0952836905006540.  ^ Helvoort, B. E. van; Melisch, R.; Lubis, I. R. & O'Callaghan, B. (1996). "Aspects of Preying Behaviour of Smooth Coated Otters Lutrogale
Lutrogale
perspicillata from Southeast Asia". IUCN
IUCN
Otter
Otter
Specialist Group Bulletin. 13 (1): 3–7.  ^ Hussain, S. A. (1996). Group size, group structure and breeding in smooth-coated otter Lutra
Lutra
perspicillata Geoffroy in National Chambal Sanctuary. Mammalia 60: 289–297. ^ Badham, M. (1973). "Breeding the Indian smooth otter Lutrogale perspicillata sindica X L.p. perspicillata at Twycross Zoo". International Zoo Yearbook. 13 (1): 145–146. doi:10.1111/j.1748-1090.1973.tb02132.x.  ^ " Wingham Wildlife Park
Wingham Wildlife Park
Facebook Page". Wingham Wildlife Park. 2014-07-14. Retrieved 2014-09-07.  ^ Hong, S. (2018). Surprising branch in Singapore's otter family tree. The Straits Times, Singapore. ^ Salim, M (2009). "Key Biodiversity Survey of Southern Iraq" (PDF). Nature Iraq. Retrieved 15 April 2013.  ^ Al-Sheikhly, O.F.; and Nader, I.A. (2013). The Status of the Iraq Smooth-coated Otter
Otter
Lutrogale
Lutrogale
perspicillata maxwelli Hayman 1956 and Eurasian Otter
Otter
Lutra
Lutra
lutra Linnaeus 1758 in Iraq. IUCN
IUCN
Otter
Otter
Spec. Group Bull. 30(1). ^ Feeroz, M. M., Begum, S. and Hasan, M. K. (2011). "Fishing with Otters: a Traditional Conservation Practice in Bangladesh". Proceedings of XIth International Otter
Otter
Colloquium. IUCN
IUCN
Otter Specialist Group Bulletin (28A): 14–21. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Hussain, S. A., Choudhury, B. C. (1997). "Distribution and status of the Smooth-coated Otter
Otter
Lutra
Lutra
perspicillata in National Chambal Sanctuary, India". Biological Conservation. 80 (2): 199–206. doi:10.1016/S0006-3207(96)00033-X. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lutrogale
Lutrogale
perspicillata.

Wikispecies
Wikispecies
has information related to Lutrogale
Lutrogale
perspicillata

IUCN
IUCN
Otter
Otter
Specialist Group: Lutrogale
Lutrogale
perspicillata (Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1826), the Smooth-Coated Otter Animal
Animal
Diversity Web: Smooth-coated otter ARKive: Smooth-coated otter

v t e

Extant Carnivora
Carnivora
species

Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Infraclass: Eutheria Superorder: Laurasiatheria

Suborder Feliformia

Nandiniidae

Nandinia

African palm civet
African palm civet
(N. binotata)

Herpestidae (Mongooses)

Atilax

Marsh mongoose
Marsh mongoose
(A. paludinosus)

Bdeogale

Bushy-tailed mongoose
Bushy-tailed mongoose
(B. crassicauda) Jackson's mongoose
Jackson's mongoose
(B. jacksoni) Black-footed mongoose
Black-footed mongoose
(B. nigripes)

Crossarchus

Alexander's kusimanse
Alexander's kusimanse
(C. alexandri) Angolan kusimanse
Angolan kusimanse
(C. ansorgei) Common kusimanse
Common kusimanse
(C. obscurus) Flat-headed kusimanse
Flat-headed kusimanse
(C. platycephalus)

Cynictis

Yellow mongoose
Yellow mongoose
(C. penicillata)

Dologale

Pousargues's mongoose
Pousargues's mongoose
(D. dybowskii)

Galerella

Angolan slender mongoose
Angolan slender mongoose
(G. flavescens) Black mongoose
Black mongoose
(G. nigrata) Somalian slender mongoose
Somalian slender mongoose
(G. ochracea) Cape gray mongoose
Cape gray mongoose
(G. pulverulenta) Slender mongoose
Slender mongoose
(G. sanguinea)

Helogale

Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
Ethiopian dwarf mongoose
(H. hirtula) Common dwarf mongoose
Common dwarf mongoose
(H. parvula)

Herpestes

Short-tailed mongoose
Short-tailed mongoose
(H. brachyurus) Indian gray mongoose
Indian gray mongoose
(H. edwardsii) Indian brown mongoose
Indian brown mongoose
(H. fuscus) Egyptian mongoose
Egyptian mongoose
(H. ichneumon) Small Asian mongoose
Small Asian mongoose
(H. javanicus) Long-nosed mongoose
Long-nosed mongoose
(H. naso) Collared mongoose
Collared mongoose
(H. semitorquatus) Ruddy mongoose
Ruddy mongoose
(H. smithii) Crab-eating mongoose
Crab-eating mongoose
(H. urva) Stripe-necked mongoose
Stripe-necked mongoose
(H. vitticollis)

Ichneumia

White-tailed mongoose
White-tailed mongoose
(I. albicauda)

Liberiictus

Liberian mongoose
Liberian mongoose
(L. kuhni)

Mungos

Gambian mongoose
Gambian mongoose
(M. gambianus) Banded mongoose
Banded mongoose
(M. mungo)

Paracynictis

Selous' mongoose
Selous' mongoose
(P. selousi)

Rhynchogale

Meller's mongoose
Meller's mongoose
(R. melleri)

Suricata

Meerkat
Meerkat
(S. suricatta)

Hyaenidae (Hyenas)

Crocuta

Spotted hyena
Spotted hyena
(C. crocuta)

Hyaena

Brown hyena
Brown hyena
(H. brunnea) Striped hyena
Striped hyena
(H. hyaena)

Proteles

Aardwolf
Aardwolf
(P. cristatus)

Felidae

Large family listed below

Viverridae

Large family listed below

Eupleridae

Small family listed below

Family Felidae

Felinae

Acinonyx

Cheetah
Cheetah
(A. jubatus)

Caracal

Caracal
Caracal
(C. caracal) African golden cat
African golden cat
(C. aurata)

Catopuma

Bay cat
Bay cat
(C. badia) Asian golden cat
Asian golden cat
(C. temminckii)

Felis

European wildcat
European wildcat
(F. silvestris) African wildcat
African wildcat
(F. lybica) Jungle cat
Jungle cat
(F. chaus) Black-footed cat
Black-footed cat
(F. nigripes) Sand cat
Sand cat
(F. margarita) Chinese mountain cat
Chinese mountain cat
(F. bieti) Domestic cat (F. catus)

Leopardus

Ocelot
Ocelot
(L. pardalis) Margay
Margay
(L. wiedii) Pampas cat
Pampas cat
(L. colocola) Geoffroy's cat
Geoffroy's cat
(L. geoffroyi) Kodkod
Kodkod
(L. guigna) Andean mountain cat
Andean mountain cat
(L. jacobita) Oncilla
Oncilla
(L. tigrinus) Southern tigrina
Southern tigrina
(L. guttulus)

Leptailurus

Serval
Serval
(L. serval)

Lynx

Canadian lynx (L. canadensis) Eurasian lynx
Eurasian lynx
(L. lynx) Iberian lynx
Iberian lynx
(L. pardinus) Bobcat
Bobcat
(L. rufus)

Otocolobus

Pallas's cat
Pallas's cat
(O. manul)

Pardofelis

Marbled cat
Marbled cat
(P. marmorata)

Prionailurus

Fishing cat
Fishing cat
(P. viverrinus) Leopard cat
Leopard cat
(P. bengalensis) Sundaland leopard cat (P. javanensis) Flat-headed cat
Flat-headed cat
(P. planiceps) Rusty-spotted cat
Rusty-spotted cat
(P. rubiginosus)

Puma

Cougar
Cougar
(P. concolor)

Herpailurus

Jaguarundi
Jaguarundi
(H. yagouaroundi)

Pantherinae

Panthera

Lion
Lion
(P. leo) Jaguar
Jaguar
(P. onca) Leopard
Leopard
(P. pardus) Tiger
Tiger
(P. tigris) Snow leopard
Snow leopard
(P. uncia)

Neofelis

Clouded leopard
Clouded leopard
(N. nebulosa) Sunda clouded leopard
Sunda clouded leopard
(N. diardi)

Family Viverridae
Viverridae
(includes Civets)

Paradoxurinae

Arctictis

Binturong
Binturong
(A. binturong)

Arctogalidia

Small-toothed palm civet
Small-toothed palm civet
(A. trivirgata)

Macrogalidia

Sulawesi palm civet
Sulawesi palm civet
(M. musschenbroekii)

Paguma

Masked palm civet
Masked palm civet
(P. larvata)

Paradoxurus

Golden wet-zone palm civet (P. aureus) Asian palm civet
Asian palm civet
(P. hermaphroditus) Jerdon's palm civet (P. jerdoni) Golden palm civet
Golden palm civet
(P. zeylonensis)

Hemigalinae

Chrotogale

Owston's palm civet
Owston's palm civet
(C. owstoni)

Cynogale

Otter
Otter
civet (C. bennettii)

Diplogale

Hose's palm civet
Hose's palm civet
(D. hosei)

Hemigalus

Banded palm civet
Banded palm civet
(H. derbyanus)

Prionodontinae (Asiatic linsangs)

Prionodon

Banded linsang
Banded linsang
(P. linsang) Spotted linsang
Spotted linsang
(P. pardicolor)

Viverrinae

Civettictis

African civet
African civet
(C. civetta)

Genetta (Genets)

Abyssinian genet
Abyssinian genet
(G. abyssinica) Angolan genet
Angolan genet
(G. angolensis) Bourlon's genet
Bourlon's genet
(G. bourloni) Crested servaline genet
Crested servaline genet
(G. cristata) Common genet
Common genet
(G. genetta) Johnston's genet
Johnston's genet
(G. johnstoni) Rusty-spotted genet
Rusty-spotted genet
(G. maculata) Pardine genet
Pardine genet
(G. pardina) Aquatic genet
Aquatic genet
(G. piscivora) King genet
King genet
(G. poensis) Servaline genet
Servaline genet
(G. servalina) Haussa genet
Haussa genet
(G. thierryi) Cape genet
Cape genet
(G. tigrina) Giant forest genet
Giant forest genet
(G. victoriae)

Poiana

African linsang
African linsang
(P. richardsonii) Leighton's linsang
Leighton's linsang
(P. leightoni)

Viverra

Malabar large-spotted civet
Malabar large-spotted civet
(V. civettina) Large-spotted civet
Large-spotted civet
(V. megaspila) Malayan civet
Malayan civet
(V. tangalunga) Large Indian civet
Large Indian civet
(V. zibetha)

Viverricula

Small Indian civet
Small Indian civet
(V. indica)

Family Eupleridae

Euplerinae

Cryptoprocta

Fossa (C. ferox)

Eupleres

Eastern falanouc
Eastern falanouc
(E. goudotii) Western falanouc (E. major)

Fossa

Malagasy civet
Malagasy civet
(F. fossana)

Galidiinae

Galidia

Ring-tailed mongoose
Ring-tailed mongoose
(G. elegans)

Galidictis

Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
Broad-striped Malagasy mongoose
(G. fasciata) Grandidier's mongoose
Grandidier's mongoose
(G. grandidieri)

Mungotictis

Narrow-striped mongoose
Narrow-striped mongoose
(M. decemlineata)

Salanoia

Brown-tailed mongoose
Brown-tailed mongoose
(S. concolor) Durrell's vontsira (S. durrelli)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. below)

Ursidae (Bears)

Ailuropoda

Giant panda
Giant panda
(A. melanoleuca)

Helarctos

Sun bear
Sun bear
(H. malayanus)

Melursus

Sloth bear
Sloth bear
(M. ursinus)

Tremarctos

Spectacled bear
Spectacled bear
(T. ornatus)

Ursus

American black bear
American black bear
(U. americanus) Brown bear
Brown bear
(U. arctos) Polar bear
Polar bear
(U. maritimus) Asian black bear
Asian black bear
(U. thibetanus)

Mephitidae

Conepatus (Hog-nosed skunks)

Molina's hog-nosed skunk
Molina's hog-nosed skunk
(C. chinga) Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
Humboldt's hog-nosed skunk
(C. humboldtii) American hog-nosed skunk
American hog-nosed skunk
(C. leuconotus) Striped hog-nosed skunk
Striped hog-nosed skunk
(C. semistriatus)

Mephitis

Hooded skunk
Hooded skunk
(M. macroura) Striped skunk
Striped skunk
(M. mephitis)

Mydaus

Sunda stink badger
Sunda stink badger
(M. javanensis) Palawan stink badger
Palawan stink badger
(M. marchei)

Spilogale (Spotted skunks)

Southern spotted skunk
Southern spotted skunk
(S. angustifrons) Western spotted skunk
Western spotted skunk
(S. gracilis) Eastern spotted skunk
Eastern spotted skunk
(S. putorius) Pygmy spotted skunk
Pygmy spotted skunk
(S. pygmaea)

Procyonidae

Bassaricyon (Olingos)

Eastern lowland olingo
Eastern lowland olingo
(B. alleni) Northern olingo
Northern olingo
(B. gabbii) Western lowland olingo
Western lowland olingo
(B. medius) Olinguito
Olinguito
(B. neblina)

Bassariscus

Ring-tailed cat
Ring-tailed cat
(B. astutus) Cacomistle
Cacomistle
(B. sumichrasti)

Nasua (Coatis inclusive)

White-nosed coati
White-nosed coati
(N. narica) South American coati
South American coati
(N. nasua)

Nasuella (Coatis inclusive)

Western mountain coati (N. olivacea) Eastern mountain coati (N. meridensis)

Potos

Kinkajou
Kinkajou
(P. flavus)

Procyon

Crab-eating raccoon
Crab-eating raccoon
(P. cancrivorus) Raccoon
Raccoon
(P. lotor) Cozumel raccoon
Cozumel raccoon
(P. pygmaeus)

Ailuridae

Ailurus

Red panda
Red panda
(A. fulgens)

Suborder Caniformia
Caniformia
(cont. above)

Otariidae (Eared seals) (includes fur seals and sea lions) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Arctocephalus

South American fur seal
South American fur seal
(A. australis) Australasian fur seal (A. forsteri) Galápagos fur seal
Galápagos fur seal
(A. galapagoensis) Antarctic fur seal
Antarctic fur seal
(A. gazella) Juan Fernández fur seal
Juan Fernández fur seal
(A. philippii) Brown fur seal
Brown fur seal
(A. pusillus) Guadalupe fur seal
Guadalupe fur seal
(A. townsendi) Subantarctic fur seal
Subantarctic fur seal
(A. tropicalis)

Callorhinus

Northern fur seal
Northern fur seal
(C. ursinus)

Eumetopias

Steller sea lion
Steller sea lion
(E. jubatus)

Neophoca

Australian sea lion
Australian sea lion
(N. cinerea)

Otaria

South American sea lion
South American sea lion
(O. flavescens)

Phocarctos

New Zealand sea lion
New Zealand sea lion
(P. hookeri)

Zalophus

California sea lion
California sea lion
(Z. californianus) Galápagos sea lion
Galápagos sea lion
(Z. wollebaeki)

Odobenidae ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Odobenus

Walrus
Walrus
(O. rosmarus)

Phocidae (Earless seals) ( Pinniped
Pinniped
inclusive)

Cystophora

Hooded seal
Hooded seal
(C. cristata)

Erignathus

Bearded seal
Bearded seal
(E. barbatus)

Halichoerus

Gray seal (H. grypus)

Histriophoca

Ribbon seal
Ribbon seal
(H. fasciata)

Hydrurga

Leopard
Leopard
seal (H. leptonyx)

Leptonychotes

Weddell seal
Weddell seal
(L. weddellii)

Lobodon

Crabeater seal
Crabeater seal
(L. carcinophagus)

Mirounga (Elephant seals)

Northern elephant seal
Northern elephant seal
(M. angustirostris) Southern elephant seal
Southern elephant seal
(M. leonina)

Monachus

Mediterranean monk seal
Mediterranean monk seal
(M. monachus) Hawaiian monk seal
Hawaiian monk seal
(M. schauinslandi)

Ommatophoca

Ross seal
Ross seal
(O. rossi)

Pagophilus

Harp seal
Harp seal
(P. groenlandicus)

Phoca

Spotted seal
Spotted seal
(P. largha) Harbor seal
Harbor seal
(P. vitulina)

Pusa

Caspian seal
Caspian seal
(P. caspica) Ringed seal
Ringed seal
(P. hispida) Baikal seal
Baikal seal
(P. sibirica)

Canidae

Large family listed below

Mustelidae

Large family listed below

Family Canidae
Canidae
(includes dogs)

Atelocynus

Short-eared dog
Short-eared dog
(A. microtis)

Canis

Side-striped jackal
Side-striped jackal
(C. adustus) African golden wolf
African golden wolf
(C. anthus) Golden jackal
Golden jackal
(C. aureus) Coyote
Coyote
(C. latrans) Gray wolf
Gray wolf
(C. lupus) Black-backed jackal
Black-backed jackal
(C. mesomelas) Red wolf
Red wolf
(C. rufus) Ethiopian wolf
Ethiopian wolf
(C. simensis)

Cerdocyon

Crab-eating fox
Crab-eating fox
(C. thous)

Chrysocyon

Maned wolf
Maned wolf
(C. brachyurus)

Cuon

Dhole
Dhole
(C. alpinus)

Lycalopex

Culpeo
Culpeo
(L. culpaeus) Darwin's fox
Darwin's fox
(L. fulvipes) South American gray fox
South American gray fox
(L. griseus) Pampas fox
Pampas fox
(L. gymnocercus) Sechuran fox
Sechuran fox
(L. sechurae) Hoary fox
Hoary fox
(L. vetulus)

Lycaon

African wild dog
African wild dog
(L. pictus)

Nyctereutes

Raccoon
Raccoon
dog (N. procyonoides)

Otocyon

Bat-eared fox
Bat-eared fox
(O. megalotis)

Speothos

Bush dog
Bush dog
(S. venaticus)

Urocyon

Gray fox
Gray fox
(U. cinereoargenteus) Island fox
Island fox
(U. littoralis)

Vulpes (Foxes)

Bengal fox
Bengal fox
(V. bengalensis) Blanford's fox
Blanford's fox
(V. cana) Cape fox
Cape fox
(V. chama) Corsac fox
Corsac fox
(V. corsac) Tibetan sand fox
Tibetan sand fox
(V. ferrilata) Arctic fox
Arctic fox
(V. lagopus) Kit fox
Kit fox
(V. macrotis) Pale fox
Pale fox
(V. pallida) Rüppell's fox
Rüppell's fox
(V. rueppelli) Swift fox
Swift fox
(V. velox) Red fox
Red fox
(V. vulpes) Fennec fox
Fennec fox
(V. zerda)

Family Mustelidae

Lutrinae (Otters)

Aonyx

African clawless otter
African clawless otter
(A. capensis) Oriental small-clawed otter
Oriental small-clawed otter
(A. cinerea)

Enhydra

Sea otter
Sea otter
(E. lutris)

Hydrictis

Spotted-necked otter
Spotted-necked otter
(H. maculicollis)

Lontra

North American river otter
North American river otter
(L. canadensis) Marine otter
Marine otter
(L. felina) Neotropical otter
Neotropical otter
(L. longicaudis) Southern river otter
Southern river otter
(L. provocax)

Lutra

Eurasian otter
Eurasian otter
(L. lutra) Hairy-nosed otter
Hairy-nosed otter
(L. sumatrana)

Lutrogale

Smooth-coated otter
Smooth-coated otter
(L. perspicillata)

Pteronura

Giant otter
Giant otter
(P. brasiliensis)

Mustelinae (including badgers)

Arctonyx

Hog badger
Hog badger
(A. collaris)

Eira

Tayra
Tayra
(E. barbara)

Galictis

Lesser grison
Lesser grison
(G. cuja) Greater grison
Greater grison
(G. vittata)

Gulo

Wolverine
Wolverine
(G. gulo)

Ictonyx

Saharan striped polecat
Saharan striped polecat
(I. libyca) Striped polecat
Striped polecat
(I. striatus)

Lyncodon

Patagonian weasel
Patagonian weasel
(L. patagonicus)

Martes (Martens)

American marten
American marten
(M. americana) Yellow-throated marten
Yellow-throated marten
(M. flavigula) Beech marten
Beech marten
(M. foina) Nilgiri marten
Nilgiri marten
(M. gwatkinsii) European pine marten
European pine marten
(M. martes) Japanese marten
Japanese marten
(M. melampus) Sable
Sable
(M. zibellina)

Pekania

Fisher (P. pennanti)

Meles

Japanese badger
Japanese badger
(M. anakuma) Asian badger
Asian badger
(M. leucurus) European badger
European badger
(M. meles)

Mellivora

Honey badger
Honey badger
(M. capensis)

Melogale (Ferret-badgers)

Bornean ferret-badger
Bornean ferret-badger
(M. everetti) Chinese ferret-badger
Chinese ferret-badger
(M. moschata) Javan ferret-badger
Javan ferret-badger
(M. orientalis) Burmese ferret-badger
Burmese ferret-badger
(M. personata)

Mustela (Weasels and Ferrets)

Amazon weasel
Amazon weasel
(M. africana) Mountain weasel
Mountain weasel
(M. altaica) Stoat
Stoat
(M. erminea) Steppe polecat
Steppe polecat
(M. eversmannii) Colombian weasel
Colombian weasel
(M. felipei) Long-tailed weasel
Long-tailed weasel
(M. frenata) Japanese weasel
Japanese weasel
(M. itatsi) Yellow-bellied weasel
Yellow-bellied weasel
(M. kathiah) European mink
European mink
(M. lutreola) Indonesian mountain weasel
Indonesian mountain weasel
(M. lutreolina) Black-footed ferret
Black-footed ferret
(M. nigripes) Least weasel
Least weasel
(M. nivalis) Malayan weasel
Malayan weasel
(M. nudipes) European polecat
European polecat
(M. putorius) Siberian weasel
Siberian weasel
(M. sibirica) Back-striped weasel
Back-striped weasel
(M. strigidorsa) Egyptian weasel
Egyptian weasel
(M. subpalmata)

Neovison (Minks)

American mink
American mink
(N. vison)

Poecilogale

African striped weasel
African striped weasel
(P. albinucha)

Taxidea

American badger
American badger
(T. taxus)

Vormela

Marbled polecat
Marbled polecat
(V. peregusna)

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q754737 ADW: Lutrogale_perspicillata ARKive: lutrogale-perspicillata EoL: 328028 Fossilworks: 159254 GBIF: 2433686 iNaturalist: 41856 ITIS: 621919 IUCN: 12427 MSW: 14001127 NCBI: 452644 Species+:

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