HOME
The Info List - Smithsonian Institution


--- Advertisement ---



The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
(/smɪθˈsoʊniən/ smith-SOH-nee-ən), established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.[1] The institution is named after its founding donor, British scientist James Smithson.[2] Originally organized as the "United States National Museum," that name ceased to exist as an administrative entity in 1967.[3] Termed "the nation's attic"[4] for its eclectic holdings of 154 million items,[2] the Institution's nineteen museums, nine research centers, and zoo include historical and architectural landmarks, mostly located in the District of Columbia.[5] Additional facilities are located in Arizona, Maryland, Massachusetts, New York City, Pittsburgh, Texas, Virginia, and Panama. More than 200 institutions and museums in 45 states, Puerto Rico, and Panama
Panama
are Smithsonian Affiliates.[6][7] The Institution's thirty million annual visitors[8] are admitted without charge. Its annual budget is around $1.2 billion with 2/3 coming from annual federal appropriations.[9] Other funding comes from the Institution's endowment, private and corporate contributions, membership dues, and earned retail, concession, and licensing revenue.[2] Institution publications include Smithsonian and Air & Space magazines.

Contents

1 Founding 2 Development

2.1 Museums and buildings 2.2 Capital campaigns

3 Museums

3.1 Collections

4 Research centers and programs

4.1 Smithsonian Latino Center

4.1.1 History 4.1.2 Young Ambassadors Program

5 Publications 6 Awards 7 Administration

7.1 Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution

8 Controversies

8.1 Enola Gay
Enola Gay
display 8.2 Censorship of "Seasons of Life and Land" 8.3 Copyright restrictions

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Founding[edit]

The "Castle" (1847), the Institution's first building and still its headquarters

The British scientist James Smithson
James Smithson
(1765–1829) left most of his wealth to his nephew Henry James Hungerford. When Hungerford died childless in 1835,[10] the estate passed "to the United States of America, to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an Establishment for the increase & diffusion of knowledge among men", in accordance with Smithson's will.[11] Congress officially accepted the legacy bequeathed to the nation, and pledged the faith of the United States to the charitable trust on July 1, 1836.[12] The American diplomat Richard Rush
Richard Rush
was dispatched to England by President Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
to collect the bequest. Rush returned in August 1838 with 105 sacks containing 104,960 gold sovereigns (about $500,000 at the time, which is equivalent to $11,491,000 in 2017).[13][14] Once the money was in hand, eight years of Congressional haggling ensued over how to interpret Smithson's rather vague mandate "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."[12][14] Unfortunately, the money was invested by the US Treasury in bonds issued by the state of Arkansas which soon defaulted. After heated debate, Massachusetts Representative (and ex-President) John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
persuaded Congress to restore the lost funds with interest[15] and, despite designs on the money for other purposes, convinced his colleagues to preserve it for an institution of science and learning.[16] Finally, on August 10, 1846, President James K. Polk
James K. Polk
signed the legislation that established the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
as a trust instrumentality of the United States, to be administered by a Board of Regents and a Secretary of the Smithsonian.[12][17] Development[edit] Though the Smithsonian's first Secretary, Joseph Henry, wanted the Institution to be a center for scientific research,[18] it also became the depository for various Washington and U.S. government collections.[19] The United States Exploring Expedition
United States Exploring Expedition
by the U.S. Navy circumnavigated the globe between 1838 and 1842.[20] The voyage amassed thousands of animal specimens, an herbarium of 50,000 plant specimens, and diverse shells and minerals, tropical birds, jars of seawater, and ethnographic artifacts from the South Pacific Ocean.[20] These specimens and artifacts became part of the Smithsonian collections,[21] as did those collected by several military and civilian surveys of the American West, including the Mexican Boundary Survey and Pacific Railroad Surveys, which assembled many Native American artifacts and natural history specimens.[22] In 1846, the regents developed a plan for weather observation; in 1847, money was appropriated for meteorological research.[23] The Institution became a magnet for young scientists from 1857 to 1866, who formed a group called the Megatherium Club.[24] The Smithsonian played a critical role as the U.S. partner institution in early bilateral scientific exchanges with the Academy of Sciences of Cuba.[25] Museums and buildings[edit] The Smithsonian Institution Building
Smithsonian Institution Building
("the Castle") began construction in 1849. Designed by architect James Renwick Jr., its interiors were completed by general contract Gilbert Cameron. The building opened in 1855.[26] The Smithsonian's first expansion came with construction of the Arts and Industries Building in 1881. Congress had promised to build a new structure for the museum if the 1876 Philadelphia Centennial Exposition generated enough income. It did, and the building was designed by architects Adolf Cluss
Adolf Cluss
and Paul Schulze, based on original plans developed by Major General Montgomery C. Meigs
Montgomery C. Meigs
of the United States Army Corps of Engineers. It opened in 1881.[27] The National Zoological Park opened in 1889 to accommodate the Smithsonian's Department of Living Animals.[28] The park was designed by landscape architect Frederick Law Olmsted.[28] The National Museum of Natural History
National Museum of Natural History
opened in June 1911 to similarly accommodate the Smithsonian's United States National Museum, which had previously been housed in the Castle and then the Arts and Industries Building.[29] This structure was designed by the D.C. architectural firm of Hornblower & Marshall.[30] When Detroit
Detroit
philanthropist Charles Lang Freer
Charles Lang Freer
donated his private collection to the Smithsonian and funds to build the museum to hold it (which was named the Freer Gallery), it was among the Smithsonian's first major donations from a private individual.[31] The gallery opened in 1923.[32] More than 40 years would pass before the next museum, the Museum of History and Technology (renamed the National Museum of American History in 1980), opened in 1964. It was designed by the world-renowned firm of McKim, Mead & White.[33] The Anacostia Community Museum, an "experimental store-front" museum created at the initiative of Smithsonian Secretary S. Dillon Ripley, opened in the Anacostia
Anacostia
neighborhood of Washington, D.C., in 1967.[34][35][36] That same year, the Smithsonian signed an agreement to take over the Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration (now the Cooper Hewitt, Smithsonian Design Museum).[37] The National Portrait Gallery and the Smithsonian American Art Museum
Smithsonian American Art Museum
opened in the Old Patent Office Building (built in 1867) on October 7, 1968.[38] The reuse of an older building continued with the opening of the Renwick Gallery
Renwick Gallery
in 1972 in the 1874 Renwick-designed art gallery originally built by local philanthropist William Wilson Corcoran
William Wilson Corcoran
to house the Corcoran Gallery of Art.[39] The first new museum building to open since the National Museum of Natural History was the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, which opened in 1974.[40] The National Air and Space Museum, the Smithsonian's largest in terms of floor space, opened in June 1976.[41] Eleven years later, the National Museum of African Art
National Museum of African Art
and the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery opened in a new, joint, underground museum between the Freer Gallery
Freer Gallery
and the Smithsonian Castle.[42][43][44] Reuse of another old building came in 1993 with the opening of the National Postal Museum in the 1904 former City Post Office building, a few city blocks from the Mall.[45] In 2004, the Smithsonian opened the National Museum of the American Indian in a new building near the United States Capitol.[46] Twelve years later almost to the day, in 2016, the latest museum opened: the National Museum of African American History and Culture, in a new building near the Washington Monument.[47] Capital campaigns[edit] In 2011, the Smithsonian undertook its first-ever capital fundraising campaign.[48] The $1.5 billion effort raised $1 billion at the three-year mark. Smithsonian officials made the campaign public in October 2014 in an effort to raise the remaining $500 million. More than 60,000 individuals and organizations donated money to the campaign by the time it went public.[49] This included 192 gifts of at least $1 million.[49] Members of the boards of directors of various Smithsonian museums donated $372 million.[49] The Smithsonian said that funds raised will go toward completion of the National Museum of African American History and Culture building, and renovations of the National Air and Space Museum, National Museum of American History, and the Renwick Gallery.[49] A smaller amount of funds will go to educational initiatives and digitization of collections.[49] As of September 2017, the Smithsonian claimed to have raised $1.79 billion, with 3 months left in the formal campaign calendar.[50] Separately from the major capital campaign, the Smithsonian has begun fundraising through Kickstarter.[51] An example is a campaign to fund the preservation and maintenance of the ruby slippers from the 1939 film The Wizard of Oz.[52] Museums[edit] Main article: List of Smithsonian museums

Aircraft on display at the National Air and Space Museum, including a Ford Trimotor
Ford Trimotor
and Douglas DC-3
Douglas DC-3
(top and second from top)

Nineteen museums and galleries, as well as the National Zoological Park, comprise the Smithsonian museums.[53] Eleven are on the National Mall, the park that runs between the Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
and the United States Capitol. Other museums are located elsewhere in Washington, D.C., with two more in New York City
New York City
and one in Chantilly, Virginia. The Smithsonian has close ties with 168 other museums in 39 states, Panama, and Puerto Rico.[53] These museums are known as Smithsonian Affiliated museums. Collections of artifacts are given to these museums in the form of long-term loans. The Smithsonian also has a large number of traveling exhibitions, operated through the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES).[54] In 2008, 58 of these traveling exhibitions went to 510 venues across the country.[53] The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
announced in January 2015 that it is in talks to build its first permanent overseas exhibition space within London's Queen Elizabeth II Olympic Park.[55] Collections[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (September 2012)

Smithsonian collections include 156 million artworks, artifacts, and specimens. The National Museum of Natural History
National Museum of Natural History
houses 145 million of these specimens and artifacts. The Collections Search Center has 9.9 million digital records available online. The Smithsonian Institution Libraries hold 2 million library volumes. Smithsonian Archives hold 156,830 cubic feet of archival material.[56][57] The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
has many categories of displays that can be visited at the museums. In 1912, First Lady Helen Herron Taft donated her inauguration gown to the museum to begin the First Ladies' Gown display,[58] one of the Smithsonian's most popular exhibits.[59] The museum displays treasures such as the Star-Spangled Banner, the stove pipe hat that was worn by President Lincoln, the ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland in The Wizard Of Oz, and the original Teddy Bear that was named after President Theodore Roosevelt.[60] In 2016, the Smithsonian's Air & Space museum curators restored the large model Enterprise from the original Star Trek
Star Trek
TV series.[61] Research centers and programs[edit] The following is a list of Smithsonian research centers, with their affiliated museum in parentheses:

Archives of American Art Carrie Bow Marine Field Station (Natural History Museum) Center For Earth and Planetary Studies (Air and Space Museum) Center for Folklife and Cultural Heritage Marine Station at Fort Pierce (Natural History Museum) Migratory Bird Center (National Zoo) Museum Conservation Institute Smithsonian Asian Pacific American Center Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
and the associated Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute
(National Zoo) Smithsonian Environmental Research Center Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Archives[62] Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Libraries Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Scholarly Press Smithsonian Latino Center[63] Smithsonian Provenance Research Initiative (SPRI)[64] Smithsonian Science Education Center[65] Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute
(Panamá) Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars

Also of note is the Smithsonian Museum Support Center
Smithsonian Museum Support Center
(MSC), located in Silver Hill, Maryland
Maryland
(Suitland), which is the principal off-site conservation and collections facility for multiple Smithsonian museums, primarily the National Museum of Natural History. The MSC was dedicated in May 1983.[66] The MSC covers 4.5 acres (1.8 ha) of land, with over 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of space, making it one of the largest set of structures in the Smithsonian. It has over 12 miles (19 km) of cabinets, and more than 31 million objects. Smithsonian Latino Center[edit] In 1997, the Smithsonian Latino Center was created as a way to recognize Latinos across the Smithsonian Institution. The primary purpose of the center is to place Latino contributions to the arts, history, science, and national culture across the Smithsonian's museums and research centers.[67] The center is a division of the Smithsonian Institution.[68] As of May 2016, the center is run by an executive director, Eduardo Díaz.[69] History[edit] At the time of its creation, the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
had other entities dedicated to other minority groups: National Museum of the American Indian, Freer-Sackler Gallery for Asian Arts and Culture, African Art Museum, and the National Museum of African-American Heritage and Culture.[70] The opening of the center was prompted, in part, by the publishing of a report called "Willful Neglect: The Smithsonian and U.S. Latinos".[70] According to documents obtained by The Washington Post, when former Latino Center executive director Pilar O'Leary
Pilar O'Leary
first took the job, the center faced employees who had "serious performance issues". No performance plans existed for the staff and unfulfilled financial obligations to sponsors existed. The website's quality was poor, and the center did not have a public affairs manager, a programs director, adequate human resources support, or cohesive mission statement.[70] After difficult times in the first few years, the center improved. According to the Smithsonian, the center "support[s] scholarly research, exhibitions, public and educational programs, web-based content and virtual platforms, and collections and archives. [It] also manage[s] leadership and professional development programs for Latino youth, emerging scholars and museum professionals."[67] Today, the website features a high-tech virtual museum.[71] Young Ambassadors Program[edit] The Smithsonian Latino Center's Young Ambassadors Program (YAP) is a program within the Latino Center that reaches out to Latino high school students with the goal of encouraging them to become leaders in arts, sciences, and the humanities.[72] Students selected for the program travel to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
for an "enrichment seminar" that lasts approximately five days. Afterwards, students return to their communities to serve in a paid, one-month internship.[68] Pilar O'Leary
Pilar O'Leary
launched the program when she served as executive director of the Smithsonian Latino Center.[73] According to the Latino Center, O'Leary told the press in 2007: "Our goal is to help our Young Ambassadors become the next generation of leaders in the arts and culture fields. This program encourages students to be proud of their roots and learn more about their cultural heritage to inspire them to educate the public in their own communities about how Latinos are enriching America's cultural fabric."[68] Publications[edit] The Institution publishes Smithsonian magazine monthly and Air & Space magazine bimonthly. Smithsonian was the result of Secretary of the Smithsonian S. Dillon Ripley
S. Dillon Ripley
asking the retired editor of Life magazine Edward K. Thompson to produce a magazine "about things in which the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
is interested, might be interested or ought to be interested."[74] Another Secretary of the Smithsonian, Walter Boyne, founded Air & Space.[75][76] Smithsonian Books is a trade publisher. Smithsonian Institution Scholarly Press is an academic publisher. Awards[edit] The Smithsonian makes a number of awards to acknowledge and support meritorious work.

The James Smithson
James Smithson
Medal, the Smithsonian Institution's highest award, was established in 1965 and is given in recognition of exceptional contributions to art, science, history, education and technology. The James Smithson
James Smithson
Bicentennial Medal, established in 1965, is given to persons who have made distinguished contributions to the advancement of areas of interest to the Smithsonian. The Hodgkins Medal, established in 1893, is awarded for important contributions to the understanding of the physical environment. The Henry Medal, established in 1878, is presented to individuals in recognition of their distinguished service, achievements or contributions to the prestige and growth of the Smithsonian Institution. The Langley Gold Medal
Langley Gold Medal
is awarded for meritorious investigations in connection with the science of aerodromics and its application to aviation. [77]

Administration[edit]

The Smithsonian Castle doorway

The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
was established as a trust instrumentality by act of Congress.[78] More than two-thirds of the Smithsonian's workforce of some 6,300 persons are employees of the federal government. The Smithsonian Office of Protection Services oversees security at the Smithsonian facilities and enforces laws and regulations for National Capital Parks
National Capital Parks
together with the United States Park Police. The President's 2011 budget proposed just under $800 million in support for the Smithsonian, slightly increased from previous years. Institution exhibits are free of charge, though in 2010 the Deficit Commission recommended admission fees.[79][80] As approved by Congress on August 10, 1846, the legislation that created the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
called for the creation of a Board of Regents to govern and administer the organization.[78] This 17-member board meets at least four times a year and includes as ex officio members the Chief Justice of the United States
Chief Justice of the United States
and the Vice President of the United States. The nominal head of the Institution is the Chancellor, an office which has traditionally been held by the Chief Justice. In September 2007, the board created the position of Chair of the Board of Regents, a position currently held by John W. McCarter of Illinois.[81] Other members of the Board of Regents are three members of the U.S. House of Representatives appointed by the Speaker of the House; three members of the Senate, appointed by the President pro tempore of the Senate; and nine citizen members, nominated by the board and approved by the Congress in a joint resolution signed by the President of the United States.[82] Regents who are senators or representatives serve for the duration of their elected terms, while citizen Regents serve a maximum of two six-year terms. Regents are compensated on a part-time basis. The chief executive officer (CEO) of the Smithsonian is the Secretary, who is appointed by the Board of Regents. The Secretary also serves as secretary to the Board of Regents, but is not a voting member of that body. The Secretary of the Smithsonian has the privilege of the floor at the United States Senate. There have been 12 Secretaries. On September 18, 2013, Secretary G. Wayne Clough
G. Wayne Clough
announced he would retire in October 2014. The Smithsonian Board of Regents said it has asked regent John McCarter, Jr. to lead a search committee. The search committee will consist of other regents and representatives from Smithsonian museums and centers.[83] On March 10, 2014, the Smithsonian Board of Directors selected Dr. David Skorton, a physician and president of Cornell University
Cornell University
as the 13th Secretary of the Smithsonian. Skorton took the reins of the institution on 1 July 2015.[84] Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution[edit]

Joseph Henry, 1846–1878 Spencer Fullerton Baird, 1878–1887 Samuel Pierpont Langley, 1887–1906 Charles Doolittle Walcott, 1907–1927 Charles Greeley Abbot, 1928–1944 Alexander Wetmore, 1944–1952 Leonard Carmichael, 1953–1964 Sidney Dillon Ripley, 1964–1984 Robert McCormick Adams, Jr., 1984–1994 Ira Michael Heyman, 1994–1999 Lawrence M. Small, 2000–2007 G. Wayne Clough, 2008–2015[84] David J. Skorton, 2015–present

Controversies[edit] Enola Gay
Enola Gay
display[edit] See also: Enola Gay
Enola Gay
exhibition controversy In 1995, controversy arose over the exhibit at the National Air and Space Museum with the display of the Enola Gay, the Superfortress
Superfortress
used by the United States to drop the first atomic bomb used in World War II. The American Legion
American Legion
and Air Force Association
Air Force Association
believed the exhibit put forward only one side of the debate over the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and that it emphasized the effect on victims without discussing its use within the overall context of the war. The Smithsonian changed the exhibit, displaying the aircraft only with associated technical data and without discussion of its historic role in the war. Censorship of "Seasons of Life and Land"[edit] In 2003, a National Museum of Natural History
National Museum of Natural History
exhibit, Subhankar Banerjee's Seasons of Life and Land, featuring photographs of the Arctic
Arctic
National Wildlife Refuge, was censored and moved to the basement by Smithsonian officials because they feared that its subject matter was too politically controversial.[85] In November 2007, The Washington Post
The Washington Post
reported internal criticism has been raised regarding the institution's handling of the exhibit on the Arctic. According to documents and e-mails, the exhibit and its associated presentation were edited at high levels to add "scientific uncertainty" regarding the nature and impact of global warming on the Arctic. Acting Secretary of the Smithsonian Cristián Samper
Cristián Samper
was interviewed by the Post, and claimed the exhibit was edited because it contained conclusions that went beyond what could be proven by contemporary climatology.[86] The Smithsonian is now a participant in the U.S. Global Change Research Program.[87] Copyright restrictions[edit] The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
provides access to its image collections for educational, scholarly, and nonprofit uses. Commercial uses are generally restricted unless permission is obtained. Smithsonian images fall into different copyright categories; some are protected by copyright, many are subject to license agreements or other contractual conditions, and some fall into the public domain, such as those prepared by Smithsonian employees as part of their official duties. The Smithsonian's terms of use for its digital content, including images, are set forth on the Smithsonian Web site.[88][89] In April 2006, the institution entered into an agreement of "first refusal" rights for its vast silent and public domain film archives with Showtime Networks, mainly for use on the Smithsonian Channel, a network created from this deal. Critics contend this agreement effectively gives Showtime control over the film archives, as it requires filmmakers to obtain permission from the network to use extensive amounts of film footage from the Smithsonian archives.[90] The Smithsonian contends independent producers continue to have unchanged access to the institution and its collections as they had prior to the agreement.[citation needed] The process to gain access to film at the Smithsonian remains the same.[citation needed] Since January 2006, independent producers have made more than 500 requests to film in the museums and collections or to use archival footage and photos.[citation needed] See also[edit]

District of Columbia portal

List of aircraft in the Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian Ocean Portal 3773 Smithsonian

References[edit]

^ Barlow, William (1847). The Smithsonian Institution, "for the Increase and Diffusion of Knowledge Among Men": An Address on the Duties of Government, in Reference Chiefly to Public Instruction : with the Outlines of a Plan for the Application of the Smithsonian Fund to that Object. B.R. Barlow.  ^ a b c "About Us". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on March 7, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ "Smithsonian History > National Museum of American History". Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on June 23, 2013. Retrieved June 21, 2013.  ^ Kernan, Michael (November 1997). "A Real Nation's Attic". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution.  ^ Leaf, Jesse (2007-03-13). The Everything Family Guide To Washington D.C.: All the Best Hotels, Restaurants, Sites, and Attractions. Everything Books. ISBN 1-4405-2411-4. :57 ^ Kurin, Richard (2013-10-29). The Smithsonian's History of America in 101 Objects Deluxe. Penguin. ISBN 978-0-698-15520-6.  ^ "Smithsonian Affiliations". Smithsonian Affiliations. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ "Visitor Statistics". Newsdesk: Newsroom of the Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. May 31, 2013. Archived from the original on February 8, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2014.  ^ "Budget / Federal Appropriations". Smithsonian Dashboard. Smithsonian Institution. 2015. Archived from the original on February 17, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ Goode, George Brown (1897). The Smithsonian Institution, 1846–1896, The History of Its First Half Century. Washington, D.C.: De Vinne Press. p. 25. [permanent dead link] ^ " James Smithson
James Smithson
– Founder of the Smithsonian, Last Will and Testament". Smithsonian Scrapbook: Letters, Diaries and Photographs from the Smithsonian Archives. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on August 24, 2011. Retrieved October 4, 2012.  ^ a b c "Founding of the Smithsonian Institution". Fact Sheets, Smithsonian Newsdesk. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on September 1, 2012. Retrieved October 4, 2012.  ^ Heather Ewing, The Lost World of James Smithson: Science, Revolution, and the Birth of the Smithsonian, pp. 323–24, 330, 409. Ewing notes that it would be the equivalent of over $10 million today, using one index, but using a per-capita share of GDP, it would be the equivalent of over $220 million. It was close to the total of Harvard University's endowment at that point, which had accumulated for nearly 200 years by the 1830s and was not the result of a single gift, as Smithson's was. ^ a b Ottesen, Carole (2011). A Guide to Smithsonian Gardens. Smithsonian Books. p. 13. ISBN 978-1-58834-300-0.  ^ "Smithsonian Information Brochure", Smithsonian Visitor Information and Associates' Reception Center, May 2009 ^ Nagel, Paul (1999). " John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams: A Public Life, a Private Life". Harvard University
Harvard University
Press. p. 348. ^ 9 Stat. 102 ^ Orosz, Joel J. (2002-06-28). Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740-1870. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-8173-1204-6. :155 ^ Orosz, Joel J. (2002-06-28). Curators and Culture: The Museum Movement in America, 1740-1870. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 978-0-8173-1204-6. :157 ^ a b Benson, Keith Rodney; Rehbock, Philip F. (2002). Oceanographic History: The Pacific and Beyond. University of Washington Press. ISBN 978-0-295-98239-7. :532 ^ Adler, Antony (2011-05-01). "From the Pacific to the Patent Office: The US Exploring Expedition and the origins of America's first national museum". Journal of the History of Collections. 23 (1): 49–74. doi:10.1093/jhc/fhq002. ISSN 0954-6650.  ^ Baird, S. F.; Emory, W. H. Report on the United States and Mexican boundary survey. Рипол Классик. ISBN 978-5-88160-802-6. :13 ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Smithsonian Institution". Encyclopædia Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  ^ Merrill, Marlene Deahl (1999). Yellowstone and the Great West: Journals, Letters, and Images from the 1871 Hayden Expedition. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. p. 220. ISBN 0803231482. Archived from the original on July 16, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ Pastrana, Sergio Jorge. "Building a Lasting Cuba-U.S. Bridge through Science". Science & Diplomacy. Science & Diplomacy. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015.  ^ Morton, W. Brown III (February 8, 1971). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination: Smithsonian Institution Building" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved May 11, 2009.  ^ Norton, W. Brown III (April 6, 1971). "National Register of Historic Places Inventory Nomination: Arts and Industries Building
Arts and Industries Building
of the Smithsonian Institution" (PDF). National Park Service. Retrieved 2009-05-11.  ^ a b "National Zoological Park". Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Archives. Archived from the original on November 11, 2014.  ^ "Museum History". National Museum of Natural History. 2008. Archived from the original on July 26, 2009. Retrieved November 15, 2009.  ^ "New Museum Plans." Washington Post. April 13, 1903. ^ Gunter, Ann Clyburn (2002). A Collector's Journey: Charles Lang Freer and Egypt. Freer Gallery
Freer Gallery
of Art, Smithsonian Institution, Arthur M. Sackler Gallery. ISBN 978-1-85759-297-9. :96 ^ Fortier, Alison (2014-05-06). A History Lover's Guide to Washington, D.C.: Designed for Democracy. The History Press. ISBN 978-1-62585-064-5. :110 ^ Moeller, Gerard Martin; Feldblyum, Boris (2012). AIA Guide to the Architecture of Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 78. ISBN 9781421402697.  ^ Bass, Holly (March–April 2006). "Camille Akeju: New Director Seeks to Rejuvenate Anacostia
Anacostia
Museum". Crisis: 37–39. Archived from the original on January 8, 2014. Retrieved April 22, 2012.  ^ " Anacostia
Anacostia
Community Museum". Smithsonian Museums. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Archived from the original on April 18, 2012. Retrieved April 22, 2012.  ^ Oehser, Paul H. (1970). The Smithsonian Institution. New York: Praeger Publishers. p. 10. ISBN 8989456584. Archived from the original on January 3, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2012.  ^ Knox, Sanka (October 10, 1967). "Smithsonian Takes Over Cooper Union Museum". The new York Times. p. 41.  ^ Richard, Paul. "A National Family Album." Washington Post. October 6, 1968; Martin, Judith. "'Semi, Demi-Heroes' Open New Gallery." Washington Post. October 7, 1968. ^ Yardley, William. " Renwick Gallery
Renwick Gallery
of the Smithsonian American Art Museum". Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 12, 2011. Retrieved July 18, 2013.  ^ Raynor, Vivian (July 14, 1974). "A Preview of the New Hirshhorn Museum". The New York Times. Archived from the original on July 15, 2017. Retrieved December 13, 2016.  ^ Mianecki, Julie (June 29, 2011). "The List: Six Things You Didn't Know About the Air and Space Museum on its 35th Anniversary". Smithsonian.com. Retrieved December 13, 2016.  ^ "National Museum of African Art". Smithsonian History. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2012.  ^ "Quadrangle Complex Opens". Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Archives, Record Unit 371, Box 5, "The Torch", January 1987, p. 1. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Archived from the original on January 4, 2013. Retrieved May 16, 2012.  ^ "Arthur M. Sackler Gallery". Smithsonian History. Smithsonian Institution Archives. Archived from the original on May 28, 2012. Retrieved May 10, 2012.  ^ McAllister, Bill (July 2, 1993). "The Museum On the Mail". The Washington Post. p. N58.  ^ Rothstein, Edward (September 21, 2004). "Museum With an American Indian Voice". The New York Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2016.  ^ Cotter, Holland (September 15, 2016). "Review: The Smithsonian African American Museum Is Here at Last. And It Uplifts and Upsets". The New York Times. Archived from the original on December 16, 2016. Retrieved December 13, 2016.  ^ Kelly, Kathleen S. (2012-12-06). Effective Fund-Raising Management. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-69399-2. :79 ^ a b c d e McGlone, Peggy (October 20, 2014). "Smithsonian Announces $1.5 Billion Fundraising Effort". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on October 21, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2014.  ^ "Progress". smithsoniancampaign.org. Archived from the original on February 10, 2018.  ^ McGlone, Peggy (July 6, 2017). "Saving America's treasures: The Smithsonian used Kickstarter
Kickstarter
to raise money for Neil Armstrong's spacesuit and Dorothy's ruby slippers. Was it worth it?". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on November 7, 2017. Retrieved January 20, 2018.  ^ Bowley, Graham (October 19, 2016). "Smithsonian Seeks $300,000 to Save Dorothy's Ruby Slippers". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Archived from the original on December 26, 2016. Retrieved October 14, 2017.  ^ a b c Facts about the Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Archived November 1, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.. newsdesk.si.edu (Pressroom of the Smithsonian Institution). Retrieved February 19, 2011 ^ Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Traveling Exhibition Service (SITES) Archived November 10, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Smithsonian considers London
London
outpost in Olympic Park". BBC News. Archived from the original on January 28, 2015.  ^ "Smithsonian Collections". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on December 4, 2015.  ^ "Smithsonian". Smithsonian. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on June 14, 2017.  ^ "The First Ladies at the Smithsonian: The Tradition of the Gowns (page 1 of 3)". The National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on March 8, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ "The First Ladies at the Smithsonian: The First Ladies: Introduction". The National Museum of American History. Smithsonian Institution. Archived from the original on March 1, 2017. Retrieved March 8, 2017.  ^ Clay, Marianne (2002). "The History of the Teddy Bear". Teddy Bear & Friends. Madavor Media, LLC. Archived from the original on 2011-07-23. Retrieved 2007-12-10.  ^ "Smithsonian Sets Phasers To Restore On Original Starship Enterprise". Morning Edition. NPR: National Public Radio. June 28, 2016. Archived from the original on July 1, 2016. Retrieved July 1, 2016.  ^ Roby, Marguerite. " Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
Archives". Siarchives.si.edu. Archived from the original on May 14, 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2012.  ^ "Smithsonian Latino Center". Latino.si.edu. March 16, 2009. Archived from the original on May 5, 2012. Retrieved May 16, 2012.  ^ "Smithsonian - Provenance in the World War II
World War II
Era, 1933 - 1945". provenance.si.edu. Archived from the original on August 25, 2017. Retrieved August 25, 2017.  ^ "Smithsonian Science Education Center". ssec.si.edu. July 19, 2015. Archived from the original on July 21, 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.  ^ "Smithsonian reveals its hidden treasures". The Washington Times. August 16, 2007. Archived from the original on October 2, 2009. Retrieved September 14, 2009.  ^ a b "About the Center". latino.si.edu. Archived from the original on June 2, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ a b c Lara, Isabel (June 26, 2007). "Smithsonian Latino Center's Young Ambassadors Arrive for Week of Cultural Programs in Washington, D.C." (PDF). Smithsonian Institution. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "Smithsonian Latino Center Staff". latino.si.edu. Archived from the original on June 11, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ a b c "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on February 16, 2017. Retrieved September 12, 2017.  ^ "Smithsonian Latino Virtual Museum". latino.si.edu. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "Young Ambassadors Program". latino.si.edu. Archived from the original on May 10, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ "Con Sabor!". Washington Life Magazine "Substance and Style" Issue. 2006. Archived from the original on June 16, 2016. Retrieved May 18, 2016.  ^ Winfrey, Carey (October 2005), Noxious Bogs & Amorous Elephants: Smithsonian's birth, 35 years ago, only hinted at the splendors to follow, Smithsonian, archived from the original on 2013-02-02  ^ D, Walker, Paul (2010-09-23). Truman's Dilemma: Invasion Or the Bomb. Pelican Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4556-1335-9. :269 ^ Boyne, Walter (2011-03-04). How the Helicopter Changed Modern Warfare. Pelican Publishing Company, Inc. ISBN 978-1-4556-1568-1. :353 ^ "Awards and Medals". Smithsonian. Archived from the original on June 17, 2017. Retrieved June 19, 2017.  ^ a b Stam, David H. (2001). International Dictionary of Library Histories, Volume 1 & 2. London: Routledge. p. 702. ISBN 978-1-136-77785-1. Archived from the original on April 16, 2017. Retrieved September 4, 2016.  ^ "$200 BILLION IN ILLUSTRATIVE SAVINGS" (PDF). FiscalCommission.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 19, 2010. Retrieved July 1, 2013.  ^ "Smithsonian Responds to Deficit Commission's Recommendation on Admission Fees Newsdesk". Newsdesk.si.edu. November 12, 2010. Archived from the original on November 16, 2010. Retrieved November 18, 2010.  ^ "Smithsonian Board of Regents (in the "Newsdesk" section of the SI web site)". June 7, 2015. Archived from the original on June 12, 2012.  ^ Smithsonian Press Kit Archived April 7, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Cooper, Rebecca. "Smithsonian Chief Will Retire in 2014." Washington Business Journal. September 18, 2013. Archived September 20, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed September 18, 2013. ^ a b Parker, Lonnae O'Neal Parker and Boyle, Katherine. "Smithsonian Institution Names Cornell President As Its 13th Secretary." Washington Post. March 10, 2014. Archived December 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed March 10, 2014. ^ Trescott, Jacqueline (May 21, 2003). "Smithsonian's Arctic
Arctic
Refuge Exhibit Draws Senate Scrutiny". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2010.  ^ Grimaldi, James V.; Trescott, Jacqueline (November 16, 2007). " Scientists
Scientists
Fault Climate Exhibit Changes". Washington Post. p. 4. Archived from the original on April 29, 2011. Retrieved November 18, 2007.  ^ "Integrating federal research and solutions for climate and global change". Participating Departments and Agencies. U.S. Global Change Research Program. Archived from the original on March 10, 2010. Retrieved March 30, 2010.  ^ "Terms of use of this website". Si.edu. Archived from the original on July 16, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2014.  ^ "Smithsonian Images-Copyright". Smithsonianimages.si.edu. January 13, 2012. Archived from the original on October 2, 2011. Retrieved July 26, 2014.  ^ Wyatt, Edward (April 1, 2006). "Smithsonian Agreement Angers Filmmakers". New York Times,. Archived from the original on May 1, 2011. Retrieved May 23, 2010. 

Further reading[edit]

Nina Burleigh, Stranger and the Statesman: James Smithson, John Quincy Adams, and the Making of America's Greatest Museum, The Smithsonian. New York: HarperCollins, 2003. Heather Ewing, The Lost World of James Smithson: Science, Revolution, and the Birth of the Smithsonian. Bloomsbury, 2007. United States. Congress. House of Representatives. Collections Stewardship at the Smithsonian: Hearing before the Committee on House Administration, House of Representatives, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, First Session. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 2013. William S. Walker, A Living Exhibition: The Smithsonian and the Transformation of the Universal Museum. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Press, 2013.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Smithsonian Institution.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Smithsonian Institution

Official website A brief history of the U.S. National Museum/National Museum of Natural History

v t e

Smithsonian Institution

Museums

African American History and Culture African Art Air and Space

Udvar–Hazy

American Art American History

Numismatic Collection

American Indian

Heye Center

Anacostia Arts and Industries Castle Cooper–Hewitt Design Freer Gallery
Freer Gallery
of Art Hirshhorn Natural History

Barcode of Life Global Volcanism

Portrait Gallery Postal Renwick Gallery Arthur M. Sackler Gallery

Zoo

National Zoological Park Uncle Beazley

Research

Archives of American Art American Gardens Caribbean Coral Reef Ecosystems Program Conservation and restoration Archives Astrophysics Conservation Biology Environmental Research Libraries Marine Station Museum Conservation Institute

Migratory Bird

Tropical Research

Cultural

Asian Pacific Latino Folklife and Cultural Heritage

Folklife Festival Folkways

Smithsonian Jazz Masterworks Orchestra Smithsonian Global Sound

Media

Air & Space Smithsonian magazine Smithsonian Channel

Other

Affiliations James Smithson Ripley Center Science Education Traveling Exhibition Service Wilson Center (The Wilson Quarterly) Smithsonian Police

v t e

Secretaries of the Smithsonian Institution

Joseph Henry
Joseph Henry
(1846) Spencer Fullerton Baird
Spencer Fullerton Baird
(1878) Samuel Pierpont Langley
Samuel Pierpont Langley
(1887) Charles Doolittle Walcott
Charles Doolittle Walcott
(1907) Charles Greeley Abbot
Charles Greeley Abbot
(1928) Alexander Wetmore
Alexander Wetmore
(1944) Leonard Carmichael
Leonard Carmichael
(1953) Sidney Dillon Ripley
Sidney Dillon Ripley
(1964) Robert McCormick Adams, Jr.
Robert McCormick Adams, Jr.
(1984) Ira Michael Heyman
Ira Michael Heyman
(1994) Lawrence M. Small (2000) Cristián Samper
Cristián Samper
(2007, acting) G. Wayne Clough
G. Wayne Clough
(2008) David J. Skorton
David J. Skorton
(2015)

v t e

Landmarks of Washington, D.C.

Memorials

Adams African American Civil War American Veterans Disabled for Life Belmont-Paul Women's Equality National Monument Mary McLeod Bethune Boy Scout James Buchanan D.C. War Albert Einstein Emancipation John Ericsson First Division James A. Garfield Samuel Gompers Ulysses S. Grant Holocaust Museum Holodomor Genocide Japanese American Patriotism During World War II Jefferson Memorial Lyndon Baines Johnson Grove John Paul Jones Marquis de Lafayette Law Enforcement Officers Lincoln Memorial Martin Luther King, Jr. Korean War Veterans George Mason George Meade National Statuary Hall Collection Navy – Merchant Marine Nuns of the Battlefield Peace Monument Pentagon Second Division Signers of the Declaration of Independence The Extra Mile The Three Soldiers Jean de Rochambeau Franklin Delano Roosevelt Theodore Roosevelt Island Taras Shevchenko Statues of the Liberators Oscar Straus Robert A. Taft Titanic United States Air Force United States Navy Victims of Communism Vietnam Veterans Vietnam Women's Washington Monument Daniel Webster World War II

Rainbow Pool

Other

Capitol Reflecting Pool Immaculate Conception Basilica Ford's Theatre

Petersen House

Healy Hall Islamic Center Jefferson Pier John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts Library of Congress National Arboretum National Building Museum National Gallery of Art Lincoln's Cottage at Soldiers' Home Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial
Reflecting Pool National Archives Newseum National Cathedral National Mall Old Post Office Pavilion Old Stone House Smithsonian Institution The Arts of War and The Arts of Peace Tidal Basin Treasury Building Tudor Place Union Station United States Capitol United States Supreme Court Building White House Willard Hotel

Parks and plazas

Constitution Gardens Dupont Circle East Potomac Park Freedom Plaza Lafayette Square L'Enfant Plaza Meridian Hill Park National Arboretum Pershing Park Rock Creek Park The Ellipse United States Botanic Garden West Potomac Park

Boundaries

Anacostia
Anacostia
River Arlington Memorial Bridge Boundary Markers of the Original District of Columbia Chesapeake and Ohio Canal Constitution Avenue Francis Scott Key Bridge Pennsylvania Avenue Potomac River Zero Milestone

Planned

Adams Memorial Dwight D. Eisenhower Memorial General Francis Marion
Francis Marion
Memorial Gold Star Mothers Monument National Desert Storm and Desert Shield War Memorial National Liberty Memorial Peace Corps Monument World War I

Related

National Capital Memorial Advisory Commission National Mall
National Mall
and Memorial Parks List of National Historic Landmarks in Washington, D.C. National Register of Historic Places in Washington, D.C.

Public art in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
(Outdoor sculpture, American Revolution Statuary, Civil War Monuments, commemorating African-Americans)

v t e

John Quincy
John Quincy
Adams

United States House of Representatives, 1831–1848 6th President of the United States, 1825–1829 8th U.S. Secretary of State, 1817–1825 U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, 1814–1817 1st U.S. Minister to Russia, 1809–1814 Massachusetts
Massachusetts
State Senate, 1803–1808 U.S. Minister to Prussia, 1797–1801 U.S. Ambassador to the Netherlands, 1794–1797

Presidency

Inauguration American System Internal improvements Tariff of 1828 First Treaty of Prairie du Chien Treaty of Fond du Lac Treaty of Limits United States Naval Observatory Abdulrahman Ibrahim Ibn Sori State of the Union Address, 1825 1827 1828 Federal judiciary appointments

Other events

Monroe Doctrine, author Treaty of Ghent Adams–Onís Treaty Treaty of 1818 Smithsonian Institution United States v. The Amistad

Mendi Bible

President, American Academy of Arts and Sciences President, Columbian Institute for the Promotion of Arts and Sciences

Writings

Lifelong diary Massachusetts
Massachusetts
Historical Society holdings

Adams Papers Editorial Project

Life and homes

Early life Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
Cairn John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
and abolitionism Adams National Historical Park

Birthplace and family home Peacefield Presidential Library

United First Parish Church and gravesite

Elections

United States presidential election, 1824

Corrupt Bargain

United States presidential election, 1828

Legacy

Adams Memorial Adams House at Harvard University U.S. Postage stamps Monroe Doctrine
Monroe Doctrine
Centennial half dollar

Popular culture

Profiles in Courage
Profiles in Courage
(1957 book 1965 television series) The Adams Chronicles (1976 miniseries) Mutiny on the Amistad
Mutiny on the Amistad
(1987 book) Amistad (1997 film) John Adams
John Adams
(2001 book 2008 miniseries)

Adams family Quincy family

Louisa Adams
Louisa Adams
(wife) George W. Adams (son) Charles Adams Sr. (son) John Adams II
John Adams II
(son) Henry Adams
Henry Adams
(grandson) Brooks Adams
Brooks Adams
(grandson) John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
II (grandson) John Adams

father presidency

Abigail Adams

mother First Lady Quincy family

Abigail Adams
Abigail Adams
Smith (sister) Charles Adams (brother) Thomas Boylston Adams (brother) John Adams
John Adams
Sr. (paternal grandfather) Susanna Boylston (paternal grandmother) Elihu Adams (paternal uncle) John Quincy
John Quincy
(great-grandfather)

Related

National Republican Party Republicanism Quincy Patriot

← James Monroe Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson

Category

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 151449627 ISNI: 0000 0001 2185 5671 GND: 38076-3 SUDOC: 026421577 BNF: cb118671884 (data) NLA: 35508508 NKC: ko2004230768 BNE: XX145

.