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SMARTA tradition is a movement in Hinduism that developed and expanded with the Puranas genre of literature.

This Puranic religion is notable for the domestic worship of five shrines with five deities, all treated as equals: Shiva
Shiva
(the destroyer), Shakti (the mother goddess), Ganesha
Ganesha
(the lord of obstacles), Vishnu (the preserver) and Surya (the god of the sun).

The Smarta tradition contrasted with the older Shrauta tradition, which was based on elaborate rituals and rites. There has been considerable overlap in the ideas and practices of the Smarta tradition with other significant historic movements within Hinduism, namely Shaivism , Vaishnavism , and Shaktism .

The Smarta tradition developed during (early) Classical Period of Hinduism around the beginning of the Common Era, when Hinduism emerged from the interaction between Brahmanism and local traditions. The Smarta tradition is aligned with Advaita Vedanta , and regards Adi Shankara as its founder or reformer. Shankara championed the ultimate reality is impersonal and Nirguna (attributeless) and any symbolic god serves the same equivalent purpose. Inspired by this belief, the Smarta tradition followers, along with the five Hindu
Hindu
gods include a sixth impersonal god in their practice. The tradition has been called by William Jackson as "advaitin, monistic in its outlook".

The term also refers to Brahmins who specialize in the Smriti corpus of texts named the Grihya Sutras, in contrast to Shrauta Sutras. Smarta Brahmins with their focus on the Smriti corpus, contrast from Srauta Brahmins who specialize in the Sruti corpus, that is rituals and ceremonies that follow the Vedas .

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 The Synthesis * 2.2 Recognition of Smarta as a tradition * 2.3 Smarta Brahmins

* 3 Philosophy and practices

* 3.1 Saguna and Nirguna Brahman * 3.2 Panchayatana Puja * 3.3 Shankara and Advaita Vedanta

* 4 Texts

* 5 Institutions

* 5.1 Monasteries * 5.2 Prominent Smarta teachers

* 6 Influence * 7 See also * 8 Notes

* 9 References

* 9.1 Bibliography * 9.2 Web sources

* 10 External links

* 10.1 Advaita Vedanta * 10.2 Puranas

ETYMOLOGY

Smarta is an adjective derived from Smriti ( Sanskrit
Sanskrit
: स्मृति, Smṛti, IPA : ? ). The smriti are a specific body of Hindu
Hindu
texts usually attributed to an author, traditionally written down but constantly revised, in contrast to Śrutis (the Vedic literature) considered authorless, that were transmitted verbally across the generations and fixed.

Smarta has several meanings:

* Relating to memory * Recorded in or based on the Smriti * Based on tradition, prescribed or sanctioned by traditional law * Orthodox Brahmin
Brahmin
versed in or guided by traditional law and Vedanta doctrine

In Smarta tradition context, the term Smarta means "follower of Smriti". Smarta is specially associated with a "sect founded by Shankaracharya ", states Monier Williams.

HISTORY

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HINDUISM

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Hindu
* History

Concepts GOD / HIGHEST REALITY

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Samsara

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Svādhyāya
* Shaucha * Mitahara * Dāna

LIBERATION

* Bhakti yoga * Jnana yoga * Karma yoga

Schools SIX ASTIKA SCHOOLS

* Samkhya * Yoga
Yoga
* Nyaya * Vaisheshika * Mimamsa

* Vedanta

* Advaita * Dvaita * Vishishtadvaita

OTHER SCHOOLS

* Pasupata * Saiva * Pratyabhijña * Raseśvara * Pāṇini
Pāṇini
Darśana * Charvaka

Deities TRIMURTI

* Brahma
Brahma
* Vishnu * Shiva
Shiva

------------------------- OTHER MAJOR DEVIS / DEVAS

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Agni
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Saraswati
* Ushas * Varuna * Vayu

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Durga
* Ganesha
Ganesha
* Hanuman
Hanuman
* Kali * Kartikeya * Krishna
Krishna
* Lakshmi
Lakshmi
* Parvati * Radha
Radha
* Rama
Rama
* Shakti * Sita

Texts SCRIPTURES VEDAS

* Rigveda * Yajurveda * Samaveda * Atharvaveda

DIVISIONS

* Samhita * Brahmana * Aranyaka * Upanishad
Upanishad

UPANISHADS

* Rigveda: * Aitareya * Kaushitaki

* Yajurveda: * Brihadaranyaka * Isha * Taittiriya * Katha * Shvetashvatara * Maitri

* Samaveda: * Chandogya * Kena

* Atharvaveda: * Mundaka * Mandukya * Prashna

OTHER SCRIPTURES

* Bhagavad Gita * Agama (Hinduism)

OTHER TEXTS VEDANGAS

* Shiksha * Chandas * Vyakarana
Vyakarana
* Nirukta * Kalpa * Jyotisha

PURANAS

* Vishnu Purana
Purana
* BHAGAVATA PURANA * Nāradeya Purana
Purana
* Vāmana Purana
Purana
* Matsya Purana
Purana
* Garuda Purana
Purana
* Brahma
Brahma
Purana
Purana
* Brahmānda Purana
Purana
* Brahma
Brahma
Vaivarta Purana
Purana
* Bhavishya Purana
Purana
* Padma Purana
Purana
* Agni
Agni
Purana
Purana
* Shiva
Shiva
Purana
Purana
* Linga Purana
Purana
* Kūrma Purana
Purana
* Skanda Purana
Purana
* Varaha Purana
Purana
* Mārkandeya Purana
Purana

ITIHASAS

* Ramayana
Ramayana
* Mahabharata

UPAVEDAS

* Ayurveda * Dhanurveda * Gandharvaveda * Sthapatyaveda

SHASTRAS AND SUTRAS

* Dharma Shastra * Artha Śastra * Kamasutra * Brahma
Brahma
Sutras * Samkhya Sutras * Mimamsa Sutras * Nyāya Sūtras * Vaiśeṣika Sūtra * Yoga
Yoga
Sutras * Pramana Sutras * Charaka Samhita * Sushruta Samhita * Natya Shastra * Panchatantra
Panchatantra
* Divya Prabandha * Tirumurai * Ramcharitmanas * Yoga Vasistha * Swara yoga * Shiva
Shiva
Samhita * Gheranda Samhita
Gheranda Samhita
* Panchadasi * Stotra * Sutras

TEXT CLASSIFICATION

* Śruti Smriti

* TIMELINE OF HINDU TEXTS

Practices WORSHIP

* Puja * Temple * Murti * Bhakti * Japa * Bhajana * Yajna * Homa * Vrata * Prāyaścitta * Tirtha * Tirthadana * Matha * Nritta-Nritya

MEDITATION AND CHARITY

* Tapa * Dhyana * Dāna

YOGA

* Asana * Hatha yoga * Jnana yoga * Bhakti yoga * Karma yoga * Raja yoga

RITES OF PASSAGE

* Garbhadhana * Pumsavana * Simantonayana
Simantonayana
* Jatakarma * Namakarana * Nishkramana * Annaprashana * Chudakarana * Karnavedha * Vidyarambha * Upanayana * Keshanta
Keshanta
* Ritushuddhi * Samavartana * Vivaha * Antyeshti

ASHRAMA DHARMA

* Ashrama : Brahmacharya * Grihastha * Vanaprastha * Sannyasa

FESTIVALS

* Diwali * Holi
Holi
* Shivaratri

* Navaratri

* Durga
Durga
Puja * Ramlila * Vijayadashami-Dussehra

* Raksha Bandhan * Ganesh Chaturthi * Vasant Panchami * Rama
Rama
Navami * Janmashtami * Onam
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* Makar Sankranti
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* Kumbha Mela * Pongal * Ugadi

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Gurus, saints, philosophers ANCIENT

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MEDIEVAL

* Nayanars * Alvars * Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
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This section's FACTUAL ACCURACY IS DISPUTED . Relevant discussion may be found on Talk: Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
. Please help to ensure that disputed statements are reliably sourced . (February 2016) (Learn how and when to remove this template message )

See also Late Middle Kingdoms - The Late-Classical Age and Classical Hinduism (c. 200 BC - AD 1100)

The Vedanga texts, states Alf Hiltebeitel , are Smriti texts that were composed in the second half of the Vedic period that ended around 500 BCE. The Vedanga texts include the Kalpa (Vedanga)
Kalpa (Vedanga)
texts consisting of the Srautasutras, Grihyasutras and Dharmasutras, many of which were revised well past the Vedic period. The Grihyasutras and Dharmasutras, states Hiltebeitel, were composed between 600 BCE and 400 CE, and these are sometimes called the Smartasutras, the roots of the Smriti tradition. The Smriti texts accept the knowledge in the Sruti (Vedas), but they interpret it in a number of ways, which gave rise to six darsanas (orthodox schools) of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy . Of these, states Hiltebeitel, the Mimamsa and Vedanta have sometimes been called the Smarta schools which emphasize the Vedas with reason and other pramanas , in contrast to Haituka schools which emphasize hetu (cause, reason) independent of the Vedas while accepting the authority of the Vedas. Of the two Smarta traditions, Mimamsa focussed on Vedic ritual traditions, while Vedanta focussed on Upanishadic knowledge tradition.

Around the start of the common era, and thereafter, a syncretism of Haituka schools (Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya and Yoga), the Smarta schools (Mimamsa, Vedanta) with ancient theistic ideas (bhakti, tantric) gave rise to a growth in traditions such as Shaivism , Vaishnavism and Shaktism . Hiltebeitel and Flood locate the origins of a revived orthodox Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
in the (early) Classical Period of Hinduism, particularly with nondualist (Advaita) interpretation of Vedanta, around the time when different Hindu
Hindu
traditions emerged from the interaction between Brahmanism and local traditions.

THE SYNTHESIS

The revived Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
attempted to integrate varied and conflicting devotional practices, with its ideas of nondual experience of Atman (self, soul) as Brahman . The rapprochement included the practice of pancayatana-puja (five shrine worship), wherein a Hindu could focus on any saguna deity of choice (istadevata) such as Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, Surya or Ganesha, as an interim step towards realizing the nirguna Brahman. The growth of this Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
began in the Gupta period (4th-5th century CE), and likely was dominated by Dvija classes, in particular the Brahmins , of the early medieval Indian society. This Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
competed with other major traditions of Hinduism such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, and Shaktism. The ideas of Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
were historically influential, creative with concepts such as of Harihara (half Shiva, half Vishnu deity) and Ardhanarishvara (half woman, half man deity), and many of the major scholars of Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism and Bhakti movement came out of the Smarta Tradition.

RECOGNITION OF SMARTA AS A TRADITION

Medieval era scholars such as Vedanta Desika and Vallabhacharya recognized Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
as competing with Vaishnavism and other traditions. According to Jeffrey Timm, for example, in verse 10 of the Tattvarthadipanibandha, Vallabhacharya states that, "Mutually contradictory conclusions are non-contradictory when they are considered from their respective contexts, like Vaishnava, Smarta, etc."

SMARTA BRAHMINS

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The adjective Smārta is also used to classify a Brahmin
Brahmin
who adheres to the Smriti corpus of texts.

Smarta Brahmins specialize in the Smriti corpus of texts, are differentiated from Srauta Brahmins who specialize in the Sruti corpus of texts such as the Brahmanas layer embedded inside the Vedas . Smarta Brahmins are also differentiated from Brahmins who specialize in the Agamic (non-Vedic, Tantra ) literature such as the Adi Shaiva Brahmins, Sri Vaishnava Brahmins and Shaiva Kashmiri Pandits . However, these identities are not clearly defined, and active groups such as "Agamic Smarta Saiva Brahmins" have thrived.They are also called as Sthaneeka brahmins or Sthanika tulu brahmins.

PHILOSOPHY AND PRACTICES

SAGUNA AND NIRGUNA BRAHMAN

According to Smartism, supreme reality, Brahman, transcends all of the various forms of personal deity. The Smartas follow an orthodox Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, which means they accept the Vedas, and the ontological concepts of Atman and Brahman therein.

The Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
accepts two concepts of Brahman, which are the saguna Brahman – the Brahman with attributes, and nirguna Brahman – the Brahman without attributes. The nirguna Brahman is the unchanging Reality, however, the saguna Brahman is posited as a means to realizing this nirguna Brahman. The concept of the saguna Brahman is considered in this tradition to be a useful symbolism and means for those who are still on their spiritual journey, but the saguna concept is abandoned by the fully enlightened once he or she realizes the identity of their own soul with that of the nirguna Brahman. A Smarta may choose any saguna deity (istadevata) such as Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, Surya, Ganesha
Ganesha
or any other, and this is viewed in Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
as an interim step towards realizing the nirguna Brahman and its equivalence to one's own Atman.

PANCHAYATANA PUJA

The Smartas evolved a kind of worship which is known as Panchayatana puja . In this Puja, one or more of the five Hindu
Hindu
Deities ( Surya , Shiva
Shiva
, Vishnu , Ganesha
Ganesha
and Devi or Shakti) are the objects of veneration. The five symbols of the major Gods are placed on a round open metal dish called Panchayatana, the symbol of the deity preferred by the worshiper being in the center. A similar arrangement is also seen in the medieval temples, in which the central shrine housing the principal Deity is surrounded by four smaller shrines containing the figures of the other deities. Some of the Smartas of South India add a sixth god Kartikeya (See Shanmata ). According to Basham , "any upper-class Hindus still prefer the way of the Smartas to Saiva and Vaisnava forms of worship".

SHANKARA AND ADVAITA VEDANTA

Main articles: Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
and Advaita Vedanta

Traditionally, Sri Adi Shankaracharya (8th century) is regarded as the greatest teacher and reformer of the Smarta.

According to Hiltebeitel, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Acharya established the nondualist interpretation of the Upanishads as the touchstone of a revived smarta tradition:

Practically, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Acharya fostered a rapprochement between Advaita and smarta orthodoxy, which by his time had not only continued to defend the varnasramadharma theory as defining the path of karman, but had developed the practice of pancayatanapuja ("five-shrine worship") as a solution to varied and conflicting devotional practices. Thus one could worship any one of five deities (Vishnu, Siva, Durga, Surya, Ganesa) as one's istadevata ("deity of choice").

TEXTS

See also: Shastras

Smartas follow the Hindu
Hindu
scriptures . Like all traditions within Hinduism, they accept as an epistemic premise that Śruti (Vedic literature) is a reliable source of knowledge. The Śruti includes the four Vedas including its four layers of embedded texts - the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the early Upanishads. Of these, the Upanishads are the most referred to texts.

The identity of Atman and Brahman, and their unchanging, eternal nature, are the basic truths in this tradition. The emphasis in Vedic texts here is the jnana-kanda (knowledge, philosophical speculations) in the Upanishadic part of the Vedas, not its karma-kanda (ritual injunctions). Along with the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita and Brahma Sutras are the central texts of the Advaita Vedanta tradition, providing the truths about the identity of Atman and Brahman and their changeless nature.

The Brahmasutra is considered as the Nyaya Prasthana (canonical base for reasoning). The Bhagavad Gita is considered as the Smriti Prasthana. The text relies on other Smritis, such as the Vedangas , Itihasa , Dharmasastras , Puranas and others. Some of this smriti literature incorporated shramanic and Buddhist influences of the period from about 200 BC to about AD 300 and the emerging bhakti tradition into the Brahmanical fold.

INSTITUTIONS

The Vidyashankara temple at Sringeri Sharada Peetham, Sringeri , Karnataka
Karnataka
, a historic center of the Smarta Tradition.

The Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
includes temples and monasteries. More Smarta temples are found in West and South India, than in North India.

MONASTERIES

Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
is one of the leading scholars of the Smarta Tradition, and he founded some of the most famous monasteries in Hinduism. These have hosted the Daśanāmi Sampradāya under four Maṭhas, with the headquarters at Dwarka
Dwarka
in the West, Jagannatha Puri in the East, Sringeri in the South and Badrinath in the North. Each math was headed by one of his disciples, called Shankaracharya, who each independently continued the Advaita Vedanta Sampradaya. The ten Shankara-linked Advaita monastic orders are distributed as follows: Bharati, Puri and Saraswati
Saraswati
at Sringeri, Aranya and Vana at Puri, Tirtha and Ashrama at Dwarka, and Giri, Parvata and Sagara at Badrinath.

The mathas which Shankara built exist until today, and continue the teachings and influence of Shankara.

The table below gives an overview of the four largest Advaita Mathas founded by Adi Shankara, and their details. However, evidence suggests that Shankara established more mathas locally for Vedanta studies and its propagation, states Hartmut Scharfe, such as the "four mathas in the city of Trichur alone, that were headed by Trotaka, Sureshvara, Hastamalaka and Padmapada".

The Sringeri Sharada monastery founded by Jagatguru Sri Adi Shankaracharya in Karnataka
Karnataka
is the centre of the Smarta sect.

Shishya (lineage) DIRECTION MAṭHA STATE MAHāVāKYA VEDA SAMPRADAYA

Padmapāda EAST Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ Odisha Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman) Rig Veda Bhogavala

Sureśvara SOUTH Sringeri Śārada Pīṭhaṃ Karnataka
Karnataka
Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman) Yajur Veda Bhūrivala

Hastāmalakācārya WEST Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ Gujarat
Gujarat
Tattvamasi (That thou art) Sama Veda Kitavala

Toṭakācārya NORTH Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ Uttarakhand Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman) Atharva Veda Nandavala

Other Advaita Vedanta mathas following Smarta Tradition
Smarta Tradition
include:

* Svarnavalli Matha at Swarnavalli near Sodhe
Sodhe
, Sirsi, Karnataka
Karnataka
* Ramachandrapura Math at Haniya, Hosanagara , Karnataka * Kanchi matha , at Kanchipuram , Tamil Nadu * Chitrapur Math , Shirali , Karnataka
Karnataka
() * Shri Gaudapadacharya Math , Kavale , Ponda , Goa * Sri Samsthan Dabholi Math , Dabholi , Goa

PROMINENT SMARTA TEACHERS

Some of the prominent Smarta teachers:

* Gaudapada * Govinda Bhagavatpada * Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
* Sureshwaracharya * Padmapadacharya * Hastamalakacharya * Totakacharya * Vachaspati Mishra * Sri Ramakrishna
Ramakrishna
* Swami Vivekananda
Swami Vivekananda
* Sri Ramana Maharshi * Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan * Madhusudana Saraswati
Saraswati

INFLUENCE

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Vaitheespara notes the adherence of the Smarta Brahmans to "the pan-Indian Sanskrit-brahmanical tradition" and their influence on pan-Indian nationalism:

The emerging pan-Indian nationalism was clearly founded upon a number of cultural movements that, for the most part, reimagined an 'Aryo-centric', neo-brahmanical vision of India, which provided the 'ideology' for this hegemonic project. In the Tamil region, such a vision and ideology was closely associated with the Tamil Brahmans and, especially, the Smarta Brahmans who were considered the strongest adherents of the pan-Indian Sanskrit-Brahmanical tradition.

SEE ALSO

* Neo- Vedanta * Advaita Vedanta * Ishta-deva * Smarana

NOTES

* ^ By contrast, the dualistic Vaishnava traditions consider Vishnu or Krishna
Krishna
to be the supreme God who grants salvation. Similarly, the dualistic subtradition of Shaiva Siddhanta holds the same beliefs about Shiva
Shiva
. Other traditions of Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism hold a spectrum of beliefs between dualism and nondualism. * ^ Shankara himself, and his influential predecessor Gaudapada , used Buddhist terminology and mention Buddhist doctrines in their work, suggesting that they were influenced by Buddhism. Gaudapada, states Raju took over the Buddhist doctrines that ultimate reality is pure consciousness (vijñapti-mātra) and "that the nature of the world is the four-cornered negation", then "wove into a philosophy of the Mandukaya Upanisad, which was further developed by Shankara". In Gaudapada's text, similarly, the Buddhist concept of "ajāta" from Nagarjuna\'s Madhyamaka philosophy is found. In contrast, other scholars such as Murti, assert that while there is borrowed terminology, Gaudapada's doctrines are unlike Buddhism. Gaudapada's influential text consists of four chapters; Chapter One, Two and Three of which are entirely Vedantin and founded on the Upanishads, with little Buddhist flavor. Chapter Four uses Buddhist terminology and incorporates Buddhist doctrines, state both Murti and Richard King, but Vedanta scholars who followed Gaudapada through the 17th century never referenced nor used Chapter Four, they only quote from the first three. The Gaudapada tradition is Vedantin with its foundation of Atman and Brahman, and his doctrines fundamentally different from Buddhism which deny these foundational concepts of Hinduism.

REFERENCES

* ^ A B C D Flood 1996 , p. 113. * ^ Knipe 2015 , pp. 36-37. * ^ Flood 1996 , p. 113, 134, 155-161, 167-168. * ^ A B Sanderson, Alexis. "The Saiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Saivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism,edited by Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009. Institute of Oriental Culture Special Series, 23, pp. 276-277. * ^ John Shephard (2009), Ninian Smart on World Religions, Ashgate, ISBN 978-0754666387 , page 186 * ^ A B Hiltebeitel 2013 . * ^ A B Flood 1996 . * ^ U Murthy (1979), Samskara, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195610796 , page 150 * ^ A B L Williamson (2010), Transcendent in America: Hindu-inspired Meditation Movements as New Religion, New York University Press, ISBN 978-0814794500 , page 89 * ^ William Jackson (1994), Tyāgarāja and the Renewal of Tradition, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120811461 , page 218 * ^ Knipe 2015 , p. 36.

* ^ Buhnemann, Gudrun, Puja: A Study in Smarta Ritual, Publications of the De Nobili Research Library, Gerold Buhnemann, Gudrun, Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu
Hindu
Traditions, Leiden, Brill, 2003. pg. 57. "Initially a brief explanation of the word Smārta may be in order. Smārta is a rather loosely used term which refers to a Brahmin
Brahmin
who is an ‘adherent of the Smrti’ and of the tradition which is ‘based on the Smrti.’" * ^ A B Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press. pg. 17. "There is also an important tradition of Brahmans called Smārtas, those who follow the smrti or secondary revelation..." pg.56. "The Brahmans who followed the teachings of these texts were known as Smārtas, those who followed the smrtis..." pg.113. "The Brahmans who followed the puranic religion became known as smārta, those whose worship was based on the Smrtis, or pauranika, those based on the Purānas." * ^ A B Gavin Flood (2006). The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu
Hindu
Religion. I.B.Tauris. pp. 6–7. ISBN 978-1-84511-011-6 . * ^ A B Spoken Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary, smArta * ^ A B Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6 , pages 2-3 * ^ A B C D E Doniger 1999 , p. 1017. * ^ A B Monier Monier-Williams (1923). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 1154. * ^ Dermot Killingley (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism (Editors: Denise Cush et al), Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712670 , page 456 * ^ Hiltebeitel 2013 , p. 13. * ^ A B Hiltebeitel 2013 , pp. 13-14. * ^ A B Hiltebeitel 2013 , pp. 18-19. * ^ Mircea Eliade; Charles J. Adams (1987). The encyclopedia of religion. 6. Macmillan. pp. 345–347. ISBN 978-0-02-909750-2 . * ^ Hiltebeitel 2013 , pp. 18-22. * ^ Hiltebeitel 2013 , pp. 18-22, 29-30. * ^ A B C D Hiltebeitel 2013 , pp. 29-30. * ^ Smarta sect, Encyclopædia Britannica (2012), Quote: "Smarta sect, orthodox Hindu
Hindu
sect composed of members of the “twice-born,” or initiated upper classes (Brahmin, Kshatriya, and Vaishya), whose primarily Brahmin
Brahmin
followers (...)." * ^ A B C William Joseph Jackson (1994). Tyāgarāja and the Renewal of Tradition: Translations and Reflections. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 212–220. ISBN 978-81-208-1146-1 . * ^ Jeffrey R. Timm (1992). Texts in Context: Traditional Hermeneutics in South Asia. State University of New York Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-7914-0796-7 . * ^ Buhnemann, Gudrun, Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu Traditions, Leiden, Brill, 2003. pg. 57. "Initially a brief explanation of the word Smārta may be in order. Smārta is a rather loosely used term which refers to a Brahmin
Brahmin
who is an ‘adherent of the Smrti’ and of the tradition which is ‘based on the Smrti.’" * ^ Flood 1996 , pp. 56-57. * ^ Gavin Flood (2006). The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu
Hindu
Religion. I.B.Tauris. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-1-84511-011-6 . * ^ Fred W. Clothey (2006). Ritualizing on the Boundaries: Continuity and Innovation in the Tamil Diaspora. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-1-57003-647-7 . * ^ Espin & Nickoloff 2007 , p. 563. * ^ McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5 . * ^ Kiyokazu Okita (2010), Theism, Pantheism, and Panentheism: Three Medieval Vaishnava Views of Nature and their Possible Ecological Implications, Journal of Vaishnava Studies, Volume 18, Number 2, pages 5-26 * ^ Anantanand Rambachan (2001), Heirarchies in the Nature of God? Questioning The "Saguna-Nirguna" Distinction in Advaita Vedanta, Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies, Vol. 14, No. 7, pages 1-6 * ^ A B William Wainwright (2012), Concepts of God, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University * ^ Goyal 1984 . * ^ Basham 1991 , p. 109. * ^ A B Popular Prakashan 2000 , p. 52. * ^ A B Comans 2000 , p. 35-36. * ^ Sharma 2000 , p. 60-64. * ^ A B Raju 1971 , p. 177-178. * ^ A B Renard 2010 , p. 157. * ^ Raju 1971 , p. 177. * ^ A B C TRV Murti (1955), The central philosophy of Buddhism, Routledge (2008 Reprint), ISBN 978-0-415-46118-4 , pages 114-115 * ^ Gaudapada, Devanathan Jagannathan, University of Toronto, IEP * ^ Potter 1981 , p. 81. * ^ Coburn, Thomas B. 1984. pp. 439 * ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, ISBN 978-1851685387 , Chapter 2, page 26 * ^ Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112 , pages 245-248 * ^ Deutsch 1988 , pp. 4-6 with footnote 4. * ^ Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272 , pages 18-19 * ^ A B Koller 2013 , p. 100-101. * ^ Isaeva 1993 , p. 35. * ^ A B Isaeva 1993 , p. 35-36. * ^ A B C Larson 2009 , p. 185. * ^ Cousins 2010 . * ^ Hiltebeitel 2002 . * ^ Smarta sect, Encyclopædia Britannica * ^ A B C Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5 . * ^ A B Karel Werner (2013). Love Divine. Routledge. pp. 148–151. ISBN 978-1-136-77461-4 . * ^ Gerald James Larson (1995). India\'s Agony Over Religion. State University of New York Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-1-4384-1014-2 . * ^ Vasudha Narayanan (2009). Hinduism. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-1-4358-5620-2 . * ^ Nakamura, Hajime (2004). A History of Early Vedanta Philosophy. Part Two (Original: 1950). Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 680–681. ISBN 978-8120819634 . * ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), From Temple schools to Universities, in Education in Ancient India: Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568 , page 179 * ^ Fort 1998 , p. 179. * ^ Minor 1987 , p. 3. * ^ Vaitheespara 2010 , p. 91.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

* Basham, Arthur Llewellyn (1991), The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism, Oxford University Press * Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass * Cousins, L.S. (2010), Buddhism. In: "The Penguin Handbook of the World\'s Living Religions", Penguin * Deutsch, Eliot (1988), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-88706-662-3 * Doniger, Wendy (1999), Merriam-Webster\'s Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster * Espin, Orlando O.; Nickoloff, James B. (2007), An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies, Liturgical Press * Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press * Fort, Andrew O. (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, SUNY Press * Goyal, S. R. (1984), A Religious History of Ancient India. Volume 2, Meerut, India: Kusumanjali Prakashan * Hiltebeitel, Alf (2013), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge * Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge * Isaeva, N.V. (1993), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, SUNY Press * Koller, John M. (2013), "Shankara", in Meister, Chad; Copan, Paul, Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge * Knipe, David M. (2015), Vedic Voices: Intimate Narratives of a Living Andhra Tradition, Oxford: Oxford University Press * Larson, Gerald James (2009), Hinduism. In: "World Religions in America: An Introduction", Westminster John Knox Press * Lochtefeld, James G. (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, The Rosen Publishing Group * Minor, Rober Neil (1987), Radhakrishnan: A Religious Biography, SUNY Press * Morris, Brian (2006), Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge University Press * Popular Prakashan (2000), Students\' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5, Popular Prakashan * Potter, Karl. H. (1981), Gaudapada, Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta up to Śaṃkara and his pupils, Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0310-8 * Raju, P.T. (1971), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (1992 Reprint) * Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip * Vaitheespara, Ravi (2010), Forging a Tamil caste: Maraimalai Adigal (1876-1950) and the discourcse of caste and ritual in colonial Tamilnadu. In: Bergunder e.a. (editors), "Ritual, Caste, and Religion in Colonial South India", Otto Harrassowitz Verlag

WEB SOURCES

* ^ "Adi Shankara\'s four Amnaya Peethams". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-20.

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