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The Smārta tradition refers to a tradition of Brahmins who are adherents of the Smriti
Smriti
corpus of texts.[1][2] The Grihya Sutras, such as the Apastamba Grihya Sutra, describe the performance of domestic rituals such as marriages, housewarmings, thread ceremonies for Brahmin
Brahmin
boys and other domestic rites.[3][4] Appendices (parisisthas) to the Grihya Sutras describe pujas for icons.[5] Smarta Brahmins are differentiated from Srauta Brahmins who specialize in the Sruti
Sruti
corpus of texts and have maintained the complex fire rituals of the Brahmanas in the Vedas.[6] Smarta Brahmins are also differentiated Brahmins who traditionally specialize in the tantric literature, for example Adisaivas,[7] Sri Vaishnavas and Kashmiri Pandits.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 The Synthesis 2.2 Recognition of Smarta as a tradition 2.3 Smarta Brahmins

3 Philosophy and practices

3.1 Saguna and Nirguna Brahman 3.2 Panchayatana Puja 3.3 Shankara and Advaita Vedanta

4 Texts 5 Institutions

5.1 Monasteries 5.2 Prominent Smarta teachers

6 Influence 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Bibliography 9.2 Web sources

10 External links

10.1 Advaita Vedanta 10.2 Puranas

Etymology[edit] Smarta is an adjective derived from Smriti (Sanskrit: स्मृति, Smṛti, IPA: [s̪mr̩.t̪i] ?).[8] The smriti are a specific body of Hindu texts usually attributed to an author, traditionally written down but constantly revised, in contrast to Śrutis (the Vedic literature) considered authorless, that were transmitted verbally across the generations and fixed.[9][10] Smarta has several meanings:[8][11]

Relating to memory Recorded in or based on the Smriti Based on tradition, prescribed or sanctioned by traditional law Orthodox Brahmin
Brahmin
versed in or guided by traditional law and Vedanta doctrine

In Smarta tradition
Smarta tradition
context, the term Smarta means "follower of Smriti".[12] Smarta is specially associated with a "sect founded by Shankaracharya", states Monier Williams.[11] History[edit]

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v t e

See also Late Middle Kingdoms - The Late-Classical Age and Classical Hinduism
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(c. 200 BC - AD 1100)

The Vedanga
Vedanga
texts, states Alf Hiltebeitel, are Smriti
Smriti
texts that were composed in the second half of the Vedic period that ended around 500 BCE.[13] The Vedanga
Vedanga
texts include the Kalpa (Vedanga)
Kalpa (Vedanga)
texts consisting of the Srautasutras, Grihyasutras and Dharmasutras, many of which were revised well past the Vedic period.[14] The Grihyasutras and Dharmasutras, states Hiltebeitel, were composed between 600 BCE and 400 CE, and these are sometimes called the Smartasutras, the roots of the Smriti
Smriti
tradition.[14] The Smriti
Smriti
texts accept the knowledge in the Sruti
Sruti
(Vedas), but they interpret it in a number of ways, which gave rise to six darsanas (orthodox schools) of Hindu
Hindu
philosophy. Of these, states Hiltebeitel, the Mimamsa
Mimamsa
and Vedanta
Vedanta
have sometimes been called the Smarta schools which emphasize the Vedas
Vedas
with reason and other pramanas, in contrast to Haituka schools which emphasize hetu (cause, reason) independent of the Vedas
Vedas
while accepting the authority of the Vedas.[15][16] Of the two Smarta traditions, Mimamsa
Mimamsa
focussed on Vedic ritual traditions, while Vedanta
Vedanta
focussed on Upanishadic knowledge tradition.[15] Around the start of the common era, and thereafter, a syncretism of Haituka schools (Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Samkhya
Samkhya
and Yoga), the Smarta schools (Mimamsa, Vedanta) with ancient theistic ideas (bhakti, tantric) gave rise to a growth in traditions such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and Shaktism.[17] Hiltebeitel and Flood locate the origins of a revived orthodox Smarta Tradition in the (early) Classical Period of Hinduism, particularly with nondualist (Advaita) interpretation of Vedanta,[18] around the time when different Hindu
Hindu
traditions emerged from the interaction between Brahmanism and local traditions.[19] The Synthesis[edit] The revived Smarta Tradition attempted to integrate varied and conflicting devotional practices, with its ideas of nondual experience of Atman (self, soul) as Brahman.[20] The rapprochement included the practice of pancayatana-puja (five shrine worship), wherein a Hindu could focus on any saguna deity of choice (istadevata) such as Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, Surya
Surya
or Ganesha, as an interim step towards realizing the nirguna Brahman.[20] The growth of this Smarta Tradition began in the Gupta period (4th-5th century CE), and likely was dominated by Dvija
Dvija
classes, in particular the Brahmins,[21] of the early medieval Indian society.[22] This Smarta Tradition competed with other major traditions of Hinduism
Hinduism
such as Shaivism, Vaishnavism, and Shaktism.[22] The ideas of Smarta Tradition were historically influential, creative with concepts such as of Harihara
Harihara
(half Shiva, half Vishnu
Vishnu
deity) and Ardhanarishvara
Ardhanarishvara
(half woman, half man deity). Recognition of Smarta as a tradition[edit] Medieval era scholars such as Vedanta
Vedanta
Desika and Vallabhacharya recognized Smarta Tradition as competing with Vaishnavism
Vaishnavism
and other traditions. According to Jeffrey Timm, for example, in verse 10 of the Tattvarthadipanibandha, Vallabhacharya
Vallabhacharya
states that, "Mutually contradictory conclusions are non-contradictory when they are considered from their respective contexts, like Vaishnava, Smarta, etc."[23] Smarta Brahmins[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)

The adjective Smārta is also used to classify a Brahmin
Brahmin
who adheres to the Smriti
Smriti
corpus of texts.[24][25] Smarta Brahmins specialize in the Smriti
Smriti
corpus of texts,[26] are differentiated from Srauta Brahmins who specialize in the Sruti
Sruti
corpus of texts such as the Brahmanas layer embedded inside the Vedas.[27] Smarta Brahmins are also differentiated from Brahmins who specialize in the Agamic (non-Vedic, Tantra) literature such as the Adi Shaiva Brahmins, Sri Vaishnava Brahmins and Shaiva Kashmiri Pandits.[28][29] However, these identities are not clearly defined, and active groups such as "Agamic Smarta Saiva Brahmins" have thrived.[30] Philosophy and practices[edit] Saguna and Nirguna Brahman[edit] According to Smartism, supreme reality, Brahman, transcends all of the various forms of personal deity.[31][note 1] The Smartas follow an orthodox Hindu
Hindu
philosophy, which means they accept the Vedas, and the ontological concepts of Atman and Brahman
Brahman
therein. The Smarta Tradition accepts two concepts of Brahman, which are the saguna Brahman
Brahman
– the Brahman
Brahman
with attributes, and nirguna Brahman – the Brahman
Brahman
without attributes.[34] The nirguna Brahman
Brahman
is the unchanging Reality, however, the saguna Brahman
Brahman
is posited as a means to realizing this nirguna Brahman.[35] The concept of the saguna Brahman
Brahman
is considered in this tradition to be a useful symbolism and means for those who are still on their spiritual journey, but the saguna concept is abandoned by the fully enlightened once he or she realizes the identity of their own soul with that of the nirguna Brahman.[35] A Smarta may choose any saguna deity (istadevata) such as Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, Surya, Ganesha
Ganesha
or any other, and this is viewed in Smarta Tradition as an interim step towards realizing the nirguna Brahman
Brahman
and its equivalence to one's own Atman.[20] Panchayatana Puja[edit] The Smartas evolved a kind of worship which is known as Panchayatana puja. In this Puja, one or more of the five Hindu
Hindu
Deities (Surya, Shiva, Vishnu, Ganesha
Ganesha
and Devi
Devi
or Shakti) are the objects of veneration.[20][10] The five symbols of the major Gods are placed on a round open metal dish called Panchayatana, the symbol of the deity preferred by the worshiper being in the center. A similar arrangement is also seen in the medieval temples, in which the central shrine housing the principal Deity is surrounded by four smaller shrines containing the figures of the other deities.[36] Some of the Smartas of South India add a sixth god Kartikeya
Kartikeya
(See Shanmata). According to Basham, "[m]any upper-class Hindus still prefer the way of the Smartas to Saiva and Vaisnava forms of worship".[37] Shankara and Advaita Vedanta[edit] Main articles: Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
and Advaita Vedanta Traditionally, Sri Adi Shankaracharya
Adi Shankaracharya
(8th century) is regarded as the greatest teacher and reformer of the Smarta.[10][38][note 2] According to Hiltebeitel, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Acharya established the nondualist interpretation of the Upanishads
Upanishads
as the touchstone of a revived smarta tradition:

Practically, Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
Acharya fostered a rapprochement between Advaita and smarta orthodoxy, which by his time had not only continued to defend the varnasramadharma theory as defining the path of karman, but had developed the practice of pancayatanapuja ("five-shrine worship") as a solution to varied and conflicting devotional practices. Thus one could worship any one of five deities (Vishnu, Siva, Durga, Surya, Ganesa) as one's istadevata ("deity of choice").[47]

Texts[edit] See also: Shastras Smartas follow the Hindu
Hindu
scriptures. Like all traditions within Hinduism, they accept as an epistemic premise that Śruti
Śruti
(Vedic literature) is a reliable source of knowledge.[48][49][50] The Śruti includes the four Vedas
Vedas
including its four layers of embedded texts - the Samhitas, the Brahmanas, the Aranyakas and the early Upanishads.[9] Of these, the Upanishads
Upanishads
are the most referred to texts.[51][52] The identity of Atman and Brahman, and their unchanging, eternal nature, are the basic truths in this tradition. The emphasis in Vedic texts here is the jnana-kanda (knowledge, philosophical speculations) in the Upanishadic part of the Vedas, not its karma-kanda (ritual injunctions).[53] Along with the Upanishads, the Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
and Brahma
Brahma
Sutras are the central texts of the Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
tradition, providing the truths about the identity of Atman and Brahman
Brahman
and their changeless nature.[53][54] The Brahmasutra is considered as the Nyaya
Nyaya
Prasthana (canonical base for reasoning).[55] The Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
is considered as the Smriti Prasthana.[55] The text relies on other Smritis, such as the Vedangas, Itihasa, Dharmasastras, Puranas
Puranas
and others.[56] Some of this smriti literature incorporated shramanic and Buddhist influences[57] of the period from about 200 BC to about AD 300 [57][58] and the emerging bhakti tradition into the Brahmanical fold.[59][57] Institutions[edit]

The Vidyashankara temple at Sringeri
Sringeri
Sharada Peetham, Sringeri, Karnataka, a historic center of the Smarta Tradition.[10]

The Smarta Tradition includes temples and monasteries. More Smarta temples are found in West and South India, than in North India.[60] Monasteries[edit] Adi Shankara
Adi Shankara
is one of the leading scholars of the Smarta Tradition, and he founded some of the most famous monasteries in Hinduism.[61] These have hosted the Daśanāmi Sampradāya under four Maṭhas, with the headquarters at Dwarka
Dwarka
in the West, Jagannatha Puri
Jagannatha Puri
in the East, Sringeri
Sringeri
in the South and Badrinath
Badrinath
in the North.[61][62] Each math was headed by one of his disciples, called Shankaracharya, who each independently continued the Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
Sampradaya.[61] The ten Shankara-linked Advaita monastic orders are distributed as follows: Bharati, Puri and Saraswati
Saraswati
at Sringeri, Aranya and Vana at Puri, Tirtha and Ashrama at Dwarka, and Giri, Parvata and Sagara at Badrinath.[63] The mathas which Shankara built exist until today, and continue the teachings and influence of Shankara.[64][65] The table below gives an overview of the four largest Advaita Mathas founded by Adi Shankara, and their details.[62][web 1] However, evidence suggests that Shankara established more mathas locally for Vedanta
Vedanta
studies and its propagation, states Hartmut Scharfe, such as the "four mathas in the city of Trichur
Trichur
alone, that were headed by Trotaka, Sureshvara, Hastamalaka and Padmapada".[66] The Sringeri
Sringeri
Sharada monastery founded by Jagatguru Sri Adi Shankaracharya in Karnataka
Karnataka
is the centre of the Smarta sect.[10][38]

Shishya (lineage) Direction Maṭha State Mahāvākya Veda Sampradaya

Padmapāda East Govardhana Pīṭhaṃ Odisha Prajñānam brahma (Consciousness is Brahman) Rig Veda Bhogavala

Sureśvara South Sringeri
Sringeri
Śārada Pīṭhaṃ Karnataka Aham brahmāsmi (I am Brahman) Yajur Veda Bhūrivala

Hastāmalakācārya West Dvāraka Pīṭhaṃ Gujarat Tattvamasi (That thou art) Sama Veda Kitavala

Toṭakācārya North Jyotirmaṭha Pīṭhaṃ Uttarakhand Ayamātmā brahma (This Atman is Brahman) Atharva Veda Nandavala

Other Advaita Vedanta
Vedanta
mathas following Smarta Tradition include:

Svarnavalli Matha
Matha
at Swarnavalli near Sodhe, Sirsi, Karnataka Ramachandrapura Math at Haniya, Hosanagara, Karnataka Kanchi matha, at Kanchipuram, Tamil Nadu Chitrapur Math, Shirali, Karnataka
Karnataka
() Shri Gaudapadacharya Math, Kavale, Ponda, Goa Sri Samsthan Dabholi Math, Dabholi, Goa Jnaneshwari Peeth, Karki, Honnavar[67]

Prominent Smarta teachers[edit] Some of the prominent Smarta teachers:

Gaudapada[citation needed] Govinda Bhagavatpada Adi Shankara Sureshwaracharya Padmapadacharya[citation needed] Hastamalakacharya[citation needed] Totakacharya[citation needed] Vachaspati Mishra[citation needed] Sri Ramakrishna[citation needed] Swami Vivekananda[citation needed] Sri Ramana Maharshi[citation needed] Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan[68][69] Madhusudana Saraswati

Influence[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (April 2016)

Vaitheespara notes the adherence of the Smarta Brahmans to "the pan-Indian Sanskrit-brahmanical tradition" and their influence on pan-Indian nationalism:

The emerging pan-Indian nationalism was clearly founded upon a number of cultural movements that, for the most part, reimagined an 'Aryo-centric', neo-brahmanical vision of India, which provided the 'ideology' for this hegemonic project. In the Tamil region, such a vision and ideology was closely associated with the Tamil Brahmans and, especially, the Smarta Brahmans who were considered the strongest adherents of the pan-Indian Sanskrit-Brahmanical tradition.[70]

See also[edit]

Neo-Vedanta Advaita Vedanta Ishta-deva Smarana

Notes[edit]

^ By contrast, the dualistic Vaishnava traditions consider Vishnu
Vishnu
or Krishna
Krishna
to be the supreme God who grants salvation. Similarly, the dualistic subtradition of Shaiva Siddhanta
Shaiva Siddhanta
holds the same beliefs about Shiva. Other traditions of Shaivism, Vaishnavism, Shaktism
Shaktism
hold a spectrum of beliefs between dualism and nondualism.[32][33] ^ Shankara himself, and his influential predecessor Gaudapada, used Buddhist terminology and mention Buddhist doctrines in their work,[39][40] suggesting that they were influenced by Buddhism.[41][42] Gaudapada, states Raju took over the Buddhist doctrines that ultimate reality is pure consciousness (vijñapti-mātra)[43] and "that the nature of the world is the four-cornered negation", then "wove [both doctrines] into a philosophy of the Mandukaya Upanisad, which was further developed by Shankara".[41] In Gaudapada's text, similarly, the Buddhist concept of "ajāta" from Nagarjuna's Madhyamaka
Madhyamaka
philosophy is found.[42][39] In contrast, other scholars such as Murti, assert that while there is borrowed terminology, Gaudapada's doctrines are unlike Buddhism. Gaudapada's influential text consists of four chapters; Chapter One, Two and Three of which are entirely Vedantin and founded on the Upanishads, with little Buddhist flavor.[44] Chapter Four uses Buddhist terminology and incorporates Buddhist doctrines, state both Murti
Murti
and Richard King, but Vedanta
Vedanta
scholars who followed Gaudapada through the 17th century never referenced nor used Chapter Four, they only quote from the first three.[44][45] The Gaudapada
Gaudapada
tradition is Vedantin with its foundation of Atman and Brahman, and his doctrines fundamentally different from Buddhism which deny these foundational concepts of Hinduism.[44][46]

References[edit]

^ Buhnemann, Gudrun, Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu
Hindu
Traditions, Leiden, Brill, 2003. pg. 57. "Initially a brief explanation of the word Smārta may be in order. Smārta is a rather loosely used term which refers to a Brahmin
Brahmin
who is an ‘adherent of the Smrti’ and of the tradition which is ‘based on the Smrti.’" ^ Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press. pg. 17. "There is also an important tradition of Brahmans called Smārtas, those who follow the smrti or secondary revelation..." pg.56. "The Brahmans who followed the teachings of these texts were known as Smārtas, those who followed the smrtis..." pg.113. "The Brahmans who followed the puranic religion became known as smārta, those whose worship was based on the Smrtis, or pauranika, those based on the Purānas." ^ Knipe 2015, p. 36. ^ Buhnemann, Gudrun, Puja: A Study in Smarta Ritual, Publications of the De Nobili Research Library, Gerold & Co., Vienna, 1988. pg. 32-33. ^ Buhnemann, Gudrun, Puja: A Study in Smarta Ritual, Publications of the De Nobili Research Library, Gerold & Co., Vienna, 1988. pg. 32-33. ^ Knipe 2015, p. 1-246. ^ Sanderson, Alexis. "The Saiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Saivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism,edited by Shingo Einoo. Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009. Institute of Oriental Culture Special Series, 23, pp. 276-277. ^ a b Spoken Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Dictionary, smArta ^ a b Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (1988), Textual Sources for the Study of Hinduism, Manchester University Press, ISBN 0-7190-1867-6, pages 2-3 ^ a b c d e Doniger 1999, p. 1017. ^ a b Monier Monier-Williams (1923). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. p. 1154.  ^ Dermot Killingley (2007), Encyclopedia of Hinduism
Hinduism
(Editors: Denise Cush et al), Routledge, ISBN 978-0700712670, page 456 ^ Hiltebeitel 2013, p. 13. ^ a b Hiltebeitel 2013, pp. 13-14. ^ a b Hiltebeitel 2013, pp. 18-19. ^ Mircea Eliade; Charles J. Adams (1987). The encyclopedia of religion. 6. Macmillan. pp. 345–347. ISBN 978-0-02-909750-2.  ^ Hiltebeitel 2013, pp. 18-22. ^ Hiltebeitel 2013, pp. 18-22, 29-30. ^ Flood 1996. ^ a b c d Hiltebeitel 2013, pp. 29-30. ^ Smarta sect, Encyclopædia Britannica (2012), Quote: "Smarta sect, orthodox Hindu
Hindu
sect composed of members of the “twice-born,” or initiated upper classes (Brahmin, Kshatriya, and Vaishya), whose primarily Brahmin
Brahmin
followers (...)." ^ a b William Joseph Jackson (1994). Tyāgarāja and the Renewal of Tradition: Translations and Reflections. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 212–220. ISBN 978-81-208-1146-1.  ^ Jeffrey R. Timm (1992). Texts in Context: Traditional Hermeneutics in South Asia. State University of New York Press. p. 138. ISBN 978-0-7914-0796-7.  ^ Cite error: The named reference Flood, Gavin 1996 pg. 17 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Buhnemann, Gudrun, Mandalas and Yantras in the Hindu
Hindu
Traditions, Leiden, Brill, 2003. pg. 57. "Initially a brief explanation of the word Smārta may be in order. Smārta is a rather loosely used term which refers to a Brahmin
Brahmin
who is an ‘adherent of the Smrti’ and of the tradition which is ‘based on the Smrti.’" ^ Flood 1996, pp. 56-57. ^ Cite error: The named reference Gavin Flood 2006 6–7 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference Sanderson, Alexis 2009. pp. 276-277 was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Gavin Flood (2006). The Tantric Body: The Secret Tradition of Hindu Religion. I.B.Tauris. pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-1-84511-011-6.  ^ Fred W. Clothey (2006). Ritualizing on the Boundaries: Continuity and Innovation in the Tamil Diaspora. University of South Carolina Press. pp. 168–169. ISBN 978-1-57003-647-7.  ^ Espin & Nickoloff 2007, p. 563. ^ McDaniel, June (2004). Offering Flowers, Feeding Skulls. Oxford University Press. pp. 89–91. ISBN 978-0-19-534713-5.  ^ Kiyokazu Okita (2010), Theism, Pantheism, and Panentheism: Three Medieval Vaishnava Views of Nature and their Possible Ecological Implications, Journal of Vaishnava Studies, Volume 18, Number 2, pages 5-26 ^ Anantanand Rambachan (2001), Heirarchies in the Nature of God? Questioning The "Saguna-Nirguna" Distinction in Advaita Vedanta, Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies, Vol. 14, No. 7, pages 1-6 ^ a b William Wainwright (2012), Concepts of God, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Stanford University ^ Goyal 1984. ^ Basham 1991, p. 109. ^ a b Popular Prakashan 2000, p. 52. ^ a b Comans 2000, p. 35-36. ^ Sharma 2000, p. 60-64. ^ a b Raju 1971, p. 177-178. ^ a b Renard 2010, p. 157. ^ Raju 1971, p. 177. ^ a b c TRV Murti
Murti
(1955), The central philosophy of Buddhism, Routledge (2008 Reprint), ISBN 978-0-415-46118-4, pages 114-115 ^ Gaudapada, Devanathan Jagannathan, University of Toronto, IEP ^ Potter 1981, p. 81. ^ Hiltebeitel 2013. ^ Coburn, Thomas B. 1984. pp. 439 ^ Klaus Klostermaier (2007), Hinduism: A Beginner's Guide, ISBN 978-1851685387, Chapter 2, page 26 ^ Eliott Deutsche (2000), in Philosophy of Religion : Indian Philosophy Vol 4 (Editor: Roy Perrett), Routledge, ISBN 978-0815336112, pages 245-248 ^ Deutsch 1988, pp. 4-6 with footnote 4. ^ Arvind Sharma (2007), Advaita Vedānta: An Introduction, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 978-8120820272, pages 18-19 ^ a b Koller 2013, p. 100-101. ^ Isaeva 1993, p. 35. ^ a b Isaeva 1993, p. 35-36. ^ Flood 1996, p. 113. ^ a b c Larson 2009, p. 185. ^ Cousins 2010. ^ Hiltebeitel 2002. ^ Smarta sect, Encyclopædia Britannica ^ a b c Constance Jones; James D. Ryan (2006). Encyclopedia of Hinduism. Infobase. p. 280. ISBN 978-0-8160-7564-5.  ^ a b Karel Werner (2013). Love Divine. Routledge. pp. 148–151. ISBN 978-1-136-77461-4.  ^ Gerald James Larson (1995). India's Agony Over Religion. State University of New York Press. pp. 99–100. ISBN 978-1-4384-1014-2.  ^ Vasudha Narayanan (2009). Hinduism. The Rosen Publishing Group. pp. 50–51. ISBN 978-1-4358-5620-2.  ^ Nakamura, Hajime (2004). A History of Early Vedanta
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Philosophy. Part Two (Original: 1950). Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 680–681. ISBN 978-8120819634.  ^ Hartmut Scharfe (2002), From Temple schools to Universities, in Education in Ancient India: Handbook of Oriental Studies, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-9004125568, page 179 ^ Kamat, Suryakant (1984). Karnataka
Karnataka
State gazetteer. 3. Gazetter Dept. p. 106.  ^ Fort 1998, p. 179. ^ Minor 1987, p. 3. ^ Vaitheespara 2010, p. 91.

Bibliography[edit]

Basham, Arthur Llewellyn (1991), The Origins and Development of Classical Hinduism, Oxford University Press  Comans, Michael (2000), The Method of Early Advaita Vedānta: A Study of Gauḍapāda, Śaṅkara, Sureśvara, and Padmapāda, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass  Cousins, L.S. (2010), Buddhism. In: "The Penguin Handbook of the World's Living Religions", Penguin  Deutsch, Eliot (1988), Advaita Vedanta: A Philosophical Reconstruction, University of Hawaii Press, ISBN 0-88706-662-3  Doniger, Wendy (1999), Merriam-Webster's Encyclopedia of World Religions, Merriam-Webster  Espin, Orlando O.; Nickoloff, James B. (2007), An Introductory Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies, Liturgical Press  Flood, Gavin (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Fort, Andrew O. (1998), Jivanmukti in Transformation: Embodied Liberation in Advaita and Neo-Vedanta, SUNY Press  Goyal, S. R. (1984), A Religious History of Ancient India. Volume 2, Meerut, India: Kusumanjali Prakashan  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2013), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Isaeva, N.V. (1993), Shankara and Indian Philosophy, SUNY Press  Koller, John M. (2013), "Shankara", in Meister, Chad; Copan, Paul, Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Religion, Routledge  Knipe, David M. (2015), Vedic Voices: Intimate Narratives of a Living Andhra Tradition, Oxford: Oxford University Press  Larson, Gerald James (2009), Hinduism. In: "World Religions in America: An Introduction", Westminster John Knox Press  Lochtefeld, James G. (2002), The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Hinduism: N-Z, The Rosen Publishing Group  Minor, Rober Neil (1987), Radhakrishnan: A Religious Biography, SUNY Press  Morris, Brian (2006), Religion and Anthropology: A Critical Introduction, Cambridge University Press  Popular Prakashan (2000), Students' Britannica India, Volumes 1-5, Popular Prakashan  Potter, Karl. H. (1981), Gaudapada, Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies: Advaita Vedānta up to Śaṃkara and his pupils, Volume 3, Motilal Banarsidass, ISBN 81-208-0310-8  Raju, P.T. (1971), The Philosophical Traditions of India, Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass Publishers (1992 Reprint)  Renard, Philip (2010), Non-Dualisme. De directe bevrijdingsweg, Cothen: Uitgeverij Juwelenschip  Vaitheespara, Ravi (2010), Forging a Tamil caste: Maraimalai Adigal (1876-1950) and the discourcse of caste and ritual in colonial Tamilnadu. In: Bergunder e.a. (editors), "Ritual, Caste, and Religion in Colonial South India", Otto Harrassowitz Verlag 

Web sources[edit]

^ "Adi Shankara's four Amnaya Peethams". Archived from the original on 26 June 2006. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 

External links[edit]

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Advaita Vedanta[edit]

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Puranas[edit]

Oneness of God from Kanch

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