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a Slavonia
Slavonia
is not designated as an official subdivision of Croatia; it is a historical region.[1] This is the modern-day meaning. Historic boundaries of Slavonia
Slavonia
varied over centuries.

b The figure is an approximation based on the territorial span of the five easternmost Croatian counties (Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem).

c The figure is an approximation based on the population of the five easternmost Croatian counties (Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica-Podravina, Vukovar-Srijem).

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Modernity

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20th century

World War I

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Croats
and Serbs

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World War II

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Croatia
since 1995

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Slavonia
Slavonia
(/sləˈvoʊniə/; Croatian: Slavonija) is, with Dalmatia, Croatia
Croatia
proper and Istria, one of the four historical regions[1] of Croatia. Taking up the east of the country, it roughly corresponds with five Croatian counties: Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica- Podravina
Podravina
and Vukovar-Srijem, although the territory of the counties includes Baranya, and the definition of the western extent of Slavonia
Slavonia
as a region varies. The counties cover 12,556 square kilometres (4,848 square miles) or 22.2% of Croatia, inhabited by 806,192—18.8% of Croatia's population. The largest city in the region is Osijek, followed by Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
and Vinkovci. Slavonia
Slavonia
is located in the Pannonian Basin, largely bordered by the Danube, Drava
Drava
and Sava
Sava
rivers. In the west, the region consists of the Sava
Sava
and Drava
Drava
valleys and the mountains surrounding the Požega Valley, and plains in the east. Slavonia
Slavonia
enjoys a moderate continental climate, with relatively low precipitation. After the fall of Rome, which ruled the area of modern-day Slavonia until the 5th century, Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
and Lombards
Lombards
controlled the area before the arrival of Avars and Slavs, when the Principality of Lower Pannonia was established in the 7th century. It was later incorporated into the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
and, after its decline, the kingdom was ruled through a personal union with Hungary. The Ottoman conquest of Slavonia
Slavonia
took place in 1536 to 1552. In 1699, after the Great Turkish War, Slavonia
Slavonia
was transferred to the Habsburgs. Reform of the empire through the Compromise of 1867 assigned it to the Hungarian part of the realm, and a year later to the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. In 1918, when Austria-Hungary dissolved, Slavonia
Slavonia
was a part of the short-lived State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs which in turn became a part of the kingdom later renamed Yugoslavia. During the Croatian War of Independence, Slavonia saw fierce fighting, including the Battle of Vukovar. The economy of Slavonia
Slavonia
is largely based on processing industry, trade, transport and civil engineering. Agriculture is a significant component of its economy: Slavonia
Slavonia
contains 45% of Croatia's agricultural land and accounts for a significant proportion of Croatia's livestock farming and production of permanent crops. The gross domestic product (GDP) of the five counties of Slavonia
Slavonia
is worth 6,454 million euro or 8,005 euro per capita, 27.5% below national average. The GDP
GDP
of the five counties represents 13.6% of Croatia's GDP. The cultural heritage of Slavonia
Slavonia
is a blend of historical influences, especially those since the end of the 17th century, when Slavonia started recovering from the Ottoman wars, and its traditional culture. Slavonia
Slavonia
contributed to the culture of Croatia, through art, writers, poets and art patronage. In traditional music, Slavonia
Slavonia
is a distinct region of Croatia, and the traditional culture is preserved through folklore festivals, with prominence given to tamburica music and bećarac, a form of traditional song, recognized as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO. The cuisine of Slavonia
Slavonia
reflects diverse influences—a blend of traditional and foreign elements. Slavonia
Slavonia
is one of Croatia's winemaking areas, with Ilok
Ilok
and Kutjevo
Kutjevo
recognized as centres of wine production.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Prehistory and antiquity 1.2 Middle Ages 1.3 Ottoman conquest 1.4 Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary 1.5 Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
and World War II 1.6 Federal Yugoslavia and the independence of Croatia

2 Geography

2.1 Political geography 2.2 Physical geography

2.2.1 Topography 2.2.2 Hydrography and climate

2.3 Demographics

3 Economy and transport 4 Culture

4.1 Cuisine and wines

5 See also 6 References 7 Bibliography 8 External links

History[edit] See also: History of Croatia

Vučedol Dove

The name Slavonia
Slavonia
originated in the Early Middle Ages. The area was named after the Slavs
Slavs
who settled there and called themselves *Slověne. The root *Slověn- appeared in various dialects of languages spoken by people inhabiting the area west of the Sutla river, as well as between the Sava
Sava
and Drava
Drava
rivers—South Slavs living in the area of the former Illyricum. The area bounded by those rivers was called *Slověnьje in the Proto-Slavic language. The word subsequently evolved to its various present forms in the Slavic languages, and other languages adopted the term.[2] Prehistory and antiquity[edit] See also: Prehistoric Croatia, Illyria, Illyricum (Roman province), and Pannonia (Roman province) Remnants of several Neolithic
Neolithic
and Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
cultures were found in all regions of Croatia,[3] but most of the sites are found in the river valleys of northern Croatia, including Slavonia. The most significant cultures whose presence was found include the Starčevo culture whose finds were discovered near Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
and dated to 6100–5200 BC,[4] Vučedol and Baden cultures.[5][6] Most finds attributed to the Baden and Vučedol cultures are discovered in the area around Vukovar, extending to Osijek
Osijek
and Vinkovci. The Baden culture sites in Slavonia
Slavonia
are dated to 3600–3300 BC,[7] and Vučedol culture
Vučedol culture
finds are dated to 3000–2500 BC.[8] The Iron Age left traces of the early Illyrian Hallstatt culture
Hallstatt culture
and the Celtic La Tène culture.[9] Much later, the region was settled by Illyrians and other tribes, including the Pannonians, who controlled much of present-day Slavonia. Even though archaeological finds of Illyrian settlements are much sparser than in areas closer to the Adriatic Sea, significant discoveries, for instance in Kaptol near Požega have been made.[10] The Pannonians first came into contact with the Roman Republic in 35 BC, when the Romans conquered Segestica, or modern-day Sisak. The conquest was completed in 11 BC, when the Roman province of Illyricum was established, encompassing modern-day Slavonia
Slavonia
as well as a vast territory on the right bank of Danube. The province was renamed Pannonia and divided within two decades.[11] Middle Ages[edit] See also: Lower Pannonia (9th century), Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
(medieval), and Croatia
Croatia
in personal union with Hungary

Medieval Požega

After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire, which included the territory occupied by modern-day Slavonia, the area became a part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
by the end of the 5th century. However, control of the area proved a significant task, and Lombards
Lombards
were given increasing control of Pannonia in the 6th century, which ended in their withdrawal in 568 and the arrival of Pannonian Avars
Pannonian Avars
and Slavs, who established control of Pannonia by year 582.[12] According to the work De Administrando Imperio
De Administrando Imperio
written by the 10th century Byzantine Emperor Constantine VII, the Croats
Croats
had arrived in the early 7th century in the then region of Dalmatia,[13] although this is disputed and competing hypotheses date the event between the 6th and the 9th centuries.[14] Eventually a dukedom was formed, Duchy of Dalmatia, ruled by Borna, as attested to by the chronicles of Einhard, starting in the year 818. This record represents the first document of the Croatian state, vassal of Francia
Francia
at the time.[15] The Frankish overlordship ended during the reign of Mislav two decades later.[16] Tomislav was the first ruler of Croatia
Croatia
to be styled a king. That occurred in a letter from Pope John X, dating the kingdom of Croatia to 925. Tomislav defeated Hungarian and Bulgarian invasions, spreading the influence of Croatian kings northward to Slavonia.[17] The medieval Croatian kingdom reached its peak in the 11th century during the reigns of Petar Krešimir IV (1058–1074) and Dmitar Zvonimir (1075–1089).[18] When Stjepan II died in 1091, ending the Trpimirović dynasty, Ladislaus I of Hungary
Ladislaus I of Hungary
claimed the Croatian crown. Opposition to the claim led to a war and personal union of Croatia
Croatia
and Hungary
Hungary
in 1102, ruled by Coloman.[19] For the next four centuries, Slavonia
Slavonia
was ruled as a part of the Kingdom of Croatia
Croatia
by the Sabor
Sabor
(parliament), and a ban (viceroy) appointed by the king.[20] The period saw increasing territorial losses to Ottoman conquest. The Ottoman conquests led to the 1493 Battle of Krbava field
Battle of Krbava field
and 1526 Battle of Mohács, both ending in decisive Ottoman victories. King Louis II of Hungary
Louis II of Hungary
died at Mohács, and Ferdinand I of the House of Habsburg was elected in 1527 as the new ruler of Croatia, under the condition that he provide protection to Croatia
Croatia
against the Ottoman Empire, while respecting its political rights.[20][21] The period saw the rise to prominence of a native nobility such as the Frankopans and the Šubićs, and ultimately to numerous bans from the two families.[22] The present coat of arms of Slavonia, used in an official capacity as a part of the coat of arms of Croatia,[23] dates from this period—it was granted to Slavonia
Slavonia
by king Vladislaus II Jagiellon on 8 December 1496.[24] Ottoman conquest[edit]

Luka Ibrišimović
Luka Ibrišimović
led a revolt against Ottomans in Požega.[25]

Main articles: Hundred Years' Croatian–Ottoman War, Sanjak of Pojega, and Great Turkish War Following the Battle of Mohács, the Ottomans expanded their possessions in Slavonia
Slavonia
seizing Đakovo
Đakovo
in 1536 and Požega in 1537, defeating a Habsburg army led by Johann Katzianer, who was attempting to retake Slavonia, at Gorjani
Gorjani
in September 1537. By 1540, Osijek
Osijek
was also under firm control of the Ottomans, and regular administration in Slavonia
Slavonia
was introduced by establishing the Sanjak of Pojega. The Ottoman control in Slavonia
Slavonia
expanded as Novska
Novska
surrendered the same year. Turkish conquest continued— Našice
Našice
were seized in 1541, Orahovica
Orahovica
and Slatina in 1542, and in 1543, Voćin, Sirač
Sirač
and, after a 40-day siege, Valpovo. In 1544, Ottoman forces conquered Pakrac. Lessening hostilities brought about a five-year truce in 1547 and temporary stabilization of the border between Habsburg and Ottoman empires, with Virovitica
Virovitica
becoming the most significant defensive Habsburg fortress and Požega the most significant Ottoman centre in Slavonia, as Ottoman advances to Sisak
Sisak
and Čazma
Čazma
were made, including a brief occupation of the cities. Further westward efforts of the Turkish forces presented a significant threat to Zagreb
Zagreb
and the rest of Croatia
Croatia
and the Hungarian kingdom, prompting a greater defensive commitment by the Habsburg Empire. One year after the 1547 truce ended, Ivan Lenković
Ivan Lenković
devised a system of fortifications and troops in the border areas, a forerunner of the Croatian Military Frontier. Nonetheless, in 1552, the Ottoman conquest of Slavonia
Slavonia
was completed when Virovitica
Virovitica
was captured.[26] Ottoman advances in the Croatian territory continued until the 1593 Battle of Sisak, the first decisive Ottoman defeat, and a more lasting stabilisation of the frontier. During the Great Turkish War
Great Turkish War
(1683–1698), Slavonia
Slavonia
was regained in between 1684 and 1691 when the Ottomans abandoned the region—unlike western Bosnia, which had been part of Croatia
Croatia
before the Ottoman conquest.[21] The present-day southern border of Slavonia
Slavonia
and the border between Croatia
Croatia
and Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina is a remnant of this outcome.[27][28] The Ottoman wars instigated great demographic changes. Croats
Croats
migrated towards Austria
Austria
and the present-day Burgenland Croats
Burgenland Croats
are direct descendants of these settlers.[29] To replace the fleeing Croats, the Habsburgs called on the Orthodox populations of Bosnia
Bosnia
and Serbia
Serbia
to provide military service in the Croatian Military Frontier. Serb migration into this region peaked during the Great Serb Migrations
Great Serb Migrations
of 1690 and 1737–39.[30] Habsburg Monarchy and Austria-Hungary[edit] Main articles: Kingdom of Slavonia
Kingdom of Slavonia
and Austria-Hungary

Pejačević manor in Našice

The areas acquired through the Treaty of Karlowitz
Treaty of Karlowitz
were assigned to Croatia, itself in the union with Hungary
Hungary
and the union ruled by the Habsburgs. The border area along the Una, Sava
Sava
and Danube
Danube
rivers became the Slavonian Military Frontier. At this time, Osijek
Osijek
took over the role of the administrative and military centre of the newly formed Kingdom of Slavonia
Kingdom of Slavonia
from Požega.[28] The 1830s and 1840s saw romantic nationalism inspire the Croatian National Revival, a political and cultural campaign advocating unity of all South Slavs
Slavs
in the empire. Its primary focus was the establishment of a standard language as a counterweight to Hungarian, along with the promotion of Croatian literature and culture.[31] During the Hungarian Revolution of 1848 Croatia
Croatia
sided with the Austrians, Ban Josip Jelačić
Josip Jelačić
helping to defeat the Hungarian forces in 1849, and ushering in a period of Germanization
Germanization
policy.[32] By the 1860s, failure of the policy became apparent, leading to the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867
Compromise of 1867
and creation of a personal union between the crowns of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. The treaty left the issue of Croatia's status to Hungary
Hungary
as a part of Transleithania—and the status was resolved by the Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
Croatian–Hungarian Settlement
of 1868, when the kingdoms of Croatia
Croatia
and Slavonia
Slavonia
were united as the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia.[33] After Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
occupied Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina following the 1878 Treaty of Berlin, the Military Frontiers were abolished and the Croatian and Slavonian Military Frontier territory returned to Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
in 1881,[21] pursuant to provisions of the Croatian-Hungarian Settlement.[34][35] At that time, the easternmost point of Croatia- Slavonia
Slavonia
became Zemun, as all of Syrmia
Syrmia
was encompassed by the kingdom.[28] Kingdom of Yugoslavia
Kingdom of Yugoslavia
and World War II[edit]

Đakovo, Cathedral of St. Peter

See also: Creation of Yugoslavia, Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Banovina of Croatia, World War II
World War II
in Yugoslavia, and Independent State of Croatia On 29 October 1918, the Croatian Sabor
Sabor
declared independence and decided to join the newly formed State of Slovenes, Croats
Croats
and Serbs,[20] which in turn entered into union with the Kingdom of Serbia on 4 December 1918 to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.[36] The Treaty of Trianon
Treaty of Trianon
was signed in 1920, at the end of World War I, between the Allies of World War I
World War I
and Hungary
Hungary
as one of the successor states to Austria-Hungary.[37] The treaty established the southern border of Hungary
Hungary
along the Drava
Drava
and Mura rivers, except in Baranya, where only the northern part of the county was kept by Hungary.[38][39] The territorial acquisition in Baranya was not made a part of Slavonia, even though adjacent to Osijek, because pre-1918 administrative divisions were disestablished by the new kingdom.[40] The political situation in the new kingdom deteriorated, leading to the dictatorship of King Alexander in January 1929.[41] The dictatorship formally ended in 1931 when the king imposed a more unitarian constitution transferring executive power to the king, and changed the name of the country to Yugoslavia.[42] The Cvetković–Maček Agreement
Cvetković–Maček Agreement
of August 1939 created the autonomous Banovina of Croatia
Croatia
incorporating Slavonia. Pursuant to the agreement, the Yugoslav government retained control of defence, internal security, foreign affairs, trade, and transport while other matters were left to the Croatian Sabor
Sabor
and a crown-appointed 'Ban'.[43] In April 1941, Yugoslavia was occupied by Germany and Italy. Following the invasion the territory of Slavonia
Slavonia
was incorporated into the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi-backed puppet state and assigned as a zone under German occupation for the duration of World War II.[44] The regime introduced anti-semitic laws and conducted a campaign of ethnic cleansing and genocide against Serb and Roma populations, exemplified by the Jasenovac and Stara Gradiška concentration camps.[45] Armed resistance soon developed in the region, and by 1942, it controlled substantial territories, especially in mountainous parts of Slavonia.[46] Yugoslav Partisans
Yugoslav Partisans
led by Josip Broz Tito took full control of Slavonia
Slavonia
in April 1945.[47] Federal Yugoslavia and the independence of Croatia[edit] See also: Socialist Republic of Croatia
Croatia
and Croatian War of Independence

Eltz Manor
Eltz Manor
was heavily damaged during the Battle of Vukovar
Battle of Vukovar
and has since been renovated.

After World War II, Croatia—including Slavonia—became a single-party Socialist federal unit of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, ruled by the Communists, but enjoying a degree of autonomy within the federation. The autonomy effectively increased after the 1974 Yugoslav Constitution, basically fulfilling a goal of the Croatian Spring
Croatian Spring
movement, and providing a legal basis for independence of the federative constituents.[48] In 1947, when all borders of the former Yugoslav constituent republics had been defined by demarcation commissions, pursuant to decisions of the AVNOJ
AVNOJ
of 1943 and 1945, the federal organization of Yugoslav Baranya was defined as Croatian territory allowing its integration with Slavonia. The commissions also set up the present-day 317.6-kilometre (197.3 mi) border between Serbia
Serbia
and Croatia
Croatia
in Syrmia, and along the Danube
Danube
River between Ilok
Ilok
and mouth of the Drava
Drava
and further north to the Hungarian border, the section south of confluence of the Drava matching the border between the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia
and the Bács-Bodrog County
Bács-Bodrog County
that existed until 1918 and the end of World War I.[49] In the 1980s the political situation in Yugoslavia deteriorated with national tension fanned by the 1986 Serbian SANU Memorandum and the 1989 coups in Vojvodina, Kosovo and Montenegro.[50][51] In January 1990, the Communist Party fragmented along national lines, with the Croatian faction demanding a looser federation.[52] In the same year, the first multi-party elections were held in Croatia, with Franjo Tuđman's win raising nationalist tensions further.[53] The Serbs in Croatia, intent on achieving independence from Croatia, left the Sabor and declared the autonomy of areas that would soon become the unrecognized Republic of Serbian Krajina
Republic of Serbian Krajina
(RSK).[54][55] As tensions rose, Croatia
Croatia
declared independence in June 1991; however the declaration came into effect on 8 October 1991.[56][57] Tensions escalated into the Croatian War of Independence
Croatian War of Independence
when the Yugoslav National Army and various Serb paramilitaries attacked Croatia.[58] By the end of 1991, a high intensity war fought along a wide front reduced Croatia
Croatia
to controlling about two-thirds of its territory.[59][60]

Vukovar
Vukovar
memorial cemetery

In Slavonia, the first armed conflicts were clashes in Pakrac,[61][62] and Borovo Selo near Vukovar.[63][64] Western Slavonia
Slavonia
was occupied in August 1991, following an advance by the Yugoslav forces north from Banja Luka
Banja Luka
across the Sava
Sava
River.[65] This was partially pushed back by the Croatian Army
Croatian Army
in operations named Otkos 10,[58] and Orkan 91, which established a front line around Okučani
Okučani
and south of Pakrac that would hold virtually unchanged for more than three years until Operation Flash
Operation Flash
in May 1995.[66] Armed conflict in the eastern Slavonia, culminating in the Battle of Vukovar
Battle of Vukovar
and a subsequent massacre,[67][68] also included heavy fighting and the successful defence of Osijek
Osijek
and Vinkovci. The front line stabilized and a ceasefire was agreed to on 2 January 1992, coming into force the next day.[69] After the ceasefire, United Nations Protection Force
United Nations Protection Force
was deployed to the occupied areas,[70] but intermittent artillery and rocket attacks, launched from Serb-held areas of Bosnia, continued in several areas of Slavonia, especially in Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
and Županja.[71][72] The war effectively ended in 1995 with Croatia achieving a decisive victory over the RSK in August 1995.[73] The remaining occupied areas—eastern Slavonia—were restored to Croatia pursuant to the Erdut Agreement
Erdut Agreement
of November 1995, with the process concluded in mid-January 1998.[74] Geography[edit] Political geography[edit] See also: Counties of Croatia

Five counties of Slavonia:   Brod- Posavina
Posavina
County   Osijek-Baranja County   Požega- Slavonia
Slavonia
County   Virovitica- Podravina
Podravina
County   Vukovar-Srijem County

The Croatian counties were re-established in 1992, but their borders changed in some instances, with the latest revision taking place in 2006.[75] Slavonia
Slavonia
consists of five counties—Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica- Podravina
Podravina
and Vukovar-Srijem counties—which largely cover the territory historically associated with Slavonia. The western borders of the five-county territory lie in the area where the western boundary of Slavonia
Slavonia
generally has been located since the Ottoman conquest, with the remaining borders being at the international borders of Croatia.[28] This places the Croatian part of Baranya into the Slavonian counties, constituting the Eastern Croatia
Croatia
macroregion.[76] Terms Eastern Croatia
Croatia
and Slavonia
Slavonia
are increasingly used as synonyms.[77] The Brod-Posavina County
Brod-Posavina County
comprises two cities— Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
and Nova Gradiška—and 26 Municipalities of Croatia.[78] The Osijek-Baranja County consists of seven cities—Beli Manastir, Belišće, Donji Miholjac, Đakovo, Našice, Osijek
Osijek
and Valpovo—and 35 municipalities.[79] The Požega-Slavonia County
Požega-Slavonia County
comprises five cities—Kutjevo, Lipik, Pakrac, Pleternica
Pleternica
and Požega—and five municipalities.[80] The Virovitica-Podravina County
Virovitica-Podravina County
covers three cities—Orahovica, Slatina and Virovitica—and 13 municipalities.[81] The Vukovar-Srijem County encompasses five cities—Ilok, Otok, Vinkovci, Vukovar
Vukovar
and Županja—and 26 municipalities.[82] The whole of Slavonia
Slavonia
is the eastern half of Central and Eastern (Pannonian) Croatia
Croatia
NUTS-2 statistical unit of Croatia, together with further areas of Central Croatia. Other statistical units correspond to the counties, cities and municipalities.[83] The five counties combined cover area size of 12,556 square kilometres (4,848 square miles), representing 22.2% of territory of Croatia.[84]

County Seat Area (km²) Population

Brod-Posavina Slavonski Brod 2,043 158,559

Osijek-Baranja Osijek 4,152 304,899

Požega-Slavonia Požega 1,845 78,031

Virovitica-Podravina Virovitica 2,068 84,586

Vukovar-Srijem Vukovar 2,448 180,117

TOTAL: 12,556 806,192

Source: Croatian Bureau of Statistics[84][85]

Physical geography[edit] See also: Geography of Croatia The boundaries of Slavonia, as a geographical region, do not necessarily coincide with the borders of the five counties, except in the south and east where the Sava
Sava
and Danube
Danube
rivers define them. The international borders of Croatia
Croatia
are boundaries common to both definitions of the region. In the north, the boundaries largely coincide because the Drava
Drava
River is considered to be the northern border of Slavonia
Slavonia
as a geographic region,[49] but this excludes Baranya from the geographic region's definition even though this territory is part of a county otherwise associated with Slavonia.[86][87][88] The western boundary of the geographic region is not specifically defined and it was variously defined through history depending on the political divisions of Croatia.[28] The eastern Croatia, as a geographic term, largely overlaps most definitions of Slavonia. It is defined as the territory of the Brod-Posavina, Osijek-Baranja, Požega-Slavonia, Virovitica- Podravina
Podravina
and Vukovar- Syrmia
Syrmia
counties, including Baranya.[89] Topography[edit] See also: Pannonian Basin

Mountains of Slavonia[84]

Mountain Peak Elevation Coordinates

Psunj Brezovo Polje 984 m (3,228 ft) 45°24′N 17°19′E / 45.400°N 17.317°E / 45.400; 17.317

Papuk Papuk 953 m (3,127 ft) 45°32′N 17°39′E / 45.533°N 17.650°E / 45.533; 17.650

Krndija Kapovac 792 m (2,598 ft) 45°27′N 17°55′E / 45.450°N 17.917°E / 45.450; 17.917

Požeška Gora Kapavac 618 m (2,028 ft) 45°17′N 17°35′E / 45.283°N 17.583°E / 45.283; 17.583

Papuk, the second highest mountain in Slavonia

Slavonia
Slavonia
is entirely located in the Pannonian Basin, one of three major geomorphological parts of Croatia.[90] The Pannonian Basin
Pannonian Basin
took shape through Miocenian thinning and subsidence of crust structures formed during Late Paleozoic
Paleozoic
Variscan orogeny. The Paleozoic
Paleozoic
and Mesozoic
Mesozoic
structures are visible in Papuk
Papuk
and other Slavonian mountains. The processes also led to the formation of a stratovolcanic chain in the basin 17 – 12 Mya (million years ago) and intensified subsidence observed until 5 Mya as well as flood basalts about 7.5 Mya. Contemporary uplift of the Carpathian Mountains prevented water flowing to the Black Sea, and the Pannonian Sea formed in the basin. Sediments were transported to the basin from uplifting Carpathian and Dinaric mountains, with particularly deep fluvial sediments being deposited in the Pleistocene
Pleistocene
during the uplift of the Transdanubian Mountains.[91] Ultimately, up to 3,000 metres (9,800 feet) of the sediment was deposited in the basin, and the Pannonian sea eventually drained through the Iron Gate gorge.[92] In the southern Pannonian Basin, the Neogene
Neogene
to Quaternary
Quaternary
sediment depth is normally lower, averaging 500 to 1,500 metres (1,600 to 4,900 feet), except in central parts of depressions formed by subduction—around 4,000 metres (13,000 feet) in the Slavonia-Syrmia depression, 5,500 metres (18,000 feet) in the Sava
Sava
depression and nearly 7,000 metres (23,000 feet) in the Drava
Drava
depression, with the deepest sediment found between Virovitica
Virovitica
and Slatina.[93] The results of those processes are large plains in eastern Slavonia, Baranya and Syrmia, as well as in river valleys, especially along the Sava, Drava
Drava
and Kupa. The plains are interspersed by the horst and graben structures, believed to have broken the Pannonian Sea
Pannonian Sea
surface as islands.[94] The tallest among such landforms in Slavonia
Slavonia
are 984-metre (3,228 ft) Psunj, and 953-metre (3,127 ft) Papuk—flanking the Požega Valley
Požega Valley
from the west and the north.[84] These two and Krndija, adjacent to Papuk, consist mostly of Paleozoic rocks which are 350 – 300 million years old. Požeška Gora and Dilj, to the east of Psunj
Psunj
and enveloping the valley from the south, consist of much more recent Neogene
Neogene
rocks, but Požeška Gora also contains Upper Cretaceous
Cretaceous
sediments and igneous rocks forming the main, 30-kilometre (19 mi) ridge of the hill and representing the largest igneous landform in Croatia. A smaller igneous landform is also present on Papuk, near Voćin.[95] The two mountains, as well as Moslavačka gora, west of Pakrac, are possible remnants of a volcanic arc related to Alpine orogeny—uplifting of the Dinaric Alps.[96] The Đakovo – Vukovar
Vukovar
loess plain, extending eastward from Dilj
Dilj
and representing the watershed between the Vuka and Bosut rivers, gradually rises to the Fruška Gora
Fruška Gora
south of Ilok.[97]

Plain
Plain
near Đakovo
Đakovo
after harvest

Hydrography and climate[edit]

The Drava
Drava
in Osijek

The largest rivers in Slavonia
Slavonia
are found along or near its borders—the Danube, Sava
Sava
and Drava. The length of the Danube, flowing along the eastern border of Slavonia
Slavonia
and through the cities of Vukovar
Vukovar
and Ilok, is 188 kilometres (117 miles), and its main tributaries are the Drava
Drava
112-kilometre (70 mi) and the Vuka. The Drava
Drava
discharges into the Danube
Danube
near Aljmaš, east of Osijek, while mouth of the Vuka is located in Vukovar. Major tributaries of the Sava, flowing along the southern border of Slavonia
Slavonia
and through cities of Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
and Županja
Županja
are 89-kilometre (55 mi) the Orljava
Orljava
flowing through Požega, and the Bosut—whose 151-kilometre (94 mi) course in Slavonia
Slavonia
takes it through Vinkovci. There are no large lakes in Slavonia. The largest ones are Lake Kopačevo whose surface area varies between 1.5 and 3.5 square kilometres (0.58 and 1.35 square miles), and Borovik Reservoir
Reservoir
covering 2.5 square kilometres (0.97 square miles).[84] The Lake Kopačevo is connected to the Danube
Danube
via Hulovski canal, situated within the Kopački Rit wetland,[98] while the Lake Borovik is an artificial lake created in 1978 in the upper course of the Vuka River.[99] The entire Slavonia
Slavonia
belongs to the Danube
Danube
basin and the Black Sea catchment area, but it is divided in two sub-basins. One of those drains into the Sava—itself a Danube
Danube
tributary—and the other into the Drava
Drava
or directly into the Danube. The drainage divide between the two sub-basins runs along Papuk
Papuk
and Krndija
Krndija
mountains, in effect tracing the southern boundary of the Virovitica-Podravina County
Virovitica-Podravina County
and the northern boundary of Požega- Slavonia
Slavonia
County, cuts through the Osijek- Podravina
Podravina
County north of Đakovo
Đakovo
and finally bisects the Vukovar- Syrmia
Syrmia
County running between Vukovar
Vukovar
and Vinkovci
Vinkovci
to reach Fruška Gora
Fruška Gora
southwest of Ilok. The Entire Brod-Posavina County
Brod-Posavina County
is located in the Sava
Sava
sub-basin.[100] Most of Croatia, including Slavonia, has a moderately warm and rainy continental climate as defined by the Köppen climate classification. Mean annual temperature averages 10 to 12 °C (50 to 54 °F), with the warmest month, July, averaging just below 22 °C (72 °F). Temperature peaks are more pronounced in the continental areas—the lowest temperature of −27.8 °C (−18.0 °F) was recorded on 24 January 1963 in Slavonski Brod,[101] and the highest temperature of 40.5 °C (104.9 °F) was recorded on 5 July 1950 in Đakovo.[102] The least precipitation is recorded in the eastern parts of Slavonia
Slavonia
at less than 700 millimetres (28 inches) per year, however in the latter case, it mostly occurs during the growing season. The western parts of Slavonia
Slavonia
receive 900 to 1,000 millimetres (35 to 39 inches) precipitation. Low winter temperatures and the distribution of precipitation throughout the year normally result in snow cover, and freezing rivers—requiring use of icebreakers, and in extreme cases explosives,[103] to maintain the flow of water and navigation.[104] Slavonia
Slavonia
receives more than 2,000 hours of sunshine per year on average. Prevailing winds are light to moderate, northeasterly and southwesterly.[84] Demographics[edit] See also: Demographics of Croatia

Geographic map of Slavonia

According to the 2011 census, the total population of the five counties of Slavonia
Slavonia
was 806,192, accounting for 19% of population of Croatia. The largest portion of the total population lives in Osijek-Baranja county, followed by Vukovar- Syrmia
Syrmia
county. Požega- Slavonia
Slavonia
county is the least populous county of Slavonia. Overall the population density stands at 64.2 persons per square kilometre. The population density ranges from 77.6 to 40.9 persons per square kilometre, with the highest density recorded in Brod-Posavina county and the lowest in Virovitica- Podravina
Podravina
county. Osijek
Osijek
is the largest city in Slavonia, followed by Slavonski Brod, Vinkovci
Vinkovci
and Vukovar. Other cities in Slavonia
Slavonia
have populations below 20,000.[85] According to the 2001 census, Croats
Croats
account for 85.6 percent of population of Slavonia, and the most significant ethnic minorities are Serbs and Hungarians, comprising 8.8 percent and 1.4 percent of the population respectively. The largest portion of the Serb minority was recorded in Vukovar- Syrmia
Syrmia
county (15 percent), while the largest Hungarian minority, in both relative and absolute terms, was observed in Osijek-Baranja county. The census recorded 85.4% of the population declaring themselves as Catholic, with further 4.4% belonging to Serbian Orthodox Church
Serbian Orthodox Church
and 0.7% Muslims. 3.1% declared themselves as non-religious, agnostics or declined to declare their religion. The most widely used language in the region is Croatian, declared as the first language by 93.6% of the total population, followed by Serbian (2.6%) and Hungarian (1.0%).[105] The demographic history of Slavonia
Slavonia
is characterised by significant migrations, as is that of Croatia
Croatia
as a whole, starting with the arrival of the Croats, between the 6th and 9th centuries.[14] Following the establishment of the personal union of Croatia
Croatia
and Hungary
Hungary
in 1102,[19] and the joining of the Habsburg Empire
Habsburg Empire
in 1527,[20] the Hungarian and German speaking population of Croatia began gradually increasing in number. The processes of Magyarization and Germanization
Germanization
varied in intensity but persisted until the beginning of the 20th century.[32][106] The Ottoman conquests initiated a westward migration of parts of the Croatian population;[107] the Burgenland Croats
Burgenland Croats
are direct descendants of some of those settlers.[29] To replace the fleeing Croats
Croats
the Habsburgs called on the Orthodox populations of Bosnia
Bosnia
and Serbia
Serbia
to provide military service in the Croatian Military Frontier. Serb migration into this region peaked during the Great Serb Migrations
Great Serb Migrations
of 1690 and 1737–39.[30] Following the collapse of Austria-Hungary
Austria-Hungary
in 1918, the Hungarian population declined, due to emigration and ethnic bias. The changes were especially significant in the areas north of the Drava river, and Baranja County where they represented the majority before World War I.[108]

The most populous urban areas in Slavonia

Osijek

Slavonski Brod

Rank City County Urban population Municipal population

Vukovar

Požega

1 Osijek Osijek-Baranja 83,496 107,784

2 Slavonski Brod Brod-Posavina 53,473 59,507

3 Vinkovci Vukovar-Srijem 31,961 35,375

4 Vukovar Vukovar-Srijem 26,716 28,016

5 Požega Požega-Slavonia 19,565 26,403

6 Đakovo Osijek-Baranja 19,508 27,798

7 Virovitica Virovitica-Podravina 14,663 21,327

8 Županja Vukovar-Syrmia 12,115 12,185

9 Nova Gradiška Brod-Posavina 11,767 14,196

10 Slatina Virovitica-Podravina 10,152 13,609

County seats are indicated with bold font. Sources: Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 2011 Census[85]

Since the end of the 19th century there was substantial economic emigration abroad from Croatia
Croatia
in general.[109][110] After World War I, the Yugoslav regime confiscated up to 50 percent of properties and encouraged settlement of the land by Serb volunteers and war veterans in Slavonia,[28] only to have them evicted and replaced by up to 70,000 new settlers by the regime during World War II.[111] During World War II
World War II
and in the period immediately following the war, there were further significant demographic changes, as the German-speaking population, the Danube
Danube
Swabians, were either forced or otherwise compelled to leave—reducing their number from the prewar German population of Yugoslavia of 500,000, living in Slavonia
Slavonia
and other parts of present-day Croatia
Croatia
and Serbia, to the figure of 62,000 recorded in the 1953 census.[112] The 1940s and the 1950s in Yugoslavia were marked by colonisation of settlements where the displaced Germans used to live, by people from the mountainous parts of Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina, Serbia
Serbia
and Montenegro, and migrations to larger cities spurred on by the development of industry.[113][not in citation given] In the 1960s and 1970s, another wave of economic migrants left—largely moving to Canada, Australia, New Zealand
New Zealand
and Western Europe.[114][115][116] The most recent changes to the ethnic composition of Slavonian counties occurred between censuses conducted in 1991 and 2001. The 1991 census recorded a heterogenous population consisting mostly of Croats
Croats
and Serbs—at 72 percent and 17 percent of the total population respectively. The Croatian War of Independence, and the ethnic fracturing of Yugoslavia that preceded it, caused an exodus of the Croat population followed by an exodus of Serbs. The return of refugees since the end of hostilities is not complete—a majority of Croat refugees returned, while fewer Serbs did. In addition, ethnic Croats
Croats
moved to Slavonia
Slavonia
from Bosnia
Bosnia
and Herzegovina and from Serbia.[76] Economy and transport[edit] See also: Economy of Croatia
Croatia
and Transport
Transport
in Croatia

The port of Vukovar, Danube
Danube
River

The economy of Slavonia
Slavonia
is largely based on wholesale and retail trade and processing industry. Food processing
Food processing
is one of the most significant types of the processing industries in the region, supporting agricultural production in the area and encompassing meat packing, fruit and vegetable processing, sugar refining, confectionery and dairy industry. In addition, there are wineries in the region that are significant to economy of Croatia. Other types of the processing industry significant to Slavonia
Slavonia
are wood processing, including production of furniture, cellulose, paper and cardboard; metalworking, textile industry and glass production. Transport
Transport
and civil engineering are two further significant economic activities in Slavonia.[117] The largest industrial centre of Slavonia
Slavonia
is Osijek, followed by other county seats—Slavonski Brod, Virovitica, Požega and Vukovar, as well as several other cities, especially Vinkovci.[118][119][120][121][122] The gross domestic product (GDP) of the five counties in Slavonia combined (in year 2008) amounted to 6,454 million euro, or 8,005 euro per capita—27.5% below Croatia's national average. The GDP
GDP
of the five counties represented 13.6% of Croatia's GDP.[123] Several Pan-European transport corridors run through Slavonia: corridor Vc as the A5 motorway, corridor X as the A3 motorway and a double-track railway spanning Slavonia
Slavonia
from west to east, and corridor VII—the Danube
Danube
River waterway.[124] The waterway is accessed through the Port of Vukovar, the largest Croatian river port, situated on the Danube
Danube
itself, and the Port of Osijek
Osijek
on the Drava
Drava
River, 14.5 kilometres (9.0 miles) away from confluence of the rivers.[125] Another major sector of the economy of Slavonia
Slavonia
is agriculture, which also provides part of the raw materials for the processing industry. Out of 1,077,403 hectares (2,662,320 acres) of utilized agricultural land in Croatia, 493,878 hectares (1,220,400 acres), or more than 45%, are found in Slavonia, with the largest portion of the land situated in the Osijek-Baranja and Vukovar- Syrmia
Syrmia
counties. The largest areas are used for production of cereals and oilseeds, covering 574,916 hectares (1,420,650 acres) and 89,348 hectares (220,780 acres) respectively. Slavonia's share in Croatia's agriculturally productive land is greatest in the production of cereals (53.5%), legumes (46.8%), oilseeds (88.8%), sugar beet (90%), tobacco (97.9%), plants used in pharmaceutical or perfume industry (80.9%), flowers, seedlings and seeds (80.3%) and plants used in the textile industry (69%). Slavonia
Slavonia
also contributes 25.7% of cattle, 42.7% of pigs and 20% of the poultry stock of Croatia. There are 5,138 hectares (12,700 acres) of vineyards in Slavonia, representing 18.6% of total vineyards area in Croatia. Production of fruit and nuts also takes up a significant agricultural area. Apple orchards cover 1,261 hectares (3,120 acres), representing 42.3% of Croatia's apple plantations, plums are produced in orchards encompassing 450 hectares (1,100 acres) or 59.7% of Croatia's plum plantations and hazelnut orchards cover 319 hectares (790 acres), which account for 72.4% of hazelnut plantations in Croatia. Other significant permanent crops are cherries, pears, peaches and walnuts.[126]

Counties of Slavonia
Slavonia
by GDP, in million Euro

County 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Brod-Posavina 575 643 699 717 782 786 869 931 1,074 968

Osijek-Baranja 1,370 1,499 1,699 1,710 1,884 1,999 2,193 2,538 2,844 2,590

Požega-Slavonia 337 371 395 428 456 472 484 541 557 510

Virovitica-Podravina 378 434 465 478 493 497 584 616 661 561

Vukovar-Srijem 651 723 795 836 889 964 1,098 1,144 1,318 1,180

Source: Croatian Bureau of Statistics[127][128][129][130]

Counties of Slavonia
Slavonia
by GDP
GDP
per capita, in Euro

County 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009

Brod-Posavina 3,260 3,633 3,955 4,065 4,452 4,487 4,972 5,345 6,183 5,606

Osijek-Baranja 4,147 4,537 5,149 5,199 5,750 6,127 6,757 7,875 8,871 8,112

Požega-Slavonia 3,934 4,320 4,610 5,020 5,383 5,605 5,786 6,505 6,750 6,229

Virovitica-Podravina 4,045 4,654 5,016 5,176 5,410 5,485 6,497 6,923 7,485 6,399

Vukovar-Srijem 3,184 3,528 3,903 4,127 4,414 4,807 5,501 5,756 6,647 5,974

Source: Croatian Bureau of Statistics[127][128][129][130]

In 2010, only two companies headquartered in Slavonia
Slavonia
ranked among top 100 Croatian companies—Belje, agricultural industry owned by Agrokor,[131] and Belišće, paper mill and paper packaging material factory,[132] headquartered in Darda and Belišće
Belišće
respectively, both in Osijek-Baranja County. Belje ranks as the 44th and Belišće
Belišće
as the 99th largest Croatian company by income. Other significant businesses in the county include civil engineering company Osijek-Koteks (rank 103),[133] Saponia detergent and personal care product factory (rank 138),[134] Biljemerkant retail business (rank 145),[135] and Našicecement cement plant (rank 165), a part of Nexe Grupa construction product manufacturing company.[136] Sugar refining company Viro,[137] ranked the 101st and headquartered in Virovitica, is the largest company in Virovitica- Podravina
Podravina
County. Đuro Đaković Montaža d.d., a part of metal processing industry Đuro Đaković Holding of Slavonski Brod,[138] ranks the 171st among the Croatian companies and it is the largest business in Brod- Posavina
Posavina
County. Another agricultural industry company, Kutjevo
Kutjevo
d.d., headquartered in Kutjevo, is the largest company in Požega- Slavonia
Slavonia
County,[139] ranks the 194th in Croatia
Croatia
by business income. Finally, the largest company by income in Vukovar- Syrmia
Syrmia
county is another Agrokor
Agrokor
owned agricultural production company—Vupik, headquartered in Vukovar,[140] and ranking the 161st among the companies headquartered in Croatia.[141] Culture[edit] See also: Culture of Croatia

Miroslav Kraljević, self-portrait

The cultural heritage of Slavonia
Slavonia
represents a blend of social influences through its history, especially since the end of the 17th century, and the traditional culture. A particular impact was made by Baroque
Baroque
art and architecture of the 18th century, when the cities of Slavonia
Slavonia
started developing after the Ottoman wars ended and stability was restored to the area. The period saw great prominence of the nobility, who were awarded estates in Slavonia
Slavonia
by the imperial court in return for their service during the wars. They included Prince Eugene of Savoy, the House of Esterházy, the House of Odescalchi, Philipp Karl von Eltz-Kempenich, the House of Prandau-Normann, the House of Pejačević
House of Pejačević
and the House of Janković. That in turn encouraged an influx of contemporary European culture to the region. Subsequent development of the cities and society saw the influence of Neoclassicism, Historicism and especially of Art Nouveau.[86] The heritage of the region includes numerous landmarks, especially manor houses built by the nobility in largely in the 18th and the 19th centuries. Those include Prandau-Normann and Prandau-Mailath manor houses in Valpovo
Valpovo
and Donji Miholjac
Donji Miholjac
respectively,[142][143] manor houses in Baranja—in Bilje,[144] at a former Esterházy estate in Darda,[145] in Tikveš,[146] and in Kneževo.[147] Pejačevićs built several residences, the most representative ones among them being manor house in Virovitica
Virovitica
and the Pejačević manor house in Našice.[148] Further east, along the Danube, there are Odescalchi manor house in Ilok,[149] and Eltz manor house in Vukovar—the latter sustained extensive damage during the Battle of Vukovar
Battle of Vukovar
in 1991,[150] but it was reconstructed by 2011.[151] In the southeast of the region, the most prominent are Kutjevo
Kutjevo
Jesuit manor house,[152] and Cernik manor house, located in Kutjevo
Kutjevo
and Cernik respectively.[153] The period also saw construction of Tvrđa
Tvrđa
and Brod fortifications in Osijek
Osijek
and Slavonski Brod.[154][155] Older, medieval fortifications are preserved only as ruins—the largest among those being Ružica Castle near Orahovica.[156] Another landmark dating to the 19th century is the Đakovo
Đakovo
Cathedral—hailed by the Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII
as the most beautiful church situated between Venice
Venice
and Istanbul.[157][158]

Erdut
Erdut
Castle, 15th-century fortification near Erdut[159]

Slavonia
Slavonia
significantly contributed to the culture of Croatia
Croatia
as a whole, both through works of artists and through patrons of the arts—most notable among them being Josip Juraj Strossmayer.[160] Strossmayer was instrumental in the establishment of the Yugoslav Academy of Sciences and Arts, later renamed the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts,[161] and the reestablishment of the University of Zagreb.[162] A number of Slavonia's artists, especially writers, made considerable contributions to Croatian culture. Nineteenth-century writers who are most significant in Croatian literature include Josip Eugen Tomić, Josip Kozarac, and Miroslav Kraljević—author of the first Croatian novel.[160] Significant twentieth-century poets and writers in Slavonia
Slavonia
were Dobriša Cesarić, Dragutin Tadijanović, Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić
Ivana Brlić-Mažuranić
and Antun Gustav Matoš.[163] Painters associated with Slavonia, who contributed greatly to Croatian art, were Miroslav Kraljević and Bela Čikoš Sesija.[164] Slavonia
Slavonia
is a distinct region of Croatia
Croatia
in terms of ethnological factors in traditional music. It is a region where traditional culture is preserved through folklore festivals. Typical traditional music instruments belong to the tamburica and bagpipe family.[165] The tamburica is the most representative musical instrument associated with Slavonia's traditional culture. It developed from music instruments brought by the Ottomans during their rule of Slavonia, becoming an integral part of the traditional music, its use surpassing or even replacing the use of bagpipes and gusle.[166] A distinct form of traditional song, originating in Slavonia, the bećarac, is recognized as an intangible cultural heritage by UNESCO.[167][168] Out of 122 Croatia's universities and other institutions of higher education,[169] Slavonia
Slavonia
is home to one university—Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek—[170] as well as three polytechnics in Požega, Slavonski Brod
Slavonski Brod
and Vukovar, as well as a college in Virovitica—all set up and run by the government.[171][172] The University of Osijek, has been established in 1975,[173] but the first institution of higher education in the city was Studium Philosophicum Essekini founded in 1707, and active until 1780.[174] Another historical institution of higher education was Academia Posegana operating in Požega between 1761 and 1776,[175] as an extension of a gymnasium operating in the city continuously,[176] since it opened in 1699 as the first secondary education school in Slavonia.[177] Cuisine and wines[edit] See also: Cuisine of Croatia
Croatia
and Croatian wine The cuisine of Slavonia
Slavonia
reflects cultural influences on the region through the diversity of its culinary influences. The most significant among those were from Hungarian, Viennese, Central European, as well as Turkish and Arab cuisines brought by series of conquests and accompanying social influences. The ingredients of traditional dishes are pickled vegetables, dairy products and smoked meats.[178] The most famous traditional preserved meat product is kulen, one of a handful Croatian products protected by the EU as indigenous products.[179] Slavonia
Slavonia
is one of Croatia's winemaking sub-regions, a part of its continental winegrowing region. The best known winegrowing areas of Slavonia
Slavonia
are centered on Đakovo, Ilok
Ilok
and Kutjevo, where Graševina grapes are predominant, but other cultivars are increasingly present.[180] In past decades, an increasing quantity of wine production in Slavonia
Slavonia
was accompanied by increasing quality and growing recognition at home and abroad.[181] Grape vines were first grown in the region of Ilok, as early as the 3rd century AD. The oldest Slavonian wine cellar still in continuous use for winemaking is located in Kutjevo—built in 1232 by Cistercians.[182] Slavonian oak is used to make botti, large barrels traditionally used in the Piedmont region of Italy
Italy
to make nebbiolo wines.[183] See also[edit]

Croatia
Croatia
portal

Regions of Croatia

References[edit]

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Croatia
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Vinkovci
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Bibliography[edit]

Richard C. Frucht (2005). Eastern Europe: An Introduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. Retrieved 18 October 2011.  Matjaž Klemenčič; Mitja Žagar (2004). The former Yugoslavia's diverse peoples: a reference sourcebook. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-57607-294-3. Retrieved 17 October 2011.  Frederic Chapin Lane (1973). Venice, a Maritime Republic. JHU Press. ISBN 978-0-8018-1460-0. Retrieved 18 October 2011.  Ivan Mužić (2007). Hrvatska povijest devetoga stoljeća [Croatian Ninth Century History] (PDF) (in Croatian). Naklada Bošković. ISBN 978-953-263-034-3. Retrieved 14 October 2011.  Nation, R. Craig (2004). War in the Balkans, 1991–2002. Lightning Source. ISBN 978-1-4102-1773-8. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Slavonia.

Croatian National Tourist Board
Croatian National Tourist Board
– Slavonia Regional Development Agency of Slavonia
Slavonia
and Baranja

v t e

Regions of Croatia

Principal historical regions

Croatia
Croatia
proper Dalmatia Slavonia Istria

Smaller regions

Croatia
Croatia
proper

Banovina Bilogora Croatian Littoral Gorski Kotar Kordun Krbava Kvarner Gulf Lika Međimurje Moslavina Pokuplje Prigorje Turopolje Vinodol Zagorje Žumberak

Dalmatia

Bukovica Konavle Kosinj Ravni kotari Zagora

Slavonia

Cvelferija Požega Valley Spačva Syrmia Podunavlje

Other

Baranya Podravina Posavina

Category Commons category

Coordinates: 45°27′N 17°55′E / 45.450°N 17.917°E / 45.450; 17.917

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 248528

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