Sivalik Hills is a mountain range of the outer Himalayas. It is
about 2,400 km (1,500 mi) long enclosing an area that starts
almost from the Indus and ends close to the Brahmaputra, with a gap of
about 90 kilometres (56 mi) between the Teesta and Raidak rivers
in Assam. The width of the
Sivalik Hills varies from 10 to 50 km
(6.2 to 31.1 mi), their average elevation is 1,500 to
2,000 m (4,900 to 6,600 ft).
Sanskrit texts, the region is called Manak Parbat. Shivalik
literally means 'tresses of Shiva’.
4 In culture
5 See also
Gangas cutting through the Sivalik Hills
View of the
Sivalik Hills from Sukhna Lake
Sivalik Hills belong to the
Tertiary deposits of the
outer Himalayas. They are chiefly composed of sandstone and
conglomerate rock formations, which are the solidified detritus of the
Himalayas to their north; they poorly consolidated. The remnant
magnetization of siltstones and sandstones indicates that they were
deposited 16–5.2 million years ago. In Nepal, the Karnali River
exposes the oldest part of the Sivalik Hills.
They are the southernmost and geologically youngest east-west mountain
chain of the Himalayas. They have many sub-ranges and extend west from
Arunachal Pradesh through
Bhutan to West Bengal, and further westward
Nepal and Uttarakhand, continuing into
Himachal Pradesh and
Kashmir. The hills are cut through at wide intervals by numerous large
rivers flowing south from the Himalayas.
They are bounded on the south by a fault system called the Main
Frontal Thrust, with steeper slopes on that side. Below this, the
Bhabar zone makes the transition to the nearly level
plains. Rainfall, especially during the summer monsoon, percolates
into the Bhabar, then is forced to the surface by finer alluvial
layers below it in a zone of springs and marshes along the northern
edge of the
Terai or plains.
North of the
Sivalik Hills the 1,500–3,000 meter Lesser Himalayas
also known as the
Mahabharat Range rise steeply along fault lines. In
many places the two ranges are adjacent but in other places structural
valleys 10–20 km wide separate them.
Sivapithecus (a kind of ape, formerly known as Ramapithecus) is among
many fossil finds in the Siwalik region.
The Siwalik Hills are also among the richest fossil sites for large
animals anywhere in Asia. The Hills had revealed that all kinds of
animals lived there. They were early ancestors to the sloth bear,
Sivatherium, an ancient giraffe, Colossochelys atlas, a giant tortoise
named the Siwaliks giant tortoise
Megalochelys atlas amongst other
The remains of the
Lower Paleolithic (ca. 500,000 to 125,000 BP)
Soanian culture have been found in the Siwalik region.
Contemporary to the Acheulean, the
Soanian culture is named after the
Soan Valley in the Siwalik Hills of Pakistan. The bearers of this
culture were Homo erectus.
Low population densities in the Siwalik and along the steep southern
slopes of the Mahabharat Range, plus virulent malaria in the damp
forests on their fringes create a cultural, linguistic and political
buffer zone between dense populations in the plains to the south and
the "hills" beyond the Mahabharat escarpment, isolating the two
populations from each other and enabling different evolutionary paths
with respect to language, race and culture.
People of the Lepcha tribe inhabit the Sikkim and Darjeeling areas.
The Indian Navy's
Shivalik class frigate
Shivalik class frigate is named after these ranges.
Margalla Hills — subrange in Islamabad region.
Frederick Walter Champion, forester and wildlife photographer was
posted here after
World War I
World War I until 1947
Dundwa Range – subrange separating Deukhuri—an Inner
in western Nepal—from the Outer
Terai in Balrampur and Shravasti
districts, Utter Pradesh
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shivalik Hills.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
^ Kohli, M. S. (2004). Mountains of India: Tourism, Adventure,
Pilgrimage. Indus Publishing, New Delhi.
^ Kohli, M.S. (2002). Mountains of India: Tourism, Adventure and
Pilgrimage. Indus Publishing. pp. 25–.
^ Balokhra, J. M. (1999). The Wonderland of Himachal Pradesh. Revised
and enlarged 4th edition. H.G. Publications, New Delhi.
^ a b Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Siwalik Hills". Encyclopædia
Britannica. 25 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
^ Gautam, P., Fujiwara, Y. (2000). "Magnetic polarity stratigraphy of
Siwalik Group sediments of Karnali River section in western Nepal".
Geophysical Journal International. 142 (3): 812–824. CS1 maint:
Uses authors parameter (link)
^ Mani, M.S. (2012). Ecology and Biogeography in India. Springer
Science & Business Media. p. 690.
^ Lycett, Stephen J (2007), "Is the
Soanian techno-complex a Mode 1 or
Mode 3 phenomenon? A morphometric assessment", Journal of
Archaeological Science, 34 (9): 1434,
^ Distribution of Acheulian sites in the Siwalik region
Geography of South Asia
Mountains and plateaus
Toba Kakar Range
Chittagong Hill Tracts
Lowlands and islands
Indus River Delta
Atolls of the Maldives
Andaman and Nicobar Islands
Sundarbans Reserve Forest
Greater Rann of Kutch
Little Rann of Kutch
Protected areas in Tamil Nadu
Coordinates: 27°46′N 82°24′E / 27.767°N 82.400°E /