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The SINAI PENINSULA or simply SINAI (/ˈsaɪnaɪ/ ; Arabic : سيناء‎‎ Sīnāʼ ; Egyptian Arabic : سينا‎‎ Sīna, IPA: ; Hebrew : סיני‎‎ Sinai) is a peninsula in Egypt
Egypt
, situated between the Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
to the north and the Red Sea
Red Sea
to the south, serving as a land bridge between Asia
Asia
and Africa
Africa
. It is the only part of Egyptian territory located in Asia. Sinai has a land area of about 60,000 km2 (23,000 sq mi) and a population of approximately 1,400,000 people. The bulk of the peninsula is divided administratively into two of Egypt's 27 governorates (with three more straddling the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
area).

The Sinai Peninsula
Peninsula
has been a part of Egypt
Egypt
from the First Dynasty of ancient Egypt
Egypt
(c. 3100 BC). This comes in stark contrast to the region north of it, the Levant
Levant
(present-day territories of Syria
Syria
, Lebanon
Lebanon
, Jordan
Jordan
, Israel
Israel
and Palestine ), which, due largely to its strategic geopolitical location and cultural convergences, has historically been the centre of conflict between Egypt
Egypt
and various states of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
and Asia
Asia
Minor . In periods of foreign occupation, the Sinai was, like the rest of Egypt, also occupied and controlled by foreign empires, in more recent history the Ottoman Empire (1517–1867 ) and the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
(1882–1956). Israel invaded and occupied Sinai during the Suez Crisis
Suez Crisis
(known in Egypt
Egypt
as the Tripartite Aggression due to the simultaneous coordinated attack by the UK, France and Israel) of 1956, and during the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
of 1967. On 6 October 1973, Egypt
Egypt
launched the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
to retake the peninsula, which was the site of fierce fighting between Egyptian and Israeli forces. By 1982, as a result of the Israel– Egypt
Egypt
Peace Treaty of 1979, Israel
Israel
had withdrawn from all of the Sinai Peninsula except the contentious territory of Taba , which was returned after a ruling by a commission of arbitration in 1989.

Today, Sinai has become a tourist destination due to its natural setting, rich coral reefs , and biblical history. Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
is one of the most religiously significant places in the Abrahamic faiths .

CONTENTS

* 1 Name

* 2 Geography

* 2.1 Climate

* 3 History

* 3.1 Ancient Egypt
Egypt
* 3.2 Assyrian Period * 3.3 Achaemenid Persian Period * 3.4 Hellenistic Period * 3.5 Roman and Byzantine Periods * 3.6 Early Muslim
Muslim
Period * 3.7 Ayyubid Period * 3.8 Mamluk and Ottoman Periods * 3.9 British control * 3.10 Wars with Israel
Israel
(1948, 56, 67, 67–70, 73) * 3.11 1979 Peace Treaty with Israel
Israel
and aftermath * 3.12 Recent security issues

* 4 Demographics * 5 Economy * 6 See also * 7 References * 8 Further reading * 9 External links

NAME

Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
(Gabal Musa)

The name Sinai may have been derived from the ancient moon-god Sin or from the Hebrew word Seneh (Hebrew : סֶ֫נֶּה‎‎ Senneh) The peninsula acquired the name due to the assumption that a mountain near Saint Catherine\'s Monastery
Monastery
is the Biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
. However this assumption is contested.

In addition to its formal name, Egyptians also refer to it as Arḍ ul-Fairūz (أرض الفيروز "the land of turquoise "). The ancient Egyptians called it Ta Mefkat, or "land of turquoise".

GEOGRAPHY

Image from Gemini 11 spacecraft, featuring part of Egypt
Egypt
and the Sinai Peninsula
Peninsula
in the foreground and the Levant
Levant
in the background

Sinai is triangular in shape, with northern shore lying on the southern Mediterranean Sea
Mediterranean Sea
, and southwest and southeast shores on Gulf of Suez
Gulf of Suez
and Gulf of Aqaba of the Red Sea
Red Sea
. It is linked to the African continent by the Isthmus of Suez , 125 kilometres (78 mi) wide strip of land, containing the Suez Canal
Suez Canal
. The eastern isthmus, linking it to the Asian mainland, is around 200 kilometres (120 mi) wide. The peninsula's eastern shore separates the Arabian plate
Arabian plate
from the African plate .

The southernmost tip is the Ras Muhammad National Park
Ras Muhammad National Park
.

Most of the Sinai Peninsula
Peninsula
is divided among the two governorates of Egypt
Egypt
: South Sinai (Ganub Sina) and North Sinai (Shamal Sina). Together, they comprise around 60,000 square kilometres (23,000 sq mi) and have a population (January 2013) of 597,000. Three more governates span the Suez Canal, crossing into African Egypt: Suez (el-Sewais) is on the southern end of the Suez Canal, Ismailia
Ismailia
(el-Isma'ileyyah) in the centre, and Port Said
Port Said
in the north.

The largest city of Sinai is Arish
Arish
, capital of the North Sinai, with around 160,000 residents. Other larger settlements include Sharm el-Sheikh and El-Tor , on the southern coast. Inland Sinai is arid, mountainous and sparsely populated, the largest settlements being Saint Catherine and Nekhel .

CLIMATE

Sinai is one of the coldest provinces in Egypt
Egypt
because of its high altitudes and mountainous topographies. Winter temperatures in some of Sinai's cities and towns reach −16 °C (3 °F).

HISTORY

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SINAI PENINSULA IN HIEROGLYPHS

Biau Bj3w " Mining
Mining
country"

ANCIENT EGYPT

Sinai was called Mafkat or "country of turquoise" by the ancient Egyptians From the time of the First Dynasty or before, the Egyptians mined turquoise in Sinai at two locations, now called by their Egyptian Arabic names Wadi Magharah and Serabit El Khadim . The mines were worked intermittently and on a seasonal basis for thousands of years. Modern attempts to exploit the deposits have been unprofitable. These may be the first historically attested mines .

ASSYRIAN PERIOD

ACHAEMENID PERSIAN PERIOD

At the end of the time of Darius I , the Great (521–486 BCE) Sinai was part of the Persian province of Abar-Nahra , which means "beyond the river .

Cambyses
Cambyses
successfully managed the crossing of the hostile Sinai Desert, traditionally Egypt's first and strongest line of defence, and brought the Egyptians under Psamtik III, son and successor of Ahmose, to battle at Pelusium. The Egyptians lost and retired to Memphis; the city fell to the Iranian control and the Pharaoh was carried off in captivity to Susa
Susa
in mainland Iran.

HELLENISTIC PERIOD

ROMAN AND BYZANTINE PERIODS

St. Catherine\'s Monastery
Monastery
is the oldest working Christian monastery in the world and the most popular tourist attraction on the peninsula.

After the death of the last Nabatean king, Rabbel II Soter , in 106, the Roman emperor
Roman emperor
Trajan
Trajan
faced practically no resistance and conquered the kingdom on 22 March 106. With this conquest, the Roman Empire went on to control all shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The Sinai Peninsula became part of the Roman province of Arabia Petraea
Arabia Petraea
.

Saint Catherine\'s Monastery
Monastery
on the foot of Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
was constructed by order of the Emperor Justinian
Justinian
between 527 and 565. Most of the Sinai Peninsula
Peninsula
became part of the province of Palaestina Salutaris in the 6th century.

EARLY MUSLIM PERIOD

AYYUBID PERIOD

During the Crusades it was under control of Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
. Later, Saladin abolished the Fatimid Caliphate
Fatimid Caliphate
in Egypt
Egypt
and took this region under his control too. It was the military route from Cairo
Cairo
to Damascus during the Crusades.

MAMLUK AND OTTOMAN PERIODS

The peninsula was governed as part of Egypt
Egypt
under the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt
Egypt
from 1260 until 1517, when the Ottoman Sultan, Selim the Grim , defeated the Egyptians at the Battles of Marj Dabiq and al-Raydaniyya, and incorporated Egypt
Egypt
into the Ottoman Empire. From then until 1906, Sinai was administered by the Ottoman provincial government of the Pashalik of Egypt, even following the establishment of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty 's rule over the rest of Egypt
Egypt
in 1805. The wilderness of Sinai, 1862

BRITISH CONTROL

In 1906, the Ottoman Porte formally transferred administration of Sinai to the Egyptian government, which essentially meant that it fell under the control of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
, who had occupied and largely controlled Egypt
Egypt
since 1882. The border imposed by the British runs in an almost straight line from Rafah on the Mediterranean shore to Taba on the Gulf of Aqaba . This line has served as the eastern border of Egypt
Egypt
ever since.

WARS WITH ISRAEL (1948, 56, 67, 67–70, 73)

Canadian and Panamanian UNEF UN peacekeepers in Sinai, 1974

At the beginning of the 1948 Arab–Israeli War , Egyptian forces entered the former British Mandate of Palestine from Sinai to support Palestinian and other Arab forces against the newly declared State of Israel. For a period during the war, Israeli forces entered the north-eastern corner of Sinai. With the exception of Palestine's Gaza Strip , which came under the administration of the All-Palestine Government , the western frontier of the former Mandate of Palestine became the Egyptian–Israeli frontier under the 1949 Armistice Agreement . In 1958, the Gaza Strip came under direct Egyptian military administration, though it was governed separately from Sinai, and was never annexed by Egypt. The Egyptian government maintained that Egyptian administration would be terminated upon the end of the conflict with Israel.

In 1956, Egypt
Egypt
nationalised the Suez Canal, a waterway marking the boundary between Egyptian territory in Africa
Africa
and the Sinai Peninsula. Thereafter, Israeli ships were prohibited from using the Canal, owing to the state of war between the two states. Egypt
Egypt
also prohibited ships from using Egyptian territorial waters on the eastern side of the peninsula to travel to and from Israel, effectively imposing a blockade on the Israeli port of Eilat
Eilat
. Subsequently, in what is known in Egypt
Egypt
as the Tripartite Aggression, Israeli forces, aided by Britain, and France (which sought to reverse the nationalisation and regain control over the Suez Canal), invaded Sinai and occupied much of the peninsula within a few days. Several months later Israel withdrew its forces from Sinai, following strong pressure from the United States
United States
and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
. Thereafter, the United Nations Emergency Force (UNEF) was stationed in Sinai to prevent any further conflict in the Sinai.

In 1967, Egypt
Egypt
reinforced its military presence in Sinai and on 16 May ordered the UNEF out of Sinai with immediate effect. Secretary-General U Thant
U Thant
eventually complied and ordered the withdrawal without Security Council authorisation. In the course of the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
that broke out shortly thereafter, Israel
Israel
captured the entire Sinai Peninsula, and Gaza Strip from Egypt, the West Bank (including East Jerusalem ) from Jordan
Jordan
(which it had ruled since 1949), and the Golan Heights
Golan Heights
from Syria. The Suez Canal, the east bank of which was now occupied by Israel, was closed. Israel
Israel
commenced efforts at large scale Israeli settlement in the peninsula.

Following the Israeli conquest of Sinai, Egypt
Egypt
launched the War of Attrition (1967–70) aimed at forcing Israel
Israel
to withdraw from Egyptian territory. The war saw protracted conflict in the Suez Canal Zone, ranging from limited to large scale combat. Israeli shelling of the cities of Port Said
Port Said
, Ismailia
Ismailia
, and Suez on the west bank of the canal, led to high civilian casualties (including the virtual destruction of Suez), and contributed to the flight of 700,000 Egyptian internal refugees. Ultimately, the war concluded in 1970 with no change in the front line.

On 6 October 1973, Egypt
Egypt
commenced Operation Badr to retake the Sinai, while Syria
Syria
launched a simultaneous operation to retake the Golan Heights, thereby beginning the Yom Kippur War
Yom Kippur War
(known in Egypt
Egypt
as the October War). Egyptian engineering forces built pontoon bridges to cross the Suez Canal, and stormed the Bar-Lev Line , Israel's defensive line along the canal. Though the Egyptians maintained control of most of the east bank of the Canal, in the later stages of the war, the Israeli military crossed the southern section of Canal, cutting off the Egyptian 3rd Army, and occupied a section of the west bank. The war ended following a mutually agreed-upon ceasefire. After the war, as part of the subsequent Sinai Disengagement Agreements , Israel
Israel
withdrew from the Canal, with Egypt
Egypt
agreeing to permit passage of Israeli ships. The canal was reopened in 1975, with President Sadat leading the first convoy through the canal aboard an Egyptian destroyer.

1979 PEACE TREATY WITH ISRAEL AND AFTERMATH

Egypt- Israel
Israel
border. Looking north from the Eilat
Eilat
Mountains

In 1979, Egypt
Egypt
and Israel
Israel
signed a peace treaty in which Israel agreed to withdraw from the entirety of Sinai. Israel
Israel
subsequently withdrew in several stages, ending in 1982. The Israeli pull-out involved dismantling almost all Israeli settlements, including the settlement of Yamit in north-eastern Sinai. The exception was the coastal city of Sharm el-Sheikh , which the Israelis had founded as Ofira during the period of their occupation. The Treaty allows monitoring of Sinai by the Multinational Force and Observers , and limits the number of Egyptian military forces in the peninsula.

RECENT SECURITY ISSUES

In recent years, Sinai has been the site of several terror attacks against tourists, the majority of whom are Egyptian. Investigations have shown that these were mainly motivated by a resentment of the poverty faced by many Bedouin in the area. Attacking the tourist industry was viewed as a method of damaging the industry so that the government would pay more attention to their situation. (See 2004 Sinai bombings , 2005 Sharm El Sheikh bombings
2005 Sharm El Sheikh bombings
and 2006 Dahab
Dahab
bombings ). Since the 2011 Egyptian Revolution
2011 Egyptian Revolution
, unrest has become more prevalent in the area including the 2012 Egyptian-Israeli border attack in which 16 Egyptian soldiers were killed by militants. (See Sinai insurgency ).

Also on the rise are kidnappings of refugees . According to Meron Estifanos, Eritrean refugees are often kidnapped by Bedouin in the northern Sinai, tortured, raped, and only released after receiving a large ransom.

Under President el-Sisi , Egypt
Egypt
has implemented a rigorous policy of controlling the border to the Gaza Strip , including the dismantling of tunnels between Gaza and Sinai.

DEMOGRAPHICS

Two young Bedouins
Bedouins
making bread in the desert

The two governorates of North and South Sinai and have a total population of 597,000 (January 2013). This figure rises to 1,400,000 by including Western Sinai, the parts of the Port Said
Port Said
, Ismailia
Ismailia
and Suez Governorates lying east of the Suez Canal. Port Said
Port Said
alone has a population of roughly 500,000 people (January 2013). Portions of the populations of Ismailia
Ismailia
and Suez live in west Sinai, while the rest live on the western side of the Suez Canal.

Population of Sinai has largely consisted of desert-dwelling Bedouins with their colourful traditional costumes and significant culture. Large numbers of Egyptians from the Nile
Nile
Valley and Delta moved to the area to work in tourism, but development adversely affected the native Bedouin population. In order to help alleviate their problems, various NGOs began to operate in the region, including the Makhad Trust , a UK charity that assists the Bedouin in developing a sustainable income while protecting Sinai's natural environment, heritage and culture.

ECONOMY

Dahab
Dahab
in Southern Sinai is a popular beach and diving resort See also: Tourism in Egypt
Egypt

Since the Israeli–Egyptian peace treaty, Sinai's scenic spots (including coral reefs offshore) and religious structures have become important to the tourism industry. The most popular tourist destination in Sinai are Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
(Jabal Musa) and St Catherine\'s Monastery
Monastery
, which is considered to be the oldest working Christian monastery in the world, and the beach resorts of Sharm el-Sheikh , Dahab
Dahab
, Nuweiba and Taba . Most tourists arrive at Sharm el-Sheikh International Airport , through Eilat, Israel
Israel
and the Taba Border Crossing , by road from Cairo
Cairo
or by ferry from Aqaba
Aqaba
in Jordan.

SEE ALSO

* Isthmus of Suez * Operation Eagle * Multinational Force and Observers * Negev Bedouin

Natural places

* Desert of Paran * Mitla Pass

Manmade structures

* Biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
* Nawamis

Wildlife

* Sinai leopard

REFERENCES

* ^ "Definition of Sinai". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-05-03. * ^ "Define Sinayi". Dictionary.com. Retrieved 2014-05-03. * ^ "Sinai Peninsula
Peninsula
(peninsula, Egypt) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Britannica.com. Retrieved 14 January 2012. * ^ "Sinai, Mount". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 14 January 2012. * ^ See Biblical Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
for a fuller discussion. * ^ "Étude de la turquoise : de ses traitements et imitations", thesis by Claire Salanne, Université de Nantes, 2009. * ^ Homberg, Catherine and Martina Bachmann, Evolution of the Levant
Levant
Margin and Western Arabia Platform Since the Mesozoic, The Geological Society of London, 2010, p 65 ISBN 978-1862393066 * ^ A B Ned Greenwood (1 January 2010). The Sinai: A Physical Geography. University of Texas Press. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-0-292-77909-9 . * ^ A B The translation "mining country" is not certain, see also Rainer Hannig: Großes Handwörterbuch Ägyptisch-Deutsch : (2800 - 950 v. Chr.). p. 1135. * ^ http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=print_topic;f=8;t=008397 * ^ Joseph Davidovits and Ralph Davidovits (2007). "Why Djoser's blue Egyptian faience tiles are not blue? Manufacturing Djoser's faience tiles at temperatures as low as 250 °C?". In Jean Claude Goyon, Christine Cardin. Proceedings of the ninth International Congress of Egyptologists (PDF). 1. Louvain/Paris/Dudley. p. 375. * ^ Iranchamber * ^ Schürer, Emil; Millar, Fergus; Vermes, Geza (26 March 2015). The History of the Jewish People in the Age of Jesus Christ:. Bloomsbury Academic. p. 583. ISBN 978-0-567-50161-5 . * ^ Taylor, Jane: Petra And the Lost Kingdom of the Nabataeans. I. B. Tauris 2001, ISBN 1860645089 , p. 73-74 (online copy, p. 73, at Google Books
Google Books
) * ^ Rogan, Eugene L. and Avi Shlaim, eds. The War for Palestine: Rewriting the History of 1948. 2nd edition. Cambridge: Cambridge UP , p. 99, 2007 * ^ Shlaim, Avi (2001). Israel
Israel
and the Arab Coalition. In Eugene Rogan and Avi Shlaim
Avi Shlaim
(eds.). The War for Palestine (pp. 97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Cambridge University Press
. ISBN 978-0-521-79476-3 * ^ http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/egypt-nationalizes-the-suez-canal * ^ "1956: Egypt
Egypt
Seizes Suez Canal". BBC. 26 July 1956. * ^ Samir A. Mutawi (18 July 2002). Jordan
Jordan
in the 1967 War. Cambridge University Press. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-521-52858-0 . Although Eshkol denounced the Egyptians, his response to this development was a model of moderation. His speech on 21 May demanded that Nasser withdraw his forces from Sinai but made no mention of the removal of UNEF from the Straits nor of what Israel
Israel
would do if they were closed to Israeli shipping. The next day Nasser announced to an astonished world that henceforth the Straits were, indeed, closed to all Israeli ships * ^ Spencer, Tucker. Encyclopedia or the Arab-Israeli Conflict. p. 175. * ^ "War of Attrition". * ^ Serene Assir (23 July 2005). "Shock in Sharm". Al-Ahram Weekly. Retrieved 29 March 2014. * ^ Meron Stefanos on the torture houses in north Sinai * ^ Sound of Torture documentary * ^ http://www.al-monitor.com/pulse/originals/2015/04/egypt-sinai-gaza-tunnels-sanctions-sisi-terrorist.html# * ^ Leonard, William R. and Michael H. Crawford, The Human Biology of Pastoral Populations, Cambridge University Press, 2002, p. 67 ISBN 978-0521780162

FURTHER READING

* Gardner, Ann. "At Home in South Sinai". Nomadic Peoples 2000. Vol. 4, Iss. 2; pp. 48–67. Detailed account of Bedouin women * H. J. L. Beadnell (May 1926). "Central Sinai". Geographical Journal. 67 (5): 385–398. JSTOR
JSTOR
1782203 . doi :10.2307/1782203 . * C. W. Wilson (1873). "Recent Surveys in Sinai and Palestine". Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London. 43: 206–240. JSTOR
JSTOR
1798627 . doi :10.2307/1798627 . * Jacobs, Jessica (2006). "Tourist Places and Negotiating Modernity: European Women and Romance Tourism in the Sinai". In Minca, Claudio; Oakes, Tim. Travels in Paradox: Remapping Tourism. Rowman & Littlefield . ISBN 978-0-7425-2876-5 . Retrieved 7 January 2010. * Teague, Matthew; Moyer, Matt (March 2009). "The Sinai\'s Separate Peace". National Geographic Magazine . Washington, D.C. : National Geographic Society . 215 (3): 99–121. ISSN 0027-9358 . Retrieved 7 January 2010. * Jarvis, C.S. ,Yesterday and To-day in Sinai (Edinburgh/London: W. Blackwood ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

Geography of Asia
Asia

SOVEREIGN STATES

* Afghanistan * Armenia * Azerbaijan * Bahrain * Bangladesh * Bhutan * Brunei * Cambodia * China * Cyprus * East Timor (Timor-Leste) * Egypt
Egypt
* Georgia * India * Indonesia * Iran * Iraq * Israel
Israel
* Japan * Jordan
Jordan
* Kazakhstan * North Korea * South Korea * Kuwait * Kyrgyzstan * Laos * Lebanon
Lebanon
* Malaysia * Maldives * Mongolia * Myanmar * Nepal * Oman * Pakistan * Philippines * Qatar * Russia * Saudi Arabia * Singapore * Sri Lanka * Syria
Syria
* Tajikistan * Thailand * Turkey * Turkmenistan * United Arab Emirates * Uzbekistan * Vietnam * Yemen

States with limited recognition

* Abkhazia * Nagorno-Karabakh * Northern Cyprus * Palestine * South Ossetia * Taiwan

Dependencies and other territories

* British Indian Ocean Territory * Christmas Island * Cocos (Keeling) Islands * Hong Kong * Macau

* v * t * e

People and things in the Quran
Quran

CHARACTERS

GOD IN ISLAM (ALLAH )

* Names of God found in the Quran
Quran

ANGELS

* Israfil
Israfil
* Izra\'il/Azrael (Malak al-Mawt) * Jibra\'il/Gabriel (Al-Ruh al-Amin) and Holy Spirit (Al-Ruh al-Qudus) and Al-Ruh (The Spirit) * Maalik * Mika\'il * Harut and Marut
Harut and Marut

JINNS

* Iblīs/Devil * Shaitan/Satan * Ifrit (and Marid ) * Qareen

IN HEAVEN (JANNAH)

* Ghilman
Ghilman
and Wildan * Houri
Houri

IN HELL (JAHANNAM)

* Zabaniyya * Zaqqum

Prophets and apostles (messengers) of God

MENTIONED

* Ādam/Adam * Alyasa\'/Elisha * Ayyub/Job * Dawud/David * Dhul-Kifl/Ezekiel? * Harun/Aaron * Hud/Eber? * Ibrahim/Abraham (Khalilullah) * Idris/Enoch? * Ilyas/Elijah * Imran/Joachim (father of Maryam) * Isa/Jesus * Isḥaq/Isaac

* Isma\'il/Ishmael

* Dhabih Ullah

* Lut/Lot * Muhammad or Ahmad
Ahmad
/Paraclete * Musa/Moses (Kalimullah) * Nuh/Noah * Saleh/Shelah? * Shuaib/Jethro * Sulayman/Solomon * Uzair/Ezra? * Yahya/John the Baptist * Yaqub/Jacob (Israel) * Yunus/Jonah (Dhul-Nun, Sahib al-Hut) * Yūsuf/Joseph * Zakariya/Zechariah

IMPLIED

* Ermia/Jeremiah * Samuel * Yusha\' ibn Nūn/Joshua

Good people (before Islam)

MENTIONED

* Dhul-Qarnayn
Dhul-Qarnayn
* Luqman * Maryam/Mary (mother of Isa) * Talut/Saul

Implicitly mentioned

* Asiyah bint Muzahim /Bithiah? (wife of Fir\'aun) * Asif ibn Barkhiya * Bilquis (Queen of Saba/Sheba) * Believer of Fir\'aun Family (Hizbil/Hizqil ibn Sabura) * Beniamin/Benjamin * Habib the Carpenter (believer of Ya-Sin) * Kaleb/Caleb * Khidr
Khidr
* Magicians of Fir\'aun * Simon Cephas/Simon Peter

Other people (before Islam)

MENTIONED

* Āzar (uncle of Ibrahim) * Fir\'aun/Pharaoh * Haman * Jalut/Goliath * Qarun/Korah * Sāmiri

Implicitly mentioned

* Abraha * Bal\'am/Balaam * Barṣīṣā * Nebuchadnezzar II
Nebuchadnezzar II
* Nimrod
Nimrod
* Potiphar (Al-Aziz) * Shaddad * Simeon (son of Ya\'qub) * Slayers of Saleh\'s she-camel (Qaddar ibn Salif and Musda\' ibn Dahr ) * Valid ibn Rayyan (king of Egypt
Egypt
in the account of Yūsuf) * Zuleika (wife of al-Aziz)

Mentioned people (after inception of Islam)

* Abū Lahab * Zayd ibn Harithah

Relatives of prophets

Specified good relatives

* Daughters of Lut/Lot (Ritha, Za\'ura, et al.) * Elizabeth or \'Ishā\' (wife of Zakariya) * Habil/Abel (son of Adam) * Hawwa\'/Eve (wife of Adam) * Kulthum/Miriam (sister of Musa) * Saffurah/ Zipporah (wife of Musa) and Layya (Saffura\'s sister) * Sarah (wife of Ibrahim, mother of Isḥaq) * Yukabed/Jochebed (mother of Musa)

Non-specified good relatives

* Abiona/Amtelai daughter of Karnebo (mother of Ibrahim) * Bathsheba (wife of Dawud) * Muhammad\'s wives * Daughters of Muhammad * Hājar/Hagar (wife of Ibrahim, mother of Isma\'il) * Hannah/Anne daughter of Faquz (mother of Maryam) * Imran/Amram (father of Musa) * Lamech (father of Nuh) * Rāhil/ Rachel
Rachel
(wife of Ya\'qub) * Rahma/ Dinah
Dinah
(wife of Ayyub) * Shamkha bint Anush/Betenos (mother of Nuh) * Son of Luqman

OTHER RELATIVES

* Brothers of Yūsuf * Children of Ayyub * Dead son of Sulaiman * Qabil/Cain? * Tārah/Terah (father of Ibrahim) * Umm Jamil (wife of Abu Lahab) * Wali\'ah or Wa\'ilah/Waala? (wife of Nuh) * Walihah or Wahilah (wife of Lut) * Yam or Kan\'an (son of Nuh)

GROUPS AND TRIBES

Tribes and ethnicities

MENTIONED

* \'Ād (people of Hud) * Arabs
Arabs
and Ajam * Children of Israel/ Israelites
Israelites
* Companions of the Rass * People of Saba\'/ Sheba
Sheba
* People of Shu\'aib (people of Madyan and people of Aykah/Wood ) * People of Tubba\' * Quraysh * Romans * Thamud (people of Saleh, companions of Hijr) * Ya\'juj and Ma\'juj/Gog and Magog

Implicitly mentioned

* Ahl al-Bayt
Ahl al-Bayt
* Amalek * Banu Hashim * Banu Nadir * Banu Qaynuqa * Banu Qurayza * Iranian people * Umayyad Dynasty

GROUPS

MENTIONED

* Christian
Christian
apostles

* Disciples of Jesus

* Companions of Noah\'s Ark * Companions of Sabbath (Aşḥāb al-Sabt) * Companions of the Cave/Seven Sleepers and Companions of al-Raqaim * Companions of the Elephant * People of al-Ukhdūd * People of the City (People of Ya-Sin) * People of the Burned Garden (Aşḥāb al-Jannah) * Ulu\'l azm prophets

Implicitly mentioned

* Ahl al-Suffa (People of the Verandah) * Aus and Khazraj * Copts * Hezbollah * Muhajirun (The emigrants) and Ansar (The helpers) * Ummah of Islam (Ummah of Muhammad)

RELIGIOUS GROUPS

* Ahl al-dhimmah (Dhimmi) * Christians (People of Injil) * Jews
Jews
* Kafir (Infidels)

* Majus

* Zoroastrians

* Munafiq

* Hypocrites

* Mushrik

* Polytheists

* Muslims * People of the Book (‎′Ahl al-Kitāb) * Sabians * Ahbār (Jewish scholars) * Qissis ( Christian
Christian
priest) * Rabbani/ Rabbi
Rabbi
* Ruhban ( Christian
Christian
monks)

LOCATIONS, ENTITIES AND EVENTS

LOCATIONS

MENTIONED

* Ahqāf * Al-Aqsa Mosque * Arafat and Mash\'ar al-Harām * Bābil / Babylon
Babylon
* Badr * Door of Hittah * Hijr/Hegra * Holy Land
Holy Land
(Palestine and Levant
Levant
) * Hunayn * Iram * Ka\'bah/ Kaaba
Kaaba
(Bayt al-Harām/Sacred House, Bayt al-\'Atīq/Ancient House) * Madyan/ Midian
Midian
* Madinah/ Medina
Medina
(formerly Yathrib ) * Majma\' al-Bahrain * Makkah/ Mecca
Mecca
(Umm al-Qura, Balad al-Amin , Bakkah ) * Maqām Ibrahim * Masjid al-Dirar * Masjid al-Haram * Mount Judi * Mu\'tafikat (Sodom) * Rass * Saba\'/ Sheba
Sheba
* Al-Safa and Al-Marwah * Tur Sinā\' / Mount Sinai
Mount Sinai
and Jabal al-Tur * Egypt
Egypt
* Valley of Tuwa

Implicitly mentioned

* Antioch
Antioch

* Antakya
Antakya

* Ayla * Barrier of Dhul-Qarnayn
Dhul-Qarnayn
* Bayt al-Muqaddas and \'Ariha * Black Stone (Al-Ḥajar al-Aswad) and Al-Hijr of Isma\'il * Canaan
Canaan
* Cave of Hira and Cave of Thawr * Cave of Seven Sleepers * Dār al-Nadwa * Hudaybiyyah * Jordan
Jordan
River * Ma\'rib Dam * Masjid al-Nabawi (Prophet\'s Mosque) * Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia
* Nile
Nile
River * Nineveh
Nineveh
* Palestine River * Paradise of Shaddad * Quba Mosque * Sinai Desert and Tīh Desert * Ta\'if

RELIGIOUS LOCATIONS

* Bay\'a (Church) * Mihrab * Monastery
Monastery
* Mosque
Mosque
* Salat (Synagogue)

Non-human physical entities

RELIGIOUS TEXTS

* Injil/Gospel * Quran
Quran
* Suhuf-i Ibrahim (Scrolls of Abraham) * Tawrat/Torah , Suhuf-i-Musa (Scrolls of Moses) and Tablets of Stone * Zabur

RELATED ANIMALS

* Cow of Israelites
Israelites
and Golden calf
Golden calf
* Dog of Seven Sleepers * Fish of Yunis * Hoopoe of Sulayman * She-Camel of Saleh

RELATED OBJECTS

* Forbidden fruit of Adam * Heavenly Food of Christian
Christian
Apostles * Noah\'s Ark * Staff of Musa * Tabut al-Sakina (Casket of Shekhinah) * Throne of Bilqis * Trumpet of Israfil
Israfil

Mentioned idols (cult images)

* Baal * Lāt , \'Uzza and Manāt * Wadd , Suwa\' , Yaghuth , Ya\'uq and Nasr * (Jibt and Taghut * Ansāb )

EVENTS

* Battle of Badr
Battle of Badr
* Battle of Hunayn * Battle of Khaybar * Battle of Tabouk * Battle of the Trench (Battle of the Confederates) * Battle of Uhud * Conquest of Mecca
Mecca
* Hadith of the pond of Khumm * Incident of Ifk * Layla al-Mabit * Mubahala * The Farewell Pilgrimage (Hujja al-Wada\') * Treaty of Hudaybiyyah * Umrah al-Qaza * Yawm al-Dār

NOTE: The names are sorted alphabetically. Standard form: Islamic name / Bibilical name (title or relationship)

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* WorldCat Identities * VIAF : 162783451 * GND : 4104369-8 * NDL : 00628596

Coordinates : 29°30′N 33°50′E / 29.500°N 33.833°E

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