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Silicon
Silicon
Valley (abbreviated as SV or The Valley) is a region of in the southern San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, & social media. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the 3rd largest in California, and the 10th largest in the United States. Other major SV cities include Palo Alto, Santa Clara, Mountain View, and Sunnyvale. The San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third highest GDP per capita in the world (after Zurich, Switzerland
Zurich, Switzerland
and Oslo, Norway), according to the Brookings Institution.[1] The word "silicon" originally referred to the large number of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers in the region, but the area is now the home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations, including the headquarters of 39 businesses in the Fortune 1000, and thousands of startup companies. Silicon
Silicon
Valley also accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development. It was in the Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, and the microcomputer, among other key technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers.[2] As more high-tech companies were established across San Jose
San Jose
and the Santa Clara Valley, and then north towards the Bay Area's two other major cities, San Francisco
San Francisco
and Oakland, the " Silicon
Silicon
Valley" has come to have two definitions: a geographic one, referring to Santa Clara County, and a metonymical one, referring to all high-tech businesses in the Bay Area. The term is now generally used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector. The name also became a global synonym for leading high-tech research and enterprises, and thus inspired similar named locations, as well as research parks and technology centers with a comparable structure all around the world.

Contents

1 Origin of the term 2 History (before 1970s)

2.1 Roots in telegraph, radio, commercial and military technology 2.2 Ham radio 2.3 Welfare capitalism 2.4 U.S. response to Sputnik 2.5 Stanford University 2.6 Stanford Industrial Park 2.7 The silicon transistor 2.8 Computer
Computer
networking 2.9 Immigration reform

3 History (1971 and later)

3.1 Computer
Computer
chips 3.2 Homebrew Computer
Computer
Club 3.3 Venture capital
Venture capital
firms 3.4 Media 3.5 Software 3.6 The Internet 3.7 Internet
Internet
bubble 3.8 Early 21st century

4 Economy

4.1 Overview 4.2 Notable companies 4.3 Notable government facilities

5 Demographics

5.1 Diversity 5.2 Schools

6 Municipalities 7 Higher education 8 Culture

8.1 Museums 8.2 Performing arts 8.3 Events

9 Media

9.1 Cultural references

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Origin of the term[edit]

Perhaps the strongest thread that runs through the Valley's past and present is the drive to "play" with novel technology, which, when bolstered by an advanced engineering degree and channeled by astute management, has done much to create the industrial powerhouse we see in the Valley today. — Timothy J. Sturgeon[3]:44

The first published use of Silicon
Silicon
Valley is credited to Don Hoefler, a friend of local entrepreneur Ralph Vaerst's who suggested the phrase to him. Hoefler used the phrase as the title of a series of articles in the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News.[4] The series, titled " Silicon
Silicon
Valley in the USA", began in the paper's January 11, 1971, issue. The term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC
IBM PC
and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market. The silicon part of the name refers to the high concentration of companies involved in the making of semiconductors (silicon is used to create most semiconductors commercially) and computer industries that were concentrated in the area. These firms slowly replaced the orchards and the fruits which gave the area its initial nickname—the "Valley of Heart's Delight".[citation needed]

Looking west over northern San Jose
San Jose
(downtown is at far left) and other parts of Silicon
Silicon
Valley

History (before 1970s)[edit]

The "Birthplace of the Silicon
Silicon
Valley" garage in Palo Alto, where William Hewlett and David Packard
David Packard
started developing their audio oscillator in 1938 (photographed 2016)

A sign describing the "Birthplace of Silicon
Silicon
Valley" garage, 2016

Silicon
Silicon
Valley was born through several contributing factors intersecting, including a skilled STEM research base housed in area universities, plentiful venture capital, and steady U.S. Department of Defense spending. Stanford University
Stanford University
leadership was especially important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its growth and success.[5] Roots in telegraph, radio, commercial and military technology[edit]

Downtown San Jose
Downtown San Jose
as seen with lit palm trees

On August 23, 1899, the first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco
San Francisco
lightship outside the Golden Gate, signaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish–American War.[when?][6] The ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors.[7] Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose[8] that " California
California
first heard the click of a telegraph key on September 11, 1853. It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco Merchants' Exchange members named George Sweeney and Theodore E. Baugh…" He says, "In 1849, the gentleman established a wigwag telegraph station a top a high hill overlooking Portsmouth Squares for signaling arriving ships… The operator at the first station caught these signals by telescope and relayed them to the Merchant's Exchange for the waiting business community." Arbuckle points to the historic significance the Merchants Exchange Building (San Francisco) and Telegraph Hill, San Francisco
San Francisco
when he goes on to say "The first station gave the name Telegraph to the hill on which it was located. It was known as the Inner Station; the second, as the Outer Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs. Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchants's Exchange by electric telegraph Wire." According to Arbuckle (p. 380–381) Sweeney and Baugh's line was strictly an intra-city, San Francisco-based service; that is until California
California
State Telegraph Company enfranchised on May 3, 1852; whereas, O.E. Allen and C. Burnham led the way to "build a line from San Francisco
San Francisco
to Marysville via San Jose, Stockton, and Sacramento." Delays to construction occurred until September 1853; but, "…San Jose became the first station on the line when the wire arrived here on October 15. The line was completed when [James] Gamble's northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24." The Bay Area had long been a major site of United States
United States
Navy research and technology. In 1909, Charles Herrold
Charles Herrold
started the first radio station in the United States
United States
with regularly scheduled programming in San Jose. Later that year, Stanford University
Stanford University
graduate Cyril Elwell purchased the U.S. patents for Poulsen arc radio transmission technology and founded the Federal Telegraph Corporation (FTC) in Palo Alto. Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, and signed a contract with the Navy in 1912.[3] In 1933, Air Base Sunnyvale, California, was commissioned by the United States
United States
Government for use as a Naval Air Station (NAS) to house the airship USS Macon in Hangar One. The station was renamed NAS Moffett Field, and between 1933 and 1947, U.S. Navy blimps were based there.[9] A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett Field to serve the Navy. When the Navy gave up its airship ambitions and moved most of its west coast operations to San Diego, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics
(NACA, forerunner of NASA) took over portions of Moffett Field for aeronautics research. Many of the original companies stayed, while new ones moved in. The immediate area was soon filled with aerospace firms, such as Lockheed. Ham radio[edit] The Bay Area was an early center of ham radio with about 10% of the operators in the United States. William Eitel, Jack McCullough, and Charles Litton, who together pioneered vacuum tube manufacturing in the Bay Area, were hobbyists with training in technology gained locally who participated in development of shortwave radio by the ham radio hobby. High frequency, and especially, Very high frequency, VHF, transmission in the 10 meter band, required higher quality power tubes than were manufactured by the consortium of RCA, Western Electric, General Electric, Westinghouse which controlled vacuum tube manufacture. Litton, founder of Litton Industries, pioneered manufacturing techniques which resulted in award of wartime contracts to manufacture transmitting tubes for radar to Eitel-McCullough, a San Bruno firm, which manufactured power-grid tubes for radio amateurs and aircraft radio equipment.[10] Welfare capitalism[edit] A union organizing drive in 1939–40 at Eitel-McCullough by the strong Bay Area labor movement was fought off by adoption of a strategy of welfare capitalism which included pensions and other generous benefits, profit sharing, and such extras as a medical clinic and a cafeteria. An atmosphere of cooperation and collaboration was established.[11] Successes have been few and far between[12] for union organizing drives by UE and others in subsequent years.[13] U.S. response to Sputnik[edit] On October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first space satellite, Sputnik, which sparked fear that the Soviet Union was pulling ahead technologically. After President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics
Aeronautics
and Space Act (NASA), he turned to Fairchild Semiconductor, then the only company in the world that was able to make transistors. The president funded Fairchild's project, which was highly successful.[14] Stanford University[edit] Stanford University, its affiliates, and graduates have played a major role in the development of this area.[15] Some examples include the work of Lee De Forest
Lee De Forest
with his invention of a pioneering vacuum tube called the Audion
Audion
and the oscilloscopes of Hewlett-Packard. A very powerful sense of regional solidarity accompanied the rise of Silicon
Silicon
Valley. From the 1890s, Stanford University's leaders saw its mission as service to the West and shaped the school accordingly. At the same time, the perceived exploitation of the West at the hands of eastern interests fueled booster-like attempts to build self-sufficient indigenous local industry. Thus, regionalism helped align Stanford's interests with those of the area's high-tech firms for the first fifty years of Silicon
Silicon
Valley's development.[16] During the 1940s and 1950s, Frederick Terman, as Stanford's dean of engineering and provost, encouraged faculty and graduates to start their own companies. He is credited with nurturing Hewlett-Packard, Varian Associates, and other high-tech firms, until what would become Silicon
Silicon
Valley grew up around the Stanford campus. Terman is often called "the father of Silicon
Silicon
Valley".[17] In 1956, William Shockley, the creator of the transistor, moved from New Jersey
New Jersey
to Mountain View, California, to start Shockley Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Laboratory to live closer to his ailing mother in Palo Alto. Shockley's work served as the basis for many electronic developments for decades.[18][19] During 1955–85, solid state technology research and development at Stanford University
Stanford University
followed three waves of industrial innovation made possible by support from private corporations, mainly Bell Telephone Laboratories, Shockley Semiconductor, Fairchild Semiconductor, and Xerox
Xerox
PARC. In 1969, the Stanford Research Institute
Stanford Research Institute
(now SRI International), operated one of the four original nodes that comprised ARPANET, predecessor to the Internet.[20] Stanford Industrial Park[edit] After World War II, universities were experiencing enormous demand due to returning students. To address the financial demands of Stanford's growth requirements, and to provide local employment opportunities for graduating students, Frederick Terman
Frederick Terman
proposed the leasing of Stanford's lands for use as an office park, named the Stanford Industrial Park (later Stanford Research Park) in the year 1951. Leases were limited to high technology companies. Its first tenant was Varian Associates, founded by Stanford alumni in the 1930s to build military radar components. However, Terman also found venture capital for civilian technology start-ups. One of the major success stories was Hewlett-Packard. Founded in Packard's garage
Packard's garage
by Stanford graduates William Hewlett and David Packard, Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
moved its offices into the Stanford Research Park
Stanford Research Park
shortly after 1953. In 1954, Stanford created the Honors Cooperative Program to allow full-time employees of the companies to pursue graduate degrees from the University on a part-time basis. The initial companies signed five-year agreements in which they would pay double the tuition for each student in order to cover the costs. Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
has become the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world, and transformed the home printing market when it released the first thermal drop-on-demand ink jet printer in 1984.[21] Other early tenants included Eastman Kodak, General Electric, and Lockheed.[22] The silicon transistor[edit] In 1953, William Shockley
William Shockley
left Bell Labs
Bell Labs
in a disagreement over the handling of the invention of the transistor. After returning to California
California
Institute of Technology for a short while, Shockley moved to Mountain View, California, in 1956, and founded Shockley Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Laboratory. Unlike many other researchers who used germanium as the semiconductor material, Shockley believed that silicon was the better material for making transistors. Shockley intended to replace the current transistor with a new three-element design (today known as the Shockley diode), but the design was considerably more difficult to build than the "simple" transistor. In 1957, Shockley decided to end research on the silicon transistor. As a result of Shockley's abusive management style, eight engineers left the company to form Fairchild Semiconductor; Shockley referred to them as the "traitorous eight". Two of the original employees of Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Noyce
Robert Noyce
and Gordon Moore, would go on to found Intel.[23][24] Computer
Computer
networking[edit] April 23, 1963 J.C.R. Licklider, the first director of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) at The Pentagon's ARPA issued an office memorandum rescheduling a meeting in Palo Alto
Palo Alto
addressed to "Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network".[25][26] regarding his vision of a computer network which he “imagined as an electronic commons open to all, ‘the main and essential medium of informational interaction for governments, institutions, corporations, and individuals.’”[27][28] As head of IPTO from 1962 to 1964, “Licklider initiated three of the most important developments in information technology: the creation of computer science departments at several major universities, time-sharing, and networking.”[28] By the late 1960s, his promotion of the concept had inspired a primitive version of his vision called ARPANET, which expanded into a network of networks in the 1970s that became the Internet.[27] Immigration reform[edit] The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965
and other factors such as the mass exodus by Vietnamese boat people
Vietnamese boat people
resulted in significant immigration, particularly by Asians, Latinos, and Portuguese, to Silicon
Silicon
Valley where they contributed to both the high-tech and production workforce.[29] The Asian-American population in Santa Clara County rose from 43,000 in 1970 to 430,000 in 2000. During the same period the Latino population grew to 24% in the county and 30% in San Jose. The African-American population in the county remained steady but grew slightly to about 5%.[30] Expansion of the H-1B visa
H-1B visa
in 1990 also played a role.[31] History (1971 and later)[edit] Computer
Computer
chips[edit] Main article: Invention of the integrated circuit In April 1974, Intel
Intel
released the Intel
Intel
8080,[32] a "computer on a chip", "the first truly usable microprocessor". A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC).[33] Homebrew Computer
Computer
Club[edit] Main article: Microcomputer revolution

Invitation to first Homebrew Computer
Computer
Club meeting (sent to Steve Dompier).

The Homebrew Computer
Computer
Club was an informal group of electronic enthusiasts and technically minded hobbyists who gathered to trade parts, circuits, and information pertaining to DIY
DIY
construction of computing devices.[34] It was started by Gordon French
Gordon French
and Fred Moore who met at the Community Computer
Computer
Center in Menlo Park. They both were interested in maintaining a regular, open forum for people to get together to work on making computers more accessible to everyone.[35] The first meeting was held as of March 1975 at French's garage in Menlo Park, San Mateo County, California; which was on occasion of the arrival of the MITS Altair microcomputer, the first unit sent to the area for review by People's Computer
Computer
Company. Steve Wozniak
Steve Wozniak
and Steve Jobs credit that first meeting with inspiring them to design the original Apple I
Apple I
and (successor) Apple II
Apple II
computers. As a result, the first preview of the Apple I
Apple I
was given at the Homebrew Computer Club.[36] Subsequent meetings were held at an auditorium at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center.[37] Venture capital
Venture capital
firms[edit] By the early 1970s, there were many semiconductor companies in the area, computer firms using their devices, and programming and service companies serving both. Industrial space was plentiful and housing was still inexpensive. The growth was fueled by the emergence of the venture capital industry on Sand Hill Road, beginning with Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital
Sequoia Capital
in 1972; the availability of venture capital exploded after the successful $1.3 billion IPO of Apple Computer
Computer
in December 1980.

Media[edit] In 1980, Intelligent Machines Journal -a hobbyist journal- changed its name to InfoWorld, and, with offices in Palo Alto, began covering the explosive emergence of the microcomputer industry in the valley.[38] Software[edit] Although semiconductors are still a major component of the area's economy, Silicon
Silicon
Valley has been most famous in recent years for innovations in software and Internet
Internet
services. Silicon
Silicon
Valley has significantly influenced computer operating systems, software, and user interfaces. Using money from NASA, the US Air Force, and ARPA, Doug Engelbart invented the mouse and hypertext-based collaboration tools in the mid-1960s and 1970s while at Stanford Research Institute
Stanford Research Institute
(now SRI International), first publicly demonstrated in 1968 in what is now known as The Mother of All Demos. Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center at SRI was also involved in launching the ARPANET
ARPANET
(precursor to the Internet) and starting the Network Information Center (now InterNIC). Xerox
Xerox
hired some of Engelbart's best researchers beginning in the early 1970s. In turn, in the 1970s and 1980s, Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) played a pivotal role in object-oriented programming, graphical user interfaces (GUIs), Ethernet, PostScript, and laser printers. While Xerox
Xerox
marketed equipment using its technologies, for the most part its technologies flourished elsewhere. The diaspora of Xerox inventions led directly to 3Com
3Com
and Adobe Systems, and indirectly to Cisco, Apple Computer, and Microsoft. Apple's Macintosh GUI was largely a result of Steve Jobs' visit to PARC and the subsequent hiring of key personnel.[39] Cisco's impetus stemmed from the need to route a variety of protocols over Stanford's campus Ethernet. The Internet[edit] Commercial use of the Internet
Internet
became practical and grew slowly throughout the early 1990s. In 1995, commercial use of the Internet
Internet
grew substantially and the initial wave of internet startups, Amazon.com, eBay, and the predecessor to Craigslist
Craigslist
began operations.[40] Internet
Internet
bubble[edit] Silicon
Silicon
Valley is generally considered to have been the center of the dot-com bubble, which started in the mid-1990s and collapsed after the NASDAQ
NASDAQ
stock market began to decline dramatically in April 2000. During the bubble era, real estate prices reached unprecedented levels. For a brief time, Sand Hill Road
Sand Hill Road
was home to the most expensive commercial real estate in the world, and the booming economy resulted in severe traffic congestion. Early 21st century[edit] After the dot-com crash, Silicon
Silicon
Valley continues to maintain its status as one of the top research and development centers in the world. A 2006 The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
story found that 12 of the 20 most inventive towns in America were in California, and 10 of those were in Silicon
Silicon
Valley.[41] San Jose
San Jose
led the list with 3,867 utility patents filed in 2005, and number two was Sunnyvale, at 1,881 utility patents.[42] Silicon
Silicon
Valley is also home to a significant number of "Unicorn" ventures, referring to startup companies whose valuation has exceeded $1 billion dollars.[43] Economy[edit]

Adobe Systems

Apple Inc.

Cisco
Cisco
Systems

eBay

Intel

Paypal

Oracle

Samsung

Yahoo!

Sun Microsystems

Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices
(AMD)

Overview[edit] Silicon
Silicon
Valley has a social and business ethos that supports innovation and entrepreneurship. Attempts to create " Silicon
Silicon
Valleys" in environments where disruptive innovation does not go over well have a poor track record.[44] According to a 2008 study by AeA in 2006, Silicon
Silicon
Valley was the third largest high-tech center (cybercity) in the United States, behind the New York metropolitan area
New York metropolitan area
and Washington metropolitan area, with 225,300 high-tech jobs. The Bay Area as a whole however, of which Silicon
Silicon
Valley is a part, would rank first with 387,000 high-tech jobs. Silicon
Silicon
Valley has the highest concentration of high-tech workers of any metropolitan area, with 285.9 out of every 1,000 private-sector workers. Silicon
Silicon
Valley has the highest average high-tech salary at $144,800.[45] Largely a result of the high technology sector, the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States
United States
per capita.[46] The region is the biggest high-tech manufacturing center in the United States.[47][48] The unemployment rate of the region was 9.4% in January 2009, up from 7.8% in the previous month.[49] Silicon
Silicon
Valley received 41% of all U.S. venture investment in 2011, and 46% in 2012.[50] More traditional industries also recognize the potential of high-tech development, and several car manufacturers have opened offices in Silicon
Silicon
Valley to capitalize on its entrepreneurial ecosystem.[51] Manufacture of transistors is, or was, the core industry in Silicon Valley. The production workforce[52] was for the most part composed of Asian and Latina immigrants who were paid low wages and worked in hazardous conditions due to the chemicals used in the manufacture of integrated circuits. Technical, engineering, design, and administrative staffs were in large part [53] well compensated.[54] Silicon
Silicon
Valley has a severe housing shortage, caused by the market imbalance between jobs created and housing units built: from 2010 to 2015, many more jobs have been created than housing units built. (400,000 jobs, 60,000 housing units)[55] This shortage has driven home prices extremely high, far out of the range of production workers.[56] As of 2016 a two-bedroom apartment rented for about $2,500 while the median home price was about $1 million.[55] The Financial Post called Silicon
Silicon
Valley the most expensive U.S. housing region.[57] Homelessness
Homelessness
is a problem with housing beyond the reach of middle-income residents; there is little shelter space other than in San Jose
San Jose
which, as of 2015, was making an effort to develop shelters by renovating old hotels.[58] Notable companies[edit] See also: Category:Companies based in Silicon
Silicon
Valley Thousands of high technology companies are headquartered in Silicon Valley. Among those, the following 39 are in the Fortune 1000:

Adobe Systems Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices
(AMD) Agilent Technologies Alphabet Inc.
Alphabet Inc.
(formerly Google
Google
Inc.) Apple Inc. Applied Materials Brocade Communications Systems Cisco
Cisco
Systems eBay Electronic Arts Facebook Hewlett Packard Enterprise HP Inc. Intel Intuit Juniper Networks KLA Tencor Lam Research LSI Logic Marvell Semiconductors Maxim Integrated Products National Semiconductor NetApp Netflix Nvidia Oracle Corporation Riverbed Technology Salesforce.com SanDisk Sanmina-SCI Symantec Tesla, Inc. Visa Inc. VMware Western Digital Corporation Xilinx Yahoo!

Additional notable companies headquartered (or with a significant presence) in Silicon
Silicon
Valley include (some defunct or subsumed):

3Com
3Com
(acquired by Hewlett-Packard) 8x8 Actel Actuate Corporation Adaptec Aeria Games and Entertainment Akamai Technologies
Akamai Technologies
(HQ in Cambridge, Massachusetts) Altera Amazon.com's A9.com Amazon.com's Lab126.com Amdahl Anritsu AstraQom Asus
Asus
(headquartered in Taipei, Taiwan) Atari Atmel Broadcom
Broadcom
(headquartered in Irvine, California) BEA Systems (acquired by Oracle Corporation) Cadence Design Systems Cypress Semiconductor Dell
Dell
(headquartered in Round Rock, Texas) EMC Corporation
EMC Corporation
(headquartered in Hopkinton, Massachusetts) Extreme Networks E*TRADE
E*TRADE
(headquartered in New York, NY) Fairchild Semiconductor Flex (formally Flextronics) Foundry Networks Fujitsu
Fujitsu
(headquartered in Tokyo, Japan) Geeknet
Geeknet
(Slashdot) GoPro Groupon
Groupon
(headquartered in Chicago, IL) Harmonic, Inc. HCL Technologies
HCL Technologies
(headquartered in Noida, India) Hitachi Data Systems Hitachi Global Storage Technologies IBM Almaden Research Center
IBM Almaden Research Center
(headquartered in Armonk, New York) IDEO Infosys
Infosys
(headquartered in Bangalore, India) Informatica Intuitive Surgical LinkedIn
LinkedIn
(acquired by Microsoft) Logitech Lucasfilm Maxtor
Maxtor
(acquired by Seagate) McAfee
McAfee
(acquired by Intel) Memorex
Memorex
(acquired by Imation and moved to Cerritos, California) MetricStream Micron Technology
Micron Technology
(headquartered in Boise, Idaho) Microsoft
Microsoft
(headquartered in Redmond, Washington) Mozilla Foundation Move, Inc. Nokia
Nokia
(headquartered in Espoo, Finland) Nokia
Nokia
Solutions and Networks (headquartered in Espoo, Finland) NXP Semiconductors Nook
Nook
(subsidiary of Barnes & Noble) Olivetti
Olivetti
(headquartered in Ivrea, Italy) Opera Software
Software
(headquartered in Oslo, Norway) Palm, Inc.
Palm, Inc.
(acquired by Hewlett-Packard) Panasonic
Panasonic
(headquartered in Osaka, Japan) PARC PayPal
PayPal
(it has been demerged from eBay) Pixar Playdom PlayPhone Qualcomm, Inc.
Qualcomm, Inc.
(HQ in San Diego, CA) Quanta Computer Quantcast Quora Rambus Roku, Inc. RSA Security
RSA Security
(acquired by EMC) Samsung
Samsung
Electronics (headquartered in Suwon, South Korea) Samsung
Samsung
Research America (headquartered in Suwon, South Korea) SAP SE
SAP SE
(headquartered in Walldorf, Germany) Siemens
Siemens
(headquartered in Berlin
Berlin
and Munich, Germany) SolarCity Sony
Sony
(headquartered in Tokyo, Japan) Sony
Sony
Mobile Communications Sony
Sony
Interactive Entertainment Square, Inc. SRI International Sun Microsystems
Sun Microsystems
(acquired by Oracle Corporation) SunPower SurveyMonkey Synopsys Inc. Tata Consultancy Services
Tata Consultancy Services
(headquartered in Mumbai, India) Tibco Software TiVo TSMC Twitter Uber Verifone VeriSign Veritas Software
Software
(split off from Symantec) VMware WebEx
WebEx
(acquired by Cisco
Cisco
Systems) @WalmartLabs YouTube
YouTube
(acquired by Google) Yelp, Inc. Zynga

Silicon
Silicon
Valley is also home to the high-tech superstore retail chain Fry's Electronics. Notable government facilities[edit]

Moffett Federal Airfield NASA
NASA
Ames Research Center (Located inside Moffett) Onizuka Air Force Station

Demographics[edit]

Silicon
Silicon
Valley is most expensive place to live in the United States, with many of the most expensive communities in the country, including:[59]

Los Altos,

Palo Alto

Saratoga

Los Gatos

Morgan Hill

Depending on what geographic regions are included in the meaning of the term, the population of Silicon
Silicon
Valley is between 3.5 and 4 million. A 1999 study by AnnaLee Saxenian
AnnaLee Saxenian
for the Public Policy Institute of California
California
reported that a third of Silicon
Silicon
Valley scientists and engineers were immigrants and that nearly a quarter of Silicon
Silicon
Valley's high-technology firms since 1980 were run by Chinese (17 percent) or Indian CEOs (7 percent).[60] There is a stratum of well-compensated technical employees and managers, including 10s of thousands of "single-digit millionaires." This income and range of assets will support a middle-class lifestyle in Silicon
Silicon
Valley.[61] Diversity[edit]

Exotic cars outside the Hotel Valencia, in Santana Row, San Jose.

See also: Occupational inequality and Sexism in the technology industry In November 2006, the University of California, Davis
University of California, Davis
released a report analyzing business leadership by women within the state.[62] The report showed that although 103 of the 400 largest public companies headquartered in California
California
were located in Santa Clara County (the most of all counties), only 8.8% of Silicon
Silicon
Valley companies had women CEOs.[63]:4,7 This was the lowest percentage in the state.[64] ( San Francisco
San Francisco
County had 19.2% and Marin County had 18.5%.)[63] Silicon
Silicon
Valley tech leadership positions are occupied almost exclusively by men.[65] This is also represented in the number of new companies founded by women as well as the number of women-lead startups that receive venture capital funding. Wadhwa said he believes that a contributing factor is a lack of parental encouragement to study science and engineering.[66] He also cited a lack of women role models and noted that most famous tech leaders—like Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and Mark Zuckerberg—are men.[65] In 2014, tech companies Google, Yahoo!, Facebook, Apple, and others, released corporate transparency reports that offered detailed employee breakdowns. In May, Google
Google
said 17% of its tech employees worldwide were women, and, in the U.S., 1% of its tech workers were black and 2% were Hispanic.[67] June 2014 brought reports from Yahoo!
Yahoo!
and Facebook. Yahoo!
Yahoo!
said that 15% of its tech jobs were held by women, 2% of its tech employees were black and 4% Hispanic.[68] Facebook
Facebook
reported that 15% of its tech workforce was female, and 3% was Hispanic
Hispanic
and 1% was black.[69] In August, Apple reported that 80% of its global tech staff was male and that, in the U.S., 54% of its tech jobs were staffed by Caucasians and 23% by Asians.[70] Soon after, USA Today
USA Today
published an article about Silicon
Silicon
Valley's lack of tech-industry diversity, pointing out that it is largely white or Asian, and male. "Blacks and Hispanics are largely absent," it reported, "and women are underrepresented in Silicon
Silicon
Valley—from giant companies to start-ups to venture capital firms."[71] Civil rights activist Jesse Jackson said of improving diversity in the tech industry, "This is the next step in the civil rights movement"[72] while T.J. Rodgers
T.J. Rodgers
has argued against Jackson's assertions. As of October 2014, some high-profile Silicon
Silicon
Valley firms were working actively to prepare and recruit women. Bloomberg reported that Apple, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft
Microsoft
attended the 20th annual Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing conference to actively recruit and potentially hire female engineers and technology experts.[73] The same month, the second annual Platform Summit was held to discuss increasing racial and gender diversity in tech.[74] As of April 2015 experienced women were engaged in creation of venture capital firms which leveraged women's perspectives in funding of startups.[75] After UC Davis published its Study of California
California
Women Business Leaders in November 2006,[63] some San Jose
San Jose
Mercury News readers dismissed the possibility that sexism contributed in making Silicon Valley's leadership gender gap the highest in the state. A January 2015 issue of Newsweek
Newsweek
magazine featured an article detailing reports of sexism and misogyny in Silicon
Silicon
Valley.[76] The article's author, Nina Burleigh, asked, "Where were all these offended people when women like Heidi Roizen published accounts of having a venture capitalist stick her hand in his pants under a table while a deal was being discussed?"[77] Silicon
Silicon
Valley firms' board of directors are composed of 15.7% women compared with 20.9% in the S&P 100.[78] The 2012 lawsuit Pao v. Kleiner Perkins
Pao v. Kleiner Perkins
was filed in San Francisco County Superior Court by executive Ellen Pao
Ellen Pao
for gender discrimination against her employer, Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers.[79] The case went to trial in February 2015. On March 27, 2015 the jury found in favor of Kleiner Perkins on all counts.[80] Nevertheless, the case, which had wide press coverage, resulted in major advances in consciousness of gender discrimination on the part of venture capital and technology firms and their women employees.[81][82] Two other cases have been filed against Facebook
Facebook
and Twitter.[83] Schools[edit] Funding for public schools in upscale Silicon
Silicon
Valley communities such as Woodside, California
California
is often supplemented by grants from private foundations set up for that purpose and funded by local residents. Schools in less favorable demographics such as East Palo Alto, California
California
must depend on state funding.[84] Municipalities[edit]

Map visualization of traditional Silicon
Silicon
Valley in red (bottom), San Francisco in maroon (left), and the Berkeley tech cluster in peach (right).

The following Santa Clara County
Santa Clara County
cities are actually located in the Santa Clara Valley
Santa Clara Valley
and based on that status are traditionally considered to be in Silicon
Silicon
Valley (in alphabetical order):[citation needed]

Campbell Cupertino Los Altos Los Altos Hills Los Gatos Milpitas Monte Sereno Morgan Hill Mountain View Palo Alto San Jose Santa Clara Saratoga Sunnyvale

In 2015, MIT researchers developed a novel method for measuring which towns are home to startups with higher growth potential. This defines Silicon
Silicon
Valley to center on the municipalities of Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto, and Sunnyvale.[85][86] Higher education[edit]

Stanford University, 20 mi (30 km) outside of San Jose, is one of the top universities in the world.

San José State University
San José State University
is the oldest public university on the West Coast and one of the largest feeder schools for Silicon
Silicon
Valley.[87]

Santa Clara University
Santa Clara University
is ranked as one of the best universities in the Western United States
United States
by U.S. News & World Report.

The Art Institute of California
California
– Sunnyvale California
California
College of the Arts Carnegie Mellon University ( Silicon
Silicon
Valley campus) California
California
State University, East Bay, Hayward Cañada College Chabot College Cogswell Polytechnical College College of San Mateo De Anza College DeVry University Draper University Evergreen Valley College Foothill College Gavilan College Golden Gate
Golden Gate
University ( Silicon
Silicon
Valley Campus) Hult International Business School International Culinary Center International Technological University John F. Kennedy University (Campbell Campus) Lincoln Law School of San Jose Menlo College Mills College Minerva Schools at KGI Mission College National University San Jose
San Jose
Campus Northwestern Polytechnic University (Fremont) Notre Dame de Namur University Ohlone College Peralta Colleges Saint Mary's College of California San Jose
San Jose
City College San José State University San Francisco
San Francisco
State University Santa Clara University Silicon
Silicon
Valley University Singularity University Skyline College Stanford University University of California, Berkeley University of California, Santa Cruz, Silicon
Silicon
Valley Campus University of California, San Francisco University of San Francisco
San Francisco
South Bay Campus West Valley College

Culture[edit] See also: List of attractions in Silicon
Silicon
Valley

The San Jose
San Jose
Museum of Art (top), The Tech Museum of Innovation (middle), both in San Jose, and the Computer
Computer
History Museum, in Mountain View.

The City National Civic
City National Civic
(top) and the San Jose
San Jose
Center for the Performing Arts (bottom).

The 2017 Apple Worldwide Developers Conference
Apple Worldwide Developers Conference
& Facebook
Facebook
F8 2017, at the San Jose
San Jose
Convention Center.

Silicon
Silicon
Valley's first internationally known art gallery, Pace Art and Technology Gallery in Menlo Park, opened on February 6, 2016.[88] In 1928, the Allied Arts Guild was formed in Menlo Park and is a complex of artist studios, shops, restaurant, and gardens.[89][90] Museums[edit]

Burlingame Museum of PEZ Memorabilia, Computer
Computer
History Museum, Children's Discovery Museum of San Jose, CuriOdyssey, De Saisset Museum
De Saisset Museum
at Santa Clara University, Filoli
Filoli
Estate, Forbes Mill, Hiller Aviation Museum, the HP Garage,[91] the Intel
Intel
Museum,[91] Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University,[91] Japanese American Museum of San Jose, Los Altos History Museum, Moffett Field Historical Society Museum, Museum of American Heritage, Palo Alto
Palo Alto
Art Center, Palo Alto
Palo Alto
Junior Museum and Zoo, Portuguese Historical Museum, Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum, San Mateo County History Museum, San Jose
San Jose
Museum of Art, San Jose
San Jose
Museum of Quilts & Textiles Sunnyvale Heritage Park Museum, The Tech Museum of Innovation, Viet Museum, Winchester Mystery House,

Performing arts[edit]

Opera San José Ballet San Jose Symphony Silicon
Silicon
Valley San Jose
San Jose
Center for the Performing Arts Broadway San Jose San Jose
San Jose
Repertory Theatre San Jose
San Jose
Youth Symphony San Jose
San Jose
Improv SjDANCEco Broadway by the Bay, Redwood City TheatreWorks Theatre Company, Palo Alto
Palo Alto
and Mountain View

Events[edit]

Apple Worldwide Developers Conference Facebook
Facebook
F8 BayCon, Santa Clara Christmas in the Park, downtown San Jose Cinequest Film Festival, multiple venues FanimeCon, downtown San Jose LiveStrong Challenge
LiveStrong Challenge
bike race, San Jose Los Altos Art and Wine Festival, Los Altos[92] Mountain View Art and Wine Festival, Mountain View[93] Palo Alto
Palo Alto
Festival of the Arts, Palo Alto[94] San Francisco
San Francisco
International Asian American Film Festival, downtown San Jose San Jose
San Jose
Jazz Festival, downtown San Jose Stanford Jazz Festival, Stanford University

Media[edit] Local and national media cover Silicon
Silicon
Valley and its companies. CNN, The Wall Street Journal, and Bloomberg News
Bloomberg News
operate Silicon
Silicon
Valley bureaus out of Palo Alto. Public broadcaster KQED (TV)
KQED (TV)
and KQED-FM, as well as the Bay Area's local ABC station KGO-TV, operate bureaus in San Jose. KNTV, NBC's local Bay Area affiliate " NBC
NBC
Bay Area", is located in San Jose. Produced from this location is the nationally distributed TV Show "Tech Now" as well as the C NBC
NBC
Silicon
Silicon
Valley bureau. San Jose-based media serving Silicon
Silicon
Valley include the San Jose Mercury News daily and the Metro Silicon
Silicon
Valley weekly. Specialty media include El Observador and the San Jose
San Jose
/ Silicon
Silicon
Valley Business Journal. Most of the Bay Area's other major TV stations, newspapers, and media operate in San Francisco
San Francisco
or Oakland. Patch.com operates various web portals, providing local news, discussion and events for residents of Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Mountain View has a public nonprofit station, KMVT-15. KMVT-15's shows include Silicon
Silicon
Valley Education News (EdNews)-Edward Tico Producer. Cultural references[edit] Some appearances in media, in order by release date:

The Maltese Falcon—1941 movie starring Humphrey Bogart
Humphrey Bogart
and Mary Astor, she visits Sam Spade's office in Burlingame[95] A View to a Kill—1985 James Bond
James Bond
movie Dangerous Minds—1995 movie about a retired U.S. Marine LouAnne Johnson, who took up a teaching position at Carlmont High School
Carlmont High School
in Belmont, California[96] Triumph of the Nerds: The Rise of Accidental Empires — 1996 documentary Felicity—1998–2002 TV series, Felicity Porter grows up in Palo Alto Pirates of Silicon
Silicon
Valley—1999 movie House of Sand and Fog—2003 movie, an unclear Bay Area coastal location in movie, filmed in San Mateo County[97] Knight Rider—2008 made-for-television movie Haunting of Winchester House—2009 movie The Social Network—2010 movie Startups Silicon
Silicon
Valley—reality TV series, debuted 2012 on Bravo[98] Betas—TV series, debuted 2013 on Amazon Video[99] Jobs—2013 movie The Internship—2013 film about working at Google Silicon
Silicon
Valley—2014 American sitcom from HBO Watch Dogs 2—2016 video game developed by Ubisoft

See also[edit]

San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
portal

See also: the categories Companies based in Silicon
Silicon
Valley, Silicon Valley people, and Tourist attractions in Silicon
Silicon
Valley.

BioValley List of attractions in Silicon
Silicon
Valley List of places with "Silicon" names
List of places with "Silicon" names
around the world List of research parks around the world List of technology centers
List of technology centers
around the world Mega-Site, a type of land development by private developers, universities, or governments to promote business clusters Silicon
Silicon
Hills STEM fields Tech Valley

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Mercury News. Archived from the original on March 10, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016.  ^ "Saturday: Allied Arts Guild holds open house". Almanac News. Archived from the original on March 7, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016.  ^ a b c "14 Sights You Must See In Silicon
Silicon
Valley". Business Insider. Archived from the original on March 20, 2016. Retrieved February 21, 2016.  ^ "Arts & Wine Festival". Downtown Los Altos. Retrieved 2017-11-03.  ^ "Events". Mountain View Downtown Guide. Retrieved 2016-02-22.  ^ "Festival of the Arts". Palo Alto
Palo Alto
Chamber of Commerce. Retrieved 2016-02-22.  ^ "Burlingame: Paradise on the Peninsula". SFGate. 1998. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.  ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer Acts With Class / `Dangerous Minds' uses teacher plot well". SFGate. 1996. Archived from the original on April 12, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.  ^ "House of Sand and Fog". IMDB. Archived from the original on March 16, 2006. Retrieved March 30, 2006.  ^ "Start-Ups: Silicon
Silicon
Valley". IMDB. Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016.  ^ "Betas". IMDB. Archived from the original on April 3, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2016. 

Further reading[edit]

Books

Bronson, Po (2013). The Nudist On The Lateshift: and Other Tales of Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Random House. ISBN 978-1-4481-8964-9.  Cringely, Robert X. (1996) [1992]. Accidental Empires: How the boys of Silicon
Silicon
Valley make their millions, battle foreign competition, and still can't get a date. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-88730-855-0.  English-Lueck, June Anne (2002). Cultures@ Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Stanford University Press. ISBN 978-0-8047-4429-4.  Hayes, Dennis (1990) [1989]. Behind the Silicon
Silicon
Curtain: The Seductions of Work in a Lonely Era. Black Rose Books. ISBN 978-0-921689-62-1.  Kaplan, David A. (2000). The Silicon
Silicon
Boys: And Their Valleys Of Dreams. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-688-17906-9.  Koepp, Rob. Clusters of Creativity: Enduring Lessons on Innovation
Innovation
and Entrepreneurship from Silicon
Silicon
Valley and Europe's Silicon
Silicon
Fen. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0-470-85566-9.  Lécuyer, Christophe Lécuyer (2006) [2005]. Making Silicon
Silicon
Valley: Innovation
Innovation
and the Growth of High Tech, 1930–1970. Chemical Heritage Foundation. ISBN 978-0-262-12281-8.  Levy, Steven (2014) [1984]. Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. O'Reilly Media. ISBN 978-1-4493-8839-3.  O'Mara, Margaret Pugh (2015) [2004]. Cities of Knowledge: Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon
Silicon
Valley: Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-1-4008-6688-5.  Pellow, David N; Park, Lisa Sun-Hee (2002). The Silicon
Silicon
Valley of Dreams: Environmental Injustice, Immigrant Workers, and the High-tech Global Economy. New York University Press. ISBN 978-0-8147-6710-8.  Saxenian, AnnaLee (1996). Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon
Silicon
Valley and Route 128. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-75340-2.  Scoville, Thomas (2001). Silicon
Silicon
Follies (Fiction). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-0-7434-1945-1.  Whiteley, Carol; McLaughlin, John (2002). Technology, Entrepreneurs and Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Silicon
Silicon
Valley Historical Association. ISBN 0-9649217-1-5. 

Journals and newspapers

Kantor, Jodi (December 23, 2014). "A Brand New World In Which Men Ruled". New York Times.  Koenig, Neil (February 9, 2014). "Next Silicon
Silicon
Valleys: How did California
California
get it so right?". BBC News.  Malone, Michael S. (January 30, 2015). "The Purpose of Silicon Valley". MIT Technology Review.  Norr, Henry (December 27, 1999). "Growth of a Silicon
Silicon
Empire". San Francisco Chronicle.  Palmer, Barbara (February 4, 2004). "Red tile roofs in Bangalore: Stanford's look copied in Silicon
Silicon
Valley and beyond". Stanford Report.  Schulz, Thomas (March 4, 2015). "Tomorrowland: How Silicon
Silicon
Valley Shapes Our Future". Der Spiegel.  Sturgeon, Timothy J. (December 2000). "Chapter Two: How Silicon
Silicon
Valley Came to Be" (PDF). Industrial Performance Center. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.  Williams, James C. (December 2013). "From White Gold to Silicon
Silicon
Chips: Hydraulic Technology, Electric Power and Silicon
Silicon
Valley". Social Science Information (Abstract). Sage Publications. 52 (4): 558–574.  (Subscription required for full text.)

Audiovisual

Silicon
Silicon
Valley: A Five Part Series (DVD). Narrated by Leonard Nimoy. Silicon
Silicon
Valley Historical Association. 2012.  "A Weekend in Silicon
Silicon
Valley". New York Times
New York Times
(Slideshow). August 27, 2010.  Silicon
Silicon
Valley: A Five Part Series (DVD). Narrated by Leonard Nimoy. Silicon
Silicon
Valley Historical Association. 2012. 

External links[edit]

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Silicon
Silicon
Valley.

Santa Clara County: California's Historic Silicon
Silicon
Valley—A National Park Service website Silicon
Silicon
Valley—An American Experience
American Experience
documentary broadcast in 2013 Silicon
Silicon
Valley Cultures Project at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived December 20, 2007) from San Jose
San Jose
State University Silicon
Silicon
Valley Historical Association The Birth of Silicon
Silicon
Valley

v t e

Silicon
Silicon
Valley

Cities

Campbell Cupertino East Palo Alto Fremont Los Altos Los Altos Hills Los Gatos Menlo Park Milpitas Morgan Hill Mountain View Newark Palo Alto Redwood City San Jose San Mateo Santa Clara Saratoga Sunnyvale

Colleges and universities

Carnegie Mellon Silicon
Silicon
Valley Cogswell Polytechnical College De Anza College Evergreen Valley College Foothill College International Technological University Menlo College Mission College Ohlone College Silicon
Silicon
Valley Technical Institute National Hispanic
Hispanic
University Northwestern Polytechnic University San Jose
San Jose
City College San Jose
San Jose
State University Silicon
Silicon
Valley University Santa Clara University Stanford University University of California, Berkeley University of California, Santa Cruz

Companies (including subsidiaries and defunct companies)

3Com Access Systems Americas Actuate Adaptec Adobe Systems AMD Agilent Technologies Altera Amdahl Ampex Apple Inc. Applied Materials Aricent Asus Atari Atmel Avaya BEA Systems Brocade BusinessObjects Capcom Cisco
Cisco
Systems Computer
Computer
Literacy Bookshops Cypress Semiconductor eBay Electronic Arts Facebook Foundry Networks Fry's Electronics Fujitsu Gaia Online Geeknet Google Hewlett-Packard HGST IETF Intel Internet
Internet
Systems Consortium Intuit Juniper Networks Knight Ridder LinkedIn Logitech LSI Corporation Magellan Navigation Marvell Technology Group Maxtor McAfee Memorex Microsoft Mozilla Corporation National Semiconductor Netscape NetApp Netflix NeXT Nintendo of America Nortel Nvidia Opera Software OPPO Digital Oracle Corporation Palm, Inc. Palo Alto
Palo Alto
Networks PayPal Pinterest Playdom Rambus Redback Networks Reputation.com SAP SE SanDisk Silicon
Silicon
Graphics Silicon
Silicon
Image Solectron Sony
Sony
Interactive Entertainment SRI International Sun Microsystems Symantec Symyx Taligent Tesla, Inc. TiVo Uber Verisign Veritas Technologies VMware WebEx WhatsApp Xilinx Yahoo!

v t e

San Jose
San Jose
and Silicon
Silicon
Valley attractions

Arboreta / Gardens

Arizona Cactus Garden Chinese Cultural Garden Emma Prusch Farm Park Hakone Gardens Hollyhill Hummingbird Farm Japanese Friendship Garden Overfelt Gardens SJ Municipal Rose Garden Stanford Arboretum Villa Montalvo Arboretum

Cultural

American Musical Theatre of SJ Ballet San Jose Cathedral Basilica of St. Joseph Choral Project De Saisset Museum Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Library Gurdwara Sahib Ira F. Brilliant Center for Beethoven Studies Mexican Heritage Plaza Montalvo Arts Center

Villa Montalvo

Opera San José SJ City Hall SJ Flea Market SJ Improv SJ Museum of Art SJ Rep Theatre sjDANCEco Symphony Silicon
Silicon
Valley Triton Museum of Art Viet Museum Vivace Youth Chorus

Event venues

Avaya
Avaya
Stadium CEFCU Stadium City National Civic Levi's Stadium PAL Stadium San Jose
San Jose
Center for the Performing Arts SAP Center at San Jose SC Convention Center Shoreline Amphitheatre SJ Convention Center SJ Municipal Stadium SJSU Event Center Arena Stevens Stadium

Events

BayCon Cinequest Film Festival FanimeCon Further Confusion LiveStrong Challenge SJ Holiday Parade SJ Jazz Festival Silicon
Silicon
Valley Comic Con Stanford Jazz Festival Christmas in the Park

Historical

Circle of Palms Hotel De Anza Hangar One History Park at Kelley Park HP Garage Japanese American Museum New Almaden Peralta Adobe Portuguese Historical Museum Rengstorff House Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum SJ Museum of Quilts & Textiles Winchester Mystery House

Parks / Trails

Almaden Quicksilver County Park Alum Rock Park Anderson Lake Bay Area Ridge Trail Calero Reservoir Castle Rock State Park Coyote–Bear Park Ed Levin Park Grant Ranch County Park Guadalupe River Trail Henry W. Coe State Park Kelley Park Lake Cunningham Los Alamitos Creek
Alamitos Creek
Trail Los Gatos Creek Trail Plaza de César Chávez Rancho San Antonio Rosicrucian Park Sanborn County Park SF Bay Trail Shoreline Park Stevens Creek Trail Uvas Canyon Uvas Creek Preserve Uvas Reservoir Vasona Park

Science / Tech / Education

Children's Discovery Museum Computer
Computer
History Museum Googleplex Intel
Intel
Museum Lick Observatory NASA
NASA
Ames Exploration Center SJSU SCU Stanford The Tech Museum of Innovation

Shopping

Eastridge Great Mall Oakridge PruneYard San Antonio Santana Row Stanford Vallco Valley Fair Westgate

Theme parks and tours

Billy Jones Wildcat Railroad California's Great America Gilroy Gardens Happy Hollow Park & Zoo Raging Waters

Vineyards / Wineries

Byington Vineyard J Lohr Vineyards and Wines Mountain Winery Picchetti Brothers Winery Savannah–Chanelle Vineyards

v t e

 State of California

Sacramento (capital)

Topics

Culture

Food Music Myth Sports

Demographics Earthquakes Economy Education Environment Geography

Climate Ecology Flora Fauna

Government

Capitol Districts Governor Legislature Supreme Court

Healthcare History Law National Historic Landmarks National Natural Landmarks NRHP listings Politics

Congressional delegations Elections

People Protected areas

State Parks State Historic Landmarks

Symbols Transportation Water Index of articles

Regions

Antelope Valley Big Sur California
California
Coast Ranges Cascade Range Central California Central Coast Central Valley Channel Islands Coachella Valley Coastal California Conejo Valley Cucamonga Valley Death Valley East Bay (SF Bay Area) East County (SD) Eastern California Emerald Triangle Gold Country Great Basin Greater San Bernardino Inland Empire Klamath Basin Lake Tahoe Greater Los Angeles Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Basin Lost Coast Mojave Desert Mountain Empire North Bay (SF) North Coast North Coast (SD) Northern California Owens Valley Oxnard Plain Peninsular Ranges Pomona Valley Sacramento Valley Salinas Valley San Fernando Valley San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area San Francisco
San Francisco
Peninsula San Gabriel Valley San Joaquin Valley Santa Clara Valley Santa Clara River Valley Santa Clarita Valley Santa Ynez Valley Shasta Cascade Sierra Nevada Silicon
Silicon
Valley South Bay (LA) South Bay (SD) South Bay (SF) South Coast Southern Border Region Southern California Transverse Ranges Tri-Valley Victor Valley Wine Country

Metro regions

Metropolitan Fresno Los Angeles
Los Angeles
metropolitan area Greater Sacramento San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area San Francisco
San Francisco
metropolitan area San Diego–Tijuana

Counties

Alameda Alpine Amador Butte Calaveras Colusa Contra Costa Del Norte El Dorado Fresno Glenn Humboldt Imperial Inyo Kern Kings Lake Lassen Los Angeles Madera Marin Mariposa Mendocino Merced Modoc Mono Monterey Napa Nevada Orange Placer Plumas Riverside Sacramento San Benito San Bernardino San Diego San Francisco San Joaquin San Luis Obispo San Mateo Santa Barbara Santa Clara Santa Cruz Shasta Sierra Siskiyou Solano Sonoma Stanislaus Sutter Tehama Trinity Tulare Tuolumne Ventura Yolo Yuba

Most populous cities

Los Angeles San Diego San Jose San Francisco Fresno Sacramento Long Beach Oakland Bakersfield Anaheim

v t e

The 100 most populous metropolitan statistical areas of the United States of America

   

New York, NY Los Angeles, CA Chicago, IL Dallas, TX Houston, TX Washington, DC Philadelphia, PA Miami, FL Atlanta, GA Boston, MA San Francisco, CA Phoenix, AZ Riverside-San Bernardino, CA Detroit, MI Seattle, WA Minneapolis, MN San Diego, CA Tampa, FL Denver, CO St. Louis, MO

Baltimore, MD Charlotte, NC San Juan, PR Orlando, FL San Antonio, TX Portland, OR Pittsburgh, PA Sacramento, CA Cincinnati, OH Las Vegas, NV Kansas City, MO Austin, TX Columbus, OH Cleveland, OH Indianapolis, IN San Jose, CA Nashville, TN Virginia Beach, VA Providence, RI Milwaukee, WI

Jacksonville, FL Memphis, TN Oklahoma City, OK Louisville, KY Richmond, VA New Orleans, LA Hartford, CT Raleigh, NC Birmingham, AL Buffalo, NY Salt Lake City, UT Rochester, NY Grand Rapids, MI Tucson, AZ Honolulu, HI Tulsa, OK Fresno, CA Bridgeport, CT Worcester, MA Albuquerque, NM

Omaha, NE Albany, NY New Haven, CT Bakersfield, CA Knoxville, TN Greenville, SC Oxnard, CA El Paso, TX Allentown, PA Baton Rouge, LA McAllen, TX Dayton, OH Columbia, SC Greensboro, NC Sarasota, FL Little Rock, AR Stockton, CA Akron, OH Charleston, SC Colorado Springs, CO

Syracuse, NY Winston-Salem, NC Cape Coral, FL Boise, ID Wichita, KS Springfield, MA Madison, WI Lakeland, FL Ogden, UT Toledo, OH Deltona, FL Des Moines, IA Jackson, MS Augusta, GA Scranton, PA Youngstown, OH Harrisburg, PA Provo, UT Palm Bay, FL Chattanooga, TN

United States
United States
Census Bureau population estimates for July 1, 2012

Coordinates: 37°24′N 122°00′W / 37.4°N 122.0°W / 37.4; -122.0

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 247673

.