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SILICON VALLEY is a nickname for the southern portion of the San Francisco Bay Area , in the northern part of the U.S. state
U.S. state
of California
California
. The "valley" in its name refers to the Santa Clara Valley in Santa Clara County , which includes the city of San Jose and surrounding cities and towns, where the region has been traditionally centered. The region has expanded to include the southern half of the San Francisco Peninsula in San Mateo County , and southern portions of the East Bay in Alameda County .

The word "silicon" originally referred to the large number of silicon chip innovators and manufacturers in the region, but the area is now the home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations , including the headquarters of 39 businesses in the Fortune 1000 , and thousands of startup companies . Silicon
Silicon
Valley also accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development. It was in the Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor , and the microcomputer, among other key technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers.

As more high-tech companies were established across the Santa Clara Valley, and then north towards the Bay Area's two other major cities, San Francisco
San Francisco
and Oakland , the " Silicon
Silicon
Valley" name eventually came to refer to all high-tech businesses in the region. The term is now generally used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector . The name also became a global synonym for leading high-tech research and enterprises, and thus inspired similar named locations , as well as research parks and technology centers with a comparable structure all around the world.

CONTENTS

* 1 Origin of the term

* 2 History (before 1971)

* 2.1 Roots in telegraph, radio, commercial and military technology * 2.2 Ham radio * 2.3 Welfare capitalism * 2.4 U.S. response to Sputnik
Sputnik
* 2.5 Stanford University
Stanford University
* 2.6 Stanford Industrial Park * 2.7 The silicon transistor * 2.8 Computer
Computer
networking * 2.9 Immigration reform

* 3 History (1971 and later)

* 3.1 Chips * 3.2 Homebrew Computer
Computer
Club * 3.3 Venture capital
Venture capital
firms * 3.4 Media * 3.5 Software
Software
* 3.6 The Internet
Internet
* 3.7 Internet
Internet
bubble * 3.8 Early 21st century

* 4 Economy

* 4.1 Overview * 4.2 Notable companies * 4.3 Notable government facilities

* 5 Demographics

* 5.1 Diversity * 5.2 Schools

* 6 Municipalities * 7 Universities, colleges, and trade schools * 8 Art galleries and museums * 9 Media outlets * 10 Cultural references * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links

ORIGIN OF THE TERM

"Perhaps the strongest thread that runs through the Valley's past and present is the drive to 'play' with novel technology, which, when bolstered by an advanced engineering degree and channeled by astute management, has done much to create the industrial powerhouse we see in the Valley today." (Timothy J. Sturgeon) :44

The first published use of Silicon
Silicon
Valley is credited to Don Hoefler , a friend of local entrepreneur Ralph Vaerst's who suggested the phrase to him. Hoefler used the phrase as the title of a series of articles in the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News . The series, titled " Silicon
Silicon
Valley in the USA", began in the paper's January 11, 1971, issue. The term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market. The silicon part of the name refers to the high concentration of companies involved in the making of semiconductors (silicon is used to create most semiconductors commercially) and computer industries that were concentrated in the area. These firms slowly replaced the orchards and the fruits which gave the area its initial nickname — the "Valley of Heart's Delight." Looking west over northern San Jose (downtown is at far left) and other parts of Silicon
Silicon
Valley

HISTORY (BEFORE 1971)

The "Birthplace of the Silicon
Silicon
Valley " garage in Palo Alto , where William Hewlett and David Packard started developing their audio oscillator in 1938 (photographed 2016) A sign describing the "Birthplace of Silicon
Silicon
Valley" garage, 2016

Silicon
Silicon
Valley was born through several contributing factors intersecting, including a skilled STEM research base housed in area universities, plentiful venture capital , and steady U.S. Department of Defense spending. Stanford University
Stanford University
leadership was especially important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its growth and success.

ROOTS IN TELEGRAPH, RADIO, COMMERCIAL AND MILITARY TECHNOLOGY

Downtown San Jose
Downtown San Jose
as seen with lit palm trees

The first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco
San Francisco
lightship outside the Golden Gate , signaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish–American War . The ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors. Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose that " California
California
first heard the click of a telegraph key on September 11, 1853. It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco
San Francisco
Merchants' Exchange members named George Sweeney and Theodore E. Baugh…" He says, "In 1849, the gentleman established a wigwag telegraph station a top a high hill overlooking Portsmouth Squares for signaling arriving ships… The operator at the first station caught these signals by telescope and relayed them to the Merchant's Exchange for the waiting business community." Arbuckle points to the historic significance the Merchants Exchange Building (San Francisco) and Telegraph Hill, San Francisco when he goes on to say "The first station gave the name Telegraph to the hill on which it was located. It was known as the Inner Station; the second, as the Outer Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs. Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchants's Exchange by electric telegraph Wire."

According to Arbuckle (p. 380-381) Sweeney and Baugh's line was strictly an intra-city, San Francisco-based service; that is until California
California
State Telegraph Company enfranchised on May 3, 1852; whereas, O.E. Allen and C. Burnham led the way to "build a line from San Francisco
San Francisco
to Marysville via San Jose, Stockton, and Sacramento." Delays to construction occurred until September 1853; but, "…San Jose became the first station on the line when the wire arrived here on October 15. The line was completed when Gamble's northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24."

The Bay Area had long been a major site of United States
United States
Navy research and technology. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States
United States
with regularly scheduled programming in San Jose . Later that year, Stanford University graduate Cyril Elwell purchased the U.S. patents for Poulsen arc radio transmission technology and founded the Federal Telegraph Corporation (FTC) in Palo Alto . Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, and signed a contract with the Navy in 1912.

In 1933, Air Base Sunnyvale , California, was commissioned by the United States
United States
Government for use as a Naval Air Station (NAS) to house the airship USS Macon in Hangar One . The station was renamed NAS Moffett Field, and between 1933 and 1947, U.S. Navy blimps were based there. A number of technology firms had set up shop in the area around Moffett Field to serve the Navy. When the Navy gave up its airship ambitions and moved most of its west coast operations to San Diego , the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA, forerunner of NASA
NASA
) took over portions of Moffett Field for aeronautics research. Many of the original companies stayed, while new ones moved in. The immediate area was soon filled with aerospace firms, such as Lockheed .

HAM RADIO

The Bay Area was an early center of ham radio with about 10% of the operators in the United States. William Eitel, Jack McCullough, and Charles Litton , who together pioneered vacuum tube manufacturing in the Bay Area, were hobbyists with training in technology gained locally who participated in development of shortwave radio by the ham radio hobby. High frequency , and especially, Very high frequency , VHF, transmission in the 10 meter band, required higher quality power tubes than were manufactured by the consortium of RCA, Western Electric, General Electric, Westinghouse which controlled vacuum tube manufacture. Litton, founder of Litton Industries , pioneered manufacturing techniques which resulted in award of wartime contracts to manufacture transmitting tubes for radar to Eitel-McCullough , a San Bruno firm, which manufactured power-grid tubes for radio amateurs and aircraft radio equipment.

WELFARE CAPITALISM

A union organizing drive in 1939–40 at Eitel-McCullough by the strong Bay Area labor movement was fought off by adoption of a strategy of welfare capitalism which included pensions and other generous benefits, profit sharing, and such extras as a medical clinic and a cafeteria. An atmosphere of cooperation and collaboration was established. Successes have been few and far between for union organizing drives by UE and others in subsequent years.

U.S. RESPONSE TO SPUTNIK

On October 4, 1957 the Soviet Union launched the first space satellite, Sputnik
Sputnik
, which sparked fear that the Soviet Union was pulling ahead technologically. After President Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act (NASA), he turned to Fairchild Semiconductor
Semiconductor
, then the only company in the world that was able to make transistors. The president funded Fairchild's project, which was highly successful.

STANFORD UNIVERSITY

Stanford University
Stanford University
, its affiliates, and graduates have played a major role in the development of this area. Some examples include the work of Lee De Forest
Lee De Forest
with his invention of a pioneering vacuum tube called the Audion and the oscilloscopes of Hewlett-Packard .

A very powerful sense of regional solidarity accompanied the rise of Silicon
Silicon
Valley. From the 1890s, Stanford University's leaders saw its mission as service to the West and shaped the school accordingly. At the same time, the perceived exploitation of the West at the hands of eastern interests fueled booster-like attempts to build self-sufficient indigenous local industry. Thus, regionalism helped align Stanford's interests with those of the area's high-tech firms for the first fifty years of Silicon
Silicon
Valley's development.

During the 1940s and 1950s, Frederick Terman
Frederick Terman
, as Stanford's dean of engineering and provost, encouraged faculty and graduates to start their own companies. He is credited with nurturing Hewlett-Packard , Varian Associates , and other high-tech firms, until what would become Silicon
Silicon
Valley grew up around the Stanford campus. Terman is often called "the father of Silicon
Silicon
Valley".

In 1956, William Shockley , the creator of the transistor , moved from New Jersey
New Jersey
to Mountain View, California
California
, to start Shockley Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Laboratory to live closer to his ailing mother in Palo Alto . Shockley's work served as the basis for many electronic developments for decades.

During 1955–85, solid state technology research and development at Stanford University
Stanford University
followed three waves of industrial innovation made possible by support from private corporations, mainly Bell Telephone Laboratories , Shockley Semiconductor
Semiconductor
, Fairchild Semiconductor , and Xerox PARC . In 1969, the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), operated one of the four original nodes that comprised ARPANET
ARPANET
, predecessor to the Internet
Internet
.

STANFORD INDUSTRIAL PARK

After World War II, universities were experiencing enormous demand due to returning students. To address the financial demands of Stanford's growth requirements, and to provide local employment opportunities for graduating students, Frederick Terman
Frederick Terman
proposed the leasing of Stanford's lands for use as an office park, named the Stanford Industrial Park (later Stanford Research Park ) in the year 1951. Leases were limited to high technology companies. Its first tenant was Varian Associates , founded by Stanford alumni in the 1930s to build military radar components. However, Terman also found venture capital for civilian technology start-ups. One of the major success stories was Hewlett-Packard . Founded in Packard\'s garage by Stanford graduates William Hewlett and David Packard , Hewlett-Packard moved its offices into the Stanford Research Park shortly after 1953. In 1954, Stanford created the Honors Cooperative Program to allow full-time employees of the companies to pursue graduate degrees from the University on a part-time basis. The initial companies signed five-year agreements in which they would pay double the tuition for each student in order to cover the costs. Hewlett-Packard has become the largest personal computer manufacturer in the world, and transformed the home printing market when it released the first thermal drop-on-demand ink jet printer in 1984. Other early tenants included Eastman Kodak
Eastman Kodak
, General Electric , and Lockheed .

THE SILICON TRANSISTOR

In 1953, William Shockley left Bell Labs
Bell Labs
in a disagreement over the handling of the invention of the transistor . After returning to California
California
Institute of Technology for a short while, Shockley moved to Mountain View, California
California
, in 1956, and founded Shockley Semiconductor
Semiconductor
Laboratory . Unlike many other researchers who used germanium as the semiconductor material, Shockley believed that silicon was the better material for making transistors. Shockley intended to replace the current transistor with a new three-element design (today known as the Shockley diode ), but the design was considerably more difficult to build than the "simple" transistor. In 1957, Shockley decided to end research on the silicon transistor. As a result of Shockley's abusive management style, eight engineers left the company to form Fairchild Semiconductor ; Shockley referred to them as the "traitorous eight ". Two of the original employees of Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore
Gordon Moore
, would go on to found Intel
Intel
.

COMPUTER NETWORKING

April 23, 1963 J.C.R. Licklider , the first director of the Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) at The Pentagon
The Pentagon
's ARPA issued an office memorandum rescheduling a meeting in Palo Alto addressed to "Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer Network ". regarding his vision of a computer network which he “imagined as an electronic commons open to all, ‘the main and essential medium of informational interaction for governments, institutions, corporations, and individuals.’” As head of IPTO from 1962 to 1964, “Licklider initiated three of the most important developments in information technology: the creation of computer science departments at several major universities, time-sharing, and networking.” By the late 1960s, his promotion of the concept had inspired a primitive version of his vision called ARPANET
ARPANET
, which expanded into a network of networks in the 1970s that became the Internet
Internet
.

IMMIGRATION REFORM

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 and other factors such as the mass exodus by Vietnamese boat people resulted in significant immigration, particularly by Asians, Latinos, and Portuguese, to Silicon
Silicon
Valley where they contributed to both the high-tech and production workforce. The Asian-American population in Santa Clara County rose from 43,000 in 1970 to 430,000 in 2000. During the same period the Latino population grew to 24% in the county and 30% in San Jose. The African-American population in the county remained steady but grew slightly to about 5%. Expansion of the H-1B visa in 1990 also played a role.

HISTORY (1971 AND LATER)

CHIPS

Main article: Invention of the integrated circuit

In April 1974, Intel
Intel
released the Intel
Intel
8080 , a "computer on a chip", "the first truly usable microprocessor". A microprocessor incorporates the functions of a computer 's central processing unit (CPU) on a single integrated circuit (IC).

HOMEBREW COMPUTER CLUB

Main article: Microcomputer revolution Invitation to first Homebrew Computer
Computer
Club meeting (sent to Steve Dompier).

The Homebrew Computer
Computer
Club was an informal group of electronic enthusiasts and technically minded hobbyists who gathered to trade parts, circuits , and information pertaining to DIY
DIY
construction of computing devices. It was started by Gordon French
Gordon French
and Fred Moore who met at the Community Computer
Computer
Center in Menlo Park . They both were interested in maintaining a regular, open forum for people to get together to work on making computers more accessible to everyone.

The first meeting was held as of March 1975 at French's garage in Menlo Park , San Mateo County, California
California
; which was on occasion of the arrival of the MITS Altair microcomputer, the first unit sent to the area for review by People\'s Computer
Computer
Company . Steve Wozniak
Steve Wozniak
and Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
credit that first meeting with inspiring them to design the original Apple I
Apple I
and (successor) Apple II
Apple II
computers. As a result, the first preview of the Apple I
Apple I
was given at the Homebrew Computer
Computer
Club. Subsequent meetings were held at an auditorium at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center .

VENTURE CAPITAL FIRMS

By the early 1970s, there were many semiconductor companies in the area, computer firms using their devices, and programming and service companies serving both. Industrial space was plentiful and housing was still inexpensive. The growth was fueled by the emergence of the venture capital industry on Sand Hill Road
Sand Hill Road
, beginning with Kleiner Perkins Caufield the availability of venture capital exploded after the successful $1.3 billion IPO of Apple Computer
Computer
in December 1980.

MEDIA

In 1980, Intelligent Machines Journal -a hobbyist journal- changed its name to InfoWorld , and, with offices in Palo Alto , began covering the explosive emergence of the microcomputer industry in the valley.

SOFTWARE

Although semiconductors are still a major component of the area's economy, Silicon
Silicon
Valley has been most famous in recent years for innovations in software and Internet
Internet
services. Silicon
Silicon
Valley has significantly influenced computer operating systems, software , and user interfaces.

Using money from NASA
NASA
, the US Air Force , and ARPA , Doug Engelbart invented the mouse and hypertext-based collaboration tools in the mid-1960s and 1970s while at Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International), first publicly demonstrated in 1968 in what is now known as The Mother of All Demos . Engelbart's Augmentation Research Center at SRI was also involved in launching the ARPANET
ARPANET
(precursor to the Internet
Internet
) and starting the Network Information Center (now InterNIC ). Xerox hired some of Engelbart's best researchers beginning in the early 1970s. In turn, in the 1970s and 1980s, Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) played a pivotal role in object-oriented programming, graphical user interfaces (GUIs), Ethernet
Ethernet
, PostScript , and laser printers .

While Xerox marketed equipment using its technologies, for the most part its technologies flourished elsewhere. The diaspora of Xerox inventions led directly to 3Com and Adobe Systems , and indirectly to Cisco
Cisco
, Apple Computer
Computer
, and Microsoft
Microsoft
. Apple's Macintosh GUI was largely a result of Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
' visit to PARC and the subsequent hiring of key personnel. Cisco's impetus stemmed from the need to route a variety of protocols over Stanford's campus Ethernet.

THE INTERNET

Commercial use of the Internet
Internet
became practical and and grew slowly throughout the early 1990s.

In 1995, commercial use of the Internet
Internet
grew substantially and the initial wave of internet startups, Amazon.com
Amazon.com
, eBay , and the predecessor to Craigslist began operations.

INTERNET BUBBLE

Silicon
Silicon
Valley is generally considered to have been the center of the dot-com bubble , which started in the mid-1990s and collapsed after the NASDAQ
NASDAQ
stock market began to decline dramatically in April 2000. During the bubble era, real estate prices reached unprecedented levels. For a brief time, Sand Hill Road
Sand Hill Road
was home to the most expensive commercial real estate in the world, and the booming economy resulted in severe traffic congestion .

EARLY 21ST CENTURY

After the dot-com crash, Silicon
Silicon
Valley continues to maintain its status as one of the top research and development centers in the world. A 2006 The Wall Street Journal
The Wall Street Journal
story found that 12 of the 20 most inventive towns in America were in California, and 10 of those were in Silicon
Silicon
Valley. San Jose led the list with 3,867 utility patents filed in 2005, and number two was Sunnyvale, at 1,881 utility patents. Silicon
Silicon
Valley is also home to a significant number of "Unicorn " ventures, referring to startup companies whose valuation has exceeded $1 billion dollars .

ECONOMY

OVERVIEW

Silicon
Silicon
Valley has a social and business ethos that supports innovation and entrepreneurship. Attempts to create " Silicon
Silicon
Valleys" in environments where disruptive innovation does not go over well have a poor track record.

According to a 2008 study by AeA in 2006, Silicon
Silicon
Valley was the third largest high-tech center (cybercity) in the United States, behind the New York metropolitan area and Washington metropolitan area , with 225,300 high-tech jobs. The Bay Area as a whole however, of which Silicon
Silicon
Valley is a part, would rank first with 387,000 high-tech jobs. Silicon
Silicon
Valley has the highest concentration of high-tech workers of any metropolitan area, with 285.9 out of every 1,000 private-sector workers. Silicon
Silicon
Valley has the highest average high-tech salary at $144,800. Largely a result of the high technology sector, the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States
United States
per capita.

The region is the biggest high-tech manufacturing center in the United States. The unemployment rate of the region was 9.4% in January 2009, up from 7.8% in the previous month. Silicon
Silicon
Valley received 41% of all U.S. venture investment in 2011, and 46% in 2012. More traditional industries also recognize the potential of high-tech development, and several car manufacturers have opened offices in Silicon
Silicon
Valley to capitalize on its entrepreneurial ecosystem.

Manufacture of transistors is, or was, the core industry in Silicon Valley. The production workforce was for the most part composed of Asian and Latina immigrants who were paid low wages and worked in hazardous conditions due to the chemicals used in the manufacture of integrated circuits . Technical, engineering, design, and administrative staffs were in large part well compensated.

Many more jobs (400,000 during the period 2010 to 2015) are created in Silicon
Silicon
Valley than housing built (60,000 units during the period 2010 to 2015). Housing prices are extremely high, far out of the range of production workers. As of 2016 a two-bedroom apartment rented for about $2,500 while the median home price was about $1 million. The Financial Post called Silicon
Silicon
Valley the most expensive U.S. housing region. Homelessness
Homelessness
is a problem with housing beyond the reach of middle-income residents; there is little shelter space other than in San Jose which, as of 2015, was making an effort to develop shelters by renovating old hotels.

NOTABLE COMPANIES

See also: Category:Companies based in Silicon
Silicon
Valley

Thousands of high technology companies are headquartered in Silicon Valley. Among those, the following 39 are in the Fortune 1000 : Adobe Systems Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
Cisco
Cisco
Systems eBay Intel
Intel
Intuit Nvidia
Nvidia
Oracle Sun Microsystems Yahoo!

* Adobe Systems * Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) * Agilent Technologies * Alphabet Inc. * Apple Inc.
Apple Inc.
* Applied Materials * Brocade Communications Systems * Cisco
Cisco
Systems * eBay * Electronic Arts * Facebook
Facebook
* Google
Google
* Hewlett Packard Enterprise * HP Inc.
HP Inc.
* Intel
Intel
* Intuit * Juniper Networks
Juniper Networks
* KLA Tencor * Lam Research * LSI Logic * Marvell Semiconductors * Maxim Integrated Products * National Semiconductor
Semiconductor
* NetApp * Netflix * Nvidia
Nvidia
* Oracle Corporation * Riverbed Technology * Salesforce.com * SanDisk
SanDisk
* Sanmina-SCI * Symantec * Tesla Motors
Tesla Motors
* Visa Inc. * VMware
VMware
* Western Digital Corporation * Xilinx * Yahoo!

Additional notable companies headquartered (or with a significant presence) in Silicon
Silicon
Valley include (some defunct or subsumed):

* 3Com (acquired by Hewlett-Packard ) * 8x8
8x8
* Actel * Actuate Corporation * Adaptec * Aeria Games and Entertainment * Akamai Technologies (HQ in Cambridge, Massachusetts) * Altera * Amazon.com
Amazon.com
's A9.com * Amazon.com's Lab126 .com * Amdahl * Anritsu * AstraQom * Asus
Asus
(headquartered in Taipei
Taipei
, Taiwan
Taiwan
) * Atari
Atari
* Atmel
Atmel
* Broadcom (headquartered in Irvine, California
California
) * BEA Systems (acquired by Oracle Corporation ) * Cadence Design Systems * Cypress Semiconductor
Semiconductor
* Dell
Dell
(headquartered in Round Rock, Texas) * EMC Corporation
EMC Corporation
(headquartered in Hopkinton, Massachusetts) * Extreme Networks * E*TRADE (headquartered in New York, NY) * Fairchild Semiconductor * Flex (formally Flextronics) * Foundry Networks * Fujitsu
Fujitsu
(headquartered in Tokyo, Japan) * GoPro * Groupon (headquartered in Chicago, IL) * Harmonic, Inc. * HCL Technologies (headquartered in Noida
Noida
, India
India
) * Hitachi Data Systems * Hitachi Global Storage Technologies * IBM Almaden Research Center (headquartered in Armonk, New York) * Infosys
Infosys
(headquartered in Bangalore
Bangalore
, India
India
) * Informatica * Intuitive Surgical * LinkedIn
LinkedIn
(acquired by Microsoft
Microsoft
) * Logitech
Logitech
* Lucasfilm * Maxtor (acquired by Seagate ) * McAfee
McAfee
(acquired by Intel
Intel
) * Memorex (acquired by Imation and moved to Cerritos, California
California
) * MetricStream * Micron Technology (headquartered in Boise, Idaho
Boise, Idaho
) * Microsoft
Microsoft
(headquartered in Redmond, Washington ) * Mozilla Foundation * Move, Inc. * Nokia
Nokia
(headquartered in Espoo , Finland
Finland
) * Nokia
Nokia
Solutions and Networks (headquartered in Espoo , Finland
Finland
) * NXP Semiconductors * Nook (subsidiary of Barnes ">:4,7 This was the lowest percentage in the state. ( San Francisco
San Francisco
County had 19.2% and Marin County had 18.5%.)

Silicon
Silicon
Valley tech leadership positions are occupied almost exclusively by men. This is also represented in the number of new companies founded by women as well as the number of women-lead startups that receive venture capital funding. Wadhwa said he believes that a contributing factor is a lack of parental encouragement to study science and engineering. He also cited a lack of women role models and noted that most famous tech leaders — like Bill Gates
Bill Gates
, Steve Jobs
Steve Jobs
, and Mark Zuckerberg — are men.

In 2014, tech companies Google, Yahoo!, Facebook, Apple, and others, released corporate transparency reports that offered detailed employee breakdowns. In May, Google
Google
said 17% of its tech employees worldwide were women, and, in the U.S., 1% of its tech workers were black and 2% were Hispanic . June 2014 brought reports from Yahoo! and Facebook. Yahoo! said that 15% of its tech jobs were held by women, 2% of its tech employees were black and 4% Hispanic. Facebook
Facebook
reported that 15% of its tech workforce was female, and 3% was Hispanic and 1% was black. In August, Apple reported that 80% of its global tech staff was male and that, in the U.S., 54% of its tech jobs were staffed by Caucasians and 23% by Asians. Soon after, USA Today
USA Today
published an article about Silicon
Silicon
Valley's lack of tech-industry diversity, pointing out that it is largely white or Asian, and male. "Blacks and Hispanics are largely absent," it reported, "and women are underrepresented in Silicon
Silicon
Valley — from giant companies to start-ups to venture capital firms." Civil rights activist Jesse Jackson said of improving diversity in the tech industry, "This is the next step in the civil rights movement" while T.J. Rodgers has argued against Jackson's assertions.

As of October 2014, some high-profile Silicon
Silicon
Valley firms were working actively to prepare and recruit women. Bloomberg reported that Apple, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft
Microsoft
attended the 20th annual Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing conference to actively recruit and potentially hire female engineers and technology experts. The same month, the second annual Platform Summit was held to discuss increasing racial and gender diversity in tech. As of April 2015 experienced women were engaged in creation of venture capital firms which leveraged women's perspectives in funding of startups.

After UC Davis published its Study of California
California
Women Business Leaders in November 2006, some San Jose Mercury News readers dismissed the possibility that sexism contributed in making Silicon Valley's leadership gender gap the highest in the state. A January 2015 issue of Newsweek
Newsweek
magazine featured an article detailing reports of sexism and misogyny in Silicon
Silicon
Valley. The article's author, Nina Burleigh , asked, "Where were all these offended people when women like Heidi Roizen published accounts of having a venture capitalist stick her hand in his pants under a table while a deal was being discussed?"

Silicon
Silicon
Valley firms' board of directors are composed of 15.7% women compared with 20.9% in the S&P 100.

The 2012 lawsuit Pao v. Kleiner Perkins was filed in San Francisco County Superior Court by executive Ellen Pao for gender discrimination against her employer, Kleiner Perkins Caufield "> Map visualization of traditional Silicon
Silicon
Valley in red, San Francisco
San Francisco
in maroon/brown, Berkeley-Emeryville tech hub in peach. Tech companies by no means are relegated to these areas, and are found all over the bay.

The following Santa Clara County cities are actually located in the Santa Clara Valley and based on that status are traditionally considered to be in Silicon
Silicon
Valley (in alphabetical order):

* Campbell * Cupertino * Los Altos * Los Altos Hills * Los Gatos * Milpitas * Monte Sereno * Morgan Hill * Mountain View * Palo Alto * San Jose * Santa Clara * Saratoga * Sunnyvale

In 2015, MIT researchers developed a novel method for measuring which towns are home to startups with higher growth potential. This defines Silicon
Silicon
Valley to center on the municipalities of Menlo Park, Mountain View, Palo Alto, and Sunnyvale.

The following Bay Area cities are (or were) home to various high-tech companies (or related firms like venture capital firms) and have thereby become associated with Silicon
Silicon
Valley: San Mateo County

* Belmont * Burlingame * East Palo Alto * Foster City * Menlo Park * Millbrae * Redwood City * San Bruno * San Carlos * San Mateo * South San Francisco
San Francisco

Alameda County

* Emeryville * Fremont * Newark * Oakland * Union City

Santa Cruz County

* Santa Cruz * Scotts Valley

San Francisco
San Francisco
County

* San Francisco
San Francisco

Contra Costa County

* San Ramon

UNIVERSITIES, COLLEGES, AND TRADE SCHOOLS

* The Art Institute of California
California
– Sunnyvale * California
California
College of the Arts * Carnegie Mellon University ( Silicon
Silicon
Valley campus) * California
California
State University, East Bay , Hayward * Cañada College
Cañada College
* Chabot College * Cogswell Polytechnical College * College of San Mateo * De Anza College * DeVry University
DeVry University
* Draper University * Evergreen Valley College * Foothill College * Gavilan College * Golden Gate University ( Silicon
Silicon
Valley Campus) * Hult International Business School * International Culinary Center * International Technological University * John F. Kennedy University (Campbell Campus) * Lincoln Law School of San Jose * Menlo College * Mills College * Minerva Schools at KGI * Mission College * National University San Jose Campus * Northwestern Polytechnic University (Fremont) * Notre Dame de Namur University * Ohlone College * Peralta Colleges * Saint Mary\'s College of California
California
* San Jose City College * San José State University * San Francisco
San Francisco
State University * Santa Clara University * Silicon
Silicon
Valley University * Singularity University * Skyline College * Stanford University
Stanford University
* University of California, Berkeley
University of California, Berkeley
* University of California, Santa Cruz , Silicon
Silicon
Valley Extension Campus * University of California, San Francisco
San Francisco
* University of San Francisco
San Francisco
South Bay Campus * West Valley College

ART GALLERIES AND MUSEUMS

See also: List of attractions in Silicon
Silicon
Valley

Silicon
Silicon
Valley's first internationally known art gallery, Pace Art and Technology Gallery in Menlo Park, opened on February 6, 2016.

In 1928, the Allied Arts Guild was formed in Menlo Park and is a complex of artist studios, shops, restaurant, and gardens.

Some museums in Silicon
Silicon
Valley include;

* Burlingame Museum of PEZ Memorabilia , * Computer
Computer
History Museum , * Children\'s Discovery Museum of San Jose , * CuriOdyssey , * De Saisset Museum at Santa Clara University, * Filoli
Filoli
Estate, * Forbes Mill , * Hiller Aviation Museum , * the HP Garage , * the Intel
Intel
Museum , * Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts at Stanford University, * Japanese American Museum of San Jose , * Los Altos History Museum , * Moffett Field Historical Society Museum, * Museum of American Heritage , * Palo Alto Art Center , * Palo Alto Junior Museum and Zoo , * Portuguese Historical Museum , * Rosicrucian Egyptian Museum , * San Mateo County History Museum , * San Jose Museum of Art
San Jose Museum of Art
, * San Jose Museum of Quilts padding:0.4em 2em">

* San Francisco Bay Area portal

See also: the categories Companies based in Silicon
Silicon
Valley , Silicon Valley people , and Tourist attractions in Silicon
Silicon
Valley .

* BioValley * List of attractions in Silicon
Silicon
Valley * List of places with "Silicon" names around the world * List of research parks around the world * List of technology centers around the world * Mega-Site , a type of land development by private developers, Universities, or governments to promote business clusters * Silicon
Silicon
Hills * Silicon
Silicon
Wadi * STEM fields * Tech Valley

REFERENCES

* ^ "Monthly employment continues upward climb". Silicon
Silicon
Valley Index. Retrieved 24 September 2013. * ^ A B Sturgeon, Timothy J. (2000). "How Silicon
Silicon
Valley Came to Be". In Kenney, Martin. Understanding Silicon
Silicon
Valley: The Anatomy of an Entrepreneurial Region. Stanford University. ISBN 978-0-8047-3734-0 . Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ Uskali, T., & Nordfors, D. (2007, 23 May). The role of journalism in creating the metaphor of Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Paper presented at the Innovation Journalism 4 Conference, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif., http://www.innovationjournalism.org/ij4/presentations/turouskalidavidnordfors.pdf, retrieved 8 August 2016 * ^ Castells, Manuel (2011). The Rise of the Network Society. John Wiley & Sons . p. 52. ISBN 978-1-4443-5631-1 . * ^ Morgan, Jane (1967). Electronics in the West: The First Fifty Years. National Press Books. p. 18. * ^ Arbuckle, Clyde (1986). Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose. San Jose, CA: Memorabilia of San Jose. p. 380. access-date= requires url= (help ) * ^ Black, Dave. "Moffett Field History". moffettfieldmuseum.org. Retrieved 19 April 2015. * ^ Christophe Lécuyer (August 24, 2007). Making Silicon
Silicon
Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930–1970 (trade paperback)format= requires url= (help ). The MIT Press. pp. 13–40. ISBN 978-0-262-62211-0 . * ^ Christophe Lécuyer (August 24, 2007). Making Silicon
Silicon
Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930–1970 (trade paperback)format= requires url= (help ). The MIT Press. pp. 40, 41. ISBN 978-0-262-62211-0 . * ^ David Bacon (January 17, 1993). " Silicon
Silicon
Valley On Strike! Immigrants in Electronics Protest Growing Sweat-Shop Conditions". dbacon.igc.org. Retrieved February 3, 2015. * ^ David Bacon (March 2, 2011). "Up Against the Open Shop – the Hidden Story of Silicon
Silicon
Valley\'s High-Tech Workers". www.truth-out.org. Truth-Out. Retrieved February 3, 2015. We're not looking for someone to represent employees * ^ "Timeline. Silicon
Silicon
Valley.American Experience.WGBH – PBS". American Experience. Retrieved 19 April 2015. * ^ Markoff, John (2009-04-17). "Searching for Silicon
Silicon
Valley". New York Times . The New York Times
New York Times
Company . Retrieved 2009-04-17. * ^ Stephen B. Adams, "Regionalism in Stanford's Contribution to the Rise of Silicon
Silicon
Valley", Enterprise & Society 2003 4(3): 521-543 * ^ Tajnai, Carolyn (May 1985). "Fred Terman, the Father of Silicon Valley". Stanford Computer
Computer
Forum. Carolyn Terman. Retrieved December 10, 2014. * ^ Leonhardt, David (April 6, 2008). "Holding On". New York Times . Retrieved December 7, 2014. In 1955, the physicist William Shockley set up a semiconductor laboratory in Mountain View, partly to be near his mother in Palo Alto. … * ^ Markoff, John (January 13, 2008). "Two Views of Innovation, Colliding in Washington". New York Times. Retrieved December 7, 2014. The co-inventor of the transistor and the founder of the valley's first chip company, William Shockley, moved to Palo Alto, Calif., because his mother lived there. ... * ^ Christophe Lécuyer, "What Do Universities Really Owe Industry? The Case of Solid State Electronics at Stanford," Minerva: a Review of Science, Learning & Policy 2005 43(1): 51-71 * ^ "History of Computing Industrial Era 1984–1985". thocp.net. Retrieved 19 April 2015. * ^ "The Stanford Research Park: The Engine of Silicon
Silicon
Valley". PaloAltoHistory.com. Retrieved 29 March 2014. * ^ Goodheart, Adam (July 2, 2006). "10 Days That Changed History". New York Times. * ^ McLaughlin, John; Weimers, Leigh; Winslow, Ward (2008). Silicon Valley: 110 Year Renaissance. Silicon
Silicon
Valley Historical Association . ISBN 0-9649217-4-X . * ^ Licklider, J. C. R. (23 April 1963). "Topics for Discussion at the Forthcoming Meeting, Memorandum For: Members and Affiliates of the Intergalactic Computer
Computer
Network". Washington, D.C.: Advanced Research Projects Agency, via KurzweilAI.net. Retrieved 2013-01-26. * ^ Leiner, Barry M.; et al. (2003-12-10). ""Origins of the Internet" in A Brief History of the Internet
Internet
version 3.32". The Internet
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Society. Retrieved 2007-11-03. * ^ A B Garreau, Joel (2006). Radical Evolution: The Promise and Peril of Enhancing Our Minds, Our Bodies--and what it Means to be Human. Broadway. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-7679-1503-8 . * ^ A B "Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) (United States Government)". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved 11 January 2014. * ^ Glenda Matthews (November 20, 2002). "5. "New Immigrants and Silicon
Silicon
Valley:Struggles, Successes, and Transformations"". Silicon Valley, Women, and the California
California
Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century (trade paperback) (1 ed.). Stanford, California: Stanford University
Stanford University
Press. pp. 147–182. ISBN 978-0-8047-4796-7 . Retrieved January 16, 2015. * ^ Glenda Matthews (November 20, 2002). Silicon
Silicon
Valley, Women, and the California
California
Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century (trade paperback) (1 ed.). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-8047-4796-7 . Retrieved January 16, 2015. * ^ Glenda Matthews (November 20, 2002). Silicon
Silicon
Valley, Women, and the California
California
Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century (trade paperback) (1 ed.). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-8047-4796-7 . Retrieved January 16, 2015. * ^ Intel
Intel
(April 15, 1974). "From CPU to software, the 8080 Microcomputer is here". Electronic News. New York: Fairchild Publications. pp. 44–45. Electronic News was a weekly trade newspaper. The same advertisement appeared in the May 2, 1974 issue of Electronics magazine . * ^ Osborne, Adam (1980). An Introduction to Microcomputers. Volume 1: Basic Concepts (2nd ed.). Berkeley, California: Osborne-McGraw Hill. ISBN 0-931988-34-9 . * ^ "Homebrew And How The Apple Came To Be". atariarchives.org. Retrieved 19 April 2015. * ^ Markoff, John (2006) . What the Dormouse Said: How the Sixties Counterculture Shaped the Personal Computer
Computer
Industry. Penguin Books
Penguin Books
. ISBN 978-0-14-303676-0 . * ^ Wozniak, Steve (2006). iWoz. W.W. Norton & Company. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-393-33043-4 . After my first meeting, I started designing the computer that would later be known as the Apple I. It was that inspiring. * ^ *Freiberger, Paul ; Swaine, Michael (2000) . Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer. McGraw-Hill . ISBN 978-0-07-135895-8 . * ^ John Markoff (September 1999). Foreword, Fire in the Valley (trade paperback)format= requires url= (help ) (Updated ed.). McGraw-Hill. pp. xi–xiii. ISBN 0-07-135892-7 . * ^ Graphical User Interface (GUI) from apple-history.com * ^ W. Josephujjwal sarkar Campbell (January 2, 2015). "The Year of the Internet". 1995: The Year the Future Began (hardcover)format= requires url= (help ). University of California
California
Press. ISBN 978-0-520-27399-3 . * ^ Reed Albergotti, "The Most Inventive Towns in America", Wall Street Journal, 22–23 July 2006, P1. * ^ Ibid. * ^ "The Unicorn List". Fortune. January 22, 2015. Retrieved 6 April 2015. * ^ James B. Stewart (June 18, 2015). "A Fearless Culture Fuels U.S. Tech Giants". The New York Times. Retrieved June 19, 2015. Europeans are also much less receptive to the kind of truly disruptive innovation represented by a Google
Google
or a Facebook
Facebook
* ^ "Cybercities 2008: An Overview of the High-Technology Industry in the Nation\'s Top 60 Cities". aeanet.org. Retrieved 19 April 2015. * ^ "America\'s Greediest Cities". Forbes. 3 December 2007. * ^ Albanesius, Chloe (24 June 2008). " AeA Study Reveals Where the Tech Jobs Are". PC Magazine. * ^ Pimentel, Benjamin. " Silicon
Silicon
Valley and N.Y. still top tech rankings". MarketWatch. Retrieved 19 April 2015. * ^ " Silicon
Silicon
Valley unemployment rate jumps to 9.4 percent". mercurynews.com. Retrieved 19 April 2015. * ^ "Venture Capital Survey Silicon
Silicon
Valley Fourth Quarter 2011". Fenwick.com. Retrieved 2013-07-08. * ^ "Porsche lands in Silicon
Silicon
Valley to develop sportscars of the future". IBI. 2017-05-08. Retrieved 2017-05-08. Carmakers who have recently expanded to Silicon
Silicon
Valley include Volkswagen, Hyundai, General Motors, Ford, Honda, Toyota, BMW, Nissan and Mercedes-Benz. * ^ "Production Occupations (Major Group)". bls.gov. Bureau of Labor Statistics. May 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2015. * ^ Glenda Matthews (November 20, 2002). Silicon
Silicon
Valley, Women, and the California
California
Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century (trade paperback) (1 ed.). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. pp. 154–56. ISBN 978-0-8047-4796-7 . Retrieved January 16, 2015. * ^ "Occupational Employment Statistics Semiconductor
Semiconductor
and Other Electronic Component Manufacturing". bls.gov. Bureau of Labor Statistics. May 2014. Retrieved April 25, 2015. * ^ A B Eliot Brown (June 7, 2016). "Neighbors Clash in Silicon Valley Job growth far outstrips housing, creating an imbalance; San Jose chafes at Santa Clara". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 7, 2016. * ^ Glenda Matthews (November 20, 2002). Silicon
Silicon
Valley, Women, and the California
California
Dream: Gender, Class, and Opportunity in the Twentieth Century (trade paperback) (1 ed.). Stanford, California: Stanford University Press. p. 233. ISBN 978-0-8047-4796-7 . Retrieved January 16, 2015. * ^ http://business.financialpost.com/personal-finance/mortgages-real-estate/zero-down-on-a-2-million-house-is-no-problem-in-silicon-valleys-scary-market * ^ Monica Potts (December 13, 2015). "Dispossessed in the Land of Dreams: Those left behind by Silicon
Silicon
Valley’s technology boom struggle to stay in the place they call home.". The New Republic. Retrieved December 14, 2015. A 2013 census showed Santa Clara County having more than 7,000 homeless people, the fifth-highest homeless population per capita in the country and among the highest populations sleeping outside or in unsuitable shelters like vehicles. * ^ Saxenian, AnnaLee (1999). " Silicon
Silicon
Valley\'s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs" (PDF). Public Policy Institute of California. * ^ Gary Riflin (August 5, 2007). "In Silicon
Silicon
Valley, Millionaires Who Don’t Feel Rich". The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2015. Silicon
Silicon
Valley is thick with those who might be called working-class millionaires * ^ "Women Missing From Decision-Making Roles in State Biz" (Press release). UC Regents . November 16, 2006. Retrieved March 25, 2015. * ^ A B C Ellis, Katrina (2006). "UC Davis Study of California Women Business Leaders" (PDF). UC Regents. Retrieved March 25, 2015. * ^ Zee, Samantha (November 16, 2006). "California, Silicon
Silicon
Valley Firms Lack Female Leaders (Update1)". Bloomberg. Retrieved March 25, 2015. * ^ A B Wadhwa, Vivek (November 9, 2011). " Silicon
Silicon
Valley women are on the rise, but have far to go". Washington Post. Retrieved December 26, 2014. This is one of Silicon
Silicon
Valley’s most glaring faults: It is male-dominated. * ^ Wadhwa, Vivek (May 15, 2010). "Fixing Societal Problems: It Starts With Mom and Dad". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved 26 December 2014.

* ^ Musil, Steven (May 28, 2014). " Google
Google
discloses its diversity record and admits it\'s not good". CNET. CBS Interactive. * ^ Levy, Karyne (June 17, 2014). "Yahoo\'s Diversity Numbers Are Just As Terrible As The Rest Of The Tech Industry\'s". Business Insider. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ Williams, Maxine (June 25, 2014). "Building a More Diverse Facebook". Facebook. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ "Apple diversity report released; Cook \'not satisfied with the numbers\'". CBS Interactive. Associated Press. August 13, 2014. * ^ Guynn, Jessica; Weise, Elizabeth (August 15, 2014). "Lack of diversity could undercut Silicon
Silicon
Valley". USA Today. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ Koch, Wendy (August 15, 2014). "Jesse Jackson: Tech diversity is next civil rights step". USA Today. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ Burrows, Peter (October 8, 2014). "Gender Gap Draws Thousands From Google, Apple to Phoenix". Bloomberg Business. Bloomberg. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ Porter, Jane (October 29, 2014). "Inside the Movement That\'s Trying to Solve Silicon
Silicon
Valley\'s Diversity Problem". Fast Company. Mansueto Ventures. Retrieved March 24, 2015. * ^ Claire Cain Miller (April 1, 2015). "Female-Run Venture Capital Funds Alter the Status Quo" (Dealbook blog). The New York Times. Retrieved April 2, 2015. “We’re in the middle of a shifting trend where there are newly wealthy women putting their money to work, and similarly we’re starting to have a larger number of experienced investors,” * ^ Burleigh, Nina (January 28, 2015). "What Silicon
Silicon
Valley Thinks of Women". Newsweek. Retrieved March 21, 2015. * ^ Tam, Ruth (January 30, 2015). "Artist behind Newsweek
Newsweek
cover: it\'s not sexist, it depicts the ugliness of sexism". PBS NewsHour. Retrieved March 21, 2015. * ^ " Ellen Pao gender discrimination trial grips Silicon
Silicon
Valley". TheGuardian.com. 2015-03-13. Retrieved 2016-06-06. * ^ Complaint of Ellen Pao * ^ Liz Gannes and Nellie Bowles (March 27, 2015). "Live: Ellen Pao Loses on All Claims in Historic Gender Discrimination Lawsuit Against Kleiner Perkins". Re/code. Retrieved March 27, 2015. That’s the full verdict. No on all claims. * ^ Sue Decker (March 26, 2015). "A Fish Is the Last to Discover Water: Impressions From the Ellen Pao Trial". Re/code. Retrieved March 28, 2015. We may look back at this as a watershed moment — regardless of how the very attentive jury comes out on their verdict. * ^ Farhad Manjoo (March 27, 2015). " Ellen Pao Disrupts How Silicon Valley Does Business". The New York Times. Retrieved March 28, 2015. Ms. Klein argued that the Kleiner trial would become a landmark case for women in the workplace, as consequential for corporate gender relations as Anita Hill’s accusations in 1991 of sexual harassment during the confirmation hearings of Supreme Court Justice Clarence Thomas * ^ Streitfeld, David (March 27, 2015). " Ellen Pao Loses Silicon Valley Gender Bias Case Against Kleiner Perkins". New York Times. Retrieved April 1, 2015. In a sign that the struggle over the place of women in Silicon
Silicon
Valley is only beginning, gender discrimination suits have recently been filed against two prominent companies, Facebook
Facebook
and Twitter. * ^ George Packer (May 27, 2013). "Change the World Silicon
Silicon
Valley transfers its slogans—and its money—to the realm of politics.". The New Yorker. Retrieved July 30, 2015. In wealthy districts, the public schools have essentially been privatized; they insulate themselves from shortfalls in state funding with money raised by foundations they have set up for themselves. * ^ Stern, Scott, Guzman, Jorge. Nowcasting and Placecasting Growth Entrepreneurship. * ^ "Science Magazine: Sign In". sciencemag.org. Retrieved 19 April 2015. * ^ Bowles, Nellie (2016-02-06). "The \'cultural desert\' of Silicon
Silicon
Valley finally gets its first serious art gallery". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077 . Retrieved 2016-02-21. * ^ "Barn Woodshop: Menlo Park furniture repair shop is a remnant of a bygone era". San Jose Mercury News. Retrieved 2016-02-21. * ^ "Saturday: Allied Arts Guild holds open house". Almanac News. Retrieved 2016-02-21. * ^ A B C "14 Sights You Must See In Silicon
Silicon
Valley". Business Insider. Retrieved 2016-02-21. * ^ "Burlingame: Paradise on the Peninsula". SFGate. 1998. Retrieved 2016-03-30. * ^ "Michelle Pfeiffer Acts With Class / `Dangerous Minds\' uses teacher plot well". SFGate. 1996. Retrieved 2016-03-30. * ^ "House of Sand and Fog". IMDB. Retrieved 2006-03-30. * ^ "Start-Ups: Silicon
Silicon
Valley". IMDB. Retrieved 2016-03-30. * ^ "Betas". IMDB. Retrieved 2016-03-30.

FURTHER READING

Books

* Bronson, Po (2013). The Nudist On The Lateshift: and Other Tales of Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Random House . ISBN 978-1-4481-8964-9 . * Cringely, Robert X. (1996) . Accidental Empires: How the boys of Silicon
Silicon
Valley make their millions, battle foreign competition, and still can\'t get a date. HarperCollins
HarperCollins
. ISBN 978-0-88730-855-0 . * English-Lueck, June Anne (2002). Cultures@ Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Stanford University Press . ISBN 978-0-8047-4429-4 . * Hayes, Dennis (1990) . Behind the Silicon
Silicon
Curtain: The Seductions of Work in a Lonely Era. Black Rose Books . ISBN 978-0-921689-62-1 . * Kaplan, David A. (2000). The Silicon
Silicon
Boys: And Their Valleys Of Dreams. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-688-17906-9 . * Koepp, Rob. Clusters of Creativity: Enduring Lessons on Innovation and Entrepreneurship from Silicon
Silicon
Valley and Europe\'s Silicon
Silicon
Fen. John Wiley & Sons
John Wiley & Sons
. ISBN 978-0-470-85566-9 . * Lécuyer, Christophe Lécuyer (2006) . Making Silicon
Silicon
Valley: Innovation and the Growth of High Tech, 1930–1970. Chemical Heritage Foundation . ISBN 978-0-262-12281-8 . * Levy, Steven (2014) . Hackers: Heroes of the Computer
Computer
Revolution. O\'Reilly Media . ISBN 978-1-4493-8839-3 . * O'Mara, Margaret Pugh (2015) . Cities of Knowledge: Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon
Silicon
Valley: Cold War Science and the Search for the Next Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Princeton University Press . ISBN 978-1-4008-6688-5 . * Pellow, David N; Park, Lisa Sun-Hee (2002). The Silicon
Silicon
Valley of Dreams: Environmental Injustice, Immigrant Workers, and the High-tech Global Economy. New York University Press . ISBN 978-0-8147-6710-8 . * Saxenian, AnnaLee (1996). Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon
Silicon
Valley and Route 128. Harvard University Press . ISBN 978-0-674-75340-2 . * Scoville, Thomas (2001). Silicon
Silicon
Follies (Fiction). Simon & Schuster . ISBN 978-0-7434-1945-1 . * Whiteley, Carol; McLaughlin, John (2002). Technology, Entrepreneurs and Silicon
Silicon
Valley. Silicon
Silicon
Valley Historical Association. ISBN 0-9649217-1-5 .

Journals and newspapers

* Kantor, Jodi (December 23, 2014). "A Brand New World In Which Men Ruled". New York Times. * Koenig, Neil (February 9, 2014). "Next Silicon
Silicon
Valleys: How did California
California
get it so right?". BBC News
BBC News
. * Malone, Michael S. (January 30, 2015). "The Purpose of Silicon Valley". MIT Technology Review. * Norr, Henry (December 27, 1999). "Growth of a Silicon
Silicon
Empire". San Francisco Chronicle. * Palmer, Barbara (February 4, 2004). "Red tile roofs in Bangalore: Stanford\'s look copied in Silicon
Silicon
Valley and beyond". Stanford Report. * Schulz, Thomas (March 4, 2015). "Tomorrowland: How Silicon
Silicon
Valley Shapes Our Future". Der Spiegel. * Sturgeon, Timothy J. (December 2000). "Chapter Two: How Silicon Valley Came to Be" (PDF). Industrial Performance Center. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. * Williams, James C. (December 2013). "From White Gold to Silicon Chips: Hydraulic Technology, Electric Power and Silicon
Silicon
Valley". Social Science Information (Abstract). Sage Publications . 52 (4): 558–574. (Subscription required for full text.)

Audiovisual

* Silicon
Silicon
Valley: A Five Part Series (DVD). Narrated by Leonard Nimoy. Silicon
Silicon
Valley Historical Association. 2012. * "A Weekend in Silicon
Silicon
Valley". New York Times
New York Times
(Slideshow). August 27, 2010. * Silicon
Silicon
Valley: A Five Part Series (DVD). Narrated by Leonard Nimoy. Silicon
Silicon
Valley Historical Association. 2012.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for SILICON VALLEY .

* Santa Clara County:

.