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Silesia
Silesia
(/sɪˈliːʒə-/;[1] Polish: Śląsk [ɕlɔ̃sk]; Czech: Slezsko; German:  Schlesien (help·info) German pronunciation: [ˈʃleːzi̯ən]; Silesian German: Schläsing; Silesian: Ślůnsk [ɕlonsk]; Lower Sorbian: Šlazyńska; Upper Sorbian: Šleska; Latin: Silesia) is a region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Germany. Its area is about 40,000 km2 (15,444 sq mi), and its population about 8,000,000. Silesia
Silesia
is located along the Oder River. It consists of Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
and Upper Silesia. The region is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław. The biggest metropolitan area is the Upper Silesian metropolitan area, the centre of which is Katowice. Parts of the Czech city of Ostrava
Ostrava
fall within the borders of Silesia. Silesia's borders and national affiliation have changed over time, both when it was a hereditary possession of noble houses and after the rise of modern nation-states. The first known states to hold power there were probably those of Greater Moravia
Greater Moravia
at the end of the 9th century and Bohemia
Bohemia
early in the 10th century. In the 10th century, Silesia
Silesia
was incorporated into the early Polish state, and after its division in the 12th century became a Piast
Piast
duchy. In the 14th century, it became a constituent part of the Bohemian Crown Lands under the Holy Roman Empire, which passed to the Austrian Habsburg Monarchy in 1526. Most of Silesia
Silesia
was conquered by Prussia in 1742 and transferred from Austria to Prussia in the Treaty of Berlin. Later, Silesia
Silesia
became, as a province of Prussia, a part of the German Empire
German Empire
and the subsequent Weimar Republic. The varied history with changing aristocratic possessions resulted in an abundance of castles in Silesia, especially in the Jelenia Góra
Jelenia Góra
valley. After World War I, the easternmost part of this region, i.e. an eastern strip of Upper Silesia, was awarded to Poland
Poland
by the Entente Powers after insurrections by Poles
Poles
and the Upper Silesian plebiscite. The remaining former Austrian parts of Silesia
Silesia
were partitioned to Czechoslovakia, and are today part of the Czech Republic. In 1945, after World War II, the bulk of Silesia
Silesia
was transferred, on demands of the Polish delegation, to Polish jurisdiction by the Potsdam Agreement
Potsdam Agreement
of the victorious Allied Powers and became part of Poland. The small Lusatian strip west of the Oder-Neisse line, which had belonged to Silesia
Silesia
since 1815, remained in Germany. The largest town and cultural centre of this region is Görlitz. Most inhabitants of Silesia
Silesia
today speak the national languages of their respective countries (Polish and Czech, both of which are Western Slavic languages, with some, albeit limited, mutual intelligibility). The population of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
is native (with some immigrants from Poland
Poland
who came in the 19th to 20th centuries), while Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
was settled by a German-speaking population before 1945. An ongoing debate exists whether Silesian speech should be considered a dialect of Polish or a separate language.[citation needed] Also, a Lower Silesian German dialect is used, although today it is almost extinct.[citation needed] It is used by expellees within Germany, as well as Germans who were left behind.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Geography

3.1 Natural resources 3.2 Demographics

3.2.1 Ethnicity 3.2.2 Religion 3.2.3 Consequences of World War II

3.3 Cities

4 Flags and coats of arms 5 World Heritage Sites 6 See also 7 Footnotes 8 References 9 External links

Etymology[edit] The names of Silesia
Silesia
in the different languages most likely share their etymology— Latin
Latin
and English: Silesia; Polish: Śląsk; Old Polish: Ślążsk[o]; Silesian: Ślůnsk; German: Schlesien; Silesian German: Schläsing; Czech: Slezsko; Slovak: Sliezsko; Kashubian: Sląsk; Upper Sorbian: Šleska; Lower Sorbian: Šlazyńska. The names all relate to the name of a river (now Ślęza) and mountain (Mount Ślęża) in mid-southern Silesia. The mountain served as a cultic place. Ślęża is listed as one of the numerous Pre-Indo-European topographic names in the region (see old European hydronymy).[2] According to some Polish Slavists, the name Ślęża [ˈɕlɛ̃ʐa] or Ślęż [ˈɕlɛ̃ʐ] is directly related to the Old Slavic words ślęg [ˈɕlɛ̃ɡ] or śląg [ˈɕlɔ̃ɡ], which means dampness, moisture, or humidity.[3] They disagree with the hypothesis of an origin for the name Śląsk [ˈɕlɔ̃sk] from the name of the Silings tribe, an etymology preferred by some German authors.[4] History[edit] Main article: History of Silesia

Silesia
Silesia
in an early period of Poland's fragmentation, 1172–1177

Lands of the Bohemian Crown
Lands of the Bohemian Crown
until 1742 when most of Silesia
Silesia
was ceded to Prussia

1905 administrative map of Province of Silesia
Province of Silesia
showing the historical locations of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
(Oppeln) in red, Middle Silesia
Silesia
(Breslau) in yellow, and Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
(Liegnitz) in green

In the fourth century BC, Celts
Celts
entered Silesia, settling around Mount Ślęża near modern Wrocław, Oława, and Strzelin.[5] Germanic Lugii tribes were first recorded within Silesia
Silesia
in the 1st century.[citation needed] Slavic peoples
Slavic peoples
arrived in the region around the 7th century,[6] and by the early ninth century, their settlements had stabilized. Local Slavs started to erect boundary structures like the Silesian Przesieka
Silesian Przesieka
and the Silesia
Silesia
Walls. The eastern border of Silesian settlement was situated to the west of the Bytom, and east from Racibórz
Racibórz
and Cieszyn. East of this line dwelt a closely related Slav tribe, the Vistulans. Their northern border was in the valley of the Barycz River, north of which lived the Polans.[7] The first known states in Silesia
Silesia
were Greater Moravia
Greater Moravia
and Bohemia. In the 10th century, the Polish ruler Mieszko I
Mieszko I
of the Piast
Piast
dynasty incorporated Silesia
Silesia
into the Polish state. During the Fragmentation of Poland, Silesia
Silesia
and the rest of the country were divided among many independent duchies ruled by various Silesian dukes. During this time, German cultural and ethnic influence increased as a result of immigration from German-speaking parts of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1178, parts of the Duchy of Kraków
Duchy of Kraków
around Bytom, Oświęcim, Chrzanów, and Siewierz
Siewierz
were transferred to the Silesian Piasts, although their population was primarily Vistulan and not of Silesian descent.[7] Between 1289 and 1292, Bohemian king Wenceslaus II
Wenceslaus II
became suzerain of some of the Upper Silesian duchies. Polish kings had not renounced their hereditary rights to Silesia
Silesia
until 1335.[8] The province became part of the Bohemian Crown under the Holy Roman Empire, and passed with that crown to the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
of Austria in 1526. In the 15th century, several changes were made to Silesia's borders. Parts of the territories which had been transferred to the Silesian Piasts in 1178 were bought by the Polish kings in the second half of the 15th century (the Duchy of Oświęcim
Oświęcim
in 1457; the Duchy of Zator in 1494). The Bytom
Bytom
area remained in the possession of the Silesian Piasts, though it was a part of the Diocese of Kraków.[7] The Duchy of Crossen was inherited by the Margraviate of Brandenburg
Margraviate of Brandenburg
in 1476, and with the renunciation of King Ferdinand I and the estates of Bohemia
Bohemia
in 1538, became an integral part of Brandenburg. In 1742, most of Silesia
Silesia
was seized by King Frederick the Great of Prussia in the War of the Austrian Succession, eventually becoming the Prussian Province of Silesia
Province of Silesia
in 1815; consequently, Silesia
Silesia
became part of the German Empire
German Empire
when it was proclaimed in 1871. After World War I, a part of Silesia, Upper Silesia, was contested by Germany
Germany
and the newly independent Second Polish Republic. The League of Nations organized a plebiscite to decide the issue in 1921. It resulted in 60% of votes being cast for Germany
Germany
and 40% for Poland.[citation needed] Following the third Silesian Uprising
Silesian Uprising
(1921), however, the easternmost portion of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
(including Katowice), with a majority ethnic Polish population, was awarded to Poland, becoming the Silesian Voivodeship. The Prussian Province of Silesia
Silesia
within Germany
Germany
was then divided into the provinces of Lower Silesia
Silesia
and Upper Silesia. Meanwhile, Austrian Silesia, the small portion of Silesia
Silesia
retained by Austria after the Silesian Wars, was mostly awarded to the new Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
(becoming known as Czech Silesia), although most of Cieszyn
Cieszyn
and territory to the east of it went to Poland
Poland
as Zaolzie. Polish Silesia
Silesia
was among the first regions invaded during Germany's 1939 attack on Poland. One of the claimed goals of Nazi
Nazi
occupation, particularly in Upper Silesia, was the extermination of those whom Nazis viewed as subhuman, namely Jews and ethnic Poles. The Polish and Jewish population of the then Polish part of Silesia
Silesia
was subjected to genocide involving ethnic cleansing and mass murder, while German colonists were settled in pursuit of Lebensraum.[9] Two thousand Polish intellectuals, politicians, and businessmen were murdered in the Intelligenzaktion
Intelligenzaktion
Schlesien[10] in 1940 as part of a Poland-wide Germanization
Germanization
program. Silesia
Silesia
also housed one of the two main wartime centers where medical experiments were conducted on kidnapped Polish children by Nazis.[11] The Potsdam Conference
Potsdam Conference
of 1945 defined the Oder-Neisse line
Oder-Neisse line
as the border between Germany
Germany
and Poland. Millions of Germans in Silesia either fled or were expelled, and were replaced by Polish population forcibly re-settled by the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from other regions. After 1945 and in 1946, nearly all of the 4.5 million Silesians
Silesians
of German descent fled, or were interned in camps and forcibly expelled, including some thousand German Jews who survived the Holocaust and had returned to Silesia; 634,106 Silesians
Silesians
died in the expulsion,[citation needed] nearly 14% of the population. The newly formed Polish United Workers' Party created a Ministry of the Recovered Territories that claimed half of the available arable land for state-run collectivized farms. Many of the new Polish Silesians
Silesians
who resented the Germans for their invasion in 1939 and brutality in occupation now resented the newly formed Polish communist government for their population shifting and interference in agricultural and industrial affairs.[12] The administrative division of Silesia
Silesia
within Poland
Poland
has changed several times since 1945. Since 1999, it has been divided between Lubusz Voivodeship, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, Opole
Opole
Voivodeship, and Silesian Voivodeship. Czech Silesia
Czech Silesia
is now part of the Czech Republic, forming the Moravian-Silesian Region
Moravian-Silesian Region
and the northern part of the Olomouc Region. Germany
Germany
retains the Silesia- Lusatia
Lusatia
region (Niederschlesien-Oberlausitz or Schlesische Oberlausitz) west of the Neisse, which is part of the federal state of Saxony. Geography[edit]

First map of Silesia
Silesia
by Martin Helwig, 1561; north at the bottom

Most of Silesia
Silesia
is relatively flat, although its southern border is generally mountainous. It is primarily located in a swath running along both banks of the upper and middle Oder
Oder
(Odra) River, but it extends eastwards to the upper Vistula
Vistula
River. The region also includes many tributaries of the Oder, including the Bóbr
Bóbr
(and its tributary the Kwisa), the Barycz and the Nysa Kłodzka. The Sudeten Mountains run along most of the southern edge of the region, though at its south-eastern extreme it reaches the Silesian Beskids
Silesian Beskids
and Moravian-Silesian Beskids, which belong to the Carpathian Mountains range. Historically, Silesia
Silesia
was bounded to the west by the Kwisa
Kwisa
and Bóbr Rivers, while the territory west of the Kwisa
Kwisa
was in Upper Lusatia (earlier Milsko). However, because part of Upper Lusatia
Lusatia
was included in the Province of Silesia
Province of Silesia
in 1815, in Germany
Germany
Görlitz, Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis
Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis
and neighbouring areas are considered parts of historical Silesia. Those districts, along with Poland's Lower Silesian Voivodeship
Lower Silesian Voivodeship
and parts of Lubusz Voivodeship, make up the geographic region of Lower Silesia. Silesia
Silesia
has undergone a similar notional extension at its eastern extreme. Historically, it extended only as far as the Brynica
Brynica
River, which separates it from Zagłębie Dąbrowskie
Zagłębie Dąbrowskie
in the Lesser Poland region. However, to many Poles
Poles
today, Silesia
Silesia
(Śląsk) is understood to cover all of the area around Katowice, including Zagłębie. This interpretation is given official sanction in the use of the name Silesian Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship
(województwo śląskie) for the province covering this area. In fact, the word Śląsk in Polish (when used without qualification) now commonly refers exclusively to this area (also called Górny Śląsk or Upper Silesia). As well as the Katowice
Katowice
area, historical Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
also includes the Opole
Opole
region (Poland's Opole
Opole
Voivodeship) and Czech Silesia. Czech Silesia
Silesia
consists of a part of the Moravian-Silesian Region
Moravian-Silesian Region
and the Jeseník District
Jeseník District
in the Olomouc Region. Natural resources[edit] Silesia
Silesia
is a resource-rich and populous region. Since the middle of the 18th century, coal has been mined. The industry had grown while Silesia
Silesia
was part of Germany, and peaked in the 1970s under the People's Republic of Poland. During this period, Silesia
Silesia
became one of the world's largest producers of coal, with a record tonnage in 1979.[13] Coal mining declined during the next two decades, but has increased again following the end of Communist rule.

Coal Mine Bolesław Śmiały, Łaziska Górne

The 41 coal mines in Silesia
Silesia
are mostly part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, which lies in the Silesian Upland. The coalfield has an area of about 4,500 km2.[13] Deposits in Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
have proven to be difficult to exploit and the area's unprofitable mines were closed in 2000.[13] In 2008, an estimated 35 billion tonnes of lignite reserves were found near Legnica, making them some of the largest in the world.[14] From the fourth century BC, iron ore has been mined in the upland areas of Silesia.[13] The same period had lead, copper, silver, and gold mining. Zinc, cadmium, arsenic,[15] and uranium[16] have also been mined in the region. Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
features large copper mining and processing between the cities of Legnica, Głogów, Lubin, and Polkowice. The region is known for stone quarrying [13] to produce limestone, marl, marble, and basalt.

Annual production of minerals in Silesia

Mineral Name Production (tonnes) Reference

Bituminous coal 95,000,000

Copper 571,000 [17]

Zinc 160,000 [18]

Silver 1,200 [19]

Cadmium 500 [20]

Lead 70,000 [21]

The region also has a thriving agricultural sector, which produces cereals (wheat, rye, barley, oats, corn), potatoes, rapeseed, sugar beets and others. Milk production is well developed. The Opole
Opole
Silesia has for decades occupied the top spot in Poland
Poland
for their indices of effectiveness of agricultural land use.[22] Mountainous parts of southern Silesia
Silesia
feature many significant and attractive tourism destinations (e.g., Karpacz, Szczyrk, Wisła). Silesia
Silesia
is generally well forested. This is because greenness is generally highly desirable by the local population, particularly in the highly industrialized parts of Silesia. Demographics[edit] Silesia
Silesia
has been historically diverse in every aspect. Nowadays, the largest part of Silesia
Silesia
is located in homogeneous Poland; it is often cited as one of the most diverse regions in that country.

Polish names of Silesian cities, from a 1750 Prussian official document published in Berlin
Berlin
during the Silesian Wars.[23]

Ethnicity[edit] Modern Silesia
Silesia
is inhabited by Poles, Silesians, Germans, and Czechs. The last Polish census of 2002 showed that the Silesians
Silesians
are the largest national minority in Poland, Germans being the second; both groups are located mostly in Upper Silesia. The Czech part of Silesia is inhabited by Czechs, Moravians, Silesians, and Poles. Before the Second World War, Silesia
Silesia
was inhabited mostly by Germans and Poles, with a Czech and Jewish minority. In 1905, a census showed that 75% of the population were Germans and 25% were Poles.[citation needed] The German population tended to be based in the urban centres and in the rural areas to the north and west, whilst the Polish population was generally rural and could be found in the east.[24] Religion[edit] Historically, Silesia
Silesia
was about equally split between Protestants (overwhelmingly Lutherans) and Roman Catholics. In an 1890 census taken in the German part, Roman Catholics
Roman Catholics
made up a slight majority of 53%, while the remaining 47% were almost entirely Lutheran.[25] Geographically speaking, Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
was mostly Lutheran except for the Glatzer Land (now Kłodzko County). Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
was mostly Roman Catholic except for some of its northwestern parts, which were predominantly Lutheran. Generally speaking, the population was mostly Protestant in the western parts, and it tended to be more Roman Catholic the further east one went. In Upper Silesia, Protestants
Protestants
were concentrated in larger cities and often identified as German. After World War II, the religious demographics changed drastically as Germans, who constituted the bulk of the Protestant population, fled or were forcibly expelled. Poles, who were mostly Roman Catholic, were resettled in their place. Today, Silesia
Silesia
remains predominantly Roman Catholic. Existing since the 12th century,[26] Silesia's Jewish community was concentrated around Wrocław
Wrocław
and Upper Silesia, and numbered 48,003 (1.1% of the population) in 1890, decreasing to 44,985 persons (0.9%) by 1910.[27] In Polish East Upper Silesia, the number of Jews was around 90,000-100,000.[28] Historically the community had suffered a number of localised expulsions such as their 1453 expulsion from Wrocław.[29] From 1712 to 1820 a succession of men held the title Chief Rabbi of Silesia
Silesia
("Landesrabbiner"): Naphtali ha-Kohen (1712–16); Samuel ben Naphtali (1716–22); Ḥayyim Jonah Te'omim (1722-1727); Baruch b. Reuben Gomperz (1733–54); Joseph Jonas Fränkel (1754–93); Jeremiah Löw Berliner (1793–99); Lewin Saul Fränkel (1800-7); Aaron Karfunkel (1807-16); and Abraham ben Gedaliah Tiktin (1816–20).[30] Consequences of World War II[edit] After the German invasion of Poland
Poland
in 1939, following Nazi
Nazi
racial policy, the Jewish population of Silesia
Silesia
was subjected to Nazi genocide with executions performed by Einsatzgruppe z. B.V. led by Udo von Woyrsch and Einsatzgruppe I led by Bruno Streckenbach,[31][32] imprisonment in ghettos and ethnic cleansing to the General Government. In their efforts to exterminate Poles
Poles
and Jews through murder and ethnic cleansing Nazi
Nazi
established in Silesia
Silesia
province the Auschwitz and Gross-Rosen camps. Expulsions were carried out openly and reported in the local press.[33] Those sent to ghettos would from 1942 be expelled to concentration and work camps.[34] Between 5 May and 17 June, 20,000 Silesian Jews were sent to Birkenau to gas chambers[35] and during August 1942, 10,000 to 13,000 Silesian Jews were murdered by gassing at Auschwitz.[36] Most Jews in Silesia
Silesia
were exterminated by the Nazis. After the war Silesia
Silesia
became a major centre for repatriation of Jewish population in Poland
Poland
which survived Nazi German extermination[37] and in autumn 1945, 15,000 Jews were in Lower Silesia, mostly Polish Jews returned from territories now belonging to Soviet Union,[38] rising in 1946 to seventy thousand[39] as Jewish survivors from other regions in Poland
Poland
were relocated.[40] The majority of Germans fled or were expelled from the present-day Polish and Czech parts of Silesia
Silesia
during and after World War II. From June 1945 to January 1947, 1.77 million Germans were expelled from Lower Silesia, and 310,000 from Upper Silesia.[41] Today, most German Silesians
Silesians
and their descendants live in the territory of the Federal Republic of Germany, many of them in the Ruhr area
Ruhr area
working as miners, like their ancestors in Silesia. To smooth their integration into West German society after 1945, they were placed into officially recognized organizations, like the Landsmannschaft Schlesien, with financing from the federal West German budget.[citation needed] One of its most notable but controversial spokesmen was the Christian Democratic Union politician Herbert Hupka. The expulsion of Germans led to widespread underpopulation. The population of the town of Glogau
Glogau
fell from 33,500 to 5,000, and from 1939 to 1966 the population of Wrocław
Wrocław
fell by 25%.[42] Attempts to repopulate Silesia
Silesia
proved unsuccessful in the 1940s and 1950s,[43] and Silesia's population did not reach pre-war levels until the late 1970s. The Polish settlers who repopulated Silesia
Silesia
were mainly from the former Polish Eastern Borderlands, which was annexed by the Soviet Union in 1939. The former German city of Breslau was repopulated with refugees from the former Polish city of Lwów. Cities[edit] The following table lists the cities in Silesia
Silesia
with a population greater than 30,000 (2015).

Wrocław

Katowice

Ostrava

Gliwice

Zabrze

Bielsko-Biała

Bytom

Ruda Śląska

Rybnik

Tychy

Opole

Zielona Góra

Wałbrzych

Chorzów

Legnica

Jastrzębie-Zdrój

Name Population Area Country Administrative Historic subregion

1

Wrocław 632,067 293 km2 (113 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

2

Katowice 304,362 165 km2 (64 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

3

Ostrava* 302,968 214 km2 (83 sq mi)

Moravian-Silesian Region Czech Silesia/Moravia

4

Gliwice 185,450 134 km2 (52 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

5

Zabrze 178,357 80 km2 (31 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

6

Bielsko-Biała* 173,699 125 km2 (48 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia/Lesser Poland

7

Bytom 173,439 69 km2 (27 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

8

Ruda Śląska 141,521 78 km2 (30 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

9

Rybnik 140,173 148 km2 (57 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

10

Tychy 128,799 82 km2 (32 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

11

Opole 120,146 97 km2 (37 sq mi)

Opole
Opole
Voivodeship Upper Silesia

12

Zielona Góra 118,405 58 km2 (22 sq mi)

Lubusz Voivodeship Lower Silesia

13

Wałbrzych 117,926 85 km2 (33 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

14

Chorzów 110,761 33 km2 (13 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

15

Legnica 101,992 56 km2 (22 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

16

Jastrzębie-Zdrój 91,235 85 km2 (33 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

17

Jelenia Góra 81,985 109 km2 (42 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

18

Havířov 76,381 32 km2 (12 sq mi)

Moravian-Silesian Region Czech Silesia

19

Mysłowice 75,129 66 km2 (25 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

20

Lubin 74,053 41 km2 (16 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

21

Głogów 68,997 35 km2 (14 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

22

Siemianowice Śląskie 68,844 25 km2 (10 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

23

Kędzierzyn-Koźle 63,194 124 km2 (48 sq mi)

Opole
Opole
Voivodeship Upper Silesia

24

Żory 62,038 65 km2 (25 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

25

Tarnowskie Góry 60,957 84 km2 (32 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

26

Świdnica 59,182 22 km2 (8 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

27

Opava 57,676 91 km2 (35 sq mi)

Moravian-Silesian Region Czech Silesia

28

Piekary Śląskie 57,148 40 km2 (15 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

29

Frýdek-Místek* 56,945 52 km2 (20 sq mi)

Moravian-Silesian Region Czech Silesia/Moravia

30

Karviná 55,985 57 km2 (22 sq mi)

Moravian-Silesian Region Czech Silesia

31

Racibórz 55,930 75 km2 (29 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

32

Görlitz** 55,255 68 km2 (26 sq mi)

Free State of Saxony Historically part of Lusatia, Görlitz
Görlitz
was considered part of Lower Silesia
Silesia
in years 1319–1329 and 1815–1945

33

Świętochłowice 51,824 13 km2 (5 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

34

Wodzisław Śląski 48,731 50 km2 (19 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

35

Nysa 44,899 27 km2 (10 sq mi)

Opole
Opole
Voivodeship Lower Silesia

36

Mikołów 39,776 79 km2 (31 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

37

Nowa Sól 39,721 22 km2 (8 sq mi)

Lubusz Voivodeship Lower Silesia

38

Bolesławiec 39,603 24 km2 (9 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

39

Knurów 39,090 34 km2 (13 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

40

Oleśnica 37,303 21 km2 (8 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

41

Brzeg 36,980 15 km2 (6 sq mi)

Opole
Opole
Voivodeship Lower Silesia

42

Cieszyn 35,918 29 km2 (11 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

43

Třinec 35,884 85 km2 (33 sq mi)

Moravian-Silesian Region Czech Silesia

44

Czechowice-Dziedzice 35,684 33 km2 (13 sq mi)

Silesian Voivodeship Upper Silesia

45

Dzierżoniów 34,428 20 km2 (8 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

46

Hoyerswerda** 33,843 96 km2 (37 sq mi)

Free State of Saxony Historically part of Lusatia, Hoyerswerda
Hoyerswerda
was considered part of Lower Silesia
Silesia
in years 1825–1945

47

Oława 32,240 27 km2 (10 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

48

Zgorzelec** 31,890 16 km2 (6 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Historically part of Lusatia, Zgorzelec
Zgorzelec
was considered part of Lower Silesia
Silesia
in years 1319–1329 and 1815–1945

49

Bielawa 31,186 36 km2 (14 sq mi)

Lower Silesian Voivodeship Lower Silesia

* Only part in Silesia Flags and coats of arms[edit] The emblems of Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
and Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
originate from the emblems of the Piasts of Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
and Upper Silesia. The coat of arms of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
depicts the golden eagle on the blue shield. The coat of arms of Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
depicts a black eagle on a golden (yellow) shield.

Coat of arms of the Prussian province of Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
(1919-1938 and 1941-1945

Coat of arms of the Silesian Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship
(1920–1939)

Coat of arms of the Silesian Voivodeship

The coat of arms of the Opolskie Voivodeship.

Henryk IV's Probus coat of arms.

Coat of arms of Austrian Silesia
Austrian Silesia
(1742–1918)

Prussian province of Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
(1919-1938 and 1941-1945)

Coat of arms of the Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
Voivodship (2000-2009).

Coat of arms of the Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
Voivodship.

Coat of arms of Czech Silesia.

Flags with their colors refer to the coat of arms of Silesia.

Flag of Prussian Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
province. (1919-1938 and 1941-1945)

Flag of Silesia
Silesia
Voivodeship.

Flag of the Austrian Silesia
Austrian Silesia
(1742–1918)

Flag of Prussian Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
province (1919-1938 and 1941-1945)

Flag of Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
Voivodeship. (2001-2008)

Flag of Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
Voivodeship. (2008-2000)

Flag of Lower Silesia
Lower Silesia
Voivodeship.

World Heritage Sites[edit]

Churches of Peace, Świdnica
Świdnica
and Jawor

Centennial Hall, Wrocław

Historic Silver Mine, Tarnowskie Góry

Muskau Park, Łęknica
Łęknica
and Bad Muskau[44]

See also[edit]

Silesia
Silesia
portal

Architecture of Silesia Czech Silesia Moravia Austrian Silesia Expulsion of Germans after World War II Expulsion of Poles
Poles
by Germany List of Silesians Silesian cuisine Silesian language Silesian German Silesians Slezak

Footnotes[edit]

^ "Silesia". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary. ^ Zbigniew Babik, "Najstarsza warstwa nazewnicza na ziemiach polskich w granicach średniowiecznej Słowiańszczyzny", Uniwersitas, Kraków, 2001. ^ Rudolf Fischer. Onomastica slavogermanica. Uniwersytet Wrocławski. 2007. t. XXVI. 2007. str. 83 ^ Jankuhn, Herbert; Beck, Heinrich; et al., eds. (2006). "Wandalen". Reallexikon der Germanischen Altertumskunde (in German). 33 (2nd ed.). Berlin, Germany; New York, New York: de Gruyter. Da die Silingen offensichtlich ihren Namen im mittelalterlichen pagus silensis und dem mons slenz - möglicherweise mit dem Zobten gleichzusetzen [...] - hinterließen und damit einer ganzen Landschaft – Schlesien – den Namen gaben [...]  ^ R. Żerelik(in:) M. Czpliński (red.) Historia Śląska, Wrocław 2007, s. 34-35 ^ R. Żerelik(in:) M. Czpliński (red.) Historia Śląska, Wrocław 2007, s. 37-38 ^ a b c R. Żerelik(in:) M. Czpliński (red.) Historia Śląska, Wrocław
Wrocław
2007, s. 21-22 ^ R. Żerelik(in:) M. Czpliński (red.) Historia Śląska, Wrocław 2007, s. 81 ^ Piotr Eberhardt, Political Migrations in Poland, 1939–1948, Warsaw 2006, p.25 ^ Maria Wardzyńska "Był rok 1939 Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Intelligenzaktion" IPN Instytut Pamięci Narodowej, 2009 ^ Kamila Uzarczyk: Podstawy ideologiczne higieny ras. Toruń: Wydawnictwo Adam Marszałek, 2002, s. 285, 286, 289. ISBN 83-7322-287-1. ^ Lukowski, Zawadski, Jerzy, Hubert (2006). A Concise History of Poland. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. pp. 278–280. ISBN 978-0-521-61857-1.  ^ a b c d e "Natural Resources poland.gov.pl". En.poland.gov.pl. Retrieved 2013-11-19.  ^ "Mamy największe złoża węgla brunatnego na świecie" (in Polish). Gazetawyborcza.pl. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ S.Z. Mikulski, "Late-Hercynian gold-bearing arsenic-polymetallic mineralization within Saxothuringian zone in the Polish Sudetes, Northeast Bohemian Massif". In: "Mineral Deposit at the Beginning of the 21st Century", A. Piestrzyński et al. (eds). Swets & Zeitinger Publishers (Google books) ^ "Wise International World Information Service on Energy". 0.antenna.nl. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ "Copper: World Smelter Production, By Country". Indexmundi.com. 2011-07-28. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ "Zinc: World Smelter Production, By Country". Indexmundi.com. 2004-07-01. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ "Silver: World Mine Production, By Country". Indexmundi.com. 2004-08-13. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ "Cadmium: World Refinery Production, By Country". Indexmundi.com. 2012-05-18. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ "Lead: World Refinery Production, By Country". Indexmundi.com. 2005-06-24. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ "Samorząd Województwa Opolskiego". Umwo.opole.pl. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ "Śląska Biblioteka Cyfrowa - biblioteka cyfrowa regionu śląskiego - Wznowione powszechne taxae-stolae sporządzenie, Dla samowładnego Xięstwa Sląska, Podług ktorego tak Auszpurskiey Konfessyi iak Katoliccy Fararze, Kaznodzieie i Kuratusowie Zachowywać się powinni. Sub Dato z Berlina, d. 8. Augusti 1750". Sbc.org.pl. Retrieved 2013-11-20.  ^ Hunt Tooley, T (1997). National Identity and Weimar Germany: Upper Silesia
Silesia
and the Eastern Border, 1918-1922, University of Nebraska Press, p.17. ^ Meyers Konversationslexikon 5. Auflage ^ Demshuk, A (2012) The Lost German East: Forced Migration and the Politics of Memory, 1945-1970, Cambridge University Press P40 ^ Kamusella, T (2007). Silesia
Silesia
and Central European nationalisms: the emergence of national and ethnic groups in Prussian Silesia
Silesia
and Austrian Silesia, 1848-1918, Purdue University Press, p.173. ^ Christopher R. Browning (2000). Nazi
Nazi
Policy, Jewish Workers, German Killers, Cambridge University Press, 2000, p.147. ^ van Straten, J (2011) The Origin of Ashkenazi Jewry: The Controversy Unravelled, Walter de Gruyter P58 ^ "Silesia". 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia. JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 6 December 2017.  ^ Popularna encyklopedia powszechna - Volume 10 - Page 660 Magdalena Olkuśnik, Elżbieta Wójcik - 2001 Streckenbach Bruno (1902-1977), funkcjonariusz niem. państwa nazistowskiego, Gruppenfuhrer SS. Od 1933 szef policji po- lit w Hamburgu. 1939 dow. Einsatzgruppe I (odpowiedzialny za eksterminacje ludności pol. i żydowskiej na Śląsku). ^ Zagłada Żydów na polskich terenach wcielonych do Rzeszy Page 53 Aleksandra Namysło, Instytut Pamięci Narodowej—Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu - 2008 W rzeczywistości ludzie Udona von Woyr- scha podczas marszu przez województwo śląskie na wschód dopuszczali się prawdziwych masakr ludności żydowskiej. ^ Steinbacher, S. "In the Shadow of Auschwitz, The murder of the Jews of East Upper Silesia", in Cesarani, D. (2004) Holocaust: From the persecution of the Jews to mass murder, Routledge, P126 ^ Steinbacher, S. "In the Shadow of Auschwitz, The murder of the Jews of East Upper Silesia", in Cesarani, D. (2004) Holocaust: From the persecution of the Jews to mass murder, Routledge, pp.110-138. ^ The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi
Nazi
Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942 - Page 544 Christopher R. Browning - 2007 Between May 5 and June 17, 20,000 Silesian Jews were deported to Birkenau to be gassed. ^ Christopher R. Browning (2007). The Origins of the Final Solution: The Evolution of Nazi
Nazi
Jewish Policy, September 1939-March 1942, University of Nebraska Press, p.544. ^ The International Jewish Labor Bund After 1945: Toward a Global History David Slucki, page 63 ^ A narrow bridge to life: Jewish forced labor and survival in the Gross-Rosen camp system, 1940-1945, page 229 Belah Guṭerman ^ Kochavi, AJ (2001)Post-Holocaust politics: Britain, the United States & Jewish refugees, 1945-1948, University of North Carolina Press P 176 ^ Kochavi, AJ (2001). Post-Holocaust politics: Britain, the United States & Jewish refugees, 1945-1948, University of North Carolina Press, p.176. ^ DB Klusmeyer & DG Papademetriou (2009). Immigration policy in the Federal Republic of Germany: negotiating membership and remaking the nation, Berghahn, p.70. ^ Scholz, A (1964). Silesia: yesterday and today, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, p.69. ^ Mazower, M (1999). Dark Continent: Europe's 20th Century, Penguin, p.223. ^ Łęknica
Łęknica
and Bad Muskau
Bad Muskau
were considered part of Silesia
Silesia
in years 1815–1945.

References[edit]

Długajczyk, Edward (1993). Tajny front na granicy cieszyńskiej. Wywiad i dywersja w latach 1919-1939. Katowice: Śląsk. ISBN 83-85831-03-7.  Zahradnik, Stanisław; Marek Ryczkowski (1992). Korzenie Zaolzia. Warszawa - Praga - Trzyniec: PAI-press. OCLC 177389723.   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "article name needed". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Przemysław, Wiszewski, ed. (2013). The Long Formation of the Region (c. 1000-1526) (PDF). Cuius regio? Ideological and Territorial Cohesion of the Historical Region of Silesia. 1. Wrocław, Poland: EBooki.com.pl. ISBN 978-83-927132-1-0. Retrieved 2018-03-18.  Harc, Lucyna; Wąs, Gabriela, eds. (2014). The Strengthening of Silesian Regionalism (1526-1740) (PDF). Cuius regio? Ideological and Territorial Cohesion of the Historical Region of Silesia. 2. Wrocław, Poland: EBooki.com.pl. ISBN 978-83-927132-6-5. Retrieved 2018-03-18.  Harc, Lucyna; Kulak, Teresa, eds. (2015). Silesia
Silesia
under the Authority of the Hohenzollerns (1741-1918) (PDF). Cuius regio? Ideological and Territorial Cohesion of the Historical Region of Silesia. 3. Wrocław, Poland: EBooki.com.pl. ISBN 978-83-942651-3-7. Retrieved 2018-03-18.  Czapliński, Marek; Wiszewski, Przemysław, eds. (2014). Region Divided - Times of Nation-States (1918-1945) (PDF). Cuius regio? Ideological and Territorial Cohesion of the Historical Region of Silesia. 4. Wrocław, Poland: EBooki.com.pl. ISBN 978-83-927132-8-9. Retrieved 2018-03-18.  Wiszewski, Przemysław, ed. (2015). Permanent Change - The New Region(s) of Silesia
Silesia
(1945-2015) (PDF). Cuius regio? Ideological and Territorial Cohesion of the Historical Region of Silesia. 5. Wrocław, Poland: EBooki.com.pl. ISBN 978-83-942651-2-0. Retrieved 2018-03-18. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Silesia.

Silesia
Silesia
in Europe page at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived 27 July 2007) Map of Silesia
Silesia
in 1763 Old postcards from Silesian towns Photos from Silesian towns, villages and communities before 1946 What is Silesia?

v t e

Silesia
Silesia
topics

History

Offensives Uprisings Wars (First, Second, Third) Upper Silesia
Upper Silesia
plebiscite Treaty of Dresden Treaty of Teschen Book of Henryków Battle of Legnica Battle of Leuthen more...

Geography

Areas

Jelenia Góra
Jelenia Góra
valley Kłodzko Valley Lower Silesian Wilderness Obniżenie Milicko-Głogowskie Ostrava
Ostrava
Valley Oświęcim
Oświęcim
Basin Przedgórze Sudeckie Silesian Walls Silesian Foothills Silesian Lowlands Silesian Przesieka Silesian Upland Silesian-Lusatian Lowlands Silesian-Moravian Foothills Wał Trzebnicki Zielona Góra
Zielona Góra
Acclivity

Lakes

Jezioro Goczałkowickie Jezioro Otmuchowskie Jezioro Sławskie Nyskie Slezská Harta Dam

Mountains

Carpathian

Silesian Beskids Moravian-Silesian Beskids

Sudetes

Eastern Central Western

Rivers

Elbe

Divoká Orlice Jizera Úpa

Oder

Barycz Bóbr Kaczawa Kłodnica Kwisa Liswarta Mała Panew Nysa Kłodzka Olza Ślęza

Vistula

Biała Brynica Gostynia Przemsza Pszczynka Rawa

Politics

Subdivisions

Former

Duchies

Piasts dukes

Silesian Voivodeship
Silesian Voivodeship
(1920–39)

parliament politicians treasury

State country Silesia
Silesia
Province

Upper Silesia Lower Silesia

Sudetenland New Silesia Austrian Silesia Eastern Silesia

Current

Jeseník District Moravian–Silesian Region Niederschlesischer Oberlausitzkreis / Görlitz

Voivodeships

Lower Silesian Lubusz Voivodeships Opole Silesian

EP constituencies

Lower Silesian and Opole Silesian

Economy

Bielski Okręg Przemysłowy Katowice
Katowice
urban area Legnicko-Głogowski Okręg Miedziowy Lower Silesian Coal Basin Upper Silesian Coal Basin

Industrial Region Ostrava-Karviná / Rybnik
Rybnik
Coal Areas

Upper Silesian metropolitan area Tourism

Society

Culture

Architecture

Familok

Regional costume (Śląskie stroje ludowe)

Cuisine

Black noodles Bryja Ciapkapusta Dumplings Galert Hauskyjza Karminadle Kołocz Kreple Krupniok (Kaszanka) Makówki Moczka Modra kapusta Siemieniotka Szałot Wodzionka Żur śląski

Religion

Evangelical Church in Berlin, Brandenburg and Silesian Upper Lusatia Silesian Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession Evangelical Church of the Augsburg Confession in Poland Roman Catholic Church Pentecostal Church in Poland

Sport

Football Association Moravian–Silesian Football League National football team Silesian Stadium

Languages

Silesian

Bytom Cieszyn Jabłonków Lach Lower Namysłów Niemodlin Opole Prudnik Sulkovian Syców Texas

Czech German

Silesian German (Lower Silesian)

Moravian Polish

Symbols

Coats of arms Flags

Unofficial anthems

Schlesien Unvergessene Heimat Schlesierlied Slezská hymna

Other topics

Demographics Landsmannschaft Schlesien Silesian Autonomy Movement Silesians

Category Portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 126084153 LCCN: sh85122

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