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A siddur (Hebrew: סדור‎ [siˈduʁ]; plural siddurim סדורים, [siduˈʁim]) is a Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
book, containing a set order of daily prayers. The word siddur comes from the Hebrew root Hebrew: ס.ד.ר‎ meaning "order".

Contents

1 History

1.1 Creating the siddur 1.2 Different Jewish rites

2 Complete and weekday siddurim 3 Variations and additions on holidays 4 Popular siddurim

4.1 Ashkenazi Orthodox

4.1.1 Hasidic Siddurim

4.2 Italian Rite 4.3 Sephardic

4.3.1 Israel and diaspora

4.3.1.1 Israeli, following Rabbi
Rabbi
Ovadia Yosef

4.3.2 Sephardic
Sephardic
Women's Siddur 4.3.3 Spanish and Portuguese Jews 4.3.4 Greek, Turkish and Balkan Sephardim 4.3.5 North African Jews 4.3.6 Middle Eastern Mizrachim
Mizrachim
(Sephardim)

4.3.6.1 Edot Ha-mizrach (Iraqi) 4.3.6.2 Syrian

4.4 Yemenite Jews
Yemenite Jews
(Teimanim)

4.4.1 Baladi 4.4.2 Shami

4.5 Minhagei Eretz Yisrael 4.6 Conservative Judaism 4.7 Progressive and Reform Judaism 4.8 Reconstructionist Judaism 4.9 Jewish Renewal

5 Feminist siddurim 6 Atheist or humanistic siddurim 7 Other siddurim 8 Digital siddurim

8.1 iPhone 8.2 Android 8.3 Blackberry

9 See also 10 References 11 Bibliography 12 External links

History[edit] The earliest parts of Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
book are the Shema Yisrael
Shema Yisrael
("Hear O Israel") ( Deuteronomy
Deuteronomy
6:4 et seq), and the Priestly Blessing (Numbers 6:24-26), which are in the Torah. A set of eighteen (currently nineteen) blessings called the Shemoneh Esreh or the Amidah (Hebrew, "standing [prayer]"), is traditionally ascribed to the Great Assembly in the time of Ezra, at the end of the Biblical period. The name Shemoneh Esreh, literally "eighteen", is a historical anachronism, since it now contains nineteen blessings. It was only near the end of the Second Temple
Second Temple
period that the eighteen prayers of the weekday Amidah
Amidah
became standardized. Even at that time their precise wording and order was not yet fixed, and varied from locale to locale. Many modern scholars believe that parts of the Amidah
Amidah
came from the Hebrew apocryphal work Ben Sira. According to the Talmud, soon after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem a formal version of the Amidah
Amidah
was adopted at a rabbinical council in Yavne, under the leadership of Rabban Gamaliel II
Gamaliel II
and his colleagues. However, the precise wording was still left open. The order, general ideas, opening and closing lines were fixed. Most of the wording was left to the individual reader. It was not until several centuries later that the prayers began to be formally fixed. By the Middle Ages
Middle Ages
the texts of the prayers were nearly fixed, and in the form in which they are still used today. The siddur was printed by Soncino in Italy as early as 1486, though a siddur was first mass-distributed only in 1865.[1] The siddur began appearing in the vernacular as early as 1538.[1] The first English translation was published in London in 1738 by an author writing under the pseudonym Gamaliel ben Pedahzur; a different translation was released in the United States in 1837.[1] Creating the siddur[edit] Readings from the Torah
Torah
(five books of Moses) and the Nevi'im ("Prophets") form part of the prayer services. To this framework various Jewish sages added, from time to time, various prayers, and, for festivals especially, numerous hymns. The earliest existing codification of the prayerbook was drawn up by Rav Amram Gaon
Amram Gaon
of Sura, Babylon, about 850 CE. Half a century later Rav Saadia Gaon, also of Sura, composed a siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic. These were the basis of Simcha ben Samuel's Machzor Vitry (11th century France), which was based on the ideas of his teacher, Rashi. Another formulation of the prayers was that appended by Maimonides
Maimonides
to the laws of prayer in his Mishneh Torah: this forms the basis of the Yemenite liturgy, and has had some influence on other rites. From this point forward all Jewish prayerbooks had the same basic order and contents. Two authoritative versions of the Ashkenazi siddur were those of Shabbetai Sofer in the 16th century and Seligman Baer in the 19th century; siddurim have also been published reflecting the views of Jacob Emden
Jacob Emden
and the Vilna Gaon. Different Jewish rites[edit] Main article: Nusach

Nusach Ashkenaz Siddur
Siddur
prayer book from Irkutsk, Russia, printed in 1918

There are differences among, amongst others, the Sephardic
Sephardic
(including Spanish and Portuguese and Mizrachim), Teimani (Yemenite), Chasidic, Ashkenazic (divided into German, Polish and other European and eastern-European rites), Bené Roma or Italkim, Romaniote (Greek, once extending to Turkey, Crimea and the southern Italian peninsula) and also Persian-, Kurdish-, Bukharian-, Georgian-, Mountain Jewish-, Ethiopian- and Cochin-Jewish liturgies. Most of these are slight differences in the wording of the prayers; for instance, Oriental Sephardic
Sephardic
and some Hasidic prayer books state "חננו מאתך חכמה בינה ודעת", "Graciously bestow upon us from You wisdom (ḥochmah), understanding (binah) and knowledge (daat)", in allusion to the Kabbalistic sefirot of those names, while the Nusach Ashkenaz, as well as Western Sephardic
Sephardic
and other Hasidic versions retain the older wording "חננו מאתך דעה בינה והשכל", "Graciously bestow upon us from You knowledge, understanding, and reason". In some cases, however, the order of the preparation for the Amidah
Amidah
is drastically different, reflecting the different halakhic and kabbalistic formulae that the various scholars relied on in assembling their siddurim, as well as the minhagim, or customs, or their locales. Some forms of the Sephardi rite are considered to be very overtly kabbalistic, depending on how far they reflect the ritual of Isaac Luria. This is partly because the Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
frequently appears with varying vowel points beneath the letters (unpronounced, but to be meditated upon) and different Names of God appear in small print within the final hei (ה) of the Tetragrammaton. In some editions, there is a Psalm in the preparations for the Amidah
Amidah
that is printed in the outline of a menorah, and the worshipper meditates on this shape as he recites the psalm. The Ashkenazi rite is more common than the Sephardi rite in America. While Nusach Ashkenaz does contain some kabbalistic elements, such as acrostics and allusions to the sefirot ("To You, God, is the greatness [gedullah], and the might [gevurah], and the glory [tiferet], longevity [netzach],..." etc.), these are not easily seen unless the reader is already initiated. It is notable that although many other traditions avoid using the poem Anim Zemiroth on the Sabbath, for fear that its holiness would be less appreciated due to the frequency of the Sabbath, the poem is usually sung by Ashkenazi congregations before concluding the Sabbath Musaf service with the daily psalm. The ark is opened for the duration of the song. Hasidim, though usually ethnically Ashkenazi, usually use liturgies with varying degrees of Sephardic
Sephardic
influence, such as Nusach Sefard and Nusach Ari, in order to follow the order of the prayers set by Rabbi Isaac Luria, often called "Ari HaKadosh", or "The Holy Lion". Although the Ari himself was born Ashkenazi, he borrowed many elements from Sephardi and other traditions, since he felt that they followed Kabbalah
Kabbalah
and Halacha more faithfully. The Ari did not publish any siddur, but orally transmitted his particular usages to his students with interpretations and certain meditations.[2] Many siddurim containing some form of the Sephardic
Sephardic
rite together with the usages of the Ari were published, both by actual Sephardic
Sephardic
communities and for the use of Hasidim and other Ashkenazim interested in Kabbalah. In 1803, Rabbi
Rabbi
Schneur Zalman of Liadi
Schneur Zalman of Liadi
compiled an authoritative siddur from the sixty siddurim that he checked for compliance with Hebrew grammar, Jewish law, and Kabbalah: this is what is known today as the " Nusach Ari", and is used by Lubavitch Hasidim. Those that use Nusach HaAri claim that it is an all-encompassing nusach that is valid for any Jew, no matter what his ancestral tribe or identity, a view attributed to the Maggid of Mezeritch. The Mahzor
Mahzor
of each rite is distinguished by hymns (piyyutim) composed by authors (payyetanim). The most important writers are Yose ben Yoseh, probably in the 6th century, chiefly known for his compositions for Yom Kippur; Eleazar Kalir, the founder of the payyetanic style, perhaps in the 7th century; Saadia Gaon; and the Spanish school, consisting of Joseph ibn Abitur (died in 970), ibn Gabirol, Isaac Gayyath, Moses ibn Ezra, Abraham ibn Ezra
Ezra
and Judah ha-Levi, Moses ben Nahman (Nahmanides) and Isaac Luria. In the case of Nusach HaAri, however, many of these High Holiday piyyutim are absent: the older piyyutim were not present in the Sephardic
Sephardic
rite, on which Nusach HaAri was based, and the followers of the Ari removed the piyyutim composed by the Spanish school. Complete and weekday siddurim[edit] Some siddurim have only prayers for weekdays; others have prayers for weekdays and Shabbat. Many have prayers for weekdays, Shabbat, and the three Biblical festivals, Sukkot
Sukkot
(the feast of Tabernacles), Shavuot (the feast of weeks) and Pesach
Pesach
(Passover). The latter are referred to as a Siddur
Siddur
Shalem ("complete siddur"). Variations and additions on holidays[edit]

There are many additional liturgical variations and additions to the siddur for the Yamim Noraim (The "Days of Awe"; High Holy Days, i.e. Rosh HaShanah and Yom Kippur). As such, a special siddur has developed for just this period, known as a mahzor (also: machzor). The mahzor contains not only the basic liturgy, but also many piyutim, Hebrew liturgical poems. Sometimes the term mahzor is also used for the prayer books for the three pilgrim festivals, Pesach, Shavuot
Shavuot
and Sukkot. On Tisha b'Av, a special siddur is used that includes the text of the Book
Book
of Lamentations, the Torah
Torah
and Haftarah
Haftarah
readings for that day, and Kinot or special mournful piyyutim for that day. This siddur is usually called "Kinot" as well. Traditionally, every year many Jews hope that the Messiah
Messiah
will come and the Third Temple
Third Temple
will be rebuilt, so Tisha b'Av
Tisha b'Av
will not happen again. So after the fast ends, many traditions place their Kinot siddurim in a geniza, or a burial place for sacred texts.

Popular siddurim[edit] Below are listed many popular siddurim used by religious Jews. This list mostly excludes prayer books specifically for the High Holidays; see Machzor
Machzor
(Popular versions).

Variety of popular Siddurim.

Ashkenazi Orthodox[edit] Main articles: Ashkenazi Jews
Ashkenazi Jews
and Orthodox Judaism

The Authorised Daily Prayer Book
Book
(a.k.a. the "Hertz Siddur"), ed. Joseph Hertz. NY, Block Publ'g Co., rev. ed. 1948. (an annotated edition of "Singer's Prayer Book" of 1890)(Hebrew-English) Siddur
Siddur
Ha-Shalem (a.k.a. the Birnbaum Siddur) Ed. Philip Birnbaum. The Hebrew Publishing Company. ISBN 0-88482-054-8 (Hebrew-English) The Metsudah Siddur: A New Linear Prayer Book
Book
Ziontalis. (Hebrew-English) The Authorised Daily Prayer Book
Book
of the British Commonwealth, translation by Chief Rabbi
Rabbi
Sir Jonathan Sacks
Jonathan Sacks
(the new version of "Singer's Prayer Book") (Hebrew-English) The Artscroll
Artscroll
Siddur, Mesorah Publications (In a number of versions including an interlinear translation and fairly popular today.) (Hebrew, Hebrew-English, Hebrew-Russian, Hebrew-Spanish, Hebrew-French) The " great innovation" of the Artscroll
Artscroll
was that it was the first siddur " made it possible for even a neophyte ba’al teshuvah (returnee to the faith) to function gracefully in the act of prayer, bowing at the correct junctures, standing, sitting and stepping back" at the correct place in the service. "[3] Siddur
Siddur
Rinat Yisrael, Hotsa'at Moreshet, Bnei Brak, Israel. (In a number of versions, popular in Israel.) (Hebrew) Siddur
Siddur
Siach Yitzchak (Hebrew and Dutch), Nederlands-Israelitisch Kerkgenootschap, Amsterdam 1975 (in a number of editions since 1975) ISBN 978-90-71727-04-7 Siddur
Siddur
Tefilas Kol Peh (Hebrew) Siddur
Siddur
Tefilas Sh'ai, Feldheim Publishers : Israel/NewYork (Hebrew) Siddur
Siddur
HaGra (reflecting views of the Vilna Gaon) Siddur
Siddur
Aliyos Eliyahu (Popular among followers of the Vilna Gaon
Vilna Gaon
who live in Israel and abroad) (Hebrew) Siddur
Siddur
Kol Bo (Hebrew) Koren Sacks Siddur
Siddur
(Hebrew-English), Koren Publishers Jerusalem: based on latest Singer's prayer book, above (described as the first siddur to "pose a fresh challenge to the ArtScroll dominance."[4]) Siddur
Siddur
Nehalel beShabbat, the complete Shabbat
Shabbat
siddur in the projected siddur Nehalel series (Nevarech Press, Hebrew and English), in which photographs juxtaposed with the texts portray their meanings. The purpose of this innovation is to direct the user's attention to the meanings of the traditional prayers, thus contributing to the achieving of kavanah, a central requirement of authentic prayer.[5] A rendering of both the siddur and the entire High Holyday prayer book into English rhymed verse has been made by Rabbi
Rabbi
Dr. Jeffrey M Cohen. The Siddur
Siddur
in Poetry (London, Gnesia Publications, 2012) and The Machzor
Machzor
in Poetry (London, Gnesia Publications, 2012).

Hasidic Siddurim[edit]

Beis Aharon V'Yisrael is the second published siddur ever produced by Karliner Chassidim. It superseded Siddur
Siddur
Beis Aharon V'Yisrael published by Rebbe Yochanan Perlow (1900–1956). The Breslov Siddur
Siddur
published in a 2014 hardcover edition (828 pages in length) is one of the few Hasidic siddurim available in an English language translation (and contains the original text). Translated by Avraham Sutton and Chaim Kramer. Y. Hall is the editor.[6] ISBN 978-1928822-83-7 Siddur
Siddur
Tehillat HaShem (the version currently used by Chabad-Lubavitch), available in a Hebrew-English version. Siddur
Siddur
Torah
Torah
Or (the Alter Rebbe's original edition) Siddur
Siddur
Tefillah La-El Chayi (Hebrew-English siddur released in 2014 with commentary based on the teachings of Breslov) In general, a Nusach Sefard siddur can be a good substitute for a specific Hasidic siddur. Many siddurim listed above have Nusach Sefard versions, including (among others) ArtScroll, Koren Sacks and Rinat Yisrael.

Italian Rite[edit] Main article: Italian Jews

The Complete Italian Rite Machazor (3 vols.) Mahzor
Mahzor
Ke- Minhag Roma, ed. Robert Bonfil, Jerusalem 2012, ISBN 978-965-493-621-7

Sephardic[edit] Main article: Sephardic
Sephardic
law and customs Israel and diaspora[edit]

Siddur
Siddur
Rinat Yisrael Sephardic
Sephardic
and Edot ha-Mizrach Nusach edited by Rabbi
Rabbi
Amram Aburbeh. (Hebrew, big clear modern Hebrew fonts)

Israeli, following Rabbi
Rabbi
Ovadia Yosef[edit] These siddurim follow the halakha of Rabbi
Rabbi
Ovadia Yosef (1920–2013)[7] a Talmudic
Talmudic
scholar, and authority on Jewish religious law, and spiritual leader of Israel's ultra-orthodox Shas
Shas
party. Yosef believed that the Sephardic
Sephardic
halakhic tradition favoured leniency, and these principles are reflected in his siddurim. please note, these siddurim are also for the Edot Ha-mizrach communities.

Ohr V’Derech Sephardic
Sephardic
Siddur Siddur
Siddur
Yeḥavveh Daat Siddur
Siddur
Avodat Ha-shem Siddur
Siddur
Ḥazon Ovadia Siddur
Siddur
L'maan Shmo Siddur
Siddur
Ha-Miforash Kavanat Halev

Sephardic
Sephardic
Women's Siddur[edit] please note: there are siddurim for "women only" that are labeled "L'bat Yisrael" - these are not considered feminist. the rabbis (rabbi ovadia yosef, etc. ) created a siddur specifically for women's use only. because women in some cases, it is said, women do not have to pray or say G-ds name in tefillah so a special siddur was created for their use. the prayers are shortened, and more emphasis is put on things women do . men's prayers are missing, (although you can follow the prayer service.) and the tefillah is changed to suite a woman's way of speech. and it also has the book of psalms, or "tehillim" included in it. some notable siddurim are:

Avodat Hashem -l'bat yisrael- with psalms Ha- Siddur
Siddur
Ha-Meforash Kavanat Halev -l'bat yisrael- with psalms Avodah Shebalev- L'bat yisrael- with psalm

Spanish and Portuguese Jews[edit] Main article: Spanish and Portuguese Jews (Characterised by relative absence of Kabbalistic elements:)

Book
Book
of Prayer: According to the Custom of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews
Jews
David de Sola Pool, New York: Union of Sephardic
Sephardic
Congregations, 1979 Book
Book
of Prayer of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews’ Congregation, London. Volume One: Daily and occasional prayers. Oxford (Oxford Univ. Press, Vivian Ridler), 5725 - 1965.

Greek, Turkish and Balkan Sephardim[edit] (Usually characterised by presence of Kabbalistic elements:)

Mahzor
Mahzor
LeYom Kippur-Proseuchologion tes hemeras tou Exilasmou (Hebrew-Greek) According to the Sephardic
Sephardic
Rite of Thessalonike, Athens 1969 Siddur
Siddur
Sha'arei Tefillah-Ai Pylai ton Proseuchon (Hebrew-Greek) Prayerbook for the whole year, Athens 1974 Siddur
Siddur
Zehut Yosef (Daily and Shabbat) According to the Rhodes and Turkish Traditions, Hazzan
Hazzan
Isaac Azose, Seattle, Washington: Sephardic Traditions Foundation, 2002

North African Jews[edit] (Usually characterised by presence of Kabbalistic elements:)

Siddur
Siddur
Od Abinu Ḥai ed. Levi Nahum: Jerusalem (Hebrew only, Livorno text, Libyan tradition) Mahzor
Mahzor
Od Abinu Ḥai ed. Levi Nahum (5 vols.): Jerusalem (Hebrew only, Livorno text, Libyan tradition) Siddur
Siddur
Vezaraḥ Hashemesh, ed. Messas: Jerusalem (Hebrew only, Meknes tradition) Siddur
Siddur
Ish Matzliaḥ, ed. Mazuz, Machon ha-Rav Matzliah: B'nei Brak (Hebrew only, Djerba tradition) Siddur
Siddur
Farḥi (Hebrew with Arabic translation, Egypt) Siddur
Siddur
Tefillat ha-Ḥodesh, ed. David Levi, Erez : Jerusalem (Hebrew only, Livorno text, Moroccan, Algerian and Tunisian traditions)[1] Siddur
Siddur
Patah Eliyahou, ed. Joseph Charbit, Colbo: Paris (Hebrew and French, Moroccan, Algerian and Tunisian traditions)[2][permanent dead link] Mahzor
Mahzor
Zechor le-Avraham, Yarid ha-Sefarim : Jerusalem (Based on the original Zechor le-Abraham: Livorno 1926, Hebrew only, Moroccan, Algerian and Tunisian traditions, days of awe only) Siddur
Siddur
Darchei Avot (Moroccan) Siddur
Siddur
Oro shel Olam

Middle Eastern Mizrachim
Mizrachim
(Sephardim)[edit] (Usually characterised by presence of Kabbalistic elements:) Edot Ha-mizrach (Iraqi)[edit]

Tefillat Yesharim: Jerusalem, Manṣur (Hebrew only) Siddur
Siddur
Od Yosef Ḥai Kol Eliyahu, ed. Mordechai Eliyahu Siddur
Siddur
Rinat Yisrael - (Edot Hamizrach edition), Hotsa'at Moreshet, Bnei Brak, Israel. (Hebrew)

Syrian[edit]

The Aram Soba Siddur: According to the Sephardic
Sephardic
Custom of Aleppo Syria Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe Antebi, Jerusalem: Aram Soba Foundation, 1993 Siddur
Siddur
Abodat Haleb / Prayers from the Heart Rabbi
Rabbi
Moshe Antebi, Lakewood, New Jersey: Israel Book
Book
Shop, 2002 Kol Yaacob: Sephardic
Sephardic
Heritage Foundation, New York, 1990. Bet Yosef ve-Ohel Abraham: Jerusalem, Manṣur (Hebrew only, based on Baghdadi text) Orḥot Ḥayim, ed. Yedid: Jerusalem 1995 (Hebrew only) Siddur
Siddur
Kol Mordechai, ed. Faham bros: Jerusalem 1984 (minhah and arbit only) Abir Yaakob, ed. Haber: Sephardic
Sephardic
Press (Hebrew and English, Shabbat only) Orot Sephardic
Sephardic
Siddur, Eliezer Toledano: Lakewood, New Jersey, Orot Inc. (Hebrew and English: Baghdadi text, Syrian variants shown in square brackets) Maḥzor Shelom Yerushalayim, ed. Albeg: New York, Sephardic
Sephardic
Heritage Foundation 1982

Yemenite Jews
Yemenite Jews
(Teimanim)[edit] Main article: Yemenite Jews Baladi[edit] Main article: Baladi-rite Prayer The Baladi Jews
Jews
(from Arabic balad, country) follow the legal rulings of the Rambam
Rambam
(Maimonides) as codified in his work the Mishneh Torah. Rabbi
Rabbi
Yiḥye Tsalaḥ (Maharits) revised this liturgy to end friction between traditionalists (who followed Rambam's rulings and the siddur as it developed in Yemen) and Kabbalists who followed the innovations of the Ari. This siddur makes very few additions or changes and substantially follows the older Yemenite tradition as it had existed prior to this conflict.

Siddur
Siddur
Tiklal, Yiḥyah Salaḥ ben Yehuda, 1800 Siddur
Siddur
Shivat Tzion, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Qafih, 1950s Siddur
Siddur
Siaḥ Yerushalayim, Rabbi
Rabbi
Yosef Qafih (5th edition, Jerusalem 2003) Siddur
Siddur
Tiklal: Torath Avoth Tiklal Ha-Mefoar (Maharits) Nosaḥ Baladi, Meyusad Al Pi Ha-Tiklal Im Etz Hayim Ha-Shalem Arukh K' Minhag Yahaduth Teiman: Bene Berak : Or Neriyah ben Mosheh Ozeri, [2001 or 2002]

Shami[edit] The Shami Jews
Jews
(from Arabic ash-Sham, the north, referring to Palestine or Damascus) represent those who accepted the Sephardic rite, after being exposed to new inexpensive, typeset siddurs brought from Israel and the Sephardic
Sephardic
diaspora by envoys and merchants in the late 17th century and 18th century.[8][9] The "local rabbinic leadership resisted the new versions....Nevertheless, the new prayer books were widely accepted."[9] As part of that process, the Shami modified their rites to accommodate the usages of the Ari to the maximum extent. The text of the Shami siddur now largely follows the Sephardic
Sephardic
tradition, though the pronunciation, chant and customs are still Yemenite in flavour.

Siddur
Siddur
Tefillat HaḤodesh - Beit Yaakov, Nusaḥ Sepharadim, Teiman, and Edoth Mizraḥ Siddur
Siddur
Kavanot HaRashash, Shalom Sharabi, Publisher: Yeshivat HaChaim Ve'Hashalom

Minhagei Eretz Yisrael[edit]

Siddur
Siddur
Nusach Eretz Yisrael
Eretz Yisrael
edited by Rabbi
Rabbi
David Bar-Hayim (Machon Shilo, "Shilo Institute") Jerusalem, Israel. (Hebrew, Minhagei Eretz Yisrael),[10][11][12] an attempted reconstruction of the ancient Palestinian minhag
Palestinian minhag
from the Jerusalem Talmud, the Cairo Geniza documents and other sources.

Conservative Judaism[edit] Main article: Conservative Judaism

Sabbath and Festival Prayer Book
Book
Ed. Morris Silverman with Robert Gordis, 1946. USCJ and RA Weekday Prayer Book
Book
Ed. Morris Silverman, 1956. USCJ Weekday Prayer Book
Book
Ed. Gershon Hadas with Jules Harlow, 1961, RA. Siddur Sim Shalom Ed. Jules Harlow. 1985, 980 pages, RA and USCJ. Siddur Sim Shalom for Shabbat
Shabbat
and Festivals Ed. Lawrence Cahan, 1998, 816 pages. RA and USCJ. Siddur Sim Shalom for Weekdays Ed. Avram Israel Reisner, 2003, 576 pages. RA and USCJ. Siddur
Siddur
Va'ani Tefilati Ed. Simchah Roth, 1998, 744 pages. Israeli Masorti Movement and Rabbinical Assembly of Israel. Hebrew. Va'ani Tefilati: Siddur
Siddur
Yisre'eli Ed. Ze'ev Kenan, 2009, 375 pages. Israeli Masorti Movement and Rabbinical Assembly of Israel. Hebrew. Siddur Lev Yisrael Ed. Cheryl Magen, 1998, 432 pages. Camp Ramah. Hebrew. Siddur
Siddur
Lev Shalem for Shabbat
Shabbat
and Festivals Ed. Edward Feld, 2016, 466 double pages, RA.

Progressive and Reform Judaism[edit] Main article: Reform Judaism

Ha-Avodah Shebalev, The prayer book of The Israel Movement for Progressive Judaism, Ed. The Council of Israel Progressive Rabbis (MARAM), 1982 The Companion to Ha-Avodah Shebalev published by Congregation Har-El Jerusalem in 1992 to help English-speaking immigrants and visitors; Hebrew pages from the original Ha-Avodah Shebalev, English translations from Gates of Prayer: The New Union Prayer Book with additional translations by Adina Ben-Chorin. Seder ha-Tefillot: Forms of Prayer: Movement for Reform Judaism, London 2008, ISBN 0-947884-13-0; ISBN 978-0-947884-13-0 Official prayer book of the Reform movement in Britain Liberal Jewish Prayer Book: Vol. 1 (Services for Weekdays, Sabbaths, Etc.), 1926, 1937; Vol. 2 (Services for The Day of Memorial Rosh Hashanah and The Day of Atonement), 1923, 1937; Vol. 3 (Services for Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles), 1926; all published by the Liberal Jewish Synagogue, London, U.K. Service of the Heart: Weekday Sabbath and Festival Services and Prayers for Home and Synagogue, Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues, London, 1967 Vetaher Libenu: Purify Our Hearts, Congregation Beth El, Sudbury, MA 1980 Siddur
Siddur
Lev Chadash, Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues, UK, 1995. Olat Tamid: Book
Book
of Prayers for Jewish Congregations The English speaking Reform Jewish movement primarily uses Mishkan T'Filah as it's prayer book. This book also features a companion machzor and electronic supplements. All of the following are published by the Central Conference of American Rabbis:

Union Prayer Book, vol. 1 (Sabbath, Festivals, and Weekdays), 1892, 1895, 1918, 1940; vol. 2 (High Holidays), 1894, 1922, 1945 Weekday Afternoon and Evening Services for Use in the Synagogue
Synagogue
and the House of Mourning, 1957 Gates of Prayer: The New Union Prayer Book, 1975 Gates of Prayer
Gates of Prayer
for Weekdays and at a House of Mourning, 1975 Gates of Prayer: Afternoon and Evening Services and Prayers for the House of Mourning, 1978 Gates of Prayer
Gates of Prayer
for Shabbat: A Gender Sensitive Prayerbook, 1992 Gates of Prayer
Gates of Prayer
for Weekdays and at a House of Mourning: A Gender Sensitive Prayerbook, 1992 Gates of Prayer
Gates of Prayer
for Weekdays: A Gender Sensitive Prayerbook, 1993 Gates of Prayer
Gates of Prayer
for Assemblies, 1993 Gates of Prayer
Gates of Prayer
for Shabbat
Shabbat
and Weekdays: A Gender Sensitive Prayerbook, 1994 Mishkan T'filah
Mishkan T'filah
[Tabernacle of Prayer]: A Reform Siddur: Weekdays, Shabbat, Festivals, and Other Occasions of Public Worship, 2007; ISBN 0-881231-04-5; ISBN 978-0-881231-03-8 Mishkan T'filah
Mishkan T'filah
for Gatherings: A Reform Siddur, 2009 Mishkan T'filah
Mishkan T'filah
for Travelers: A Reform Siddur, 2009 Mishkan T'filah
Mishkan T'filah
for the House of Mourning, 2010 Mishkan T'filah
Mishkan T'filah
Journal Edition, 2010 Mishkan T'filah
Mishkan T'filah
for Children, 2013 Mishkan T'filah
Mishkan T'filah
for Youth, 2014 Divrei Mishkan T'filah
Mishkan T'filah
-- Delving into the Siddur, 2018

Chaveirim Kol Yisrae2018il, a Siddur
Siddur
for Chavurot, 2000 a Project of The Progressive Chavurah Siddur
Siddur
Committee of Boston Seder ha-Tefillot: Forms of Prayer: Movement for Reform Judaism, London 2008, ISBN 0-947884-13-0; ISBN 978-0-947884-13-0 Official prayer book of the Reform movement in Britain Congregation Beit Simchat Torah's Siddur
Siddur
B'chol L'vav'cha, (With All Your Heart) for Friday night services; Publisher: Congregation Beth Simchat Torah
Torah
(2008); ISBN 0-979400-90-2; ISBN 978-0-979400-90-2 Siddur
Siddur
Sha'ar Zahav, the first complete prayer book to address the lives and needs of LGBTQ as well as straight Jews; Publisher: J Levine Judaica & Sha'ar Zahav (2009); ISBN 0-982197-91-8; ISBN 978-0982197-91-2 Seder Tov Lehodot: Teksten, gebeden en diensten voor weekdagen, Sjabbat en andere gelegenheden, Amsterdam 2000, Verbond van Liberaal-Religieuze Joden in Nederland now Nederlands Verbond voor Progressief Jodendom; ISBN 90-805603-1-6

Reconstructionist Judaism[edit] Main article: Reconstructionist Judaism

Kol Haneshamah: Shabbat
Shabbat
Vehagim

Prayer Books edited by Rabbi
Rabbi
Mordecai Kaplan and others:

Sabbath Prayer Book, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1945 High Holiday Prayer Book
Book
(Vol. 1, Prayers for Rosh Hashanah; Vol. 2, Prayers for Yom Kippur), Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1948 Supplementary Prayers and Readings for the High Holidays, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1960 Festival Prayer Book, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1958 Daily Prayer Book, Jewish Reconstructionist Foundation, 1963

Hadesh Yameinu (Renew our days): a book of Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
and meditation, edited and translated by Rabbi
Rabbi
Ronald Aigen. Montreal (Cong. Dorshei Emet), 1996. Kol Haneshamah Prayerbook series, ed. David Teutsch:

Erev Shabbat: Shabbat
Shabbat
Eve, Reconstructionist Press, 1989; 2nd edition, 1993 Shirim Uvrahot: Songs, Blessings and Rituals for the Home, Reconstructionist Press, 1991, 1998 Shabbat
Shabbat
Vehagim: Sabbath and Festivals, Reconstructionist Press, 1994; 3rd edition (August 1, 1998) Limot Hol: Daily Prayerbook, Reconstructionist Press, 1996; Reprint edition (September 1, 1998) Mahzor
Mahzor
Leyamim Nora'im: Prayerbook for the Days of Awe, Reconstructionist Press, 1999; Fordham University Press; Bilingual edition (May 1, 2000) T'filot L'veit HaEvel: Prayers for a House of Mourning, Reconstructionist Press, 2001; Jewish Reconstructionist Federation (October 10, 2001)

Jewish Renewal[edit] Main article: Jewish Renewal

Sh'ma': A Concise Weekday Siddur
Siddur
For Praying in English by Zalman Schachter-Shalomi, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2010.[self-published source]

Feminist siddurim[edit] Siddur
Siddur
Nashim was the first Sabbath prayer book to refer to God using female pronouns and imagery; it was self-published in 1976 by Naomi Janowitz and Margaret Wenig.[13][14][15] Reconstructionist Rabbi
Rabbi
Rebecca Alpert (Reform Judaism, Winter 1991) commented: "The experience of praying with Siddur
Siddur
Nashim... transformed my relationship with God. For the first time, I understood what it meant to be made in God's image. To think of God as a woman like myself, to see Her as both powerful and nurturing, to see Her imaged with a woman's body, with womb, with breasts – this was an experience of ultimate significance. Was this the relationship that men have had with God for all these millennia? How wonderful to gain access to those feelings and perceptions." Liberal prayerbooks tend increasingly to avoid male-specific words and pronouns, seeking that all references to God in translations be made in gender-neutral language. For example, the UK Liberal movement's Siddur
Siddur
Lev Chadash (1995) does so, as does the UK Reform Movement's Forms of Prayer (2008).[16][17] In Mishkan T'filah, the American Reform Jewish prayer
Jewish prayer
book released in 2007, references to God as “He” have been removed, and whenever Jewish patriarchs are named (Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob), so also are the matriarchs (Sarah, Rebecca, Rachel, and Leah.) [18] Atheist or humanistic siddurim[edit]

"Celebration: A Ceremonial and Philosophic Guide for Humanists and Humanistic Jews" by Sherwin T. Wine; Prometheus Books, 1988 "A Humanistic Siddur
Siddur
of Spirituality and Meaning" by David Rabeeya; Xlibris Corporation, 2005[self-published source] "Liturgical Experiments: A Siddur
Siddur
for the Sceptical" in Hebrew, by Tzemah Yoreh (2010?)[19]

Yoreh writes about his work: " I think prayer is communal and private expression of hopes, fears, an appreciation of aesthetic beauty, good attributes. But that has nothing to do with God.” Other siddurim[edit] There are also some Karaite, Samaritan
Samaritan
and Sabbatean[20] prayer books. Digital siddurim[edit] iPhone[edit]

Siddur
Siddur
RustyBrick Siddur
Siddur
HD (iPad): RustyBrick Pocket i Siddur
Siddur
Paul Abraham Jaimovich Siddur
Siddur
Nusach Ari: Dovid Zirkind, JewishContent.org Esh Siddur: Elyahu Sheetrit Siddur
Siddur
Keter Shelomo: Abraham Churba

Android[edit]

Siddur
Siddur
Tehillat Hashem Avraham Makovetsky Smart Siddur
Siddur
Lite Karri Apps Siddur
Siddur
Sfaradi RobertR AndDaaven Siddur
Siddur
S Popper Tfilon Ori Hollander

Blackberry[edit]

JewishContent.org Hebrew In Hand Siddur
Siddur
(Edut HaMizrach)

See also[edit]

Amidah Birchon Cantillation Chumash (Judaism) Haggadah Haftarah Jewish prayer Kaddish Kiddush Kinnot Lekhah Dodi List of Jewish prayers and blessings Machzor Minhag Nusach Piyyut Selichot Sephardic
Sephardic
law and customs Siddur
Siddur
and mahzor Siddur
Siddur
of Saadia Gaon Tashlikh Torah
Torah
database Weekly Torah
Torah
portion Zemirot

References[edit]

^ a b c Jager, Elliot (April 17, 2007). "Power and Politics: Prayer books and resurrection." Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 2016-01-18. ^ Nusach HaAri Siddur, published by Merkos L'Inyonei Chinuch. ^ A New Dialogue With The Divine, May 26, 2009, Jewish Week, Jonathan Rosenblatt "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-05-28. Retrieved 2009-10-26.  ^ Artscroll
Artscroll
facing challenge from Modern Orthodox, April 5, 2009, JTA Archived April 9, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Kavanah ^ Siddur
Siddur
& Umam Updates ^ " Shas
Shas
spiritual leader Rabbi
Rabbi
Ovadia Yosef
Ovadia Yosef
dies at 93". The Jerusalem Post. 7 October 2013. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ Tobi, Yosef (2004). "Caro's Shulhan Arukh Versus Maimonides' Mishne Torah
Torah
in Yemen". In Lifshitz, Berachyahu. The Jewish Law Annual (electronic version). 15. Routledge. p. PT253. ISBN 9781134298372. Two additional factors played a crucial role in the eventual adoption by the majority of Yemenite Jewry of the new traditions, traditions that originate, for the most part, in the land of Israel and the Sefardic communities of the Diaspora. One was the total absence of printers in Yemen: no works reflecting the local (i. e. baladi) liturgical and ritual customs could be printed, and they remained in manuscript. By contrast, printed books, many of which reflected the Sefardic (shami) traditions, were available, and not surprisingly, more and more Yemenite Jews
Yemenite Jews
preferred to acquire the less costly and easier to read printed books, notwithstanding the fact that they expressed a different tradition, rather than their own expensive and difficult to read manuscripts. The second factor was the relatively rich flow of visitors to Yemen, generally emissaries of the Jewish communities and academies in the land of Israel, but also merchants from the Sefardic communities.... By this slow but continuous process, the Shami liturgical and ritual tradition gained every more sympathy and legitimacy, at the expense of the baladi  ^ a b Simon, Reeva S.; Laskier, Mikha'el M.; Reguer, Sara (2003). The Jews
Jews
of the Middle East and North Africa in modern times. Columbia University Press. p. 398. ISBN 9780231107969.  ^ " Torah
Torah
for Those Who Dare to Think". machonshilo.org. Machon Shilo. Retrieved 10 December 2015.  ^ " Nusach Eretz Yisrael- Compact and User-Friendly: The Shabbath Amidah". youtube.com. Tora Nation Machon Shilo. Retrieved 10 December 2015.  ^ "Hannukah: The Eretz Yisrael
Eretz Yisrael
Version- Shiur with Rabbi
Rabbi
David Bar-Hayim". youtube.com. Tora Nation Machon Shilo. Retrieved 10 December 2015.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-06-23. Retrieved 2013-07-05.  ^ "Spirituality in the United States Jewish Women's Archive". Jwa.org. Retrieved 2012-04-12.  ^ New Jewish Feminism: Probing the Past, Forging the Future - Elyse Goldstein - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2012-04-12.  ^ The slimline siddur with a touch of Bob Dylan The Jewish Chronicle ^ Siddur
Siddur
Lev Chadash Archived 2008-07-05 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (3 September 2007). "In New Prayer Book, Signs of Broad Change". The New York Times.  ^ http://forward.com/articles/123336/no-god-no-problem/? ^ Ben Zvi Institute Manuscript 2276

Bibliography[edit]

Jewish Liturgy: A Comprehensive History, Ismar Elbogen, Jewish Publication Society, 1993. This is the most thorough academic study of the Jewish liturgy ever written. Originally published in German in 1913, and updated in a number of Hebrew editions, the latest edition has been translated into English by Raymond P. Scheindlin. This work covers the entire range of Jewish liturgical development, beginning with the early cornerstones of the siddur; through the evolution of the medieval piyyut tradition; to modern prayerbook reform in Germany and the United States. Joseph Heinemann "Prayer in the Talmud", Gruyter, New York, 1977 Kavvana: Directing the Heart in Jewish Prayer, Seth Kadish, Jason Aronson Inc., 1997. The Encyclopedia of Jewish Prayer Macy Nulman, Jason Aronson Inc.,1993. Provides in one volume information on every prayer recited in the Ashkenazi and Sephardic
Sephardic
traditions. Arranged alphabetically by prayer, this book includes information on the prayers, their composers and development, the laws and customs surrounding them, and their place in the service. Jakob J. Petuchowski "Contributions to the Scientific Study of Jewish Liturgy" Ktav, New York, 1970 Goldschmidt, Meḥqare Tefillah u-Fiyyut (On Jewish Liturgy): Jerusalem 1978 Wieder, Naphtali, The Formation of Jewish Liturgy: In the East and the West Reif, Stefan, Judaism
Judaism
and Hebrew Prayer: Cambridge 1993. Hardback ISBN 978-0-521-44087-5, ISBN 0-521-44087-4; Paperback ISBN 978-0-521-48341-4, ISBN 0-521-48341-7 Reif, Stefan, Problems with Prayers: Berlin and New York 2006 ISBN 978-3-11-019091-5, ISBN 3-11-019091-5 The Artscroll
Artscroll
Siddur, Ed. Nosson Scherman, Mesorah Publications. A popular Orthodox prayerbook with running commentary. The amount of commentary varies by version. The Authorised Daily Prayer Book
Book
of the British Commonwealth, translation by Rabbi
Rabbi
Eli Cashdan. An Orthodox prayerbook widely used in the UK and other Commonwealth countries. Siddur
Siddur
HaEsh (of Fire) in Hebrew Wikibooks Amidah, entry in the Encyclopaedia Judaica, Keter Publishing JNUL Digitized Book
Book
Repository, page with links to facsimile prayer books from 1475 to 1981 Siddur
Siddur
Audio, website with text and audio of selections from the Siddur

External links[edit]

Siddur
Siddur
Ba-er Hei-Teiv: The Transliterated Siddur
Siddur
by Jordan Lee Wagner Siddur
Siddur
Audio The Open Siddur
Siddur
Project History and Liturgy: The Evolution of Multiple Prayer Rites The Italian Rite Italian Rite Siddur
Siddur
and Maḥzorim The Koren Avoteinu Series A complete Moroccan Siddur
Siddur
for weekdays and Shabbat. The Nehalel Siddur, a profusely illustrated English-Hebrew Orthodox Siddur Sephardic
Sephardic
Shearith Israel Siddur
Siddur
and Maḥzorim available from the Congregation Shearith Israel
Congregation Shearith Israel
in New York City, USA (the nation's oldest functioning Jewish synagogue). Siddur
Siddur
Sha'ar Zahav, San Francisco, CA: information to order a copy; LGBT-friendly Siddur
Siddur
Tehillat HaShem Chabad Hebrew-English Siddur Siddur
Siddur
Zehut Yosef The only Siddur
Siddur
that specifically follows the tradition of the Jews
Jews
of Turkey & Rhodes. Meticulously researched and ingeniously designed for ease of use.

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