The Shroud of
Turin Shroud (Italian: Sindone di Torino, Sacra
Sindone [ˈsaːkra ˈsindone] or Santa Sindone) is a length of linen
cloth bearing the image of a man who is alleged to be
Nazareth. The cloth itself is believed by some to be the burial shroud
he was wrapped in when he was buried after crucifixion although three
radiocarbon dating tests in 1988 dated a sample of the cloth to the
Middle Ages. The shroud is kept in the royal chapel of the
Cathedral of Saint John the Baptist in Turin, northern Italy. The
Catholic Church has neither formally endorsed nor rejected the shroud,
but in 1958
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII approved of the image in association with
the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus.
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II called
the Shroud "a mirror of the Gospel".
The origins of the shroud and its images are the subject of intense
debate among theologians, historians and other researchers. Diverse
arguments have been made in scientific and popular publications
claiming to prove that the cloth is the authentic burial shroud of
Jesus, based on disciplines ranging from chemistry to biology and
medical forensics to optical image analysis. In 1988, three
radiocarbon dating tests dated a corner piece of the shroud from the
Middle Ages, between the years 1260 and 1390, which is consistent with
the shroud's first known exhibition in
France in 1357. Some shroud
researchers have challenged the dating, arguing the results were
skewed by the introduction of material from the
Middle Ages to the
portion of the shroud used for radiocarbon dating.
However, all of the hypotheses challenging the radiocarbon dating have
been scientifically refuted.[sources 1]
The image on the shroud is much clearer in black-and-white negative
than in its natural sepia color, and this negative image was first
observed in 1898 on the reverse photographic plate of amateur
photographer Secondo Pia, who was allowed to photograph it while it
was being exhibited. A variety of methods have been proposed for the
formation of the image, but the actual method used has not yet been
conclusively identified. Despite numerous investigations and tests,
the status of the Shroud of
Turin remains murky, and the nature of the
image and how it was fixed on the cloth remain puzzling. The
shroud continues to be both intensely studied and
4 Religious views
4.1 John Calvin
4.3 Miraculous image
4.4 Vatican position
5 Scientific analysis
5.1 Early studies
5.2 Material chemical analysis
5.2.1 Radiocarbon dating
5.2.2 Vibrational spectroscopy
5.2.3 Tests for pigments
5.3 Material historical analysis
5.3.1 Historical fabrics
5.3.2 Dirt particles
5.4 Biological and medical forensics
5.4.1 Blood stains
5.4.2 Flowers and pollen
5.4.3 Anatomical forensics
5.5 Image and text analysis
5.5.1 Image analysis
5.5.2 Text of death certificate
5.6 Hypotheses on image origin
5.6.1 Painting and pigmentation
18.104.22.168 Acid pigmentation
5.6.2 Medieval photography
5.6.3 Dust-transfer technique
5.6.5 Maillard reaction
5.6.6 Energy source
22.214.171.124 Corona discharge
126.96.36.199 Burial ointments
5.6.7 Minimal Facts approach
6 See also
7 Reference notes
9 Further reading
10 External links
Secondo Pia's 1898 negative of the image on the Shroud of
Turin has an
appearance suggesting a positive image. It is used as part of the
devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus. Image from Musée de l'Élysée,
The shroud is rectangular, measuring approximately 4.4 by 1.1 metres
(14 ft 5 in × 3 ft 7 in). The cloth is woven
in a three-to-one herringbone twill composed of flax fibrils. Its most
distinctive characteristic is the faint, brownish image of a front and
back view of a naked man with his hands folded across his groin. The
two views are aligned along the midplane of the body and point in
opposite directions. The front and back views of the head nearly meet
at the middle of the cloth.
The image of the "Man of the Shroud" has a beard, moustache, and
shoulder-length hair parted in the middle. He is muscular and tall
(various experts have measured him as from 1.70 to 1.88 m or
5 ft 7 in to 6 ft 2 in). Reddish-brown stains
are found on the cloth, showing various wounds that, according to
proponents, correlate with the yellowish image, the pathophysiology of
crucifixion, and the Biblical description of the death of Jesus.
In May 1898 Italian photographer
Secondo Pia was allowed to photograph
the shroud. He took the first photograph of the shroud on 28 May 1898.
In 1931 when another photographer, Giuseppe Enrie, photographed the
shroud and obtained results similar to Pia's. In 1978, ultraviolet
photographs were taken of the shroud.
The shroud was damaged in a fire in 1532 in the chapel in Chambery,
France. There are some burn holes and scorched areas down both sides
of the linen, caused by contact with molten silver during the fire
that burned through it in places while it was folded. Fourteen
large triangular patches and eight smaller ones were sewn onto the
Poor Clare nuns to repair the damage.
Main article: History of the Shroud of Turin
The historical records for the shroud can be separated into two time
periods: before 1390 and from 1390 to the present. Prior to 1390 there
are some similar images such as the Pray Codex. However, what is
claimed by some to be the image of a shroud on the
Pray Codex has
crosses on one side, an interlocking step pyramid pattern on the
other, and no image of Jesus. Critics point out that it may not be a
shroud at all, but rather a rectangular tombstone, as seen on other
sacred images. The text of the codex also fails to mention a
miraculous image on the codex shroud.
It is often mentioned that the first certain historical record dates
from 1353 or 1357. However the presence of the
Turin Shroud in
Lirey, France, is only undoubtedly attested in 1390 when Bishop Pierre
d'Arcis wrote a memorandum to Antipope Clement VII, stating that the
shroud was a forgery and that the artist had confessed.
Historical records seem to indicate that a shroud bearing an image of
a crucified man existed in the small town of
Lirey around the years
1353 to 1357 in the possession of a French Knight, Geoffroi de Charny,
who died at the Battle of Poitiers in 1356. However the
correspondence of this shroud in
Lirey with the shroud in Turin, and
its origin has been debated by scholars and lay authors, with
statements of forgery attributed to artists born a century apart. Some
contend that the
Lirey shroud was the work of a confessed forger and
There are no definite historical records concerning the particular
shroud currently at
Turin Cathedral prior to the 14th century. A
burial cloth, which some historians maintain was the Shroud, was owned
Byzantine emperors but disappeared during the Sack of
Constantinople in 1204. Although there are numerous reports of
Jesus' burial shroud, or an image of his head, of unknown origin,
being venerated in various locations before the 14th century, there is
no historical evidence that these refer to the shroud currently at
The pilgrim medallion of
Lirey (before 1453), drawing by Arthur
The history of the shroud from the 15th century is well recorded. In
1453 Margaret de Charny deeded the Shroud to the House of Savoy. In
1578 the shroud was transferred to Turin. Since the 17th century the
shroud has been displayed (e.g. in the chapel built for that purpose
by Guarino Guarini) and in the 19th century it was first
photographed during a public exhibition.
In 1532, the shroud suffered damage from a fire in a chapel of
Chambéry, capital of the
Savoy region, where it was stored. A drop of
molten silver from the reliquary produced a symmetrically placed mark
through the layers of the folded cloth.
Poor Clare Nuns attempted to
repair this damage with patches. In 1578 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of
Savoy ordered the cloth to be brought from
Turin and it
has remained at
Turin ever since.
Repairs were made to the shroud in 1694 by
Sebastian Valfrè to
improve the repairs of the
Poor Clare nuns. Further repairs were
made in 1868 by Clotilde of Savoy. The shroud remained the property of
House of Savoy
House of Savoy until 1983, when it was given to the Holy See.
A fire, possibly caused by arson, threatened the shroud on 11 April
1997. In 2002, the
Holy See had the shroud restored. The cloth
backing and thirty patches were removed, making it possible to
photograph and scan the reverse side of the cloth, which had been
hidden from view. A faint part-image of the body was found on the back
of the shroud in 2004.
The Shroud was placed back on public display (the 18th time in its
Turin from 10 April to 23 May 2010; and according to
Church officials, more than 2 million visitors came to see it.
Holy Saturday (30 March) 2013, images of the shroud were streamed
on various websites as well as on television for the first time in 40
years. Roberto Gottardo of the diocese of
Turin stated that
for the first time ever they had released high definition images of
the shroud that can be used on tablet computers and can be magnified
to show details not visible to the naked eye. As this rare
exposition took place,
Pope Francis issued a carefully worded
statement which urged the faithful to contemplate the shroud with awe
but, like his predecessors, he "stopped firmly short of asserting its
The shroud was again placed on display in the cathedral in
19 April 2015 until 24 June 2015. There was no charge to view it, but
an appointment was required.
Main article: Conservation of the Shroud of Turin
The Shroud has undergone several restorations and several steps have
been taken to preserve it to avoid further damage and contamination.
The shroud is kept under the laminated bulletproof glass of the
airtight case. The temperature- and humidity-controlled case is
filled with argon (99.5%) and oxygen (0.5%) to prevent chemical
changes. The Shroud itself is kept on an aluminum support sliding on
runners and stored flat within the case.
A poster advertising the 1898 exhibition of the shroud in Turin.
Secondo Pia's photograph was taken a few weeks too late to be included
in the poster. The image on the poster includes a painted face, not
obtained from Pia's photograph.
Religious beliefs about the burial cloths of
Jesus have existed for
centuries. The Gospels of Matthew[27:59–60], Mark[15:46] and
Luke[23:53] state that
Joseph of Arimathea
Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus
in a piece of linen cloth and placed it in a new tomb. The Gospel of
John[19:38–40] refers to strips of linen used by Joseph of Arimathea
and states that
Apostle Peter found multiple pieces of burial cloth
after the tomb was found open, strips of linen cloth for the body and
a separate cloth for the head.[20:6–7] The Gospel of the Hebrews, a
2nd-century manuscript, states that
Jesus gave the linen cloth to the
servant of the priest.
Although pieces said to be of burial cloths of
Jesus are held by at
least four churches in
France and three in Italy, none has gathered as
much religious following as the Shroud of Turin. The religious
beliefs and practices associated with the shroud predate historical
and scientific discussions and have continued in the 21st century,
Catholic Church has never passed judgment on its
authenticity. An example is the
Holy Face Medal
Holy Face Medal bearing the image
from the shroud, worn by some Catholics. Indeed, the Shroud of
Turin is respected by Christians of several traditions, including
Baptists, Catholics, Lutherans, Methodists, Orthodox, Pentecostals,
In 1543 John Calvin, in his Treatise on Relics, wrote of the shroud,
which was then at
Nice (it was moved to
Turin in 1578), "How is it
possible that those sacred historians, who carefully related all the
miracles that took place at Christ's death, should have omitted to
mention one so remarkable as the likeness of the body of our Lord
remaining on its wrapping sheet?" In an interpretation of the Gospel
of John[20:6–7] Calvin concluded that strips of linen were used to
cover the body (excluding the head) and a separate cloth to cover the
head. He then stated that "either St. John is a liar," or else
anyone who promotes such a shroud is "convicted of falsehood and
Although the shroud image is currently associated with Catholic
devotions to the Holy Face of Jesus, the devotions themselves predate
Secondo Pia's 1898 photograph. Such devotions had been started in 1844
by the Carmelite nun
Marie of St Peter
Marie of St Peter (based on "pre-crucifixion"
images associated with the Veil of Veronica) and promoted by Leo
Dupont, also called the Apostle of the Holy Face. In 1851 Dupont
formed the "Archconfraternity of the Holy Face" in Tours, France, well
Secondo Pia took the photograph of the shroud.
Further information: Acheiropoieta, Veil of Veronica, Manoppello
Image, and Image of Edessa
17th-century Russian icon of the
Mandylion by Simon Ushakov
The religious concept of the miraculous acheiropoieton has a long
history in Christianity, going back to at least the 6th century. Among
the most prominent portable early acheiropoieta are the Image of
Camuliana and the
Mandylion or Image of Edessa, both painted icons of
Christ held in the
Byzantine Empire and now generally regarded as lost
or destroyed, as is the
Hodegetria image of the Virgin. Other
early images in Italy, all heavily and unfortunately restored, that
have been revered as acheiropoieta now have relatively little
following, as attention has focused on the Shroud.
Proponents for the authenticity of the Shroud of
Turin argue that
empirical analysis and scientific methods are insufficient for
understanding the methods used for image formation on the shroud,
believing that the image was miraculously produced at the moment of
Resurrection. Some proponents have argued that the image on
the shroud can be explained with scientific evidence that supports the
Gospel narrative. John Jackson (a member of STURP) proposed that the
image was formed by radiation methods beyond the understanding of
current science, in particular via the "collapsing cloth" onto a body
that was radiating energy at the moment of resurrection. However,
STURP member Alan Adler has stated that Jackson's theory is not
generally accepted as scientific, given that it runs counter to the
laws of physics. In 1989 physicist Thomas Phillips speculated that
the Shroud image was formed by neutron radiation due to a miraculous
Antipope Clement VII
Antipope Clement VII refrained from expressing his opinion on the
shroud; however, subsequent popes from Julius II on took its
authenticity for granted.
The Vatican newspaper
Osservatore Romano covered the story of Secondo
Pia's photograph of 28 May 1898 in its edition of 15 June 1898, but it
did so with no comment and thereafter Church officials generally
refrained from officially commenting on the photograph for almost half
The first official association between the image on the Shroud and the
Catholic Church was made in 1940 based on the formal request by Sister
Maria Pierina De Micheli to the curia in
Milan to obtain authorization
to produce a medal with the image. The authorization was granted and
the first medal with the image was offered to
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII who
approved the medal. The image was then used on what became known as
Holy Face Medal
Holy Face Medal worn by many Catholics, initially as a means of
protection during World War II. In 1958
Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII approved of the
image in association with the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus, and
declared its feast to be celebrated every year the day before Ash
Wednesday. Following the approval by Pope Pius XII, Catholic
devotions to the
Holy Face of Jesus
Holy Face of Jesus have been almost exclusively
associated with the image on the shroud.
In 1983 the Shroud was given to the
Holy See by the House of
Savoy. However, as with all relics of this kind, the Roman
Catholic Church made no pronouncements on its authenticity. As with
other approved Catholic devotions, the matter has been left to the
personal decision of the faithful, as long as the Church does not
issue a future notification to the contrary. In the Church's view,
whether the cloth is authentic or not has no bearing whatsoever on the
validity of what
Jesus taught or on the saving power of his death and
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II stated in 1998 that: "Since it is not a matter
of faith, the Church has no specific competence to pronounce on these
questions. She entrusts to scientists the task of continuing to
investigate, so that satisfactory answers may be found to the
questions connected with this Sheet".
Pope John Paul II
Pope John Paul II showed
himself to be deeply moved by the image of the Shroud and arranged for
public showings in 1998 and 2000. In his address at the Turin
Cathedral on Sunday 24 May 1998 (the occasion of the 100th year of
Secondo Pia's 28 May 1898 photograph), he said: "The Shroud is an
image of God's love as well as of human sin [...] The imprint left by
the tortured body of the Crucified One, which attests to the
tremendous human capacity for causing pain and death to one's fellow
man, stands as an icon of the suffering of the innocent in every
In 2000, Cardinal Ratzinger, later to become Pope Benedict XVI, wrote
that the Shroud of
Turin is "a truly mysterious image, which no human
artistry was capable of producing. In some inexplicable way, it
appeared imprinted upon cloth and claimed to show the true face of
Christ, the crucified and risen Lord." In June 2008, three years
after he assumed the papacy, Pope Benedict announced that the Shroud
would be publicly displayed in the spring of 2010, and stated that he
would like to go to
Turin to see it along with other pilgrims.
During his visit in
Turin on Sunday 2 May 2010, Benedict described the
Turin as an "extraordinary Icon", the "
Icon of Holy Saturday
[...] corresponding in every way to what the Gospels tell us of
Icon written in blood, the blood of a man who was
scourged, crowned with thorns, crucified and whose right side was
pierced". The pope said also that in the
Turin Shroud "we see, as
in a mirror, our suffering in the suffering of Christ". On 30 May
2010, Benedict XVI beatified Sister
Maria Pierina De Micheli who
coined the Holy Face Medal, based on Secondo Pia's photograph of the
On 30 March 2013, as part of the Easter celebrations, there was an
extraordinary exposition of the shroud in the Cathedral of Turin. Pope
Francis recorded a video message for the occasion, in which he
described the image on the shroud as "this
Icon of a man", and stated
that "the Man of the Shroud invites us to contemplate
Nazareth." In his carefully worded statement Pope Francis
urged the faithful to contemplate the shroud with awe, but "stopped
firmly short of asserting its authenticity."
During his weekly general audience on 5 November 2014, Pope Francis
announced he would go on a pilgrimage to
Turin on 21 June 2015, to
pray before, venerate the Holy Shroud and honor St.
John Bosco on the
bicentenary of his birth.
Station biologique de Roscoff
Station biologique de Roscoff in Brittany,
France where the first
scientific analysis of the photographs of the shroud was performed by
Yves Delage in 1902.
Sindonology (from the Greek σινδών—sindon, the word used in
the Gospel of Mark[15:46] to describe the type of the burial cloth of
Jesus) is the formal study of the Shroud. The Oxford English
Dictionary cites the first use of this word in 1964: "The
investigation..assumed the stature of a separate discipline and was
given a name, sindonology," but also identifies the use of
"sindonological" in 1950 and "sindonologist" in 1953.
Secondo Pia's 1898 photographs of the shroud allowed the scientific
community to begin to study it. A variety of scientific theories
regarding the shroud have since been proposed, based on disciplines
ranging from chemistry to biology and medical forensics to optical
image analysis. The scientific approaches to the study of the Shroud
fall into three groups: material analysis (both chemical and
historical), biology and medical forensics and image analysis.
The initial steps towards the scientific study of the shroud were
taken soon after the first set of black and white photographs became
available early in the 20th century. In 1902 Yves Delage, a French
professor of comparative anatomy, published the first study on the
subject. Delage declared the image anatomically flawless and
argued that the features of rigor mortis, wounds, and blood flows were
evidence that the image was formed by direct or indirect contact with
William Meacham mentions several other medical studies
between 1936 and 1981 that agree with Delage. However, these were
all indirect studies without access to the shroud itself.
The first direct examination of the shroud by a scientific team was
undertaken in 1969–1973 in order to advise on preservation of the
shroud and determine specific testing methods. This led to the
appointment of an 11-member
Turin Commission to advise on the
preservation of the relic and on specific testing. Five of the
commission members were scientists, and preliminary studies of samples
of the fabric were conducted in 1973.
In 1976 physicist John P. Jackson, thermodynamicist Eric Jumper and
photographer William Mottern used image analysis technologies
developed in aerospace science for analyzing the images of the Shroud.
In 1977 these three scientists and over thirty others formed the
Turin Research Project. In 1978 this group, often called
STURP, was given direct access to the Shroud.
Also in 1978, independently from the STURP research, prof. Giovanni
Tamburelli obtained at
CSELT a 3D-elaboration from the Shroud with
higher resolution than Jumper and Mottern. A second result of
Tamburelli was the electronic removal from the image of the "blood"
that apparently covers the face.
Material chemical analysis
Phase contrast microscopic view of image-bearing fiber from the Shroud
of Turin. The carbohydrate layer is visible along top edge. The
lower-right edge shows that coating is missing. The coating can be
scraped off or removed with adhesive or diimide.
Radiocarbon dating of the Shroud of Turin
After years of discussion, the
Holy See permitted radiocarbon dating
on portions of a swatch taken from a corner of the shroud. Independent
tests in 1988 at the University of Oxford, the University of Arizona,
and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology concluded with 95%
confidence that the shroud material dated to 1260–1390 AD. This
13th to 14th century dating is much too recent for the shroud to have
been associated with
Jesus of Nazareth. The dating does on the other
hand match the first appearance of the shroud in church
history. This dating is also slightly more recent than that
estimated by art historian W.S.A. Dale, who postulated on artistic
grounds that the shroud is an 11th-century icon made for use in
Some proponents for the authenticity of the shroud have attempted to
discount the radiocarbon dating result by claiming that the sample may
represent a medieval "invisible" repair fragment rather than the
image-bearing cloth. It has been
suggested, for example, that burnt residue, or other types of
residues, might have skewed the radiocarbon date toward the
present. These various challenges have all been refuted by experts
based on scientific analysis of shroud
According to professor Christopher Ramsey of the Oxford Radiocarbon
Accelerator Unit in 2011: "There are various hypotheses as to why the
dates might not be correct, but none of them stack up."
A regression analysis by Riani et al. concluded that “for whatever
reasons, the structure of the TS is more complicated than that of the
three fabrics with which it was compared”.
In 2013, Giulio Fanti performed new dating studies on fragments
obtained from the shroud. He performed three different tests including
Raman spectroscopy (absorption of light of different
colors). The date range from these tests date the shroud between 300
BC and 400 AD. These studies have been publicly
disregarded by Cesare Nosiglia, archbishop of
Turin and custodian of
the shroud. Cardinal Nosiglia stated that "as it is not possible to be
certain that the analysed material was taken from the fabric of the
shroud no serious value can be recognized to the results of such
Some criticism has been made of Fanti's methodologies. For instance,
Italian scientist Gian Rinaldi questioned the reliability of Fanti's
methods by pointing out difficulties on determining a proper date
based on the novelty of the employed methods, as well as the fibre
samples that were utilized in Fanti's experiments. Fanti has since
replied to Rinaldi's accusations, and insists that the falsifications
Tests for pigments
In the 1970s a special eleven-member
Turin Commission conducted
several tests. Conventional and electron microscopic examination of
the Shroud at that time revealed an absence of heterogeneous coloring
material or pigment. In 1979, Walter McCrone, upon analyzing the
samples he was given by STURP, concluded that the image is actually
made up of billions of submicrometre pigment particles. The only
fibrils that had been made available for testing of the stains were
those that remained affixed to custom-designed adhesive tape applied
to thirty-two different sections of the image.
Mark Anderson, who was working for McCrone, analyzed the Shroud
samples. In his book Ray Rogers states that Anderson, who was
McCrone's Raman microscopy expert, concluded that the samples acted as
organic material when he subjected them to the laser.:61
John Heller and Alan Adler examined the same samples and agreed with
McCrone's result that the cloth contains iron oxide. However, they
concluded, the exceptional purity of the chemical and comparisons with
other ancient textiles showed that, while retting flax absorbs iron
selectively, the iron itself was not the source of the image on the
Material historical analysis
A Roman loom, c. 2nd century AD
In 2000, fragments of a burial shroud from the 1st century were
discovered in a tomb near Jerusalem, believed to have belonged to a
Jewish high priest or member of the aristocracy. The shroud was
composed of a simple two-way weave, unlike the complex herringbone
twill of the
Turin Shroud. Based on this discovery, the researchers
stated that the
Turin Shroud did not originate from Jesus-era
According to textile expert Mechthild Flury-Lemberg of Hamburg, a seam
in the cloth corresponds to a fabric found at the fortress of Masada
near the Dead Sea, which dated to the 1st century. The weaving
pattern, 3:1 twill, is consistent with first-century Syrian design,
according to the appraisal of Gilbert Raes of the Ghent Institute of
Textile Technology in Belgium. Flury-Lemberg stated: "The linen cloth
of the Shroud of
Turin does not display any weaving or sewing
techniques which would speak against its origin as a high-quality
product of the textile workers of the first century."
In 1999, Mark Guscin investigated the relationship between the shroud
and the Sudarium of Oviedo, believed to be the cloth that covered the
Jesus in the Gospel of John[20:6–7] and thereafter retrieved
when Jesus' tomb was found to be empty. The Sudarium is reported to
have type AB blood stains. Guscin concluded that the two cloths
covered the same head at two distinct, but close moments of time.
Avinoam Danin (see below) concurred with this analysis, adding that
the pollen grains in the Sudarium match those of the shroud.
Skeptics criticize the polarized image overlay technique of Guscin and
suggest that pollen from Jerusalem could have followed any number of
paths to find its way to the sudarium.
In 2002, Aldo Guerreschi and Michele Salcito argued that many of these
marks on the fabric of the shroud stem from a much earlier time
because the symmetries correspond more to the folding that would have
been necessary to store the cloth in a clay jar (like cloth samples at
Qumran) than to that necessary to store it in the reliquary that
housed it in 1532.
A piece of travertine.
Joseph Kohlbeck from the Hercules Aerospace Company in Utah and
Richard Levi-Setti of the
Enrico Fermi Institute
Enrico Fermi Institute examined some dirt
particles from the Shroud surface. The dirt was found to be travertine
aragonite limestone. Using a high-resolution microprobe,
Levi-Setti and Kohlbeck compared the spectra of samples taken from the
Shroud with samples of limestone from ancient Jerusalem tombs. The
chemical signatures of the Shroud samples and the tomb limestone were
found identical except for minute fragments of cellulose linen fiber
that could not be separated from the Shroud samples.
Biological and medical forensics
There are several reddish stains on the shroud suggesting blood, but
it is uncertain whether these stains were produced at the same time as
the image, or afterwards. McCrone (see painting hypothesis)
identified these as containing iron oxide, theorizing that its
presence was likely due to simple pigment materials used in medieval
times. Other researchers, including Alan Adler, identified the
reddish stains as blood and interpreted the iron oxide as a natural
residue of hemoglobin.
Heller and Adler further studied the dark red stains and identified
hemoglobin, as well as the presence of porphyrin, bilirubin, albumin,
and protein. Working independently, forensic pathologist Pier
Luigi Baima Bollone concurred with Heller and Adler's findings and
identified the blood as the AB blood group. Subsequently, STURP
sent flecks from the shroud to the laboratory devoted to the study of
ancient blood at the
State University of New York
State University of New York (SUNY), Binghamton.
Dr. Andrew Merriwether at SUNY stated that it is almost certain that
the flecks are blood, but that no definitive statements can be made
about its nature or provenance, i.e., whether it is male or from the
Near East. He also stated that no blood typing could be confirmed, as
DNA was badly fragmented.
Joe Nickell argues that results similar to Heller and Adler's could be
obtained from tempera paint. Skeptics also cite other forensic
blood tests whose results dispute the authenticity of the Shroud, and
point to the possibility that the blood could belong to a person
handling the shroud, and that the apparent blood flows on the shroud
are unrealistically neat.
According to a 2017 Italian atomic resolution study, it is likely that
the blood on the shroud is that of someone who met with a strong
polytrauma, possibly a torture victim. This research suggests that
ancient pigments would likely have aggregated, due to their larger
Flowers and pollen
Chrysanthemum coronarium, now called Glebionis coronaria
In 1997 Avinoam Danin, a botanist at the Hebrew University of
Jerusalem, reported that he had identified Chrysanthemum coronarium
(now called Glebionis coronaria),
Cistus creticus and Zygophyllum
whose pressed image on the shroud was first noticed by Alan Whanger in
1985 on the photographs of the shroud taken in 1931. He reported that
the outlines of the flowering plants would point to March or April and
the environs of Jerusalem. In a separate report in 1978
Danin and Uri Baruch reported on the pollen grains on the cloth
samples, stating that they were appropriate to the spring in
Israel. Max Frei, a Swiss police criminologist who initially
obtained pollen from the shroud during the STURP investigation stated
that of the 58 different types of pollens found, 45 were from the
Jerusalem area, while six were from the eastern Middle East, with one
pollen species growing exclusively in Istanbul, and two found in
Edessa, Turkey. Mark Antonacci argues that the pollen evidence
and flower images are inherently interwoven and strengthen each
other. However it was subsequently determined that Baruch's work
was "scientifically unsafe", and Danin thereafter disowned the
publication of this work.
Skeptics have argued that the flower images are too faint for Danin's
determination to be definite, that an independent review of the pollen
strands showed that one strand out of the 26 provided contained
significantly more pollen than the others, perhaps pointing to
deliberate contamination. Skeptics also argue that
Max Frei had
previously been duped in his examination of the
Hitler Diaries and
that he may have also been duped in this case, or may have introduced
the pollens himself. J. Beaulieau has stated that Frei was a
self-taught amateur palynologist, was not properly trained, and that
his sample was too small.
In 2008 Avinoam Danin reported analysis based on the ultraviolet
photographs of Miller and Pellicori taken in 1978. Danin
reported five new species of flower, which also bloom in March and
April and stated that a comparison of the 1931 black and white
photographs and the 1978 ultraviolet images indicate that the flower
images are genuine and not the artifact of a specific method of
A study published in 2011 by Lorusso and others subjected two
photographs of the shroud to detailed modern digital image processing,
one of them being a reproduction of the photographic negative taken by
Giuseppe Enrie in 1931. They did not find any images of flowers or
coins or anything else on either image, they noted that the faint
images identified by the Whangers were "only visible by incrementing
the photographic contrast", and they concluded that these signs may be
linked to protuberances in the yarn, and possibly also to the
alteration and influence of the texture of the Enrie photographic
negative during its development in 1931.
In 2015, Italian researchers Barcaccia et al published a new study in
Scientific Reports. They examined the human and non-human
when the shroud and its backing cloth were vacuumed in 1977 and 1988.
They found traces of 19 different plant taxa, including plants native
to Mediterranean countries, Central Europe, North Africa, the Middle
East, Eastern Asia (China) and the Americas. Of the human mtDNA,
sequences were found belonging to haplogroups that are typical of
various ethnicities and geographic regions, including Europe, North
and East Africa, the
Middle East and India. A few non-plant and
non-human sequences were also detected, including various birds and
one ascribable to a marine worm common in the Northern Pacific Ocean,
next to Canada. After sequencing some
DNA of pollen and dust found
on the shroud, they confirmed that many people from many different
places came in contact with the shroud. According to the scientists,
"such diversity does not exclude a Medieval origin in Europe but it
would be also compatible with the historic path followed by the Turin
Shroud during its presumed journey from the Near East. Furthermore,
the results raise the possibility of an Indian manufacture of the
In 2017, a new examination of the old photos of pollens taken by Max
Frei contradicted the Barcaccia study above, and claimed instead that
"the most abundant pollen on the relic may be attribruted to the genus
Helichrysum". According to the author, palynologist Marzia Boi, it
"confirms and authenticates the theory that the corpse kept in the
Shroud received a funeral and burial with all the honour and respect
that would have been customary in the Hebrew tradition". 
Boi's conclusions were refuted by the British Society for the Turin
Shroud, who stated that "While her science is excellent, her premises
are ﬂawed, and her inferences tenuous, as there is no other evidence
for such ointments on the Shroud, scientiﬁcally, archaeologically,
biblically or historically".
Full length negatives of the shroud.
A number of studies on the anatomical consistency of the image on the
shroud and the nature of the wounds on it have been performed,
following the initial study by
Yves Delage in 1902. While Delage
declared the image anatomically flawless, others have presented
arguments to support both authenticity and forgery.
In 1950 Pierre Barbet wrote a long study called A Doctor at Calvary
which was later published as a book. Barbet stated that his
experience as a battlefield surgeon during
World War I
World War I led him to
conclude that the image on the shroud was authentic, anatomically
correct and consistent with crucifixion.
In 1997 doctor and forensic pathologist Robert Bucklin constructed a
scenario of how a systematic autopsy on the man of the shroud would
have been conducted. He noted the series of traumatic injuries which
extend from the shoulder areas to the lower portion of the back, which
he considered consistent with whipping; and marks on the right
shoulder blade which he concluded were signs of carrying a heavy
object. Bucklin concluded that the image was of a real person, subject
For over a decade,
Frederick Zugibe performed a number of studies
using himself and volunteers suspended from a cross, and presented his
conclusions in a book in 1998. Zugibe considered the shroud image
and its proportions as authentic, but disagreed with Barbet and
Bucklin on various details such as blood flow. Zugibe concluded that
the image on the shroud is of the body of a man, but that the body had
In 2001, Pierluigi Baima Bollone, a professor of forensic medicine in
Turin, stated that the forensic examination of the wounds and
bloodstains on the Shroud indicate that the image was that of the dead
body of a man who was whipped, wounded around the head by a pointed
instrument and nailed at the extremities before dying.
In 2010 Giulio Fanti, professor of mechanical measurements, wrote that
"apart from the hands afterward placed on the pubic area, the front
and back images are compatible with the Shroud being used to wrap the
body of a man 175 ± 2 cm (5 ft
9 in ± 1 in) tall, which, due to cadaveric
rigidity, remained in the same position it would have assumed during
Isabel Piczek stated in 1995 that while a general research
opinion sees a flatly reclining body on the Shroud, the professional
figurative artist can see substantial differences from a flatly
reclining position. She stated that the professional arts cannot find
discrepancies and distortions in the anatomy of the "Shroud Man".
Nickell, in 1983, and
Gregory S. Paul
Gregory S. Paul in 2010, separately state that
the proportions of the image are not realistic. Paul stated that the
face and proportions of the shroud image are impossible, that the
figure cannot represent that of an actual person and that the posture
was inconsistent. They argued that the forehead on the shroud is too
small; and that the arms are too long and of different lengths and
that the distance from the eyebrows to the top of the head is
non-representative. They concluded that the features can be explained
if the shroud is a work of a Gothic artist.
A 2013 study analysed the wounds seemingly evident on the image in the
shroud and compared them favorably to the wounds which the gospels
state were inflicted on Jesus.
Image and text analysis
Both digital image processing and analog techniques have been applied
to the shroud images.
In 1976 Pete Schumacher, John Jackson and Eric Jumper analysed a
photograph of the shroud image using a VP8 Image Analyzer, which was
developed for NASA to create brightness maps of the moon. A brightness
map (isometric display) interprets differences of brightness within an
image as differences of elevation – brighter patches are seen as
being closer to the camera, and darker patches further away. Our minds
interpret these gradients as a "pseudo-three-dimensional
image".[full citation needed] They found that, unlike any
photograph they had analyzed, the shroud image has the property of
decoding into a 3-dimensional image, when the darker parts of the
image are interpreted to be those features of the man that were
closest to the shroud and the lighter areas of the image those
features that were farthest. The researchers could not replicate the
effect when they attempted to transfer similar images using techniques
of block print, engravings, a hot statue, and bas-relief.
However optical physicist and former STURP member John Dee German has
since noted that it is not difficult to make a photograph which has 3D
qualities. If the object being photographed is lighted from the front,
and a non-reflective "fog" of some sort exists between the camera and
the object, then less light will reach and reflect back from the
portions of the object that are farther from the lens, thus creating a
contrast which is dependent on distance.
Researchers Jackson, Jumper, and Stephenson report detecting the
impressions of coins placed on both eyes after a digital study in
1978. They claimed to have seen a two-lepton coin on the right
eyelid dating from 29–30, and a one-lepton coin on the left
eyebrow minted in 29. The existence of the coin images is
rejected by most scientists. A study published in 2011 by Lorusso
and others subjected two photographs of the shroud to detailed modern
digital image processing, one of them being a reproduction of the
photographic negative taken by Giuseppe Enrie in 1931. They did not
find any images of flowers or coins or anything else on either image,
they noted that the faint images identified by the Whangers were "only
visible by incrementing the photographic contrast", and they concluded
that these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, and
possibly also to the alteration and influence of the texture of the
Enrie photographic negative during its development in 1931.
In 2004, in an article in Journal of Optics A, Fanti and Maggiolo
reported finding a faint second face on the backside of the cloth,
after the 2002 restoration.
The front image of the
Turin Shroud, 1.95 m long, is not directly
compatible with the back image, 2.02 m long.
Text of death certificate
A late 19th-century photograph of the Chapel of the Shroud
In 1979 Greek and Latin letters were reported as written near the
face. These were further studied by André Marion, professor at the
École supérieure d'optique
École supérieure d'optique and his student Anne Laure Courage, in
1997. Subsequently, after performing computerized analysis and
microdensitometer studies, they reported finding additional
inscriptions, among them INNECEM (a shortened form of Latin "in necem
ibis"—"you will go to death"), NNAZAPE(N)NUS (Nazarene), IHSOY
(Jesus) and IC (Iesus Chrestus). The uncertain letters IBE(R?) have
been conjectured as "Tiberius". Linguist Mark Guscin disputed the
reports of Marion and Courage. He stated that the inscriptions made
little grammatical or historical sense and that they did not appear on
the slides that Marion and Courage indicated.
In 2009, Barbara Frale, a paleographer in the Vatican Secret Archives,
who had published two books on the Shroud of
Turin reported further
analysis of the text. In her books Frale had stated that the
shroud had been kept by the Templars after 1204. In 2009 Frale
stated that it is possible to read on the image the burial certificate
Jesus the Nazarene, or
Jesus of Nazareth, imprinted in fragments of
Greek, Hebrew and Latin writing.
Frale stated the text on the Shroud reads: "In the year 16 of the
reign of the Emperor
Jesus the Nazarene, taken down in the
early evening after having been condemned to death by a Roman judge
because he was found guilty by a Hebrew authority, is hereby sent for
burial with the obligation of being consigned to his family only after
one full year." Since
Tiberius became emperor after the
Octavian Augustus in AD 14, the 16th year of his reign would
be within the span of the years AD 30 to 31. Frale's
methodology has been criticized, partly based on the objection that
the writings are too faint to see. Dr Antonio Lombatti,
an Italian historian, rejected the idea that the authorities would
have bothered to tag the body of a crucified man. He stated that "It's
all the result of imagination and computer software."
A study by Lorusso et al. subjected two photographs of the shroud to
digital image processing, one of them being a reproduction of the
photographic negative taken by Giuseppe Enrie in 1931. They did not
find any signs, symbols or writing on either image, and noted that
these signs may be linked to protuberances in the yarn, as well
possibly as to the alteration and influence of the texture of the
Enrie photographic negative during its development in 1931.
Hypotheses on image origin
Many hypotheses have been formulated and tested to explain the image
on the Shroud. According to pro-authenticity authors Baldacchini and
Fanti, "the body image of the
Turin Shroud has not yet been explained
by traditional science; so a great interest in a possible mechanism of
image formation still exists", a conclusion also supported by Philip
Painting and pigmentation
The technique used for producing the image is, according to Walter
McCrone, described in a book about medieval painting published in 1847
Charles Lock Eastlake
Charles Lock Eastlake (Methods and Materials of Painting of the
Great Schools and Masters). Eastlake describes in the chapter
"Practice of Painting Generally During the XIVth Century" a special
technique of painting on linen using tempera paint, which produces
images with unusual transparent features—which McCrone compares to
the image on the shroud.
Pro-authenticity journals have declared this hypothesis to be unsound,
X-ray fluorescence examination, as well as infrared
thermography, did not reveal any pigment. It was also
found that 25 different solvents, among them water, do not reduce or
sponge out the image. The Shroud Center of Colorado argues that
paint pigments came from painted copies that were overlaid by artists
Middle Ages in order to validate them as accurate copies of
the Shroud. The non-paint origin has been further examined by
Fourier transform of the image: common paintings show a directionality
that is absent from the
Turin Shroud. However, analyzing
fragments of the shroud brought to the US, McCrone and others observed
the presence of pigments, of types commonly used in medieval paints,
on the shroud.
Bishop D'Arcis's letter to Pope Clement VII, the earliest unambiguous
reference to the shroud, states that the forger who confessed to
making it had done so by painting.
In 2009, Luigi Garlaschelli, professor of organic chemistry at the
University of Pavia, announced that he had made a full size
reproduction of the Shroud of
Turin using only medieval technologies.
Garlaschelli placed a linen sheet over a volunteer and then rubbed it
with an acidic pigment. The shroud was then aged in an oven before
being washed to remove the pigment. He then added blood stains,
scorches and water stains to replicate the original. But
according to Giulio Fanti, professor of mechanical and thermic
measurements at the University of Padua, "the technique itself seems
unable to produce an image having the most critical
Turin Shroud image
Garlaschelli's reproduction was featured in a 2010 National Geographic
documentary. The technique used by Garlaschelli included the bas
relief approach (described below) but only for the image of the face.
The resultant image was visibly similar to the
Turin Shroud, though
lacking the uniformity and detail of the original.
According to the art historian Nicholas Allen, the image on the shroud
was formed by a photographic technique in the 13th century. Allen
maintains that techniques already available before the 14th
century—e.g., as described in the Book of Optics, which was at just
that time translated from Arabic to Latin—were sufficient to produce
primitive photographs, and that people familiar with these techniques
would have been able to produce an image as found on the shroud. To
demonstrate this, he successfully produced photographic images similar
to the shroud using only techniques and materials available at the
time the shroud was supposedly made. He described his results in his
PhD thesis, in papers published in several science
journals, and in a book.
Silver bromide is believed by
some to have been used for making the Shroud of
Turin as it is widely
used in photographic films.
Scientists Emily Craig and Randall Bresee have attempted to recreate
the likenesses of the shroud through the dust-transfer technique,
which could have been done by medieval arts. They first did a
carbon-dust drawing of a Jesus-like face (using collagen dust) on a
newsprint made from wood pulp (which is similar to 13th- and
14th-century paper). They next placed the drawing on a table and
covered it with a piece of linen. They then pressed the linen against
the newsprint by firmly rubbing with the flat side of a wooden spoon.
By doing this they managed to create a reddish-brown image with a
lifelike positive likeness of a person, a three-dimensional image and
no sign of brush strokes. However, according to Fanti and Moroni,
this does not reproduce many special features of the Shroud at
Another hypothesis suggests that the Shroud may have been formed using
a bas-relief sculpture. Researcher Jacques di Costanzo, noting that
the Shroud image seems to have a three-dimensional quality, suggested
that perhaps the image was formed using a three-dimensional object,
such as a sculpture. While wrapping a cloth around a life-sized statue
would result in a distorted image, placing a cloth over a bas-relief
would result in an image like the one seen on the shroud. To
demonstrate the plausibility of his hypothesis, Costanzo constructed a
bas-relief of a Jesus-like face and draped wet linen over the
bas-relief. After the linen dried, he dabbed it with a mixture of
ferric oxide and gelatine. The result was an image similar to that of
the Shroud. The imprinted image turned out to be wash-resistant,
impervious to temperatures of 250 °C (482 °F) and was
undamaged by exposure to a range of harsh chemicals, including
bisulphite which, without the gelatine, would normally have degraded
ferric oxide to the compound ferrous oxide. Similar results have
been obtained by Nickell.
Instead of painting, it has been suggested that the bas-relief could
also be heated and used to scorch an image onto the cloth. However
researcher Thibault Heimburger performed some experiments with the
scorching of linen, and found that a scorch mark is only produced by
direct contact with the hot object – thus producing an
all-or-nothing discoloration with no graduation of color as is found
in the shroud.
According to Fanti and Moroni, after comparing the histograms of 256
different grey levels, it was found that the image obtained with a
bas-relief has grey values included between 60 and 256 levels, but it
is much contrasted with wide areas of white saturation (levels
included between 245 and 256) and lacks of intermediate grey levels
(levels included between 160 and 200). The face image on the Shroud
instead has grey tonalities that vary in the same values field
(between 60 and 256), but the white saturation is much less marked and
the histogram is practically flat in correspondence of the
intermediate grey levels (levels included between 160 and 200).
Maillard reaction is a form of non-enzymatic browning involving an
amino acid and a reducing sugar. The cellulose fibers of the shroud
are coated with a thin carbohydrate layer of starch fractions, various
sugars, and other impurities. In a paper entitled "The Shroud of
Turin: an amino-carbonyl reaction may explain the image
Raymond Rogers and Anna Arnoldi propose that amines
from a recently deceased human body may have undergone Maillard
reactions with this carbohydrate layer within a reasonable period of
time, before liquid decomposition products stained or damaged the
cloth. The gases produced by a dead body are extremely reactive
chemically and within a few hours, in an environment such as a tomb, a
body starts to produce heavier amines in its tissues such as
putrescine and cadaverine. However the potential source for amines
required for the reaction is a decomposing body,:100 and no signs
of decomposition have been found on the Shroud. Rogers also notes
that their tests revealed that there were no proteins or bodily fluids
on the image areas.:38 Also, the image resolution and the uniform
coloration of the linen resolution seem to be incompatible with a
mechanism involving diffusion.
Alan A. Mills argued that the image was formed by the chemical
reaction auto-oxidation. He noted that the image corresponds to what
would have been produced by a volatile chemical if the intensity of
the color change were inversely proportional to the distance from the
body of a loosely draped cloth.
Since 1930 several researchers (J. Jackson, G. Fanti, T. Trenn,
T. Phillips, J.-B. Rinaudo and others) endorsed the flash-like
irradiation hypothesis. It was suggested that the relatively high
definition of the image details can be obtained through the energy
source (specifically, protonic) acting from inside. The Russian
researcher Alexander Belyakov proposed an intense, but short
flashlight source, which lasted some hundredths of a second. Some
other authors suggest the X-radiation or a burst of directional
ultraviolet radiation may have played a role in the formation of the
Shroud image. From the image characteristics, several
researchers have theorized that the radiant source was prevalently
vertical. These theories do not include the scientific discussion of a
method by which the energy could have been produced.
During restoration in 2002, the back of the cloth was photographed and
scanned for the first time. Giulio Fanti, a scientist at the
University of Padua, wrote an article on this subject with colleagues
in 2005 that envisages electrostatic corona discharge as the probable
mechanism to produce the images of the body in the Shroud.
Congruent with that mechanism, they also describe an image on the
reverse side of the fabric, much fainter than that on the front view
of the body, consisting primarily of the face and perhaps hands. As
with the front picture, it is entirely superficial, with coloration
limited to the carbohydrate layer. The images correspond to, and are
in registration with, those on the other side of the cloth. No image
is detectable in the reverse side of the dorsal view of the body.
Raymond Rogers criticized the theory, saying: "It is clear that a
corona discharge (plasma) in air will cause easily observable changes
in a linen sample. No such effects can be observed in image fibers
from the Shroud of Turin. Corona discharges and/or plasmas made no
contribution to image formation.":83
In December 2011, Fanti published a critical compendium of the major
hypotheses regarding the formation of the body image on the shroud. He
stated that "none of them can completely explain the mysterious
image". Fanti then considered corona discharge as the most probable
hypothesis regarding the formation of the body image. He stated
that it would be impossible to reproduce all the characteristics of
the image in a laboratory because the energy source required would be
too high. Fanti has restated the radiation theories in a
In December 2011 scientists at Italy's National Agency for New
Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Development ENEA deduced from the
STURP results that the color of the Shroud image is the result of an
accelerated aging process of the linen, similar to the yellowing of
the paper of ancient books. They demonstrated that the photochemical
reactions caused by exposing linen to ultraviolet light could
reproduce the main characteristics of the Shroud image, such as the
shallowness of the coloration and the gradient of the color, which are
not reproducible by other means. When subsequently illuminated with a
UV lamp, the irradiated linen fabrics behaved like the linen of the
Shroud. They also determined that UV radiation changes the crystalline
structure of cellulose in a similar manner as aging and long-duration
Paolo Di Lazzaro, the lead researcher, indicated in an e-mail
interview that '….it appears unlikely a forger may have done this
image with technologies available in the
Middle Ages or earlier', but
their study does not mean the Shroud image was created by the flash of
a miraculous resurrection, contrary to how the story was presented in
the media, especially on the Web. Professional skeptic Joe
Nickell states that the latest findings are nothing new despite being
"dressed up in high-tech tests", and that they don't prove much of
In November 2011, F. Curciarello et al. published a paper that
analyzed the abrupt changes in the yellowed fibril density values on
the Shroud image. They concluded that the rapid changes in the body
image intensity are not anomalies in the manufacturing process of the
linen but that they can be explained with the presence of aromas or
burial ointments. However, their work leaves the existence of an
energy source for the image an open question.
Minimal Facts approach
A 2013 study published in a theological journal followed a "Minimal
Facts approach" to determine which hypothesis relating to the image
formation process "is the most likely". The study concluded "that the
probability of the Shroud of
Turin being the real shroud of
Nazareth is very high".
Replica of the Shroud of Turin, found in the Real Santuario del Cristo
de La Laguna in
Depiction of Jesus
Relics associated with Jesus
Sudarium of Oviedo
Veil of Veronica
Oshiguma for an example of face-printing as an art-form.
^ Taylor, R.E. and Bar-Yosef, Ofer. Radiocarbon Dating, Second
Edition: An Archaeological Perspective. Left Coast Press, 2014, p. 165
^ Joan Carroll Cruz, Saintly Men of Modern Times, Our Sunday Visitor,
2003, ISBN 1-931709-77-7, p. 200.
Pope Francis and the Shroud of
Turin - National Catholic Reporter".
Retrieved 6 June 2016.
^ Pastoral Visit of His Holiness John Paul II to Vercelli and Turin,
Italy, 23–24 May 1998 
^ a b c d e f g Meacham, William (1983). "The Authentication of the
Turin Shroud, An Issue in Archeological Epistemology". Current
Anthropology. 24 (3): 283. doi:10.1086/202996. JSTOR 2742663.
Retrieved 24 March 2010 – via Shroud.com.
^ a b c Barcaccia, Gianni; Galla, Giulio; Achilli, Alessandro;
Olivieri, Anna; Torroni, Antonio (5 October 2015). "Uncovering the
DNA found on the
Turin Shroud". Scientific Reports. 5:
14484. doi:10.1038/srep14484. PMC 4593049 .
^ a b Riani, M.; et al. (2013). "Regression analysis with partially
labelled regressors: carbon dating of the shroud of Turin". Statistics
and Computing. 23 (4): 551–561.
doi:10.1007/s11222-012-9329-5. CS1 maint: Explicit use of et al.
^ a b c d e Poulle, Emmanuel (December 2009). "Les sources de
l'histoire du linceul de Turin. Revue critique". Revue d'Histoire
Ecclésiastique. 104 (3–4): 747–782.
^ a b Rogers, Raymond N. (20 January 2005). "Studies on the
radiocarbon sample from the shroud of turin" (PDF). Thermochimica
Acta. 425 (1–2): 189–194. doi:10.1016/j.tca.2004.09.029. Retrieved
31 July 2016.
^ Marino, Joe (2000). "Evidence for the Skewing of the C-14 Dating of
the Shroud of
Turin Due to Repairs" (PDF).
^ Benford, Sue (2002). "Textile Evidence Supports Skewed Radiocarbon
Date of Shroud of Turin" (PDF).
^ a b Chivers, Tom (20 December 2011). "The
Turin Shroud is fake. Get
over it". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
^ a b c "Debate of Roger Sparks and
William Meacham on
alt.turin-shroud". Shroud.com. Shroud of
Turin Education and Research
Association. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
^ Radiocarbon Dating, Second Edition: An Archaeological Perspective,
By R.E. Taylor, Ofer Bar-Yosef, Routledge 2016; pg 167-168
^ a b c Jackson, John P. (5 May 2008). "A New Radiocarbon Hypothesis"
Turin Shroud Center of Colorado. Retrieved 18 February 2014 –
^ a b "The Invisible Mending of the Shroud, the Theory and the
Reality" (PDF). Shroud.com. Shroud of
Turin Education and Research
Association. Retrieved 10 February 2014.
^ a b c Gove, H. E. (1990). "Dating the
Turin Shroud: An Assessment".
Radiocarbon. 32 (1): 87–92.
^ a b c R.A. Freer-Waters, A.J.T. Jull, Investigating a Dated piece of
the Shroud of Turin, Radiocarbon, 52, 2010, pp. 1521–1527.
^ a b Schafersman, Steven D. (14 March 2005). "A Skeptical Response to
Studies on the Radiocarbon Sample from the Shroud of
Turin by Raymond
N. Rogers". llanoestacado.org. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
^ Christopher Ramsey, Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, March 2008,
^ Ball, P. (2008). "Material witness: Shrouded in mystery". Nature
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^ According to LLoyd A. Currie, it is "widely accepted" that "the
Turin is the single most studied artifact in human history".
Currie, Lloyd A. (2004). "The Remarkable Metrological History of
Radiocarbon Dating" (PDF). Journal of the National Institute of
Standards and Technology. 109: 200.
^ Habermas, G. R. (2011). "Shroud of Turin". In Kurian, G. T. The
Encyclopedia of Christian Civilization. Wiley-Blackwell.
^ Adler, Alan D. (2002). The orphaned manuscript: a gathering of
publications on the Shroud of Turin. p. 103.
^ "How Tall is the Man on the Shroud?".
ShroudOfTurnForJournalists.com. Retrieved 12 April 2009.
^ Heller, John H. (1983). Report on the Shroud of Turin. Houghton
Mifflin. ISBN 0-395-33967-7.
^ Scott, John Beldon (2003). Architecture for the shroud: relic and
ritual in Turin. University of Chicago Press. p. 302.
^ a b Miller, V. D.; Pellicori, S. F. (July 1981). "Ultraviolet
fluorescence photography of the Shroud of Turin". Journal of
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^ a b Pellicori, S. F. (1980). "Spectral properties of the Shroud of
Turin". Applied Optics. 19 (12): 1913–1920.
doi:10.1364/AO.19.001913. PMID 20221155.
^ Cruz, Joan Carroll (1984). Relics. Our Sunday Visitor. p. 49.
^ G.M.Rinaldi, "Il Codice Pray", http://sindone.weebly.com/pray.html
Turin shroud 'older than thought'". BBC News. 31 January
^ Joe Nickell, Inquest on the Shroud of Turin: Latest Scientific
Findings, Prometheus Books, 1998, ISBN 9781573922722
^ Watson E. Mills et alii, Mercer dictionary of the Bible, Mercer
University Press, 1999, ISBN 0-86554-373-9, p. 822
^ Humber, Thomas: The Sacred Shroud. New York: Pocket Books, 1980.
^ Catalogue of the Musée National du Moyen Age, Paris, A souvenir
Lirey by Mario Latendresse
^ John Beldon Scott, Architecture for the shroud: relic and ritual in
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House of Savoy
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Historiographical Approach". The Heythrop Journal. 54 (3): 414–423.
Picknett, Lynn and Prince, Clive: The
Turin Shroud: In Whose Image?,
Harper-Collins, 1994 ISBN 0-552-14782-6.
Nickell, Joe : Inquest on the Shroud of Turin: Latest Scientific
Findings, Prometheus Books; Subsequent edition, 1998,
McCrone, Walter : Judgment Day for The
Turin Shroud, Prometheus
Books, 1999, ISBN 1-57392-679-5
Antonacci, Mark : The Resurrection of the Shroud, M. Evans &
Co., New York 2000, ISBN 0-87131-890-3
Zugibe, Frederick : The
Crucifixion of Jesus: A Forensic Inquiry
– (2005), 2nd edition, ISBN 1-59077-070-6
Whiting, Brendan, The Shroud Story, Harbour Publishing, 2006,
Di Lazzaro, Paolo (ed.) : Proceedings of the International
Workshop on the Scientific Approach to the Acheiropoietos Images,
ENEA, 2010, ISBN 978-88-8286-232-9.
O'Shea, Jim "The
Linen God - A Novel" 2013 ISBN 978-1938679063
Olmi, Massimo, Indagine sulla croce di Cristo, Torino 2015
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shroud of Turin.
Sindone.org – official site of the custodians of the shroud in Turin
Shroud.com – Shroud of
Turin research and information site by Barrie
Schwortz, former STURP member.
"Science And The Shroud", Time magazine', 20 April 1998
"The Skeptical Shroud of Turin", FreeInquiry.com
"Shroud of Turin" – DMOZ directory of shroud websites
"Length Measurements on the Shroud of Turin"
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