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Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black[note 1] (April 23, 1928 – February 10, 2014) was an American actress, singer, dancer, businesswoman, and diplomat who was Hollywood's number one box-office draw as a child actress from 1935 to 1938. As an adult, she was named United States ambassador to Ghana
Ghana
and to Czechoslovakia, and also served as Chief of Protocol of the United States. Temple began her film career at the age of three in 1932. Two years later, she achieved international fame in Bright Eyes, a feature film designed specifically for her talents. She received a special Juvenile Academy Award in February 1935 for her outstanding contribution as a juvenile performer in motion pictures during 1934. Film hits such as Curly Top and Heidi followed year after year during the mid-to-late 1930s. Temple capitalized on licensed merchandise that featured her wholesome image; the merchandise included dolls, dishes, and clothing. Her box-office popularity waned as she reached adolescence.[1] She appeared in a few films of varying quality in her mid-to-late teens, and retired from films in 1950 at the age of 22.[2][3] In 1958, Temple returned to show business with a two-season television anthology series of fairy tale adaptations. She made guest appearances on television shows in the early 1960s and filmed a sitcom pilot that was never released. She sat on the boards of corporations and organizations including The Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Company, Del Monte Foods, and the National Wildlife Federation. She began her diplomatic career in 1969 when she was appointed to represent the United States
United States
at a session of the United Nations General Assembly, where she worked at the U.S Mission under Ambassador Charles W. Yost. In 1988, she published her autobiography, Child Star.[4] Temple was the recipient of numerous awards and honors, including the Kennedy Center Honors
Kennedy Center Honors
and a Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild
Life Achievement Award. She is 18th on the American Film Institute's list of the greatest female American screen legends of Classic Hollywood cinema.

Contents

1 Early years 2 Film career

2.1 1935–1937 2.2 1938–1940

3 Radio career 4 Last films and retirement 5 Merchandise and endorsements 6 Myths and rumors 7 Television career 8 Life after Hollywood 9 Personal life 10 Death 11 Awards, honors, and legacy 12 Filmography 13 See also 14 Notes 15 References

15.1 Bibliography

16 Further reading 17 External links

Early years[edit]

Temple in Glad Rags to Riches
Glad Rags to Riches
(1933)

Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
was born on April 23, 1928 in Santa Monica, California, the third child of homemaker Gertrude Amelia Temple and bank employee George Francis Temple. The family was of Dutch, English and German ancestry.[5][6] She had two brothers, John Stanley and George Francis, Jr.[6][7][8] The family moved to Brentwood, Los Angeles.[9] Her mother encouraged her singing, dancing and acting talents, and in September 1931 enrolled her in Meglin's Dance School in Los Angeles.[10][11][12] At about this time, Shirley's mother began styling her daughter's hair in ringlets.[13] While at the dance school, she was spotted by Charles Lamont, who was a casting director for Educational Pictures. Temple hid behind the piano while she was in the studio. Lamont took a liking to the young actress and invited her to audition; he signed her to a contract in 1932. Educational Pictures
Educational Pictures
was going to launch its Baby Burlesks,[14][15][16][17] multiple short films satirizing recent film and political events by using preschool children in every role. Baby Burlesks
Baby Burlesks
is a series of one-reelers, and another series of two-reelers called Frolics of Youth followed with Temple playing Mary Lou Rogers, a youngster in a contemporary suburban family.[18] To underwrite production costs at Educational Pictures, she and her child co-stars modeled for breakfast cereals and other products.[19][20] She was lent to Tower Productions for a small role in her first feature film (The Red-Haired Alibi) in 1932[21][22] and, in 1933, to Universal, Paramount and Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Pictures for various parts.[23][24] After Educational Pictures
Educational Pictures
declared bankruptcy in 1933, her father managed to purchase her contract for just $25. Film career[edit]

Temple's hand and footprints at Grauman's Chinese Theater

Fox Film songwriter Jay Gorney was walking out of the viewing of Temple's last Frolics of Youth picture when he saw her dancing in the movie theater lobby. Recognizing her from the screen, he arranged for her to have a screen test for the movie Stand Up and Cheer!
Stand Up and Cheer!
Temple arrived for the audition on December 7, 1933; she won the part and was signed to a $150-per-week contract that was guaranteed for two weeks by Fox Film Corporation. The role was a breakthrough performance for Temple. Her charm was evident to Fox executives, and she was ushered into corporate offices almost immediately after finishing Baby Take a Bow, a song and dance number she did with James Dunn. On December 21, 1933, her contract was extended to a year at the same $150/week with a seven-year option and her mother Gertrude was hired on at $25/week as her hairdresser and personal coach.[25] Released in May 1934, Stand Up and Cheer! became Shirley's breakthrough film. Within months, she became the symbol of wholesome family entertainment.[26] In June, her success continued when she was loaned out to Paramount for Little Miss Marker.[27][28] After the success of her first three movies, Shirley's parents realized that their daughter was not being paid enough money. Her image also began to appear on numerous commercial products without her legal authorization and without compensation. To get control over the corporate unlicensed use of her image and to negotiate with Fox, Temple's parents hired lawyer Loyd Wright to represent them. On July 18, 1934, the contractual salary was raised to $1,000 a week and her mother's salary was raised to $250 a week, with an additional $15,000 bonus for each movie finished. Temple's original contract for $150 per week is equivalent to $2,750 in 2015, adjusted for inflation. However, the economic value of $150 during the Great Depression
Great Depression
was equal to $18,500. The subsequent salary increase to $1,000 weekly had the economic value of $123,000 and the bonus of $15,000 per movie (equal to $275,000 in 2015) was equivalent to $1.85 million in a decade when a quarter could buy a meal.[29] Cease and desist letters were sent out to many companies and the process was begun for awarding corporate licenses.[30] On December 28, 1934, Bright Eyes was released. The movie was the first feature film crafted specifically for the girl's talents and the first where her name appeared eponymously over the title.[31][32] Her signature song, "On the Good Ship Lollipop", was introduced in the film and sold 500,000 sheet-music copies. In February 1935, Shirley Temple became the first child star to be honored with a miniature Juvenile Oscar for her film accomplishments,[33][34][35][note 2] and she added her footprints and handprints to the forecourt at Grauman's Chinese Theatre a month later.[36] In 1935, Fox Films merged with Twentieth Century Pictures to become 20th Century Fox. Producer and studio head Darryl F. Zanuck
Darryl F. Zanuck
focused his attention and resources upon cultivating Shirley's superstar status. She was said to be the studio's greatest asset. Nineteen writers, known as the Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Story Development team, made 11 original stories and some adaptations of the classics for her.[37] In keeping with her star status, Winfield Sheehan, built the girl a four-room bungalow at the studio with a garden, a picket fence, a tree with a swing, and a rabbit pen. The living room wall was painted with a mural depicting her as a fairy-tale princess wearing a golden star on her head. Under Zanuck, she was assigned a bodyguard, John Griffith, a childhood friend of Zanuck's,[38] and, at the end of 1935, Frances "Klammie" Klampt became her tutor at the studio.[39] Biographer Anne Edwards wrote about the tone and tenor of Shirley Temple films, "This was mid-Depression, and schemes proliferated for the care of the needy and the regeneration of the fallen. But they all required endless paperwork and demeaning, hours-long queues, at the end of which an exhausted, nettled social worker dealt with each person as a faceless number. Shirley offered a natural solution: to open one's heart."[40] Edwards pointed out that the characters created for the little actress would change the lives of the cold, the hardened, and the criminal with positive results. Her films were seen as generating hope and optimism, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt said, "It is a splendid thing that for just fifteen cents an American can go to a movie and look at the smiling face of a baby and forget his troubles."[41][note 3]

First Lady
First Lady
Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt
and Shirley Temple, 1938

Most of the Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
films were inexpensively made at $200,000 or $300,000 apiece and were comedy-dramas with songs and dances added, sentimental and melodramatic situations, and bearing little production value. Her film titles are a clue to the way she was marketed—Curly Top and Dimples, and her "little" pictures such as The Little Colonel and The Littlest Rebel. Shirley often played a fixer-upper, a precocious Cupid, or the good fairy in these films, reuniting her estranged parents or smoothing out the wrinkles in the romances of young couples.[42] Elements of the traditional fairy tale were woven into her films: wholesome goodness triumphing over meanness and evil, for example, or wealth over poverty, marriage over divorce, or a booming economy over a depressed one.[43] As the girl matured into a pre-adolescent, the formula was altered slightly to encourage her naturalness, naïveté, and tomboyishness to come forth and shine while her infant innocence, which had served her well at six but was inappropriate for her tweens (or later childhood years), was toned down.[42] 1935–1937[edit] In the contract they signed in July 1934, Shirley's parents agreed to four films a year (rather than the three they wished). A succession of films followed: The Little Colonel, Our Little Girl, Curly Top (with the signature song "Animal Crackers in My Soup") and The Littlest Rebel in 1935. Curly Top and The Littlest Rebel
The Littlest Rebel
were named to Variety's list of top box office draws for 1935.[44] In 1936, Captain January, Poor Little Rich Girl, Dimples,[note 4] and Stowaway were released. Curly Top was Shirley's last film before the merger of 20th Century and Fox. Based on Shirley Temple's many screen successes, Zanuck increased budgets and production values for her films. By the end of 1935, her salary was $2,500 a week.[45] In 1937, John Ford
John Ford
was hired to direct the sepia-toned Wee Willie Winkie (Temple's own favorite) and an A-list cast was signed that included Victor McLaglen, C. Aubrey Smith and Cesar Romero.[46][47] Elaborate sets were built at the famed Iverson Movie Ranch
Iverson Movie Ranch
in Chatsworth, Calif., for the production, with a rock feature at the heavily filmed location ranch eventually being named the Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Rock. The film was a critical and commercial hit,[46] but British writer/critic Graham Greene
Graham Greene
muddied the waters in October 1937 when he wrote in a local magazine that Temple was a "complete totsy" accusing her of being too nubile for a 9-year-old:

Her admirers—middle-aged men and clergymen—respond to her dubious coquetry, to the sight of her well-shaped and desirable little body, packed with enormous vitality, only because the safety curtain of story and dialogue drops between their intelligence and their desire.[48]

Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
and Twentieth Century-Fox sued for libel and won. The settlement remained in trust for the girl in an English bank until she turned 21, when it was donated to charity and used to build a youth center in England.[49][50] Heidi was the only other Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
film released in 1937.[49] Midway through the shooting of the movie, the dream sequence was added to the script. There were reports that the little actress was behind the dream sequence and she had enthusiastically pushed for it, but in her autobiography, she vehemently denied it. Her contract gave neither her nor her parents any creative control over the movies she was in. She saw this as the collapse of any serious attempt by the studio to build upon the dramatic role from the previous movie Wee Willie Winkie.[51] 1938–1940[edit]

Play media

Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
in The Little Princess, her first color film

The Independent Theatre Owners Association paid for an advertisement in The Hollywood Reporter
The Hollywood Reporter
in May 1938 that included Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
on a list of actors who deserved their salaries while others, such as Katharine Hepburn
Katharine Hepburn
and Joan Crawford, were described as "whose box-office draw is nil".[52] That year, Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, Little Miss Broadway
Little Miss Broadway
and Just Around the Corner were released. The latter two were panned by the critics, and Corner was the first of her films to show a slump in ticket sales.[53] The following year, Zanuck secured the rights to the children's novel, A Little Princess, believing the book would be an ideal vehicle for the girl. He budgeted the film at $1.5 million (twice the amount of Corner) and chose it to be her first Technicolor
Technicolor
feature. The Little Princess was a 1939 critical and commercial success with Shirley's acting at its peak. Convinced that the girl would successfully move from child star to teenage actress, Zanuck declined a substantial offer from MGM to star her as Dorothy in The Wizard of Oz and cast her instead in Susannah of the Mounties, her last money-maker for Twentieth Century-Fox.[54][55] The film was successful, but because she made only two films in 1939 instead of three or four, Shirley dropped from number one box-office favorite in 1938 to number five in 1939.[56] In 1939, she was the subject of the Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
painting, Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time, and she was animated with Donald Duck
Donald Duck
in The Autograph Hound. In 1940 Lester Cowan, an independent film producer, bought F. Scott Fitzgerald's short story, "Babylon Revisited and Other Stories" for $80, which was a bargain. Fitzgerald thought his screenwriting days were over and with some hesitation accepted Cowan's offer to write the screenplay titled "Cosmopolitan" based on the short story. After finishing the screenplay, Scott was told by Cowan that he would not do the film unless Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
starred in the lead of the youngster Honoria. Fitzgerald objected, saying that at age 12, going on twenty, the actress was too worldly for the part and would detract from the aura of innocence otherwise framed by Honoria's character. After meeting Shirley in July, Fitzgerald changed his mind and tried to persuade her mother to let her star in the film. However, her mother demurred. In any case, the Cowan project was shelved by the producer. F. Scott Fitzgerald
F. Scott Fitzgerald
was later credited with the use of the original story for The Last Time I Saw Paris
The Last Time I Saw Paris
starring Elizabeth Taylor.[57] In 1940, Shirley starred in two flops at Twentieth Century-Fox, The Blue Bird and Young People.[58][59] Her parents bought up the remainder of her contract and sent her at the age of 12 to Westlake School for Girls, an exclusive country day school in Los Angeles.[60] At the studio, the girl's bungalow was renovated, all traces of her tenure expunged, and the building was reassigned as an office.[59] Radio career[edit] Temple had her own radio series on CBS. Junior Miss debuted March 4, 1942, in which she played the title role. The series was based on stories by Sally Benson. Sponsored by Procter & Gamble, Junior Miss was directed by Gordon Hughes, with David Rose as musical director.[61] Last films and retirement[edit] After her departure from Twentieth Century-Fox,[note 5] Shirley was signed by MGM for her comeback; the studio made plans to team her with Judy Garland
Judy Garland
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
for the Andy Hardy
Andy Hardy
series. The idea was quickly abandoned, but MGM then teamed her with Garland and Rooney for the musical Babes on Broadway. Fearing that either of the latter two could easily upstage the girl, MGM replaced her with Virginia Weidler. As a result, her only film for Metro was Kathleen in 1941, a story about an unhappy teenager. The film was not a success, and her MGM contract was canceled after mutual consent. Miss Annie Rooney followed for United Artists
United Artists
in 1942 but was unsuccessful.[note 6] The actress retired from films for almost two years, in order to instead focus on school and activities.[62] In 1944, David O. Selznick
David O. Selznick
signed Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
to a four-year contract. She appeared in two wartime hits: Since You Went Away
Since You Went Away
and I'll Be Seeing You. Selznick, however, became romantically involved with Jennifer Jones
Jennifer Jones
and lost interest in developing Shirley's career. Temple was then lent to other studios. Kiss and Tell, The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer[note 7] and Fort Apache were her few good films at the time.[63] According to biographer Robert Windeler, her 1947–49 films neither made nor lost money but "had a cheapie B look about them and indifferent performances from her".[64] Selznick suggested that she move abroad, gain maturity as an actress and even change her name. He warned her that she was typecast and her career was in perilous straits.[64][65] After auditioning for and losing the role of Peter Pan on the Broadway stage in August 1950,[66] Temple took stock and admitted that her recent movies had been poor fare. She announced her retirement from films on December 16, 1950.[64][67] Merchandise and endorsements[edit]

Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
leaving the White House offices with her mother and her bodyguard, John Griffith, 1938

Many Shirley Temple-inspired products were manufactured and released during the 1930s. Ideal Toy and Novelty Company in New York City negotiated a license for dolls with the company's first doll wearing the polka-dot dress from Stand Up and Cheer!. Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
dolls realized $45 million in sales before 1941.[68] A mug, a pitcher, and a cereal bowl in cobalt blue with a decal of the little actress were given away as a premium with Wheaties. Successful Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
items included a line of girls' dresses, accessories, soap, dishes, cutout books, sheet music, mirrors, paper tablets, and numerous other items. Before 1935 ended, the girl's income from licensed merchandise royalties would exceed $100,000, which doubled her income from her movies. In 1936, her income from royalties topped $200,000. She endorsed Postal Telegraph, Sperry Drifted Snow Flour, the Grunow Teledial radio, Quaker Puffed Wheat,[68] General Electric
General Electric
and Packard
Packard
automobiles.[69][note 8] Myths and rumors[edit] At the height of her popularity, Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
was often the subject of myths and rumors, with some being propagated by 20th Century Fox/Fox Films. Fox also publicized her as a natural talent with no formal acting or dance training. As a way of explaining how she knew stylized buck and weave dancing, she was enrolled for two weeks in the Elisa Ryan School of Dancing.[70] Fake news circulated that Shirley was not a child, but a 30-year-old dwarf due in part to her stocky body type. The rumor was so prevalent, especially in Europe, that the Vatican dispatched Father Silvio Massante to investigate whether she was indeed a child. The fact that she never seemed to miss any teeth led some people to conclude that she had all her adult teeth. Temple was actually losing her teeth regularly through her days with 20th Century Fox, most notably during the sidewalk ceremony in front of Grauman's Theatre, where she took off her shoes and placed her bare feet in the cement to take attention away from her face. When acting, she wore dental plates and caps to hide the gaps in her teeth.[71] Another rumor said her teeth had been filed to make them appear like baby teeth.[72] A rumor about Temple's trademark hair was the idea that she wore a wig. On multiple occasions, fans yanked her hair to test the rumor. She later said she wished all she had to do was wear a wig. The nightly process she endured in the setting of her curls was tedious and grueling, with weekly vinegar rinses that burned her eyes.[73] Rumors spread about her hair color, saying that it wasn't naturally blonde. During the making of Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm, news spread that she was going to do extended scenes without her trademark curls. During production, she also caught a cold, which caused her to miss a couple of days. As a result, a false report originated in Britain that all of her hair had been cut off.[72] Television career[edit]

Temple in 1965

Between January 1958 and September 1961, Temple hosted and narrated a successful NBC
NBC
television anthology series of fairy-tale adaptations called Shirley Temple's Storybook. Episodes were one hour each, and Temple acted in three of the sixteen episodes. Temple's son made his acting debut in the Christmas episode, "Mother Goose".[74][75] The series was popular but faced issues. The show lacked the special effects necessary for fairy tale dramatizations, sets were amateurish, and episodes were not telecast in a regular time-slot.[76] The show was reworked and released in color in September 1960 in a regular time-slot as The Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Show.[77][78] It faced stiff competition from Maverick, Lassie, Dennis the Menace, the 1960 telecast of The Wizard of Oz, and the Walt Disney
Walt Disney
anthology television series however, and was canceled at season's end in September 1961.[79] Temple continued to work on television, making guest appearances on The Red Skelton
Red Skelton
Show, Sing Along with Mitch, and other shows.[77] In January 1965, she portrayed a social worker in a pilot called Go Fight City Hall that was never released.[80] In 1999, she hosted the AFI's 100 Years...100 Stars awards show on CBS, and, in 2001, served as a consultant on an ABC-TV production of her autobiography, Child Star: The Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Story.[81] Motivated by the popularity of Storybook and television broadcasts of Temple's films, the Ideal Toy Company
Ideal Toy Company
released a new version of the Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
doll and Random House
Random House
published three fairy tale anthologies under her name. 300,000 dolls were sold within six months and 225,000 books between October and December 1958. Other merchandise included handbags and hats, coloring books, a toy theater, and a recreation of the Baby, Take a Bow polka-dot dress.[82] Life after Hollywood[edit] Temple became active in the Republican Party in California. In 1967, she ran unsuccessfully in a special election in California's 11th congressional district to fill the seat left vacant by the leukemia death of eight-term Republican J. Arthur Younger.[83][84] She ran in the open primary as a conservative Republican and came second with 34,521 votes (22.44%), behind Republican law school professor Pete McCloskey, who placed first in the primary with 52,882 votes (34.37%) and advanced to the general election with Democrat Roy A. Archibald, who finished fourth with 15,069 votes (9.79%), but advanced as the highest-placed Democratic candidate. In the general election, McCloskey was elected with 63,850 votes (57.2%) to Archibald's 43,759 votes (39.2%). Temple received 3,938 votes (3.53%) as an independent write-in.[85][86]

Temple (far left) with First Lady
First Lady
Pat Nixon
Pat Nixon
in Ghana, 1972

Temple was extensively involved with the Commonwealth Club of California, a public-affairs forum headquartered in San Francisco. She spoke at many meetings through the years and was president for a period in 1984.[87][88] Temple got her start in foreign service after her failed run for Congress in 1967 when Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
overheard her talking about South West Africa
South West Africa
at a party. He was surprised that she knew anything about it.[89] She was appointed as a delegate to the 24th United Nations General Assembly (September – December 1969) by President Richard M. Nixon[90][91][92] and United States
United States
Ambassador to Ghana (December 6, 1974 – July 13, 1976) by President Gerald R. Ford.[93] She was appointed first female Chief of Protocol of the United States (July 1, 1976 – January 21, 1977) and in charge of arrangements for President Jimmy Carter's inauguration and inaugural ball.[93][94] She served as the United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia
United States Ambassador to Czechoslovakia
(August 23, 1989 – July 12, 1992), having been appointed by President George H. W. Bush.[69] She was the first and only female US ambassador to the former Czechoslovakia. Temple was a witness to two crucial moments in the history of Czechoslovakia's fight against communism. She was in Prague in August 1968, as a representative of the International Federation of Multiple Sclerosis
Multiple Sclerosis
Societies and going to meet with Czechoslovakian party leader Alexander Dubček
Alexander Dubček
on the very day that Soviet-backed forces invaded the country. Dubček fell out of favor with the Soviets after a series of reforms known as the Prague Spring. Temple, who was stranded at a hotel as the tanks rolled in, sought refuge on the roof of the hotel. She later reported that it was from here she saw an unarmed woman on the street gunned down by Soviet forces, a sight that stayed with her for the rest of her life.[95] Later, after she became ambassador to Czechoslovakia, she was present in the Velvet Revolution, which brought about the end of communism in Czechoslovakia. Temple played a critical role in hastening the end of the communist regime by openly sympathizing with anti-communist dissidents and later establishing formal diplomatic relations with the newly elected government led by Václav Havel. She took the unusual step of personally accompanying Havel on his first official visit to Washington, travelling on the same plane.[96] Temple served on boards of directors of large enterprises and organizations such as The Walt Disney
Walt Disney
Company, Del Monte Foods, Bank of America, Bank of California, BANCAL Tri-State, Fireman's Fund Insurance, United States
United States
Commission for UNESCO, United Nations Association and National Wildlife Federation.[97] Personal life[edit]

Temple in 1990

In 1943, 15-year-old Temple met John Agar
John Agar
(1921–2002), an Army Air Corps sergeant, physical training instructor, and member of a Chicago meat-packing family.[98][99] She married him at age 17 on September 19, 1945 before 500 guests in an Episcopal ceremony at Wilshire Methodist Church
Methodist Church
in Los Angeles.[100][101][102] On January 30, 1948, Temple bore a daughter, Linda Susan.[100][103][104] Agar became an actor, and the couple made two films together: Fort Apache (1948, RKO) and Adventure in Baltimore
Adventure in Baltimore
(1949, RKO).[104] The marriage became troubled,[104][105] and Temple divorced Agar on December 5, 1949.[69][104] She was awarded custody of their daughter.[104][106][107] The divorce was finalized on December 5, 1950. In January 1950, Temple met Charles Alden Black, a World War II
World War II
Navy intelligence officer and Silver Star
Silver Star
recipient who was Assistant to the President of the Hawaiian Pineapple Company.[108][109] Conservative and patrician, he was the son of James Black, president and later chairman of Pacific Gas and Electric, and reputedly one of the richest young men in California.[109] Temple and Black were married in his parents' Del Monte, California
Del Monte, California
home on December 16, 1950, before a small assembly of family and friends.[100][109][110] The family moved to Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
when Black was recalled to the Navy at the outbreak of the Korean War.[111] In 1952, Temple gave birth to a son, Charles Alden Black, Jr., in Washington.[100][112][113] Following the war's end and Black's discharge from the Navy, the family returned to California in May 1953. Black managed television station KABC-TV
KABC-TV
in Los Angeles, and Temple became a homemaker. Their daughter Lori Black was born on April 9, 1954;[100] she went on to be a bassist for the rock band the Melvins. In September 1954, Charles Sr. became director of business operations for the Stanford Research Institute, and the family moved to Atherton, California.[114] The couple were married for 54 years until his death on August 4, 2005, at home in Woodside, California
Woodside, California
of complications from a bone marrow disease.[115] At age 44 in 1972, Temple was diagnosed with breast cancer. The tumor was removed and a modified radical mastectomy performed. She announced the results of the operation on radio and television and in a February 1973 article for the magazine McCall's. Death[edit] Temple died at age 85 on February 10, 2014, at her home in Woodside, California.[116][117] The cause of death, according to her death certificate released on March 3, 2014, was chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Temple was a lifelong smoker and avoided displaying her habit in public because she did not want to set a bad example for her fans.[118] Awards, honors, and legacy[edit] Temple was the recipient of many awards and honors including a special Juvenile Academy Award,[100] the Life Achievement Award from the American Center of Films for Children,[93] the National Board of Review Career Achievement Award,[119] Kennedy Center Honors,[120][121] and the Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild
Life Achievement Award.[122] On September 11, 2002, a life-size bronze statue of the child Temple by sculptor Nijel Binns was erected on the Fox Studio lot.[123] On March 14, 1935, Shirley left her footprints and handprints in the wet cement at the forecourt of Grauman's Chinese Theatre
Grauman's Chinese Theatre
in Hollywood. She was the Grand Marshal
Grand Marshal
of the New Year's Day Rose Parade
Rose Parade
in Pasadena, California
Pasadena, California
three times in 1939, 1989, and 1999. On February 8, 1960, she received a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame. In February 1980, Temple was honored by the Freedoms Foundation
Freedoms Foundation
of Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, along with U.S. Senator
U.S. Senator
Jake Garn
Jake Garn
of Utah, actor James Stewart, singer John Denver, and Tom Abraham, a businessman from Canadian, Texas, who worked with immigrants seeking to become U.S. citizens.[124] Filmography[edit] Main article: Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
filmography See also[edit]

Book: Shirley Temple

Film portal

List of former child actors from the United States List of oldest and youngest Academy Award winners and nominees

Notes[edit]

^ While Temple occasionally used "Jane" as a middle name, her birth certificate reads "Shirley Temple". Her birth certificate was altered to prolong her babyhood shortly after she signed with Fox in 1934; her birth year was advanced from 1928 to 1929. Even her baby book was revised to support the 1929 date. She confirmed her true age when she was 21 (Burdick 5; Edwards 23n, 43n). ^ Temple was presented with a full-sized Oscar in 1985 (Edwards 357). ^ Shirley and her parents traveled to Washington, DC, late in 1935 to meet Roosevelt and his wife Eleanor. The presidential couple invited the Temple family to a cook-out at their home, where Eleanor, bending over an outdoor grill, was hit smartly in the rear with a pebble from the slingshot that Shirley carried everywhere in her little lace purse (Edwards 81). ^ In Dimples, Shirley was upstaged for the first time in her film career by Frank Morgan
Frank Morgan
who played Professor Appleby with such zest as to render the child actress almost the amateur (Windeler 175). ^ In 1941, Temple worked radio with four shows for Lux soap and a four-part Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Time for Elgin. Of radio, she said, "It's adorable. I get a big thrill out of it, and I want to do as much radio work as I can." (Windeler 43) ^ the teenager received her first on-screen kiss in the film (from Dickie Moore, on the cheek) (Edwards 136). ^ When she took her first on-screen drink (and spat it out) in Bobby-Soxer, the Women's Christian Temperance Union protested that unthinking teenagers might do the same after seeing the teenage Shirley in the films (Life Staff 140). ^ In the 1990s, audio recordings of the girl's film songs and videos of her films were released, but she received no royalties. Porcelain dolls were created by Elke Hutchens. The Danbury Mint released plates and figurines depicting her in her film roles, and, in 2000, a porcelain tea set (Burdick 136)

References[edit]

^ "Shirley Temple". biography.com. Retrieved August 15, 2012.  ^ Balio 227 ^ Windeler 26 ^ Child Star. McGraw-Hill. 1998. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2.  ^ Edwards 15, 17 ^ a b Windeler 16 ^ Edwards 15 ^ Burdick 3 ^ A look at the late Shirley Temple's very first home Retrieved 2016-12-28. ^ Edwards 29–30 ^ Windeler 17 ^ Burdick 6 ^ Edwards 26 ^ Edwards 31 ^ Black 14 ^ Edwards 31–4 ^ Windeler 111 ^ Windeler 113, 115, 122 ^ Black 15 ^ Edwards 36 ^ Black 28 ^ Edwards 37, 366 ^ Edwards 267–9 ^ Windeler 122 ^ Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black, "Child Star: An Autobiography" (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1988), 32–36. ^ Barrios 421 ^ Edwards 62 ^ Windeler 122, 127 ^ "Measuring Worth - Results". www.measuringworth.com.  ^ Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black, "Child Star: An Autobiography" (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988), 79–83. ^ Edwards 67 ^ Windeler 143 ^ Black 98–101 ^ Edwards 80 ^ Windeler 27–8 ^ Black 72 ^ Edwards 74–5 ^ Edwards 77 ^ Edwards 78 ^ Edwards 75 ^ Edwards 75–6 ^ a b Balio 227–8 ^ Zipes 518 ^ Balio 228 ^ Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black, "Child Star: An Autobiography" (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988), 130. ^ a b Windeler 183 ^ Edwards 104–5 ^ Edwards 105, 363 ^ a b Edwards 106 ^ Windeler 35 ^ Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black, "Child Star: An Autobiography" (New York: McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, 1988), 192–193. ^ "Box-office Busts/Boys and Girls". Life. pp. 13, 28. Retrieved September 8, 2012.  ^ Edwards 120–1 ^ Edwards 122–3 ^ Windeler 207 ^ Edwards 124 ^ E. Ray Canterbery and Thomas D. Birch, "F. Scott Fitzgerald: Under the Influence" (St. Paul, Minn.: Paragon House, 2006), pp. 347–352. ^ Burdick 268 ^ a b Edwards 128 ^ Windeler 38 ^ " Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
in Title Role Of 'Junior Miss' Radio Drama". Harrisburg Telegraph. February 28, 1942. p. 22. Retrieved March 28, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.  ^ Windeler 43–5 ^ Windeler 49, 51–2 ^ a b c Windeler 71 ^ Edwards 206 ^ Edwards 209 ^ Black 479–81 ^ a b Black 85–6 ^ a b c Thomas; Scheftel ^ Black, Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 39–41. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2.  ^ Black, Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 72–73, 183–184. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2.  ^ a b Lindeman, Edith. "The Real Miss Temple". Richmond Times-Dispatch. Archived from the original on March 7, 2015. Retrieved May 15, 2014.  ^ Black, Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1988). Child Star: An Autobiography. New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-07-005532-2.  ^ Edwards 231, 233, 393 ^ Windeler 255 ^ Burdick 112–3 ^ a b Edwards 393 ^ Burdick 115 ^ Burdick 115–6 ^ Edwards 235–6, 393 ^ "Child Star: The Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Story (2001)". Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved August 15, 2012.  ^ Edwards 233 ^ Edwards 243ff ^ Windeler 80ff ^ Sean Howell (July 1, 2009). "Documentary salutes Pete McCloskey". The Almanac Online. Embarcadero Publishing Co. Retrieved February 12, 2014.  ^ Romney, Lee (June 11, 2012). "Between two public servants, Purple Heart-felt admiration". LATimes.com. The Los Angeles
Los Angeles
Times. Archived from the original on June 15, 2012. Retrieved February 11, 2014.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on March 6, 2014. Retrieved March 5, 2014.  ^ "In Memoriam: Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black". Retrieved November 13, 2014.  ^ Joshua Keating, " Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black's Unlikely Diplomatic Career," Slate, 11 Feb 2014 <http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_world_/2014/02/11/shirley_temple_black_s_unlikely_diplomatic_career.html>. ^ Edwards 356 ^ Windeler 85 ^ Aljean Harmetz, " Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black, Hollywood's Biggest Little Star, Dies at 85," The New York Times, February 11, 2014 ^ a b c Edwards 357 ^ Windeler 105 ^ Craig R. Whitney, "Prague Journal: Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black Unpacks a Bag of Memories," New York Times, 11 Sep 1989 <https://www.nytimes.com/1989/09/11/world/prague-journal-shirley-temple-black-unpacks-a-bag-of-memories.html>. ^ Joshua Keating, " Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black's Unlikely Diplomatic Career: Including an Encounter with Frank Zappa," Slate, 11 Feb 2014 <http://www.slate.com/blogs/the_world_/2014/02/11/shirley_temple_black_s_unlikely_diplomatic_career.html>. ^ Edwards 318, 356–7 ^ Edwards 147 ^ Windeler 53 ^ a b c d e f Edwards 355 ^ Edwards 169 ^ Windeler 54 ^ Black 419–21 ^ a b c d e Windeler 68 ^ Edwards 199–200 ^ Black 449 ^ Edwards 199 ^ Edwards 207 ^ a b c Windeler 72 ^ Edwards 211 ^ Edwards 215 ^ Edwards 217 ^ Windeler 72–3 ^ Windeler 74 ^ Dawicki 2005 ^ "Hollywood star Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
dies". BBC News. 11 February 2014. Retrieved February 11, 2014.  ^ "Shirley Temple, former Hollywood child star, dies at 85". Reuters. Retrieved February 11, 2014.  ^ "Obituary: Shirley Temple". BBC News. 11 February 2014. Retrieved 24 December 2014.  ^ " Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black". The National Board of Review. Archived from the original on 2011-07-27. Retrieved February 12, 2014.  ^ "History of Past Honorees". The John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts. Archived from the original on January 14, 2015. Retrieved February 12, 2014.  ^ Burdick 136 ^ " Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black: 2005 Life Achievement Recipient". Screen Actors Guild. Archived from the original on 2008-09-07. Retrieved February 12, 2014.  ^ "The Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Monument". Nijart. Retrieved February 12, 2014.  ^ "Tom Abraham to be honored by Freedoms Foundation
Freedoms Foundation
Feb. 22", Canadian Record, February 14, 1980, p. 19

Bibliography[edit]

Balio, Tino (1995) [1993]. Grand Design: Hollywood as a Modern Business Enterprise, 1930–1939. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20334-8.  Barrios, Richard (1995). A Song in the Dark: The Birth of the Musical Film. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-508810-7.  Black, Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1989) [1988]. Child Star: An Autobiography. Warner Books, Inc. ISBN 0-446-35792-8.  Burdick, Loraine (2003). The Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Scrapbook. Jonathan David Publishers, Inc. ISBN 0-8246-0449-0.  Dawicki, Shelley (August 10, 2005). "In Memoriam: Charles A. Black". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Retrieved February 10, 2011.  Hatch, Kristen. Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
and the Performance of Girlhood (Rutgers University Press, 2015) x, 173 pp. Edwards, Anne (1988). Shirley Temple: American Princess. William Morrow and Company, Inc. ISBN 0-688-06051-X.  Life Staff (1946-09-16). "Tempest Over Temple: Shirley sips liquor and the W.C.T.U. protests". Life. 21 (12): 140.  Thomas, Andy; Scheftel, Jeff (1996). Shirley Temple: The Biggest Little Star. Biography. A&E Television Networks. ISBN 0-7670-8495-0  Windeler, Robert (1992) [1978]. The Films of Shirley Temple. Carol Publishing Group. ISBN 0-8065-0725-X.  Zipes, Jack, ed. (2000). The Oxford Companion to Fairy Tales. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-9653635-7-0. 

Further reading[edit]

Basinger, Jeanine (1993). A Woman's View: How Hollywood Spoke to Women, 1930–1960. Wesleyan University Press. pp. 262ff. ISBN 0-394-56351-4.  Best, Marc (1971). Those Endearing Young Charms: Child Performers of the Screen. South Brunswick and New York: Barnes & Co. pp. 251–255. Bogle, Donald (2001) [1974]. Toms, Coons, Mulattoes, Mammies, and Bucks: An Interpretive History of Blacks in American Films. The Continuum International Publishing Group Inc. pp. 45–52. ISBN 0-8264-1267-X.  Cook, James W.; Glickman, Lawrence B.; O'Malley, Michael (2008). The Cultural Turn in U.S. History: Past, Present, and Future. University of Chicago Press. pp. 186ff. ISBN 978-0-226-11506-1.  Dye, David (1988). Child and Youth Actors: Filmography of Their Entire Careers, 1914–1985. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co., pp. 227–228. Everett, Charles (2004) [1974]. " Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
and the House of Rockefeller". Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media (2): 1, 17–20.  Kasson, John F. The Little Girl Who Fought the Great Depression: Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
and 1930s America (2014) Excerpt Thomson, Rosemarie Garland, ed. (1996). Freakery: Cultural Spectacles of the Extraordinary Body. New York University Press. pp. 185–203. ISBN 0-8147-8217-5. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shirley Temple.

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Shirley Temple

Wikinews has related news: Many SAG Awards presenters announced

Official website Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
on IMDb Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
at the TCM Movie Database Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
at Find a Grave Photographs of Shirley Temple Wee Willie Winkie at the Iverson Movie Ranch Norwood, Arlisha. "Shirley Temple". National Women's History Museum. 2017.

Awards and achievements

Preceded by None Academy Juvenile Award 1934 Succeeded by Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney 1938

Preceded by James Garner Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild
Life Achievement Award 2005 Succeeded by Julie Andrews

Diplomatic posts

Preceded by Fred L. Hadsel United States
United States
Ambassador to Ghana 1974–1976 Succeeded by Robert P. Smith

Preceded by Henry E. Catto, Jr. Chief of Protocol of the United States 1976–1977 Succeeded by Evan Dobelle

Preceded by Julian Niemczyk United States
United States
Ambassador to Czechoslovakia 1989–1992 Succeeded by Adrian A. Basora

v t e

Shirley Temple

Filmography

Songs

"On the Good Ship Lollipop" "Animal Crackers in My Soup" "Goodnight My Love"

Related

John Agar
John Agar
(first husband) Charles Alden Black (second husband) Lori Black (daughter) Shirley Temple, The Youngest, Most Sacred Monster of the Cinema in Her Time Shirley Temple's Storybook Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(beverage) Baby Burlesks

v t e

Academy Honorary Award

1928–1950

Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
/ Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1928) Walt Disney
Walt Disney
(1932) Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
(1934) D. W. Griffith
D. W. Griffith
(1935) The March of Time
The March of Time
/ W. Howard Greene and Harold Rosson (1936) Edgar Bergen
Edgar Bergen
/ W. Howard Greene / Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Film Library / Mack Sennett
Mack Sennett
(1937) J. Arthur Ball / Walt Disney
Walt Disney
/ Deanna Durbin
Deanna Durbin
and Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
/ Gordon Jennings, Jan Domela, Devereaux Jennings, Irmin Roberts, Art Smith, Farciot Edouart, Loyal Griggs, Loren L. Ryder, Harry D. Mills, Louis Mesenkop, Walter Oberst / Oliver T. Marsh and Allen Davey / Harry Warner
Harry Warner
(1938) Douglas Fairbanks
Douglas Fairbanks
/ Judy Garland
Judy Garland
/ William Cameron Menzies / Motion Picture Relief Fund (Jean Hersholt, Ralph Morgan, Ralph Block, Conrad Nagel)/ Technicolor
Technicolor
Company (1939) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Nathan Levinson (1940) Walt Disney, William Garity, John N. A. Hawkins, and the RCA Manufacturing Company / Leopold Stokowski
Leopold Stokowski
and his associates / Rey Scott / British Ministry of Information (1941) Charles Boyer
Charles Boyer
/ Noël Coward
Noël Coward
/ Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
(1942) George Pal
George Pal
(1943) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Margaret O'Brien
Margaret O'Brien
(1944) Republic Studio, Daniel J. Bloomberg, and the Republic Studio Sound Department / Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ The House I Live In / Peggy Ann Garner (1945) Harold Russell
Harold Russell
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ Ernst Lubitsch
Ernst Lubitsch
/ Claude Jarman Jr. (1946) James Baskett
James Baskett
/ Thomas Armat, William Nicholas Selig, Albert E. Smith, and George Kirke Spoor
George Kirke Spoor
/ Bill and Coo / Shoeshine (1947) Walter Wanger
Walter Wanger
/ Monsieur Vincent
Monsieur Vincent
/ Sid Grauman
Sid Grauman
/ Adolph Zukor
Adolph Zukor
(1948) Jean Hersholt
Jean Hersholt
/ Fred Astaire
Fred Astaire
/ Cecil B. DeMille
Cecil B. DeMille
/ The Bicycle Thief (1949) Louis B. Mayer
Louis B. Mayer
/ George Murphy
George Murphy
/ The Walls of Malapaga (1950)

1951–1975

Gene Kelly
Gene Kelly
/ Rashomon
Rashomon
(1951) Merian C. Cooper
Merian C. Cooper
/ Bob Hope
Bob Hope
/ Harold Lloyd
Harold Lloyd
/ George Mitchell / Joseph M. Schenck / Forbidden Games
Forbidden Games
(1952) 20th Century- Fox Film Corporation
Fox Film Corporation
/ Bell & Howell Company / Joseph Breen / Pete Smith (1953) Bausch & Lomb Optical Company / Danny Kaye
Danny Kaye
/ Kemp Niver / Greta Garbo / Jon Whiteley
Jon Whiteley
/ Vincent Winter / Gate of Hell (1954) Samurai I: Musashi Miyamoto (1955) Eddie Cantor
Eddie Cantor
(1956) Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers
/ Gilbert M. "Broncho Billy" Anderson / Charles Brackett / B. B. Kahane (1957) Maurice Chevalier
Maurice Chevalier
(1958) Buster Keaton
Buster Keaton
/ Lee de Forest
Lee de Forest
(1959) Gary Cooper
Gary Cooper
/ Stan Laurel
Stan Laurel
/ Hayley Mills
Hayley Mills
(1960) William L. Hendricks / Fred L. Metzler / Jerome Robbins
Jerome Robbins
(1961) William J. Tuttle
William J. Tuttle
(1964) Bob Hope
Bob Hope
(1965) Yakima Canutt
Yakima Canutt
/ Y. Frank Freeman
Y. Frank Freeman
(1966) Arthur Freed (1967) John Chambers / Onna White (1968) Cary Grant
Cary Grant
(1969) Lillian Gish
Lillian Gish
/ Orson Welles
Orson Welles
(1970) Charlie Chaplin
Charlie Chaplin
(1971) Charles S. Boren / Edward G. Robinson
Edward G. Robinson
(1972) Henri Langlois
Henri Langlois
/ Groucho Marx
Groucho Marx
(1973) Howard Hawks
Howard Hawks
/ Jean Renoir
Jean Renoir
(1974) Mary Pickford
Mary Pickford
(1975)

1976–2000

Margaret Booth (1977) Walter Lantz
Walter Lantz
/ Laurence Olivier
Laurence Olivier
/ King Vidor
King Vidor
/ Museum of Modern Art Department of Film (1978) Hal Elias / Alec Guinness
Alec Guinness
(1979) Henry Fonda
Henry Fonda
(1980) Barbara Stanwyck
Barbara Stanwyck
(1981) Mickey Rooney
Mickey Rooney
(1982) Hal Roach
Hal Roach
(1983) James Stewart
James Stewart
/ National Endowment for the Arts
National Endowment for the Arts
(1984) Paul Newman
Paul Newman
/ Alex North (1985) Ralph Bellamy
Ralph Bellamy
(1986) Eastman Kodak
Kodak
Company / National Film Board of Canada
National Film Board of Canada
(1988) Akira Kurosawa
Akira Kurosawa
(1989) Sophia Loren
Sophia Loren
/ Myrna Loy
Myrna Loy
(1990) Satyajit Ray
Satyajit Ray
(1991) Federico Fellini
Federico Fellini
(1992) Deborah Kerr
Deborah Kerr
(1993) Michelangelo Antonioni
Michelangelo Antonioni
(1994) Kirk Douglas
Kirk Douglas
/ Chuck Jones
Chuck Jones
(1995) Michael Kidd
Michael Kidd
(1996) Stanley Donen
Stanley Donen
(1997) Elia Kazan
Elia Kazan
(1998) Andrzej Wajda
Andrzej Wajda
(1999) Jack Cardiff
Jack Cardiff
/ Ernest Lehman (2000)

2001–present

Sidney Poitier
Sidney Poitier
/ Robert Redford
Robert Redford
(2001) Peter O'Toole
Peter O'Toole
(2002) Blake Edwards
Blake Edwards
(2003) Sidney Lumet
Sidney Lumet
(2004) Robert Altman
Robert Altman
(2005) Ennio Morricone
Ennio Morricone
(2006) Robert F. Boyle (2007) Lauren Bacall
Lauren Bacall
/ Roger Corman
Roger Corman
/ Gordon Willis
Gordon Willis
(2009) Kevin Brownlow / Jean-Luc Godard
Jean-Luc Godard
/ Eli Wallach
Eli Wallach
(2010) James Earl Jones
James Earl Jones
/ Dick Smith (2011) D. A. Pennebaker
D. A. Pennebaker
/ Hal Needham
Hal Needham
/ George Stevens Jr.
George Stevens Jr.
(2012) Angela Lansbury
Angela Lansbury
/ Steve Martin
Steve Martin
/ Piero Tosi (2013) Jean-Claude Carrière
Jean-Claude Carrière
/ Hayao Miyazaki
Hayao Miyazaki
/ Maureen O'Hara
Maureen O'Hara
(2014) Spike Lee
Spike Lee
/ Gena Rowlands
Gena Rowlands
(2015) Jackie Chan
Jackie Chan
/ Lynn Stalmaster / Anne V. Coates / Frederick Wiseman (2016) Charles Burnett / Owen Roizman / Donald Sutherland
Donald Sutherland
/ Agnès Varda (2017)

v t e

Screen Actors Guild
Screen Actors Guild
Life Achievement Award

1962: Eddie Cantor 1963: Stan Laurel 1965: Bob Hope 1966: Barbara Stanwyck 1967: William Gargan 1968: James Stewart 1969: Edward G. Robinson 1970: Gregory Peck 1971: Charlton Heston 1972: Frank Sinatra 1973: Martha Raye 1974: Walter Pidgeon 1975: Rosalind Russell 1976: Pearl Bailey 1977: James Cagney 1978: Edgar Bergen 1979: Katharine Hepburn 1980: Leon Ames 1982: Danny Kaye 1983: Ralph Bellamy 1984: Iggie Wolfington 1985: Paul Newman
Paul Newman
and Joanne Woodward 1986: Nanette Fabray 1987: Red Skelton 1988: Gene Kelly 1989: Jack Lemmon 1990: Brock Peters 1991: Burt Lancaster 1992: Audrey Hepburn 1993: Ricardo Montalbán 1994: George Burns 1995: Robert Redford 1996: Angela Lansbury 1997: Elizabeth Taylor 1998: Kirk Douglas 1999: Sidney Poitier 2000: Ossie Davis
Ossie Davis
and Ruby Dee 2001: Ed Asner 2002: Clint Eastwood 2003: Karl Malden 2004: James Garner 2005: Shirley Temple 2006: Julie Andrews 2007: Charles Durning 2008: James Earl Jones 2009: Betty White 2010: Ernest Borgnine 2011: Mary Tyler Moore 2012: Dick Van Dyke 2013: Rita Moreno 2014: Debbie Reynolds 2015: Carol Burnett 2016: Lily Tomlin 2017: Morgan Freeman

v t e

Kennedy Center Honorees (1990s)

1990

Dizzy Gillespie Katharine Hepburn Risë Stevens Jule Styne Billy Wilder

1991

Roy Acuff Betty Comden
Betty Comden
and Adolph Green Fayard and Harold Nicholas Gregory Peck Robert Shaw

1992

Lionel Hampton Paul Newman
Paul Newman
and Joanne Woodward Ginger Rogers Mstislav Rostropovich Paul Taylor

1993

Johnny Carson Arthur Mitchell Sir Georg Solti Stephen Sondheim Marion Williams

1994

Kirk Douglas Aretha Franklin Morton Gould Harold Prince Pete Seeger

1995

Jacques d'Amboise Marilyn Horne B.B. King Sidney Poitier Neil Simon

1996

Edward Albee Benny Carter Johnny Cash Jack Lemmon Maria Tallchief

1997

Lauren Bacall Bob Dylan Charlton Heston Jessye Norman Edward Villella

1998

Bill Cosby Fred Ebb
Fred Ebb
and John Kander Willie Nelson André Previn Shirley Temple
Shirley Temple
Black

1999

Victor Borge Sean Connery Judith Jamison Jason Robards Stevie Wonder

Complete list 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 79088066 LCCN: n80004347 ISNI: 0000 0001 1771 872X GND: 119260328 SELIBR: 326695 SUDOC: 031838332 BNF: cb12297893c (data) MusicBrainz: ca6e3c7f-2224-4927-96be-dd5e62f54b8e NLA: 35418890 NDL: 00476044 NKC: jn20000701786 ICCU: ITICCURAVV88772 BNE: XX1635899 SN

.