Shirak (Armenian: Շիրակ, Armenian
pronunciation: [ʃiˈɾɑk] ( listen)), is a province
(marz) of Armenia. It is located in the north-west of the country,
Turkey in the west and Georgia in the north. Its capital and
largest city is Gyumri. It is as much semi-desert as it is mountain
meadow or high alpine. In the south, the high steppes crash into
mountain terrain, verdant green in the spring, hues of reddish brown
in the summer. The province is served by the Shirak International
Airport of Gyumri.
3.1 Classical antiquity and
3.2 Satrapy of
Armenia and the ancient Armenian Kingdom
3.3 Foreign rule and Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia
3.4 Seljuk period, Zakarid
Armenia and Turkmen rule
3.5 Iranian and Russian rule
3.6 20th century
4.2 Ethnic groups and religion
5 Administrative divisions
6.1 Fortresses and archaeological sites
6.2 Churches and monasteries
7.1 Air transportation
7.3 Public vans and taxis
12 See also
14 External links
Part of a series on
Yerevan (city with special status)
Shirak Province is named after the Shirak canton of the historic
Ayrarat province of Ancient Armenia, ruled by the
family between the 3rd and 8th centuries.
According to Movses Khorenatsi, the name Shirak is derived from Shara,
who was the great grandson of
Hayk the legendary patriarch and founder
of the Armenian nation. However, according to the Shirak Regional
Museum, many historians assume that the name is derived from the name
Eriakhi found in an ancient Urartian cuneiform, where king Argishti I
narrated about his invasion of the land of Eriakhi.
Shirak Province occupies the northwestern part of
Armenia and covers
an area of 2,680 km2 (1,035 sq mi) (9% of total area of
Armenia). It has borders with
Lori Province from the east, Aragatsotn
Province from the south,
Kars Province of
Turkey from the west and
Samtskhe-Javakheti region of Georgia from the north.
Historically, the current territory of the province mainly occupies
the Shirak canton of
Ayrarat province of Ancient Armenia.
Shirak is mainly dominated by the
Ashotsk Plateue (1900 to 2100 meters
height) at the north and the Shirak Plain (1400 to 1800 meters height)
at the centre and south of the province. The vast plains of the
province are surrounded with the Bazum and Pambak mountains from the
Javakheti Range and Yeghnakhagh mountains from the north and the
Aragats mass from the south.
Akhurian River at the east, separates
Shirak from the
Kars Province of Turkey.
Akhurian River with its reservoir is the main water resource in the
Lake Arpi at the northwest of Shirak is the only lake of the
province. The area is protected by the government as the Lake Arpi
Shirak is rich with tufa, pumice and limestone.
The climate is characterized with extremely cold snowy winters and
mild summers. The annual precipitation level can reach up to
700 mm (28 in).
Classical antiquity and
Vahramaberd fortress, 8th c. BC
Many ancient human settlements were found at the Akhurian valley
dating back to around 9000 BC. The territory of Shirak has been
settled since the early Stone Age. At the higher areas that are above
2000 meters, many remains were found from the early Bronze Age. Other
remains from the 2nd millennium BC, revealed that a civilization was
founded between the 20th and 12th centuries BC. Wuth the start of the
Iron Age during the 12th century BC, the relations among the ethnic
groups of Armenian Highland has been developed. Soon after the
establishment of the
Urartu Kingdom of Van at the end of the 9th
century BC, Shirak became part of the kingdom. 2 cuneiform scripts
have been found in Shirak left by King Argishti I (786-764 BC), where
he narrates about the invasion of the land of Eriakhi (the name that
Shirak is derived from, according to many historians). According to
the scripts, the region was home to a well developed civilization
based on agriculture and cattle-breeding.
in 720 BC, the
Cimmerians conquered the region and probably
founded the Kumayri settlement (now Gyumri), which bears phonetic
resemblance to the word used by ancient Armenian in reference to
Cimmerians. Historians believe that
Xenophon passed through the
territories of Shirak during his return to the Black Sea, a journey
immortalized in his Anabasis.
Armenia and the ancient Armenian Kingdom
Orontid settlement of the 5th-2nd centuries BC
By the second half of the 6th century BC, Shirak became part of the
Achaemenid Empire. The remains of a royal settlement found near the
Beniamin dating back to the 5th to 2nd centuries BC, are a
great example of the Achemenid influence in the region. By the
beginning of the 5th century BC, Shirak became part of the Satrapy of
Armenia under the rule of the Orontids. Later in 331 BC, the entire
territory was included in the
Ayrarat province of Ancient Armenian
Kingdom as part of the Shirak canton.
During the 1st century AD, Shirak was granted to the Kamsarakan
family, who ruled the region during the Arsacid Kingdom of Armenia.
Foreign rule and Bagratid Kingdom of Armenia
Following the partition of
Armenia in 387 between the Byzantines and
the Persians, and as a result of the fall of the Arsacid Kingdom of
Armenia in 428, the region of Shirak became part of the Sasanian
Empire of Persia.
However, Shirak is home to many early examples of the Armenian church
architecture dating back to the 5th century, including the Yererouk,
the Saint Mariné Church of Artik, and the Hokevank Monastery.
In 658 AD, during the height of the Arab Islamic invasions, Shirak
-along with the rest of the Armenian territories- was conquered during
the Muslim conquest of Persia, as it was part of Persian-ruled
Armenia. It became part of the Emirate of
Armenia under the Umayyad
Caliphate. However, the
Kamsarakan family continued to rule the region
under the Arab Islamic rule of Armenia.
By the foundation of the Bagratid Kingdom of
Armenia in 885, Shirak
entered e new era of growth and progress, particularly when the city
Ani of Shirak became the capital of the kingdom in 961. By the
second half of the 10th century, Shirak was under the influence of the
Pahlavuni family, who were descendents of the Kamsarakans.
The Pahlavunis had a great contribution in the progress of Shirak with
the foundation of many fortresses, monastic complexes, educational
institutions, etc. The monasteries of Khtzkonk, Harichavank, Marmashen
and Horomos were among the prominent religious and educational centres
of medieval Armenia.
Seljuk period, Zakarid
Armenia and Turkmen rule
Saint Paul and Peter Church of Bardzrashen, flourished under the
After the fall of
Armenia to the
Byzantine Empire in 1045 and later to
the Seljuk invaders in 1064, the region entered an era of downfall in
all social, educational and cultural aspects.
However, with the establishment of the Zakarid Principality of Armenia
in 1201 under the Georgian protectorate, the Eastern Armenian
territories, mainly Lori and Shirak, entered into a new period of
growth and stability, becoming a trade centre between the east and the
west. After the Mongols captured
Ani in 1236,
Armenia turned into a
Mongol protectorate as part of the Ilkhanate, and the Zakarids became
vassals to the Mongols. After the fall of the
Ilkhanate in the
mid-14th century, the Zakarid princes ruled over Lori, Shirak and
Ararat plain until 1360 when they fell to the invading Turkic tribes.
By the last quarter of the 14th century, the
Aq Qoyunlu Sunni Oghuz
Turkic tribe took over Armenia, including Shirak. In 1400, Timur
Armenia and Georgia, and captured more than 60,000 of the
survived local people as slaves. Many districts including Shirak were
depopulated. In 1410,
Armenia fell under the control of the Kara
Koyunlu Shia Oghuz Turkic tribe. According to the Armenian historian
Thomas of Metsoph, although the
Kara Koyunlu levied heavy taxes
against the Armenians, the early years of their rule were relatively
peaceful and some reconstruction of towns took place.
Iranian and Russian rule
In 1501, most of the Eastern Armenian territories including Shirak
were conquered by the emerging
Safavid dynasty of Iran led by Shah
Ismail I. Soon after in 1502, Shirak became part of the newly
formed Erivan Beglarbegi, a new administrative territory of Iran
formed by the Safavids. During the first half of the 18th century,
Kumayri became part of the
Erivan Khanate under the rule of the
Afsharid dynasty and later under the
Qajar dynasty of Persia.
Sev Berd or the Black Fortress near Gyumri, built during the 1830s by
the Russians in response to the Russo-Turkish War of 1828–1829
In June 1804, the
Russian Empire took control of Shirak region at the
beginning of the Russo-Persian War of 1804–1813. The region became
officially part of the
Russian Empire at the
Treaty of Gulistan
Treaty of Gulistan signed
on 1 January 1813. During the period of the Russian rule, the region
witnessed a swift growth and the town of
Gyumri became one of the
developing cities in Transcaucasia. In 1829, in the aftermath of the
Russo-Turkish War, there was a big influx of Armenian population, as
around 3,000 families who had migrated from territories in the Ottoman
Empire -in particular from the towns of Kars, Erzurum, and
Doğubeyazıt- settled in Shirak. The Russian poet Alexander Pushkin
visited the region during his journey to the Caucasus and eastern
Turkey in 1829.
In 1837 Russian Tsar Nicholas I arrived in Shirak and re-founded the
Gyumri as Alexandropol. The name was chosen in honour of Tsar
Nicholas I's wife, Princess Charlotte of Prussia, who had changed her
name to Alexandra Fyodorovna after converting to Orthodox
Christianity. A major Russian fortress was built in Alexandropol in
1837. The city was completely rebuilt by 1840 to become the centre of
the newly established Alexandropol Uyezd, experiencing rapid growth
during its first decade. The Alexandropol Uyezd included the northern
Armenian territories of Shirak, Lori and Tavush.
In 1849, the Alexandropol Uyezd became part of the Erivan Governorate,
and Shirak became an important outpost for the Imperial Russian armed
forces in the Transcaucasus where their military barracks were
During the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–78 Shirak became one of the
major centres of the Russian troops. After the establishment of the
railway station in Alexandropol in 1899, Shirak witnessed a
significant growth as centre of trade and industry, becoming the most
developed region within eastern Armenia.
Severe damage in Leninakan as a result of the 1988 earthquake
October Revolution of 1917 and the Russian withdrawal from
Transcaucasia, the First Republic of
Armenia was proclaimed on 28 May
1918, which included Shirak. On 10 May 1920, the local Bolshevik
Armenians aided by the Musilm population, attempted a coup d'état in
Alexandropol against the Dashnak government of Armenia. The uprising
was suppressed by the Armenian government on May 14 and its leaders
were executed. However, during another Turkish invasion, Turkish
troops again attacked Shirak and occupied Alexandropol on 7 November
Armenia was forced to sign the
Treaty of Alexandropol on
December 3 to stop the Turkish advance towards Yerevan, however a
concurrent Soviet invasion led to the fall of the Armenian government
on December 2. The Turkish forces withdrew from Alexandropol after the
Kars was signed in October 1921 by the unrecognized Soviet
and Turkish governments.
Under the Bolsheviks, Alexandropol was renamed Leninakan in 1924,
after the deceased Soviet leader Vladimir Lenin. Shirak became a major
industrial region within the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic.
Leninakan was the second-largest city, after the capital Yerevan.
However, Shirak, and particularly Leninakan, suffered major damage
1988 Armenian earthquake
1988 Armenian earthquake which devastated many parts of
northern Armenia. The earthquake occurred along a known thrust fault
with a length of 60 kilometers (37 mi). Its strike was parallel
to the Caucasus range and dipped to the north-northeast.
From 1930 until 1995, modern-day Shirak was divided into 5 raions and
1 city of republican subordination within the Armenian SSR: Amasia,
Ghukasyan, Akhurian, Ani,
Artik and the city of Leniankan. With the
territorial administration reform of 1995, the 5 raions and the city
Gyumri (Leninakan) were merged to form the Shirak Province.
According to the 2011 official census, Shirak has a population of
251,941 (121,615 men and 130,326 women), forming around 8.3% of the
entire population of Armenia. The urban population is 146,908 (58.3%)
and the rural is 105,033 (41.7%). The province has 3 urban and 116
rural communities. The largest urban community is the provincial
centre of Gyumri, with a population of 121,976. The other urban
Maralik have a population of 19,534 and 5,398
With a population of 4,838, the village of
Azatan is the largest rural
municipality of Shirak.
The dialect of Shirak is a variant of Karin dialect, closely related
to Western Armenian.
Ethnic groups and religion
Saint Arsenije Russian Church, Gyumri
The majority of the
Shirak Province population are ethnic Armenians
who belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. The northern and middle
parts of Shirak are under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Shirak
headed by Bishop Mikayel Ajapahyan of the Cathedral of the Holy Mother
of God in Gyumri, while the southern part is under the jurisdiction of
Diocese of Artik headed by Archimendrite Narek Avagyan of the
Saint Gregory Cathedral in Artik.
There is a significant minority of Armenian Catholics in Shirak. The
number of the Catholic population in the province is around 30,000.
Gyumri is home to around 20,000, while the rest are found in the
surrounding rural settlements. The villages of Arevik, Arpeni, Bavra,
Mets Sepasar Panik and
Sizavet have a majority
of Armenian Catholics, while the village of
Azatan has around 1,500
Catholis (30% of village's population). As of 2016, Shirak is home to
9 catholic operating churches. The Cathedral of the Holy Martyrs in
Gyumri is the seat of the Armenian Catholic Ordinariate of Eastern
Europe headed by Archbishop Raphaël François Minassian.
The presence of the small Russian Orthodox community along with the
Russian military base personnel in
Gyumri is marked with the Saint
Alexandra the Martyr's Church, Saint Michael the Archangel's Church
and the church of Saint Arsenije.
The small village of Shirakavan has around 30 Yazidi residents.
Shirak Province administration in Gyumri
As a result of the administrative reforms in November 2017, Shirak is
currently divided into 42 municipal communities (hamaynkner), of which
3 are urban and 39 are rural:
Aghin kayaran, Anipemza, Bagravan, Bardzrashen,
Dzithankov, Dzorakap, Gusanagyugh, Haykadzor, Isahakyan, Jrapi,
Karaberd, Norshen, Lanjik, Lusaghbyur, Sarakap, Sarnaghbyur,
Arevik, Aygebats, Basen, Hovit, Jrarat, Kamo, Karnut
Aregnadem, Bandivan, Byurakn, Gtashen, Hovtun, Jradzor, Kamkhut,
Alvar, Aghvorik, Ardenis, Darik, Garnarich, Paghakn, Shaghik,
Tsaghkut, Yeghnajur, Zarishat, Zorakert
Bavra, Ghazanchi, Karmravan, Krasar, Mets Sepasar, Pokr Sepasar,
Saragyugh, Sizavet, Tavshut, Zuygaghbyur
Hatsik, Hovuni, Jajur, Jajuravan, Kaps, Karmrakar, Keti, Krashen,
Lernut, Marmashen, Mets Sariar, Pokrashen, Shirak, Vahramaberd
Mets Mantash Municipality
Nor Kyank Municipality
Pokr Mantash Municipality
Arpeni, Bashgyugh, Dzorashen, Goghovit, Hartashen, Hoghmik, Kakavasar,
Lernagyugh, Musayelyan, Pokr Sariar, Salut, Sarapat, Tsoghamarg,
During the recent years, many rural settlements in Shirak became
abandoned, including the villages of
Akhuryan kayaran, Aravet, Lorasar
Yererouk Basilica of the 4th-5th centuries, is one of the earliest
samples of Armenian church architecture
Harichavank Monastery, 8th century
Fortresses and archaeological sites
Horom Citadel of the Bronze Age-Urartian eras,
Vahramaberd Fortress of the Urartian era dating back to 730-714 BC,
Kumayri historic district of the early 19th century,
Sev Berd fortress of the 1840s.
Churches and monasteries
Yererouk Basilica, 4th-5th centuries,
Saint Mariné Church of
Artik of the 5th century,
Hokevank Monastery of the 5th century,
Surp Gevork Church of Artik, 6th-7th th-centuries,
Tiravor Church of Mayisyan of the 7th century,
Lmbatavank Church of the 7th century,
Harichavank Monastery of the 8th century,
Makaravank Church of
Pemzashen of the 10th century,
Marmashen Monastery of the 10th century,
Saint Paul and Peter Church of Bardzrashen, 10th-13th centuries,
Church of the Holy Saviour,
Gyumri of 1872,
Cathedral of the Holy Mother of God,
Gyumri of 1884.
Shirak is home to many TV stations:
Tsayg TV, based in Gyumri, operating since 1991.
Shirak Public TV, based in Gyumri, operating since 1992.
Gala TV, based in Gyumri, operating since 2005.
"Shrjapat" weekly is the local newspaper of Shirak.
Shirak is served by the international Shirak Airport, about 5
kilometres (3.1 miles) to the southeast of the
Gyumri city centre. It
was inaugurated in 1961 and is the second largest airport in Armenia.
It is considered an alternative hub for the Zvartnots International
Airport in Yerevan.
At the beginning of 2017, the government of
Armenia focused on
revitalizing the airport. Multiple new airlines began operating
flights to the airport, including
Taron Avia -a new Armenian airline
based in Gyumri-, and Pobeda which is a Russian low-cost airline and a
wholly owned subsidiary of Aeroflot. In order attract more customers,
the Ministry of Nature Protection made meteorological services free
for all airlines flying to Gyumri, lowering ticket costs. The
Gyumri Technology Center also participated in helping revitalize the
airport by adding interior design details to improve the airport's
Gyumri Railway Station
The railway junction of
Gyumri is the oldest and the largest one in
Armenia. It was formed in 1897 and the first railway link to
Alexandropol that connected the city with Tiflis was completed in
1899. The rail line was then extended from Alexandropol to
Kars (in 1902), Jolfa (in 1906), and Tabriz. As a result,
Alexandropol became an important rail hub.
As of 2017[update], the
Gyumri Railway Station operates regular trips
Yerevan and Batumi. The South Caucasus Railway CJSC, is the current
operator of the railway sector in Armenia. The Gyumri-Yerevan
railway trip has many stops in Shirak Province, including the stations
of Bayandur, Shirakavan, Isahakyan,
Aghin kayaran, Jrapi,
Public vans and taxis
Public transport is available in the provincial centre Gyumri. It is
mainly served by public vans, locally-known as marshrutka. The central
station of the city serves as bus terminal for inter-city transport,
serving outbound routes towards the villages of Shirak, as well as
major cities and towns in
Armenia and neighbouring Georgia.
The M-7 Motorway passes across the province from east to west,
connecting the city of
Gyumri with the rest of Armenia.
Buckwheat fields in Shirak
The economy of the province is mainly based on agriculture, including
farming and cattle-breeding. It has a share of 11.6% in the annual
total agricultural product of Armenia. Around 80% (2,145.5 km²)
of the total area of the province are arable lands, out of which 36.7%
(787 km²) are ploughed.
The fertile Shirak plain is the largest producer of grains and potato
in Armenia. The irrigation system in the province is highly developed.
9 water reservoirs of different sizes -with a total capacity of
673,000,000 cubic metres (2.38×1010 cu ft) are able to
irrigate around 300 km2 (116 sq mi) of farmlands.
Shirak is the 1st among the Armenian provinces in cattle-breeding
business. There are also fish farming ponds near
Gyumri and many rural
During the Soviet period, the region was a major industrial hub within
the Armenian SSR. After the independence, the industrial sector of the
region has drastically declined. Currently, the province contributes
by 3.5% in the annual total industrial product of Armenia. Shirak is
the largest producer of building materials in Armenia, mainly tufa
stones and pumice.
The industrial sector in the provincial centre
Gyumri includes the
production of building materials (tufa and basalt), hosiery and
textile manufacturing, food processing and dairy products, alcoholic
drinks, electronic machines, etc. The largest industrial plant in
Gyumri is the Gyumri-Beer Brewery opened in 1972. The factory produces
a variety of lager beer under the brands Gyumri, Ararat and
Aleksandrapol. The city is also home to the "Factory of Bending
Machinses" opened in 1912, the "Arshaluys" hosiery manufacturing
enterprise established in 1926, the "Karhat" machine tools plant
opened in 1959, the "Chap Chemical LLC" since 1999, the "Armtex Group"
clothing factory since 2000, and the "Lentex" hosiery manufacturing
plant is operating since 2001. Other industrial firms of the city
include the "Aleqpol" factory for dairy products, the "Anusharan"
confectionery plant, and the "Gold Plast" plant for building
The town of
Artik is famous for its tufa stones. It is home to many
stone-processing plants that produce travertine, tufa and basalt,
including the "ArtikTuf" form established in 1928, the "TufaBlocks
Factory" founded in 1997, and the "Karastgh" stone-processing factory
operating since 2005.
Artik is also home to the "Vartan-Anahit LLC"
for metal-plastic products, the
Artik Cheese Factory, the "Eliz Group"
for dairy products, the "
Artik Factory for Vacuum Stoves", and the
Artik Steklomash" metal casting factory.
During the Soviet period, the town of
Maralik had many large
industrial firms with a lights and electronics factory and 3 plants
for building materials production. Currently, the only surviving plant
in the town is the
Maralik cotton-spinning factory.
Factories for dairy products are also found in Shirak, with the
largest 2 firms are located in the villages of
Azatan (Igit Dairy
Factory since 1993) and Musayelyan (
Ashotsk Cheese Factory since
1996). The village of
Akhuryan is home to the "Lusastgh-Sugar" factory
(opened in 2010), the largest sugar producers in the Southern Caucasus
region. The village of Shirakavan is home to the "Shirak Wine Factory"
opened in 2009.
The Progress University in Gyumri
Gyumri is the main educational centre of the province educational
institutions. The city is home to 3 universities:
Gyumri State Pedagogical Institute named after Mikael Nalbandian,
Imastaser Anania Shirakatsi University.
Branches of the National Polytechnic University of Armenia, Armenian
State University of Economics,
Yerevan Komitas State Conservatory,
Yerevan State Academy of Fine Arts,
Yerevan State Institute of Theatre
and Cinematography, European Regional Educational Academy and Haybusak
Yerevan are also operating in the city.
As of the 2015-16 educational year, Shirak has 167 schools.
The Turpanjian Theological High School of the Mother See of Holy
Etchmiadzin is operating since 1881 within the Harichavank monastic
complex in Shirak.
Gyumri City Stadium
Football, basketball and chess are the most popular sports in the
province. However, other Olympic sports including wrestling and
weightlifting are also popular, mainly in Gyumri. Shirak is home to
many former and current World, Olympic and European champions in
several types of sports who competed under the flag of Soviet Union
and later under the Armenian flag.
The city is represented by the
FC Shirak at the Armenian Premier
Aragats FC were the second football club in
Gyumri, but they were dissolved in 2002 due to financial difficulties.
FC Tufagorts (dissolved in 1995) and
FC Sipan (dissolved in 1993),
both from the town of Artik, had also represented the province in the
football competitions of Armenia.
The largest sport venue of the province is the
Gyumri City Stadium.
Gyumri is also home to the FFA Football Academy. The towns of Artik
Maralik have a football stadium each with minor capacities.
Gyumri is also famous for winter sports. The
Gyumri school of winter
sports renovated in 2015-16, is named after Ludvig Mnatsakanyan. The
Ashotsk has a modern skiing trail hosting an international
tournament for cross-country skiing.
Lake Arpi and its National park
Tiravor Church in Mayisyan, 7th century
Lmbatavank near Artik, 7th century
The remains of Makaravank Church of Pemzashen, 10th century
1988 Armenian earthquake
^ Shirak population, 2011 census
^ Shirak region history
^ Shirak Marz: page 3 of 35 – TourArmenia
^ Shirak history
^ "Kumayri infosite". Cimmerian. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
^ "#1 Internet Site for
Gyumri Armenia". Gyumritown.com. Retrieved 15
^ "The Turco-Mongol Invasions". Rbedrosian.com. Retrieved
^ Kouymjian, Dickran (1997), "
Armenia from the Fall of the Cilician
Kingdom (1375) to the Forced Migration under Shah Abbas (1604)" in The
Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume II: Foreign
Dominion to Statehood: The Fifteenth Century to the Twentieth Century,
ed. Richard G. Hovannisian, New York: St. Martin's Press, p. 4.
^ Steven R. Ward. Immortal, Updated Edition: A Military History of
Iran and Its Armed Forces pp 43. Georgetown University Press, 8
January 2014 ISBN 1626160325
Armenia on the Road to Independence, p. 198.
^ Bolt, Bruce (August 2005), Earthquakes: 2006 Centennial
Update – The 1906 Big One (Fifth ed.), W. H. Freeman and
Company, pp. 65–67, ISBN 978-0716775485
^ Hovannisian, Richard, ed. (2003). Armenian Karin/Erzerum. Costa
Mesa, California: Mazda Publ. p. 48. ISBN 9781568591513.
Thus, even today the Erzerum dialect is widely spoken in the
northernmost districts of the Armenian republic as well as in the
Akhalkalak (Javakheti; Javakhk) and Akhaltskha (Akhaltsikh) districts
of southern Georgia
^ "RA Shirak Marz" (PDF). Marzes of the Republic of
Figures, 2002–2006. National Statistical Service of the Republic of
^ Shirak Provinece communities
^ Նախատեսվում է իրականացնել
համայնքների խոշորացման 14 պիլոտային
^ Հայաստանի 328 համայնքների միավորմամբ
կձևավորվի 34 համայնք. ԱԺ-ն քննարկում է
^ About the communities of Shirak Province
^ "armats". Armats.com. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
^ "arka". Arka.am. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
^ "panorama". panorama.am. Retrieved 27 July 2017.
^ About company
^ Armstat: Shirak Province
^ "GYUMRI BEER". Gyumribeer.am. Retrieved 15 December 2014.
Shirak Province schools
^ Turpanjian Theological High School
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shirak Province.
Shirak guide with detailed descriptions, by Rick Ney
Shirak Marz Tourist Guide
Shirak Regional Museum
Provinces of Armenia
City with special status