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SHINTO (神道, _Shintō_), also called SHINTOISM, or _KAMI-NO-MICHI_, is the ethnic religion of Japan
Japan
that focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present-day Japan
Japan
and its ancient past.

Shinto
Shinto
practices were first recorded and codified in the written historical records of the _ Kojiki _ and _ Nihon Shoki _ in the 8th century. Still, these earliest Japanese writings do not refer to a unified " Shinto
Shinto
religion", but rather to a collection of native beliefs and mythology . Shinto
Shinto
today is the religion of public shrines devoted to the worship of a multitude of gods (_kami _), suited to various purposes such as war memorials and harvest festivals , and applies as well to various sectarian organizations. Practitioners express their diverse beliefs through a standard language and practice, adopting a similar style in dress and ritual, dating from around the time of the Nara and Heian periods (8th–12th century).

The word _Shinto_ ("way of the gods") was adopted, originally as _Jindō_ or _Shindō_, from the written Chinese _ Shendao _ (神道, pinyin : _shén dào_), combining two _kanji _: "_shin_" (神), meaning "spirit" or _kami_; and "_tō_" (道), meaning a philosophical path or study (from the Chinese word _dào _). The oldest recorded usage of the word _Shindo_ is from the second half of the 6th century. _ Kami
Kami
_ are defined in English as "spirits", "essences" or "gods", referring to the energy generating the phenomena. Since the Japanese language does not distinguish between singular and plural, _kami_ refers to the divinity , or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms: rocks, trees, rivers, animals, places, and even people can be said to possess the nature of _kami_. Kami
Kami
and people are not separate; they exist within the same world and share its interrelated complexity.

Shinto
Shinto
is the largest religion in Japan, practiced by nearly 80% of the population, yet only a small percentage of these identify themselves as "Shintoists" in surveys. This is because "Shinto" has different meanings in Japan: most of the Japanese attend Shinto shrines and beseech kami without belonging to an institutional "Shinto" religion, and since there are no formal rituals to become a member of "folk Shinto", " Shinto
Shinto
membership" is often estimated counting those who join organised Shinto
Shinto
sects. Shinto
Shinto
has 81,000 shrines and 85,000 priests in the country.

According to Inoue (2003): "In modern scholarship, the term is often used with reference to kami worship and related theologies, rituals and practices. In these contexts, "Shinto" takes on the meaning of "Japan's traditional religion", as opposed to foreign religions such as Christianity, Buddhism, Islam
Islam
and so forth".

CONTENTS

* 1 Types

* 2 Theology and cosmology

* 2.1 _Kami_ * 2.2 _Kannagara_ * 2.3 _Amenominakanushi_ * 2.4 Creation of Japan
Japan

* 3 Purity

* 3.1 Impurity * 3.2 Purification

* 4 Afterlife

* 4.1 Shinto
Shinto
Funeral

* 5 Shrines

* 5.1 Notable shrines

* 6 Practices

* 6.1 _Omairi_ * 6.2 _Harae_ * 6.3 _Misogi_ * 6.4 _Imi_ * 6.5 Amulets and talismans * 6.6 _Kagura_

* 7 History
History

* 7.1 Historical records * 7.2 Origins * 7.3 Jomon Period * 7.4 Yayoi
Yayoi
Period * 7.5 Kofun
Kofun
Period * 7.6 Asuka Period * 7.7 Hakuho Period * 7.8 Nara Period * 7.9 Syncretism with Buddhism
Buddhism
* 7.10 _Kokugaku_ * 7.11 State Shinto * 7.12 Post-war * 7.13 New sects

* 8 See also * 9 Notes * 10 References * 11 Further reading * 12 External links

TYPES

_ Yutateshinji_ ceremony performed at the Miwa Shrine

Shinto
Shinto
religious expressions have been distinguished by scholars into a series of categories:

* Shrine Shinto (神社神道, _Jinja-Shintō_), the main tradition of Shinto, has always been a part of Japan's history. It consists of taking part in worship practices and events at local shrines. Before the Meiji Restoration , shrines were disorganized institutions usually attached to Buddhist
Buddhist
temples ; in the Meiji Restoration, they were made independent systematised institutions. The current successor to the imperial organization system, the Association of Shinto Shrines , oversees about 80,000 shrines nationwide. * Imperial Household Shinto
Shinto
(皇室神道, _Kōshitsu-Shintō_) are the religious rites performed exclusively by the imperial family at the three shrines on the imperial grounds , including the Ancestral Spirits Sanctuary (Kōrei-den) and the Sanctuary of the Kami (Shin-den). * Folk Shinto (民俗神道, _Minzoku-Shintō_) includes the numerous folk beliefs in deities and spirits. Practices include divination , spirit possession , and shamanic healing. Some of their practices come from Buddhism
Buddhism
, Taoism or Confucianism , but most come from ancient local traditions. * Sect Shinto (教派神道, _Kyōha-Shintō_) is a legal designation originally created in the 1890s to separate government-owned shrines from local organised religious communities. These communities originated especially in the Edo period . The basic difference between Shrine Shinto and Sect Shinto is that sects are a later development and grew self-consciously. They can identify a founder, a formal set of teachings and even sacred scriptures. Sect Shinto
Shinto
groups are thirteen, and usually classified under five headings: pure Shinto
Shinto
sects (_ Shinto
Shinto
Taikyo_, _Shinrikyo_ and _Izumo Oyashirokyo_), Confucian
Confucian
sects (_ Shinto
Shinto
Shusei-ha_ and _Taiseikyo_), mountain worship sects (_Jikkokyo_, _Fusokyo_ and _Mitakekyo_ or _Ontakekyo_), purification sects (_Shinshukyo_ and _Misogikyo_), and faith-healing sects (_Kurozumikyo_, _ Konkokyo _ and its branching _ Omotokyo _, and _ Tenrikyo _). * Koshintō (古神道, _Ko-shintō_), literally "Old Shinto", is a reconstructed " Shinto
Shinto
from before the time of Buddhism", today based on Ainu religion and Ryukyuan practices . It continues the restoration movement begun by Hirata Atsutane .

Many other sects and schools can be distinguished. Faction Shinto (宗派神道, _Shūha-Shintō_) is a grouping of Japanese new religions developed since the second half of the 20th century that have significantly departed from traditional Shinto
Shinto
and are not always regarded as part of it.

THEOLOGY AND COSMOLOGY

_KAMI_

Main article: Kami
Kami

_Kami_ or _shin_ (神) is defined in English as "god", "spirit", "spiritual essence", all these terms meaning 'the energy generating a thing'. Since the Japanese language
Japanese language
does not distinguish between singular and plural, _kami_ refers to the divinity , or sacred essence, that manifests in multiple forms. Rocks, trees, rivers, animals, places, and even people can be said to possess the nature of _kami_. Kami
Kami
and people exist within the same world and share its interrelated complexity .

Early anthropologists called Shinto
Shinto
"animistic " in which animate and inanimate things have spirits or souls that are worshipped. The concept of animism in Shinto
Shinto
is no longer current, however. Shinto gods are collectively called _yaoyorozu no kami_ (八百万の神), an expression literally meaning "eight million kami", but interpreted as meaning "myriad ", although it can be translated as "many Kami". There is a phonetic variation, _kamu_, and a similar word in the Ainu language , _kamui _. An analogous word is _mi-koto_.

_Kami_ refers particularly to the power of phenomena that inspire a sense of wonder and awe in the beholder (the sacred ), testifying to the divinity of such a phenomenon. It is comparable to what Rudolf Otto described as the _mysterium tremendum et fascinans_, which translates as "fearful and fascinating mystery".

The _kami_ reside in all things, but certain objects and places are designated for the interface of people and kami: _yorishiro _, _shintai _, shrines , and _kamidana _. There are natural places considered to have an unusually sacred spirit about them, and are objects of worship. They are frequently mountains, trees, unusual rocks, rivers, waterfalls, and other natural things. In most cases they are on or near a shrine grounds. The shrine is a building in which the kami is enshrined (housed). It is a sacred space , creating a separation from the "ordinary" world. The _kamidana_ is a household shrine that acts as a substitute for a large shrine on a daily basis. In each case the object of worship is considered a sacred space inside which the kami spirit actually dwells, being treated with the utmost respect.

_KANNAGARA_

In Shinto
Shinto
_kannagara_, meaning "way of of the _kami_", refers to the law of the natural order . It is the sense of the terms _michi_ or _to_, "way", in the terms "kami-no-michi" or "Shinto". Those who understand _kannagara_ know the divine, the human, and how people should live. From this knowledge stems the ethical dimension of Shinto, focusing on sincerity (_makoto_), honesty (_tadashii_) and purity.

_AMENOMINAKANUSHI_

Main article: Amenominakanushi

According to the _ Kojiki _, _Amenominakanushi_ (天御中主 "All-Father of the Originating Hub", or 天之御中主神 "Heavenly Ancestral God
God
of the Originating Heart of the Universe") is the first _kami_, and the concept of the source of the universe according to theologies. In mythology he is described as a "god who came into being alone" (_hitorigami _), the first of the _zōka sanshin_ ("three _kami_ of creation"), and one of the five _kotoamatsukami _ ("distinguished heavenly gods").

Amenominakanushi had been considered a concept developed under the influence of Chinese thought , but now most scholars believe otherwise. With the flourishing of _kokugaku _ the concept was studied by scholars. The theologian Hirata Atsutane identified Amenominakanushi as the spirit of the North Star
North Star
, master of the seven stars of the Big Dipper . The god was emphasised by the _Daikyōin_ in the Meiji period , and worshiped by some Shinto
Shinto
sects.

The god manifests in a duality, a male and a female function, respectively _Takamimusubi_ (高御産巣日神) and _Kamimusubi_ (神産巣日神). In other mythical accounts the originating _kami_ is called _Umashiashikabihikoji_ (宇摩志阿斯訶備比古遅神 " God
God
of the _Ashi_ ") or _Kuninotokotachi_ (国之常立神 in Kojiki, 国常立尊 in Nihonshoki; _Kunitokotachi-no-Kami_ or _Kuninotokotachi-no-Kami_; the " God
God
Founder of the Nation"), the latter used in the _ Nihon Shoki _.

CREATION OF JAPAN

Main article: Japanese creation myth
Japanese creation myth
Izanami-no-Mikoto and Izanagi-no-Mikoto, by Kobayashi Eitaku, late 19th century.

The generation of the Japanese archipelago is expressed mythologically as the action of two gods: Izanagi ("He-who-invites") and Izanami
Izanami
("She-who-is-invited"). The interaction of these two principles begets the islands of Japan
Japan
and a further group of _kami _.

The events are described in the _ Kojiki _ as follows:

* Izanagi-no-Mikoto (male) and Izanami-no-Mikoto (female) were called by all the myriad gods and asked to help each other to create a new land which was to become Japan. * They were given a spear with which they stirred the water, and when removed water dripped from the end, an island was created in the great nothingness. * They lived on this island, and created a palace. Within the palace was large pole. * When they wished to bear offspring, they performed a ritual each rounding a pole, male to the left and female to the right, the female greeting the male first. * They had two children (islands) which turned out badly and they cast them out. They decided that the ritual had been done incorrectly the first time. * They repeated the ritual but according to the correct laws of nature, the male spoke first. * They then gave birth to the eight perfect islands of the Japanese archipelago. * After the islands, they gave birth to the other Kami. Izanami-no-Mikoto died in childbirth, however, and Izanagi-no-Mikoto tried to revive her. * His attempts to deny the laws of life and death have bad consequences.

In the myth, the birth of the god of fire (_ Kagu-Tsuchi _) causes the death of Izanami, who descends into _Yomi-no-kuni _, the netherworld. Izanagi chases her there, but runs away when he finds the dead figure of his spouse. As he returns to the land of the living, Amaterasu (the sun goddess) is born from his left eye, Tsukiyomi
Tsukiyomi
(the moon deity) from his right eye, and Susanoo (the storm deity) is born from Izanagi's nose.

PURITY

Shinto
Shinto
purification ritual after a ceremonial children's sumo tournament at the Kamigamo Jinja in Kyoto
Kyoto
.

IMPURITY

Shinto
Shinto
teaches that certain deeds create a kind of ritual impurity that one should want cleansed for one's own peace of mind and good fortune rather than because impurity is wrong. Wrong deeds are called "impurity" (穢れ, _kegare _), which is opposed to "purity" (清め, _kiyome_). Normal days are called "day" (_ke_), and festive days are called "sunny" or, simply, "good" (_hare_).

Those who are killed without being shown gratitude for their sacrifice will hold a grudge (怨み, _urami_) (grudge) and become powerful and evil _kami_ who seek revenge (_aragami_). Additionally, if anyone is injured on the grounds of a shrine, the area must be ritually purified. Haraegushi (祓串) for purification

PURIFICATION

Jichinsai groundbreaking ceremony

Purification rites called Harae are a vital part of Shinto. They are done on a daily, weekly, seasonal, lunar, and annual basis. These rituals are the lifeblood of the practice of Shinto. Such ceremonies have also been adapted to modern life. New buildings made in Japan
Japan
are frequently blessed by a Shinto
Shinto
priest called _kannushi _ (神主) during the groundbreaking ceremony (Jichinsai 地鎮祭), and many cars made in Japan
Japan
have been blessed as part of the assembly process. Moreover, many Japanese businesses built outside Japan
Japan
have had ceremonies performed by a Shinto
Shinto
priest, with occasionally an annual visitation by the priest to re-purify.

AFTERLIFE

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It is common for families to participate in ceremonies for children at a shrine, yet have a Buddhist
Buddhist
funeral at the time of death. In old Japanese legends, it is often claimed that the dead go to a place called _yomi _ (黄泉), a gloomy underground realm with a river separating the living from the dead mentioned in the legend of Izanami and Izanagi. This _yomi_ very closely resembles the Greek Hades ; however, later myths include notions of resurrection and even Elysium -like descriptions such as in the legend of Okuninushi and Susanoo . Shinto
Shinto
tends to hold negative views on death and corpses as a source of pollution called _kegare_. However, death is also viewed as a path towards apotheosis in Shintoism as can be evidenced by how legendary individuals become enshrined after death. Perhaps the most famous would be Emperor Ojin who was enshrined as Hachiman
Hachiman
the God
God
of War after his death.

Unlike many religions, one does not need to publicly profess belief in Shinto
Shinto
to be a believer. Whenever a child is born in Japan, a local Shinto shrine
Shinto shrine
adds the child's name to a list kept at the shrine and declares him or her a "family child" (氏子, _ujiko_). After death an _ujiko_ becomes a "family spirit", or "family _kami_" (氏神, _ujigami_). One may choose to have one's name added to another list when moving and then be listed at both places. Names can be added to the list without consent and regardless of the beliefs of the person added to the list. This is not considered an imposition of belief, but a sign of being welcomed by the local _kami_, with the promise of addition to the pantheon of _kami_ after death.

SHINTO FUNERAL

Shinto
Shinto
Funeral were established during the Tokugawa period. There are at least twenty steps involved in burying the dead. Mourners wear solid black in a day of mourning called Kichu-fuda and a Shinto
Shinto
priest will perform various rituals. People will give monetary gifts to the deceased's family called Koden, and Kotsuge is the gathering of the deceased's ashes. Some of the ashes are taken by family members to put in their home shrines at the step known as Bunkotsu.

SHRINES

Main article: Shinto shrine
Shinto shrine
Shinto
Shinto
Shrines of Japan
Japan
_ Ise Grand Shrine— Honden at Naiku. After 1871, it is the apex of the 80000 Shinto
Shinto
Shrines_ _ Izumo Taisha—haiden and Honden , one of the oldest shrines in Japan_ _ Tsubaki Grand Shrine —Haiden, one of the oldest shrines in Japan_ _ Fushimi Inari-taisha —Main Gate, one of the oldest shrines in Japan_ _ Haiden of Isonokami Shrine , a historically significant Imperial National Treasure_

The principal worship of _kami_ is done at public shrines or worship at small home shrines called _kamidana _ (神棚, lit. "god-shelf"). The public shrine is a building or place that functions as a conduit for _kami_. A fewer number of shrines are also natural places called _mori_. The most common of the _mori_ are sacred groves of trees, or mountains, or waterfalls. All shrines are open to the public at some times or throughout the year.

While many of the public shrines are elaborate structures, all are characteristic Japanese architectural styles of different periods depending on their age. Shrines are fronted by a distinctive Japanese gate (鳥居, _torii _) made of two uprights and two crossbars denoting the separation between common space and sacred space. The _torii_ have 20 styles and matching buildings based on the enshrined kami and lineage.

There are a number of symbolic and real barriers that exist between the normal world and the shrine grounds including: statues of protection, gates, fences, ropes, and other delineations of ordinary to sacred space. Usually there will be only one or sometimes two approaches to the Shrine for the public and all will have the _torii_ over the way. In shrine compounds, there are a _haiden _ (拝殿) or public hall of worship, _heiden _ (幣殿) or hall of offerings and the _honden _ (本殿) or the main hall. The innermost precinct of the grounds is the _honden_ or worship hall, which is entered only by the high priest, or worshippers on certain occasions. The _honden_ houses the symbol of the enshrined _kami_.

The heart of the shrine is periodic rituals, spiritual events in parishioners' lives, and festivals. All of this is organized by priests who are both spiritual conduits and administrators. Shrines are private institutions, and are supported financially by the congregation and visitors. Some shrines may have festivals that attract hundreds of thousands, especially in the New Year season.

NOTABLE SHRINES

Main article: List of Shinto shrines

Of the 80,000 Shinto
Shinto
shrines:

* Atsuta Shrine , Nagoya
Nagoya
, shrine to the Imperial sword Kusanagi * Chichibu Shrine , Saitama Prefecture , dedicated to Omoikane and Amenominakanushi Okami * Dazaifu Tenman-gū , dedicated to Sugawara no Michizane * Heian Jingū , Kyoto
Kyoto
, dedicated to Emperor Kanmu and Emperor Kōmei * Hikawa Shrine , Ōmiya-ku, Saitama * Hokkaido Shrine , Sapporo, Hokkaido * Ise Jingū , Ise, Mie , dedicated to Amaterasu Omikami, also called JINGū * Gassan Shrine , Yamagata , dedicated to Tsukuyomi Okami * Isonokami Shrine , Tenri, Nara * Itsukushima Shrine , Hiroshima Prefecture , a World Heritage Site and one of the National Treasures of Japan
Japan
* Iwashimizu Shrine , Yawata, Kyoto
Kyoto
* Izumo Taisha , Izumo * Kasuga Shrine , Nara * Katori Shrine
Katori Shrine
, Chiba Prefecture
Chiba Prefecture
, dedicated to Futsunushi * Kumano Shrines , Wakayama Prefecture * Meiji Shrine , Tokyo
Tokyo
, the shrine of Emperor Meiji * Nikkō Tōshō-gū , Nikkō , Tochigi Prefecture * Ōsaki Hachiman
Hachiman
Shrine , Miyagi Prefecture * Ōmiwa Shrine , Sakurai, Nara * Sendai Tōshō-gū , Sendai
Sendai
, Miyagi Prefecture * Shiogama Shrine , Miyagi Prefecture * Three Palace Sanctuaries , Kōkyo Imperial Palace, Tokyo
Tokyo
* Tsurugaoka Hachiman
Hachiman
Shrine , Kamakura, Kanagawa * Usa Hachiman
Hachiman
Shrine, Ōita Prefecture , dedicated to Hachimanno -Mikoto * Yasukuni Shrine (Tokyo), a shrine dedicated to Japan's war dead.

PRACTICES

_OMAIRI_

_ Temizu Basin—Itsukushima Jinja_

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Any person may visit a shrine and one need not be Shinto
Shinto
to do this. Doing so is called _Omairi_. Typically there are a few basic steps to visiting a shrine.

* At any entrance gate, bow respectfully before passing through. * If there is a hand washing basin provided, perform Temizu: take the dipper in your right hand and scoop up water. Pour some onto your left hand, then transfer the dipper to your left hand and pour some onto your right hand. Transfer the dipper to your right hand again, cup your left palm, and pour water into it, from which you will take the water into your mouth (never drink directly from the dipper), silently swish it around in your mouth (do not drink), then quietly spit it out into your cupped left hand (not into the reservoir). Then, holding the handle of the dipper in both hands, turn it vertically so that the remaining water washes over the handle. Then replace it where you found it. * Approach the shrine; if there is a bell, you may ring the bell first (or after depositing a donation); if there is a box for donations, leave a modest one in relation to your means; then bow twice, clap twice, and hold the second clap with your hands held together in front of your heart for a closing bow after your prayers. * There is variation in how this basic visitation may go, and depending on the time of year and holidays there may also be other rituals attached to visitations. * Be sincere and respectful to the staff and other visitors, and if at all possible, be quiet. Do be aware that there are places one should not go on the shrine grounds. Do not wear shoes inside any buildings.

_HARAE_

Main article: Harae

The rite of ritual purification, usually done daily at a shrine, is a ceremony of offerings and prayers of several forms. Shinsen (food offerings of fruit, fish, and vegetables), Tamagushi (sakaki tree branches), Shio (salt), Gohan (rice), Mochi (rice cake), and Sake (rice wine) are all typical offerings. On holidays and other special occasions the inner shrine doors may be opened and special offerings made. Offerings to the _kami_ _ Tamagushi offering at Tsurugaoka Hachiman-gū_ _ Offerings at Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America_ _ Mochi _ offered at Meiji Jingū _ _ Sake offerings at Itsukushima Shrine _ _ Tamagushi and food offerings (shinsen) offered at Katori-jingū

_MISOGI_

Main article: Misogi

Misogi means purification. Misogi harai or Misogi Shūhō (禊修法) is the term for water purification.

The practice of purification by ritual use of water while reciting prayers is typically done daily by regular practitioners, and when possible by lay practitioners. There is a defined set of prayers and physical activities that precede and occur during the ritual. This will usually be performed at a shrine, in a natural setting, but can be done anywhere there is clean running water.

The basic performance of this is the hand and mouth washing (Temizu 手水) done at the entrance to a shrine. The more dedicated believer may perform misogi by standing beneath a waterfall or performing the ritual ablutions in a river. This practice comes from Shinto
Shinto
history, when the kami Izanagi-no-Mikoto first performed misogi after returning from the land of Yomi, where he was made impure by Izanami-no-Mikoto after her death.

_IMI_

Another form of ritual cleanliness is avoidance, which means that a taboo is placed upon certain persons or acts. To illustrate, one would not visit a shrine if a close relative in the household had died recently. Killing is generally unclean and is to be avoided. When one is performing acts that harm the land or other living things, prayers and rituals are performed to placate the Kami
Kami
of the area. This type of cleanliness is usually performed to prevent ill outcomes.

AMULETS AND TALISMANS

_ A woman tying her fortune written on a white piece of paper (omikuji_) to a frame at Kasuga Shrine Main article: Ema (Shinto)

Ema are small wooden plaques that wishes or desires are written upon and left at a place in the shrine grounds so that one may get a wish or desire fulfilled. They have a picture on them and are frequently associated with the larger Shrines.

_ Ofuda _ are talismans—made of paper, wood, or metal—that are issued at shrines. They are inscribed with the names of kami and are used for protection in the home. They are typically placed in the home at a kamidana . Ofuda may be kept anywhere, as long as they are in their protective pouches, but there are several rules about the proper placement of kamidana. They are also renewed annually.

_ Omamori _ are personal-protection amulets that are sold by shrines. They are frequently used to ward off bad luck and to gain better health. More recently, there are also amulets to promote good driving, good business, and success at school. Their history lies with Buddhist practice of selling amulets.

_ Omikuji _ are paper lots upon which personal fortunes are written.

A _daruma_ is a round, paper doll of the Indian monk, Bodhidharma . The recipient makes a wish and paints one eye; when the goal is accomplished, the recipient paints the other eye. While this is a Buddhist
Buddhist
practice, darumas can be found at shrines, as well. These dolls are very common.

Other protective items include _dorei_, which are earthenware bells that are used to pray for good fortune. These bells are usually in the shapes of the zodiacal animals: _hamaya_, which are symbolic arrows for the fight against evil and bad luck; and _Inuhariko_, which are paper dogs that are used to induce and to bless good births. Amulets and Protection _ Kamidana (home shrine) with kagamimochi and Ofuda_ _ Daruma of various sizes_ _ Hamaya at Ikuta Shrine _ _ Various Omamori from Shrines in Japan
Japan
and Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America_ _ Ema dedicated at Sewa Jinja_

_KAGURA_

_ Kagura traditional dance, Katori Jingu, Katori City_

_ Kagura _ is the ancient Shinto
Shinto
ritual dance of shamanic origin. The word "kagura" is thought to be a contracted form of _kami no kura_ or "seat of the kami" or the "site where the kami is received." There is a mythological tale of how _kagura_ dance came into existence. The sun goddess Amaterasu became very upset at her brother so she hid in a cave. All of the other gods and goddesses were concerned and wanted her to come outside. Ame-no-uzeme began to dance and create a noisy commotion in order to entice Amaterasu to come out. The kami (gods) tricked Amaterasu by telling her there was a better sun goddess in the heavens. Amaterasu came out and light returned to the universe.

Music plays a very important role in the _kagura_ performance. Everything from the setup of the instruments to the most subtle sounds and the arrangement of the music is crucial to encouraging the kami to come down and dance. The songs are used as magical devices to summon the gods and as prayers for blessings. Rhythm patterns of five and seven are common, possibly relating to the Shinto
Shinto
belief of the twelve generations of heavenly and earthly deities. There is also vocal accompaniment called _kami uta_ in which the drummer sings sacred songs to the gods. Often the vocal accompaniment is overshadowed by the drumming and instruments, reinforcing that the vocal aspect of the music is more for incantation rather than aesthetics .

In both ancient Japanese collections, the Nihongi and Kojiki , Ame-no-uzeme’s dance is described as _asobi_, which in old Japanese language means a ceremony that is designed to appease the spirits of the departed, and which was conducted at funeral ceremonies. Therefore, _kagura_ is a rite of _tama shizume_, of pacifying the spirits of the departed. In the Heian period (8th–12th centuries) this was one of the important rites at the Imperial Court and had found its fixed place in the _tama shizume_ festival in the eleventh month. At this festival people sing as accompaniment to the dance: "Depart! Depart! Be cleansed and go! Be purified and leave!" This rite of purification is also known as _chinkon_. It was used for securing and strengthening the soul of a dying person. It was closely related to the ritual of _tama furi_ (shaking the spirit), to call back the departed soul of the dead or to energize a weakened spirit. Spirit pacification and rejuvenation were usually achieved by songs and dances, also called _asobi_. The ritual of _chinkon_ continued to be performed on the emperors of Japan, thought to be descendents of Amaterasu. It is possible that this ritual is connected with the ritual to revive the sun goddess during the low point of the winter solstice.

There is a division between the _kagura_ that is performed at the Imperial palace and the shrines related to it, and the _kagura_ that is performed in the countryside. Folk _kagura_, or _kagura_ from the countryside is divided according to region. The following descriptions relate to _sato kagura_, _kagura_ that is from the countryside. The main types are: _miko kagura_, _Ise kagura_, _Izumo kagura_, and _shishi kagura_. A miko (woman consecrated to a Shinto
Shinto
deity) at Inari Shrine.

_ Miko
Miko
kagura_ is the oldest type of _kagura_ and is danced by women in Shinto
Shinto
shrines and during folk festivals. The ancient miko were shamanesses, but are now considered priestesses in the service of the Shinto
Shinto
Shrines. _ Miko
Miko
kagura_ originally was a shamanic trance dance, but later, it became an art and was interpreted as a prayer dance. It is performed in many of the larger Shinto
Shinto
shrines and is characterized by slow, elegant, circular movements, by emphasis on the four directions and by the central use of torimono (objects dancers carry in their hands), especially the fan and bells.

_Ise kagura_ is a collective name for rituals that are based upon the _yudate_ (boiling water rites of Shugendō origin) ritual. It includes _miko_ dances as well as dancing of the _torimono_ type. The _kami_ are believed to be present in the pot of boiling water, so the dancers dip their _torimono_ in the water and sprinkle it in the four directions and on the observers for purification and blessing.

_Izumo kagura_ is centered in the Sada shrine of Izumo, Shimane prefecture. It has two types: _torimono ma_, unmasked dances that include held objects, and _shinno_ (sacred No), dramatic masked dances based on myths. _Izumo kagura_ appears to be the most popular type of _kagura_.

_Shishi kagura_ also known as the Shugen-No tradition, uses the dance of a _shishi_ (lion or mountain animal) mask as the image and presence of the deity. It includes the _Ise daikagura_ group and the _yamabushi kagura_ and _bangaku_ groups of the Tohoku area (Northeastern Japan). _Ise daikagura_ employs a large red Chinese type of lion head which can move its ears. The lion head of the _yamabushi kagura_ schools is black and can click its teeth. Unlike other _kagura_ types in which the _kami_ appear only temporarily, during the _shishi kagura_ the _kami_ is constantly present in the shishi head mask. During the Edo period, the lion dances became showy and acrobatic losing its touch with spirituality. However, the _yamabushi kagura_ tradition has retained its ritualistic and religious nature.

Originally, the practice of _kagura_ involved authentic possession by the _kami_ invoked. In modern-day Japan
Japan
it appears to be difficult to find authentic ritual possession, called _kamigakari_, in _kagura_ dance. However, it is common to see choreographed possession in the dances. Actual possession is not taking place but elements of possession such as losing control and high jumps are applied in the dance.

HISTORY

HISTORICAL RECORDS

There is no core sacred text in Shinto, as the Bible
Bible
is in Christianity or Qur\'an is in Islam
Islam
. Instead there are books of lore and history which provide stories and background to many Shinto beliefs.

* The Kojiki (Record of Ancient Matters) The oldest book of Japanese history, it describes the origin myths of Japan
Japan
and the Imperial Family beginning from 628. * The Shoku Nihongi and its Nihon Shoki (Continuing Chronicles of Japan) describes events up to 697. Some of the stories in the Nihongi are more detailed, but contradictory, to the stories of the Kojiki. * The Rikkokushi (Six National Histories) includes the Shoku Nihongi and Nihon Shoki. * The Jinnō Shōtōki (a study of Shinto
Shinto
and Japanese politics and history) written in the 14th century

ORIGINS

Further information: Koshinto

Shinto
Shinto
has very ancient roots in the Japanese islands. The recorded history dates to the Kojiki (712) and Nihon Shoki (720), but archeological records date back significantly further. Both are compilations of prior oral traditions. The Kojiki establishes the Japanese imperial family as the foundation of Japanese culture, being the descendants of Amaterasu Omikami. There is also a creation myth and a genealogy of the gods. The Nihonshoki was more interested in creating a structural system of government, foreign policy, religious hierarchy, and domestic social order.

There is an internal system of historical Shinto
Shinto
development that configures the relationships between Shinto
Shinto
and other religious practices over its long history; the inside and outside Kami (spirits). The inside or _ujigami_ (_uji_ meaning clan) Kami
Kami
roles that supports cohesion and continuation of established roles and patterns; and the _hitogami_ or outside Kami, bringing innovation, new beliefs, new messages, and some instability.

Jomon peoples of Japan
Japan
used natural housing, predated rice farming, and frequently were hunter-gatherers; the physical evidence for ritual practices are difficult to document. There are many locations of stone ritual structures, refined burial practices and early Torii
Torii
that lend to the continuity of primal Shinto. The Jomon had a clan-based tribal system developed similar to much of the world's indigenous people. In the context of this clan based system, local beliefs developed naturally and when assimilation between clans occurred, they also took on some beliefs of the neighboring tribes. At some point there was a recognition that the ancestors created the current generations and the reverence of ancestors (_tama_) took shape. There was some trade amongst the indigenous peoples within Japanese islands and the mainland, as well as some varying migrations. The trade and interchange of people helped the growth and complexity of the peoples spirituality by exposure to new beliefs. The natural spirituality of the people appeared to be based on the worship of nature forces or _mono_, and the natural elements to which they all depended.

The gradual introduction of methodical religious and government organizations from mainland Asia starting around 300 BCE seeded the reactive changes in primal Shinto
Shinto
over the next 700 years to a more formalized system. These changes were directed internally by the various clans frequently as a syncratic cultural event to outside influences. Eventually as the Yamato gained power a formalization process began. The genesis of the Imperial household and subsequent creation of the Kojiki helped facilitate the continuity needed for this long term development through modern history. There is today a balance between outside influences of Buddhist
Buddhist
, Confucian
Confucian
, Taoist
Taoist
, Abrahamic , Hindu
Hindu
and secular beliefs. In more modern times Shinto
Shinto
has developed new branches and forms on a regular basis, including leaving Japan.

JOMON PERIOD

By the end of the Jōmon period , a dramatic shift had taken place according to archaeological studies. New arrivals from the continent seem to have invaded Japan
Japan
from the West, bringing with them new technologies such as rice farming and metallurgy. The settlements of the new arrivals seem to have coexisted with those of the Jōmon for some time. Under these influences, the incipient cultivation of the Jōmon evolved into sophisticated rice-paddy farming and government control. Many other elements of Japanese culture also may date from this period and reflect a mingled migration from the northern Asian continent and the southern Pacific areas. Among these elements are Shinto
Shinto
mythology, marriage customs, architectural styles, and technological developments such as lacquerware, textiles, laminated bows, metalworking, and glass making. The Jōmon is succeeded by the Yayoi
Yayoi
period.

YAYOI PERIOD

Japanese culture begins to develop in no small part due to influences from mainland trade and immigration from China. During this time in the pre-writing historical period, objects from the mainland start appearing in large amounts, specifically mirrors, swords, and jewels. All three of these have a direct connection to the imperial divine status as they are the symbols of imperial divinity and are Shinto honorary objects. Also the rice culture begins to blossom throughout Japan
Japan
and this leads to the settlement of society, and seasonal reliance of crops. Both of these changes are highly influential on the Japanese people's relationship to the natural world, and likely development of a more complex system of religion. This is also the period that is referenced as the beginning of the divine imperial family. The Yayoi
Yayoi
culture was a clan based culture that lived in compounds with a defined leader who was the chief and head priest. They were responsible for the relationship with their "gods" Kami
Kami
and if one clan conquered another, their "god" would be assimilated. The earliest records of Japanese culture were written by Chinese traders who described this land as "Wa". This time period led to the creation of the Yamato culture and development of formal Shinto
Shinto
practices.

The development of _niiname_ or the (now) Shinto
Shinto
harvest festival is attributed to this period as offerings for good harvests of similar format (typically rice) become common.

KOFUN PERIOD

The great bells and drums, Kofun
Kofun
burial mounds, and the founding of the imperial family are important to this period. This is the period of the development of the feudal state, and the Yamato and Izumo cultures. Both of these dominant cultures have a large and central shrine which still exists today, Ise Shrine in the North East and Izumo Taisha in the South West. This time period is defined by the increase of central power in Naniwa, now Osaka
Osaka
, of the feudal lord system. Also there was an increasing influence of Chinese culture which profoundly changed the practices of government structure, social structure, burial practices, and warfare. The Japanese also held close alliance and trade with the Gaya confederacy
Gaya confederacy
which was in the south of the peninsula. The Paekche in the Three Kingdoms of Korea had political alliances with Yamato, and in the 5th century imported the Chinese writing system to record Japanese names and events for trade and political records. In 513 they sent a Confucian
Confucian
scholar to the court to assist in the teachings of Confucian
Confucian
thought. In 552 or 538 a Buddha image was given to the Yamato leader which profoundly changed the course of Japanese religious history, especially in relation to the undeveloped native religious conglomeration that was Shinto. In the latter 6th century, there was a breakdown of the alliances between Japan
Japan
and Paekche but the influence led to the codification of Shinto as the native religion in opposition to the extreme outside influences of the mainland. Up to this time Shinto
Shinto
had been largely a clan ('uji') based religious practice, exclusive to each clan.

ASUKA PERIOD

The Theory of Five Elements in Yin and Yang
Yin and Yang
philosophy of Taoism and the esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
had a profound impact on the development of a unified system of Shinto
Shinto
beliefs. In the early Nara period , the _Kojiki_ and the _Nihon Shoki_ were written by compiling existing myths and legends into a unified account of Japanese mythology . These accounts were written with two purposes in mind: the introduction of Taoist
Taoist
, Confucian
Confucian
, and Buddhist
Buddhist
themes into Japanese religion; and garnering support for the legitimacy of the Imperial house, based on its lineage from the sun goddess, Amaterasu. Much of modern Japan
Japan
was under only fragmentary control by the Imperial family, and rival ethnic groups. The mythological anthologies, along with other poetry anthologies like the _Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves_ (_Man\'yōshū _) and others, were intended to impress others with the worthiness of the Imperial family and their divine mandate to rule.

In particular the Asuka rulers of 552–645 saw disputes between the more major families of the clan Shinto
Shinto
families. There were disputes about who would ascend to power and support the imperial family between the Soga and Mononobe/Nakatomi Shinto
Shinto
families. The Soga family eventually prevailed and supported Empress Suiko and Prince Shotoku, who helped impress Buddhist
Buddhist
faith into Japan. However, it was not until the Hakuho ruling period of 645–710 was Shinto
Shinto
installed at the imperial faith along with the Fujiwara Clan and reforms that followed.

HAKUHO PERIOD

Beginning with Emperor Tenmu
Emperor Tenmu
(672–686), continuing through Empress Jitō (686–697) and Emperor Monmu (697–707) Court Shinto
Shinto
rites are strengthened and made parallel to Buddhist
Buddhist
beliefs in court life. Prior to this time clan Shinto
Shinto
had dominated and a codification of "Imperial Shinto" did not exist as such. The Nakatomi family are made the chief court Shinto
Shinto
chaplains and chief priests at Ise Daijingū which held until 1892. Also the practice of sending imperial princesses to the Ise shrine begins. This marks the rise of Ise Daijingū as the main imperial shrine historically. Due to increasing influence from Buddhism
Buddhism
and mainland Asian thought, codification of the "Japanese" way of religion and laws begins in earnest. This culminates in three major outcomes: Taiho Code (701 but started earlier), the _Kojiki_ (712), and the _Nihon Shoki_ (720).

The Taiho Code also called Ritsuryō
Ritsuryō
(律令) was an attempt to create a bulwark to dynamic external influences and stabilize the society through imperial power. It was a liturgy of rules and codifications, primarily focused on regulation of religion, government structure, land codes, criminal and civil law. All priests, monks, and nuns were required to be registered, as were temples. The Shinto
Shinto
rites of the imperial line were codified, especially seasonal cycles, lunar calendar rituals, harvest festivals, and purification rites. The creation of the imperial Jingi-kan or Shinto
Shinto
Shrine office was completed.

NARA PERIOD

This period hosted many changes to the country, government, and religion. The capital is moved again to Heijō-kyō , or Nara , in AD 710 by Empress Genmei due to the death of the Emperor. This practice was necessary due to the Shinto
Shinto
belief in the impurity of death and the need to avoid this pollution. However, this practice of moving the capital due to "death impurity" is then abolished by the Taihō Code and rise in Buddhist
Buddhist
influence. The establishment of the imperial city in partnership with Taihō Code is important to Shinto
Shinto
as the office of the Shinto
Shinto
rites becomes more powerful in assimilating local clan shrines into the imperial fold. New shrines are built and assimilated each time the city is moved. All of the grand shrines are regulated under Taihō and are required to account for incomes, priests, and practices due to their national contributions.

During this time, Buddhism
Buddhism
becomes structurally established within Japan
Japan
by Emperor Shōmu (reign 724–749), and several large building projects are undertaken. The Emperor lays out plans for the Buddha Dainichi (Great Sun Buddha), at Tōdai-ji assisted by the Priest Gyogi (or Gyoki) Bosatsu. The priest Gyogi went to Ise Daijingu Shrine for blessings to build the Buddha Dainichi. They identified the statue of Viarocana with Amatarasu (the sun goddess) as the manifestation of the supreme expression of universality.

The priest Gyogi is known for his belief in assimilation of Shinto Kami
Kami
and Buddhas. Shinto
Shinto
kami are commonly being seen by Buddhist clergy as guardians of manifestation, guardians, or pupils of Buddhas and bodhisattvas. The priest Gyogi conferred boddhisattva precepts on the Emperor in 749 effectively making the Imperial line the head of state and divine to Shinto
Shinto
while beholden to Buddhism.

SYNCRETISM WITH BUDDHISM

Main article: Shinbutsu-shūgō

With the introduction of Buddhism
Buddhism
and its rapid adoption by the court in the 6th century, it was necessary to explain the apparent differences between native Japanese beliefs and Buddhist
Buddhist
teachings. One Buddhist
Buddhist
explanation saw the _kami_ as supernatural beings still caught in the cycle of birth and rebirth (reincarnation ). The _kami_ are born, live, die, and are reborn like all other beings in the karmic cycle. However, the _kami_ played a special role in protecting Buddhism
Buddhism
and allowing its teachings of compassion to flourish.

This explanation was later challenged by Kūkai (空海, 774–835), who saw the _kami_ as different embodiments of the Buddhas
Buddhas
themselves (_honji suijaku _ theory). For example, he linked Amaterasu (the sun goddess and ancestor of the Imperial family) with Dainichi Nyorai , a central manifestation of the Buddhists, whose name means literally "Great Sun Buddha". In his view, the _kami_ were just Buddhas
Buddhas
by another name.

_KOKUGAKU_

Buddhism
Buddhism
and Shinto
Shinto
coexisted and were amalgamated in the _shinbutsu shūgō _ and Kūkai's syncretic view held wide sway up until the end of the Edo period . There was no theological study that could be called "Shinto" during medieval and early modern Japanese history, and a mixture of Buddhist
Buddhist
and popular beliefs proliferated. At that time, there was a renewed interest in "Japanese studies" (_kokugaku _), perhaps as a result of the closed country policy .

In the 18th century, various Japanese scholars, in particular Motoori Norinaga (本居 宣長, 1730–1801), tried to tear apart the "real" Shinto
Shinto
from various foreign influences. The attempt was largely unsuccessful, since as early as the _Nihon Shoki_ parts of the mythology were explicitly borrowed from Taoism doctrines. For example, the co-creator deities Izanami
Izanami
and Izanagi are explicitly compared to yin and yang . However, the attempt did set the stage for the arrival of state Shinto
Shinto
, following the Meiji Restoration (c.1868), when Shinto
Shinto
and Buddhism
Buddhism
were separated (_shinbutsu bunri _).

STATE SHINTO

Main article: State Shinto Chōsen Jingū in Seoul
Seoul

Fridell argues that scholars call the period 1868–1945 the "State Shinto
Shinto
period" because, "during these decades, Shinto
Shinto
elements came under a great deal of overt state influence and control as the Japanese government systematically utilized shrine worship as a major force for mobilizing imperial loyalties on behalf of modern nation-building." However, the government had already been treating shrines as an extension of government before Meiji; see for example the Tenpō Reforms . Moreover, according to the scholar Jason Ānanda Josephson, It is inaccurate to describe shrines as constituting a "state religion" or a "theocracy" during this period since they had neither organization, nor doctrine, and were uninterested in conversion.

The Meiji Restoration reasserted the importance of the emperor and the ancient chronicles to establish the Empire of Japan
Japan
, and in 1868 the government attempted to recreate the ancient imperial Shinto
Shinto
by separating shrines from the temples that housed them. During this period, numerous scholars of _kokugaku_ believed that this national Shinto
Shinto
could be the unifying agent of the country around the Emperor while the process of modernization was undertaken with all possible speed. The psychological shock of the Western " Black Ships " and the subsequent collapse of the shogunate convinced many that the nation needed to unify in order to resist being colonized by outside forces.

In 1871, a Ministry of Rites was formed and Shinto
Shinto
shrines were divided into twelve levels with the Ise Shrine (dedicated to Amaterasu, and thus symbolic of the legitimacy of the Imperial family) at the peak and small sanctuaries of humble towns at the base. The following year, the ministry was replaced with a new Ministry of Religion, charged with leading instruction in "_shushin_" (moral courses). Priests were officially nominated and organized by the state, and they instructed the youth in a form of Shinto
Shinto
theology based on the official dogma of the divinity of Japan's national origins and its Emperor. However, this propaganda did not take, and the unpopular Ministry of Rites was dissolved in the mid-1870s.

Although the government sponsorship of shrines declined, Japanese nationalism remained closely linked to the legends of foundation and emperors, as developed by the _kokugaku_ scholars. In 1890, the Imperial Rescript on Education was issued, and students were required to ritually recite its oath to "offer yourselves courageously to the State" as well as to protect the Imperial family. Such processes continued to deepen throughout the early Shōwa period , coming to an abrupt end in August 1945 when Japan
Japan
lost the war in the Pacific . On 1 January 1946, Emperor Shōwa issued the Ningen-sengen , in which he quoted the Five Charter Oath of Emperor Meiji and declared that he was not an _akitsumikami _ (a deity in human form).

POST-WAR

The imperial era came to an abrupt close with the end of World War II , when Americans declared that Japanese nationalism had been informed by something called "State Shinto", which they attempted to define with the Shinto Directive . The meaning of "State Shinto" has been a matter of debate ever since.

In the post-war period, numerous "New Religions " cropped up, many of them ostensibly based on Shinto, but on the whole, Japanese religiosity may have decreased. However, the concept of religion in Japan
Japan
is a complex one. A survey conducted in the mid-1970s indicated that of those participants who claimed not to believe in religion, one-third had a Buddhist
Buddhist
or Shinto
Shinto
altar in their home, and about one quarter carried an _omamori _ (an amulet to gain protection by _kami_) on their person. Following the war, Shinto
Shinto
shrines tended to focus on helping ordinary people gain better fortunes for themselves through maintaining good relations with their ancestors and other _kami_. The number of Japanese citizens identifying their religious beliefs as Shinto
Shinto
has declined a great deal, yet the general practice of Shinto rituals has not decreased in proportion, and many practices have persisted as general cultural beliefs (such as ancestor worship ), and community festivals (_matsuri _)—focusing more on religious practices. The explanation generally given for this anomaly is that, following the demise of State Shinto, modern Shinto
Shinto
has reverted to its more traditional position as a traditional religion which is culturally ingrained, rather than enforced. In any case, Shinto
Shinto
and its values continue to be a fundamental component of the Japanese cultural mindset.

Shinto
Shinto
has also spread abroad to a limited extent, and a few non-Japanese Shinto
Shinto
priests have been ordained. A relatively small number of people practice Shinto
Shinto
in America. There are several Shinto shrines in America . Shrines were also established in Taiwan and Korea during the period of Japanese imperial rule , but following the war, they were either destroyed or converted into some other use.

NEW SECTS

Within Shinto, there are a variety of new sects outside Shrine Shinto and the officially defunct State Shinto . Sect Shinto , like Tenrikyo and Konkokyo , have a unique dogma or leader, with some exhibiting the influence of Messianic Christianity and cult of personality, in the 19th and 20th century, particularly the "New Religions" like (_Shinshūkyō _) that proliferated in the post-war era .

SEE ALSO

* Shinto
Shinto
portal

* Ame-no-Uzume-no-Mikoto * Culture of Japan
Japan
* Dol hareubang (Korean spirit) * Dōsojin * Dryad (Greek mythology) * Hari-Kuyo * History
History
of Japan
Japan
* Hyang (Indonesian mythology) * Iwakura (Shinto) – rock formation where a kami is invited to descend * Kodama (spirit) * Raijin * Religion in Japan * Ryukyuan religion * Korean Shamanism (Sindo) * Shide (Shinto) * Shintai * Shinto architecture * Shinto in Taiwan * Shinto music * Shugendō * State Shinto * Twenty-Two Shrines * Women in Shinto * Yorishiro * Yōsei * Shinto in popular culture * Ainu religion

NOTES

* ^ Both mean the "way of the divine" or "of the gods". Other names are:

* _kannagara-no-michi_, "way of the divine transmitted from time immemorial"; * _Kodo_, the "ancient way"; * _Daido_, the "great way"; * _Teido_, the "imperial way".

* ^ During the history of China , at the time of the spread of Buddhism
Buddhism
to the country, the name _Shendao_ was used to identify what is currently known as " Shenism ", the Chinese indigenous religion, distinguishing it from the new Buddhist
Buddhist
religion. (Brian Bocking. _A Popular Dictionary of Shinto_. Routledge, 2005. ASIN: B00ID5TQZY p. 129)

REFERENCES

* ^ Stuart D. B. Picken, 1994. p. xxiv. * ^ John Nelson. _A Year in the Life of a Shinto
Shinto
Shrine_. 1996. pp. 7–8. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ Richard Pilgrim, Robert Ellwood (1985). _Japanese Religion_ (1st ed.). Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc. pp. 18–19. ISBN 0-13-509282-5 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Breen, Teeuwen. 2010. p. 1 * ^ Mark Teeuwen. _From Jindō to Shintō. A Concept Takes Shape_. _Japanese Journal of Religious Studies_, 2002, 29/3-4. * ^ _A_ _B_ Stuart D. B. Picken, 1994. p. xxi * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Sokyo, Ono (1962). _Shinto: The Kami Way_ (1st ed.). Rutland, VT : Charles E Tuttle Co. p. 2. ISBN 0-8048-1960-2 . OCLC 40672426 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Stuart D. B. Picken, 1994. p. xxii * ^ _A_ _B_ "宗教団体数,教師数及び信者数". _Statistical Yearbook of Japan_. Statistics Japan, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications . 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2015.

* ^ Engler, Price. 2005. p. 95 * ^ Williams, 2004. pp. 4–5 * ^ Inoue Nobutaka, _Shinto, a Short History_ (2003) p. 1 * ^ Nobutaka Inoue. _Shinto: A Short History_. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0415319137 * ^ Sokyo, Ono (1962). _Shinto: The Kami
Kami
Way_ (1st ed.). Rutland, VT : Charles E Tuttle Co. p. 13. ISBN 0-8048-1960-2 . OCLC 40672426 . * ^ Stuart D. B. Picken, 1994. pp. 212–213 * ^ Glossary A to Z – Shintō Schools & Sects * ^ George Williams (2009). _Shinto_. Infobase Publishing. pp. 151 note 13. * ^ Hoffman, Michael, "In the land of the _kami_, _ Japan
Japan
Times _, March 14, 2010. * ^ Adler, Joseph. "Rudolf Otto\'s Concept of the "Numinous"". _Kenyon College Department of Religion_. Kenyon College. Retrieved 1 April 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Stuart D. B. Picken, 1994. p. xxiii * ^ Kitagawa, 1987. p. 29, note 92 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Amenominakanushi. Encyclopedia of Shinto. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Kitagawa, 1987. p. 29 * ^ 匝瑤 葵「宇宙を構成する古事記の別天神―出雲大社の天空神」 『アジア遊学』No.121, pp.94-101, 勉誠出版, 2009年 * ^ Kitagawa, 1987. pp. 28–29 * ^ Sugimoto, Yoshio (1997). _An Introduction to Japanese Society_. Cambridge, NY : Cambridge University Press. pp. 230–231. ISBN 0-521-41692-2 . OCLC 35008178 . * ^ http://www.jref.com/articles/shinto.27/ * ^ http://www.ancient-origins.net/history-ancient-traditions/purification-core-ancient-shinto-faith-003108?nopaging=1 * ^ " Shinto
Shinto
Funeral Beliefs and Rituals". * ^ Boyd, James W. (James Waldemar); Williams, Ron G. (2005). "Japanese Shinto: An Interpretation of a Priestly Perspective". _Philosophy East and West_. 55 (1): 33–63. doi :10.1353/pew.2004.0039 – via Project MUSE (subscription required) * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _Handy Bilingual Reference For Kami
Kami
and Jinja_. _Study Group of Shinto
Shinto
Culture_. Tokyo: International Cultural Workshop Inc. 2006. pp. 39–41. * ^ Kobayashi, Kazushige ; Knecht, Peter , "On the Meaning of Masked Dances in Kagura", _Asian Folklore Studies_ 40 (1): 1, 1981, p.3. * ^ Averbuch , Irit , _The Gods Come Dancing: A Study of the Japanese Ritual
Ritual
Dance of Yamabushi Kagura_, Ithaca
Ithaca
, NY: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995, pp.83–87. * ^ Kobayashi, Kazushige; Knecht, Peter, "On the Meaning of Masked Dances in Kagura", _Asian Folklore Studies_ 40 (1): 1, 1981, pp.4–5. * ^ Averbuch, Irit, _The Gods Come Dancing: A Study of the Japanese Ritual
Ritual
Dance of Yamabushi Kagura_, Ithaca, NY: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995, p. 12. * ^ Averbuch, Irit, _The Gods Come Dancing: A Study of the Japanese Ritual
Ritual
Dance of Yamabushi Kagura_, Ithaca, NY: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995, p. 15. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Averbuch, Irit, _The Gods Come Dancing: A Study of the Japanese Ritual
Ritual
Dance of Yamabushi Kagura_, Ithaca, NY: East Asia Program, Cornell University, 1995, p. 16. * ^ de Bary,, Wm. Theodore; Keene, Donald; Tanabe, George; et al. (eds.). _Sources of Japanese Tradition vol. 1, From Earliest Times to 1600_ (2nd ed.). pp. 22–23. ISBN 978-0-231-12139-2 . * ^ Yusen, Kashiwahara (1994). _The Shapers Of Japanese Buddhism_ (1st ed.). Tokyo, Japan: Kosei Publishing Co. pp. 3–13. ISBN 4-333-01630-4 . * ^ Wilbur M. Fridell, "A Fresh Look at State Shintō", _Journal of the American Academy of Religion_ 44.3 (1976), 547–561 in JSTOR; quote p. 548 * ^ Josephson, Jason Ānanda (2012). _The Invention of Religion
Religion
in Japan_. University of Chicago
Chicago
Press. p. 133. ISBN 0226412342 .

FURTHER READING

* Averbuch, Irit (1995). _The Gods Come Dancing: A Study of the Japanese Ritual
Ritual
Dance of Yamabushi Kagura_. Ithaca, NY : East Asia Program, Cornell University. ISBN 1-885445-67-9 . OCLC 34612865 . * Averbuch, Irit (1998). " Shamanic
Shamanic
Dance in Japan: The Choreography of Possession in Kagura Performance". _Asian Folklore Studies_. Nanzan Institute for Religion
Religion
and Culture. 57 (2): 293–329. JSTOR 1178756 . doi :10.2307/1178756 . * Blacker, Dr. Carmen (2003). " Shinto
Shinto
and the Sacred
Sacred
Dimension of Nature". _Shinto.org_. Archived from the original on 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2008-01-21. * Bowker, John W (2002). _The Cambridge Illustrated History
History
of Religions_. New York City
New York City
: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81037-X . OCLC 47297614 . * Breen, John ; Teeuwen, Mark (2010). _A New History
History
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* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * Texts from Wikisource * Data from Wikidata

* Shinto
Shinto
at DMOZ * Jinja Honcho – English – The Official Japanese Organization of 80,000 Shinto
Shinto
Shrines * Kokugakuin University Encyclopedia of Shinto
Shinto
and its Japanese Shinto
Shinto
Jinja Database * Chiga Yoshimi Gallery – The Scenery of Nara's Shrines and Temples which were drawn by Chiga Yoshimi * Tsubaki Grand Shrine of America –

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