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Shenyang
Shenyang
([ʂə̀n.jǎŋ]; Chinese: 沈阳), formerly known by its Manchu
Manchu
name Mukden or Fengtian (Chinese: 奉天; pinyin: Fèngtiān), is the provincial capital and the largest city of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province, People's Republic of China,[3] as well as the largest city in Northeast China
Northeast China
by urban population.[4] According to the 2010 census, the city's urban area has 6.3 million inhabitants, while the total population of the Shenyang
Shenyang
municipality, which holds the administrative status of a sub-provincial city, is up to 8.1 million.[5] Shenyang's city region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang
Shenyang
proper, the county-level city of Xinmin, and two counties of Kangping and Faku. In the 17th century, Shenyang
Shenyang
was conquered by the Manchu
Manchu
people and briefly used as the capital of the Qing
Qing
dynasty.[6] Along with its nearby cities, Shenyang
Shenyang
is an important industrial center in China,[7] and serves as the transportation and commercial hub of China's northeast — particularly with Japan, Russia
Russia
and Korea.[8] A center of heavy industry in China
China
since the 1930s, and the spearhead of the Chinese central government's Northeast Area Revitalization Plan,[9] the city has been diversifying its industry.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Ancient era 1.2 Manchu
Manchu
capital 1.3 Russian and Japanese influence 1.4 Warlord Era and Japanese occupation 1.5 Post-World War II

2 Old City 3 Geography

3.1 Environment 3.2 Climate

4 Administrative divisions

4.1 Districts

4.1.1 Shenhe District 4.1.2 Heping District 4.1.3 Dadong District 4.1.4 Huanggu District 4.1.5 Tiexi District 4.1.6 Hunnan
Hunnan
District 4.1.7 Sujiatun
Sujiatun
District 4.1.8 Shenbei New District 4.1.9 Yuhong District 4.1.10 Liaozhong District

4.2 Satellite city

4.2.1 Xinmin City

4.3 Rural counties

4.3.1 Faku County 4.3.2 Kangping County

5 Demographics 6 Economy 7 Transportation

7.1 Rail 7.2 Road 7.3 Airport 7.4 Public transport

8 Healthcare 9 Military 10 Culture

10.1 Shenyang
Shenyang
dialect 10.2 Art 10.3 Museums 10.4 Sports 10.5 Religion 10.6 Cuisine

11 Notable people 12 Tourism

12.1 Attractions 12.2 Shopping areas

13 Research and education

13.1 Research institutes 13.2 High schools 13.3 International schools 13.4 Universities 13.5 Defunct universities

14 International relations

14.1 Foreign consulates 14.2 Twin towns – Sister cities

15 See also 16 Notes 17 References 18 External links

History[edit] The city's name, Shenyang, literally means "the Yang side of the Shen River", referring to the fact that the Hun River, formerly called the Shen River (瀋水; Shěn Shuǐ), is at the south side of the city. According to Chinese tradition, a river's north bank and a mountain's south slope are considered to be the "sunny" – or "Yang" – side.[10] Ancient era[edit]

Xinle Civilization

Archaeological findings show that humans resided in present-day Shenyang
Shenyang
as early as 8,000 years ago. The remains of the Xinle culture, a late neolithic period society over 6,800–7,200 years old,[11] are located in a museum in the north part of Huanggu District. It is complemented by a recreated village on site. A wood-sculptured bird unearthed there is the earliest cultural relic in Shenyang, as well as one of oldest wood sculptures found anywhere in the world. The city, now known as Shenyang, was first established in about 300 BCE during the Warring States period
Warring States period
by Yan general Qin Kai, who conquered the Liaodong
Liaodong
region,[12] and was then named Hou City (侯城; Hóu Chéng). However, around 350 years later during the reign of Emperor Guangwu of Han, the city was sacked and burnt by the Donghu nomads and subsequently abandoned. It came back to prominence during early Liao dynasty
Liao dynasty
and was known as the Shen Prefecture (瀋州; Shěn Zhōu) through to the end of Jin dynasty, and became the Shenyang
Shenyang
Circuit (瀋陽路; Shěnyáng Lù) during the Yuan dynasty.[13] During the Ming dynasty, it was designated as a "guard town" (militarized settlements, such as walled/heavily garrisoned cities or towns) named Shenyang
Shenyang
Central Guard (瀋陽中衛; Shěnyáng Zhōngwèi) and gradually became one of the most important strongholds beyond the Shanhai Pass. Manchu
Manchu
capital[edit]

The Mukden Palace

In 1625, the Manchu
Manchu
leader Nurhaci
Nurhaci
captured Shenyang
Shenyang
and decided to relocate his entire administrative infrastructures to the city, or Simiyan hoton (Manchu: ᠰᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠨ ᡥᠣᡨᠣᠨ) as it is called in Manchu
Manchu
language.[6] The official name was changed to Shengjing (盛京; Shèng Jīng; "rising capital"), or Mukden (Manchu: ᠮᡠᡴ᠋ᡩᡝᠨ), in 1634. The new name derives from the Manchu
Manchu
word, mukdembi (Manchu: ᠮᡠᡴ᠋ᡩᡝᠮᠪᡳ), meaning "to rise" as reflected also by its Han Chinese
Han Chinese
name.[14] Under Nurhaci's orders, the Imperial Palace was constructed in 1626, symbolizing the city's emerging status as the Jurchen political center. The palace featured more than 300 ostentatiously decorated rooms and 20 gardens as a symbol of power and grandeur.[14] After the fall of the Ming dynasty
Ming dynasty
in 1644 and the routing of the Shun army in the Battle of Shanhai Pass
Shanhai Pass
merely a day later, the Manchus successfully entered the Shanhai Pass
Shanhai Pass
to establish the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
in China
China
proper, with the capital relocated to Beijing. However, Shenyang retained considerable importance as the secondary capital and the spiritual home of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
through the centuries.[14] Treasures of the royal house were kept at its palaces, and the tombs of the early Qing
Qing
rulers were once among the most famous monuments in China. In 1657, Fengtian Prefecture (奉天府; Fèngtiān Fŭ; Manchu: ᠠᠪᡴᠠᡳ ᡳᠮᡳᠶᠠᠩᡤᠠ ᡶᡠ; Möllendorff: abkai imiyangga fu; Abkai: abkai imiyangga fu or Manchu: ᡶᡠᠩ ᡨᡳᠶᠠᠨ; Möllendorff: fung tiyian; Abkai: fung tiyian) was established in the Shenyang
Shenyang
area, and Fengtian (literally: "mandated by Heaven") was sometimes used synonymously with Shenyang/Mukden.[15] Russian and Japanese influence[edit]

Japanese-administered zone (orange) and the old Shenyang
Shenyang
city (violet) in 1919

After the First Sino-Japanese War, Japan
Japan
coerced the annexation of the Liaodong
Liaodong
Peninsula with the Treaty of Shimonoseki
Treaty of Shimonoseki
in 1895, though was forced to give it up due to diplomatic pressure from the Triple Intervention. In the aftermath of the Japanese threat, Qing
Qing
viceroy Li Hongzhang visited Moscow in 1896 and signed a secret treaty with Russian foreign minister Aleksey Lobanov-Rostovsky, allowing Imperial Russia
Russia
to build a Russian gauge railway in Manchuria, which opened the door towards further Russian expansionism in the form of another lease convention in 1898, effectively allowing Russia
Russia
to annex Northeast China
China
in all but name. However, after the Boxer Rebellion
Boxer Rebellion
in 1900, Russian forces used the anti-foreigner insurgency as a pretext to formally invade and occupied most of Manchuria, and Mukden became a Russian stronghold in the Far East
Far East
with the building of the South Manchurian Railway.[16][17] During the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
(1904—1905), Mukden was the site of the Battle of Mukden
Battle of Mukden
from February 19 to March 10, 1905.[18][19] Involving more than 600,000 combat participants, it was the largest battle since the Battle of Leipzig
Battle of Leipzig
in 1813, and also the largest modern-era battle ever fought in Asia before World War II.[20] Following the Japanese victory, Mukden became one of the chief bases of Japanese presence and economic expansion into southern Manchuria. It also became the government seat of Fengtian province in 1910.[21] Warlord Era and Japanese occupation[edit]

Zhang Zuolin's train after the Huanggutun Incident

Japanese troops entering Shenyang
Shenyang
during Mukden Incident

In 1914, the city changed back to its old name Shenyang,[22] but continued to be known as Mukden (sometimes spelled Moukden) in some English sources and in Japan
Japan
through much of the first half of 20th century. The postmark of the Chinese postal administration kept the spelling "MOUKDEN/奉天" for usage on international mails until the late 1920s. After that, a Chinese–Manchurian bilingual type "SHENYANG (MUKDEN)/瀋陽 (奉天)" datestamp was used until 1933. In the early 20th century, Shenyang
Shenyang
began expanding out of its old city walls. The Shenyang Railway Station
Shenyang Railway Station
on the South Manchurian Railway and the Shenyang North Railway Station
Shenyang North Railway Station
on the Jingfeng Railway, both west of the old city, became the new commercial centers of Shenyang.[23] In the 1920s, Mukden was the capital of the warlord Zhang Zuolin, who was later assassinated when his train was blown up on June 4, 1928[24] at a Japanese-guarded railway bridge.[25] At the time, several factories were built by Zhang to manufacture ammunition in the northern and eastern suburbs. These factories laid the foundation for Shenyang's industrial development.[26] At around 10:20 pm on September 18, 1931, a small quantity of dynamite was detonated close to a railway line near Mukden owned by the Japanese South Manchuria
Manchuria
Railway Company by Kwantung Army
Kwantung Army
Lt. Kawamoto Suemori.[27][28] The Imperial Japanese Army, accusing Chinese dissidents of the act, then use the false flag explosion as pretext to launch a full attack on Mukden, and captured the city the following morning (September 19).[28][28][29] After the Mukden Incident, the Japanese further invaded and occupied the rest of Northeast China, and created the puppet state of Manchukuo
Manchukuo
with the deposed emperor Aisin Gioro Puyi
Puyi
as the figurehead.[30] During the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
era (1932–1945), the city was again called Fengtian (and Mukden in English),[31] and was developed by the Japanese into a center of heavy industry.[31][32] Japan
Japan
was able to exploit resources in Manchuria using the extensive network of railroads.[33] For example, vast expanses of Manchurian forest were chopped down.[34] The development of Shenyang
Shenyang
was also unbalanced in this period; municipal facilities were mostly located in Japanese residential areas, while Chinese residential areas had poor living conditions.[32] Post-World War II[edit]

People's Liberation Army
People's Liberation Army
Type 97 Chi-Ha
Type 97 Chi-Ha
tanks advancing into Shenyang during the Liaoshen Campaign

Under Marshal of the Soviet Union
Marshal of the Soviet Union
Aleksandr Vasilevsky, the Far East Command[35] of Soviet forces entered Manchuria
Manchuria
in early August 1945 following the surrender of Japan.[36] On 16 August 1945, Manchurian Emperor Puyi
Puyi
was captured in Shenyang
Shenyang
Airport by the Soviet Red Army while he was in an airplane fleeing to Japan.[37] On 20 August, Soviet troops captured Shenyang. British and US reports indicate that the Soviet troops that occupied Northeast China
Northeast China
and Eastern Inner Mongolia region looted and terrorized the people of Shenyang, and were not discouraged by Soviet authorities from "three days of rape and pillage".[38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46] The Soviets were replaced by the Nationalist Chinese, who were flown in on U.S. transport planes.[47] During the Chinese Civil War, Shenyang
Shenyang
remained a Kuomintang
Kuomintang
stronghold from 1946 to 1948, although the Chinese communists controlled the surrounding countryside.[48] It was captured by the communists on October 30, 1948, following a series of offensives known as the Liaoshen Campaign.[44][49] Over the past 200 years or so, Shenyang
Shenyang
has somehow managed to grow and increase its industrial might, despite consecutive wars with Russia
Russia
and Japan
Japan
in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the Second World War, and China's Civil War ( Shenyang
Shenyang
became the main battleground between the Communists and Nationalists). The city never came to an economic halt until the 1990s, when its massive factories went bankrupt and left millions jobless, which was well documented in the film Tie Xi Qu: West of the Tracks.[50] Old City[edit]

Layout of Shenyang's old city walls

The old city of Shenyang
Shenyang
resided almost entirely within the modern day Shenhe District, and used to have two city walls.[51] Situated roughly within the area bounded by the four "Shuncheng" (顺城; "along the city walls") roads/streets in Shenhe District, the (now-demolished) square-shaped inner city wall marked the bounds of ancient Shenyang. The earliest wall was built in 926 during early Liao dynasty to settle Northern Song
Northern Song
civilians the Khitans abducted from raids to use as slave labourers, and was then made of rammed earth because the city was merely a small settlement at the time (historically the administrative center of the Liaodong
Liaodong
region was at Liaoyang). However, in 1368, Hongwu Emperor
Hongwu Emperor
of the newly founded Ming dynasty ordered a new regional military command — the Liaodong Regional Military Commission (遼東都指揮使司) — to be established, and Shenyang
Shenyang
was made a prominent regional "guard town" (衛所). In 1388, Min Zhong (閔忠), the newly appointed city commissioner of the Shenyang
Shenyang
Central Guard, wrote to Hongwu Emperor immediately upon his tenure requesting permission to upgrade the city wall, and the old wall was made taller and thoroughly reinforced with overlaid bricks. According to History of Ming, the reconstructed Ming-era wall was 2.5 zhàngs (8 metres or 26 feet) tall, more than 1 zhàng (3.2 metres or 10.5 feet) wide at the top, and 9 lis and 30 bus (about 5.2 kilometres or 3.2 miles) long. It has two layers of moats dug outside, each being 3 zhàngs (9.6 metres or 31.5 feet) wide and 8 chis (2.56 metres or 8 feet 4.8 inches) deep, fed with water from Shen River. There were four city gates, each at the center of one side, connected by two main roads that intersected at Central Temple of the city's center in a "+" fashion. This Ming wall was heavily damaged in 1625 after the Manchu
Manchu
laid siege and captured the city, with only the north wall and gate (which had undergone reinforcing reconstructions in 1545 under the orders of Jiajing Emperor) remained intact. The Manchu
Manchu
leader Nurhachi
Nurhachi
however saw the strategic value of the city, and decided to formally relocate his Later Jin capital from Liaoyang
Liaoyang
to Shenyang, and ordered the city wall to be rebuilt. According to Annals of Mukden (盛京通志), the new city wall was a standard black brick wall standing at a height of 3.5 zhàngs (about 12.5 metres or 41.0 feet), a width of 1.8 zhàngs (about 6.4 metres or 21.0 feet) and a total length of 9 lis and 332 bus (about 6.4 kilometres or 4.0 miles) long, complete with 12 towers (8 gate and 4 corner) and a 14.5 zhàngs (about 52-metre or 171-foot) wide moat. The city gates were increased from four to eight, though the old Ming-era north gate and tower was preserved but sealed shut, later known as the "Ninth Gate" (九門). The outer city wall, called the "peripheral wall" (邊牆; Biān Qiáng) or "pass wall" (關牆; Guān Qiáng), was actually a rammed earth rampart built in 1680 to expand the urban area outside the inner city. It was almost round in shape, standing at a height of 7.5 chis (around 2.7 metres or 8 feet 10.3 inches) and an overall length of 32 lis and 24 bus (about 20.7 kilometres or 12.9 miles), and also had eight gates known as the "peripheral gates" (邊門; Biān Mén). The corresponding inner and outer gates were linked by roads that intersected within the inner city in a "#" pattern around the Mukden Palace. Nearly all of these city walls and gates were demolished after 1949. Two gates and one corner tower of the inner wall were rebuilt during the 1990s. There had, however, been proposals to rebuild the other gates and towers in preparation to the 12th National Games in 2013. Around 2.5 km (1.6 mi) outside Shenyang's former outer wall, there were four pagodas each located within an associated Tibetan buddhist temple, namely the East Pagoda
Pagoda
in Yongguang Temple (永光寺), the South Pagoda
Pagoda
in Guangci Temple
Temple
(廣慈寺), the West Pagoda
Pagoda
in Yanshou Temple
Temple
(延壽寺) and the North Pagoda
Pagoda
in Falun Temple
Temple
(法輪寺). They were built in 1643 and completed in 1645. The four pagodas are identical white Buddha-stupas as tall as 26 m (85 ft). Nowadays only the temple for the North Pagoda
Pagoda
is well preserved, the East and South has only the pagodas left, and the temple for the West Pagoda
Pagoda
was rebuilt in 1998. Both the Temple of Heaven
Temple of Heaven
and Temple
Temple
of Earth were also to be found in the old city during the Qing
Qing
dynasty. They were smaller replicas of Beijing's counterparts. Neither exists today. Geography[edit] Shenyang
Shenyang
ranges in latitude from 41° 11' to 43° 02' N and in longitude from 122° 25' to 123° 48' E, and is located in the central part of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province. The western parts of the city's administrative area are located on the alluvial plain of the Liao River system, while the eastern part consists of the hinterlands of the Changbai Mountains, and is covered with forests.[52] The highest point in Shenyang
Shenyang
is 414 m (1,358 ft) above sea level and the lowest point only 7 m (23 ft).[53] The average elevation of the urban area is 45 m (148 ft).[54] The city's main urban area is located to the north of Hun River, formerly the largest tributary of the Liao River
Liao River
proper and often locally referred as the city's "mother river". The central urban area is surrounded by three artificial rivers — respectively the South Canal
Canal
(南运河) from the south and southeast, the Xinkai River (新开河, formerly the North Canal) from the north and northeast, and the Weigong River (卫工河, formerly the Weigong Nullah) from the west, all interconnected by channels as a continuous waterway. The South Canal
Canal
in particular, famous for the series of linear parks and gardens along it, was constructed upon the old course of the Wanquan River (萬泉河; "ten thousand springs river"), historically also called the Little Shen River (小瀋水) or Wuli River (五里河; "five-li river"), which was a principal water source for the old city.[55] These are reinforced on the peripheries by smaller rivers such as Xi River (细河), Puhe River (蒲河) and Mantang River (满堂河), and drains into the Hun River at three different locations on the southeast, due south and southwest side of the city. There was also previously another canal on the east side called Huishan Nullah (辉山明渠) that drains into Xinkai River's lower section, but is now no longer existent due to land reclamation from urban constructions. Environment[edit] Shenyang
Shenyang
has many parks, among the most famous are the 14.5 km (9.0 mi) South Canal
Canal
Linear Parks (南运河带状公园) situated along the homonymous river traversing the southern parts of Dadong, Shenhe and Heping District, covering an area of approximately 1,400,000 m2 (350 acres). It comprises 6 large parks and 18 riverside gardens, with exotic variety of vegetations such as rose, apricot, bladder cherry, honeylocust, natal lily, scarlet sage, morning glory and black-eyed-Susan, and extensive greenspaces of peach, pear, crabapples, ginkgos, weeping willows, pines and black locusts.[55] It is the largest stretch of vegetated urban open space in Shenyang, contributing significantly to the city's current 40% "greening ratio", and was instrumental in the city being awarded the "national forest city" title in 2005. According to the Shenyang
Shenyang
Environmental Protection Bureau, winter usage of coal by boiler stations for hydronic district heating is the source of 30% of the air pollution in Shenyang. Half of the 16 million metric tons of coal consumed by the city during the winter of 2013–2014 were used for heating. Other major factors include dust from construction sites (20%), vehicle exhaust (20%), industrial emissions (10%) and extraterritorial dust (20%, mostly yellow dust from Gobi Desert). However, air quality was described by the Bureau as "slowly improving".[56]

View of the Hun River from the Sanhao Bridge

Climate[edit]

Satellite image of Shenyang- Fushun
Fushun
urban agglomeration (larger western part is Shenyang, eastern part is Fushun), Landsat 5, 2010-09-29.

Shenyang

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    6     −5 −16

    7     −1 −12

    18     7 −4

    39     17 4

    54     23 11

    92     27 17

    166     29 21

    162     28 19

    75     24 12

    43     16 4

    19     6 −4

    9.8     −2 −12

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in mm

Source: CMA[57]

Imperial conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    0.2     23 3

    0.3     30 10

    0.7     44 25

    1.6     62 40

    2.1     73 52

    3.6     81 63

    6.5     84 69

    6.4     83 67

    2.9     74 54

    1.7     60 40

    0.8     42 24

    0.4     29 10

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation
Precipitation
totals in inches

Shenyang
Shenyang
has a monsoon-influenced humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) characterised by hot, humid summers due to the monsoon, and dry, cold winters due to the Siberian anticyclone. The four seasons here are distinctive. Nearly half of the annual rainfall occurs in July and August. Monthly mean temperatures range from −11.0 °C (12.2 °F) in January to 24.7 °C (76.5 °F) in July, for an annual average of 8.39 °C (47.1 °F). The frost-free period is 183 days, which is long considering the severity of the winters.[58] The city receives 2,468 hours of bright sunshine annually; monthly percent of possible ranges from 45 percent in July to 62 percent in October. Extreme temperatures range from −33.1 °C (−28 °F) to 39.3 °C (103 °F).[59]

Climate data for Shenyang
Shenyang
(normals 1971–2000, extremes 1961–2000)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 4.8 (40.6) 14.5 (58.1) 20.0 (68) 29.3 (84.7) 34.3 (93.7) 39.3 (102.7) 36.1 (97) 35.7 (96.3) 32.7 (90.9) 29.2 (84.6) 12.8 (55) 5.5 (41.9) 39.3 (102.7)

Average high °C (°F) −4.8 (23.4) −0.9 (30.4) 6.8 (44.2) 16.5 (61.7) 23.0 (73.4) 27.2 (81) 29.1 (84.4) 28.4 (83.1) 23.6 (74.5) 15.7 (60.3) 5.7 (42.3) −1.9 (28.6) 14.0 (57.3)

Daily mean °C (°F) −11.0 (12.2) −6.9 (19.6) 1.2 (34.2) 10.2 (50.4) 17.1 (62.8) 22.0 (71.6) 24.7 (76.5) 23.6 (74.5) 17.5 (63.5) 9.5 (49.1) 0.3 (32.5) −7.5 (18.5) 8.4 (47.1)

Average low °C (°F) −16.1 (3) −12.2 (10) −3.8 (25.2) 4.2 (39.6) 11.2 (52.2) 17.0 (62.6) 20.6 (69.1) 19.3 (66.7) 12.1 (53.8) 4.2 (39.6) −4.2 (24.4) −12.1 (10.2) 3.4 (38.0)

Record low °C (°F) −33.1 (−27.6) −27.2 (−17) −21.7 (−7.1) −12.5 (9.5) 0.2 (32.4) 6.9 (44.4) 12.4 (54.3) 8.0 (46.4) 1.0 (33.8) −8.3 (17.1) −22.5 (−8.5) −30.2 (−22.4) −33.1 (−27.6)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 6.0 (0.236) 7.0 (0.276) 17.9 (0.705) 39.4 (1.551) 53.8 (2.118) 92.0 (3.622) 165.5 (6.516) 161.8 (6.37) 74.7 (2.941) 43.3 (1.705) 19.2 (0.756) 9.8 (0.386) 690.4 (27.182)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm) 3.5 4.0 5.1 7.7 9.2 11.9 13.5 10.9 7.6 6.7 5.4 3.8 89.3

Average relative humidity (%) 60 55 53 52 55 67 78 78 71 65 63 61 63.2

Mean monthly sunshine hours 162.5 179.3 221.8 236.3 256.0 238.6 206.8 218.8 228.4 212.3 161.0 146.2 2,468

Percent possible sunshine 56 60 60 60 57 53 45 51 61 62 54 52 55.9

Source: China
China
Meteorological Administration,[57] all-time extreme temperature[59]

Administrative divisions[edit] Shenyang's metropolitan area traditionally consisted of the 5 small inner urban districts, surrounded by 4 larger outer suburban districts, and accompanied by 4 rural counties on the north and west sides. In general, agriculture, animal husbandry and agricultural product processing dominate northeastern Shenyang; eastern Shenyang
Shenyang
is an automotive parts hub; southern Shenyang
Shenyang
is a high-tech industrial base; and western Shenyang
Shenyang
is home to heavy machinery manufacturing. The city center specialises in retail and financial services.[60] Out of the rural counties, the Xinmin County was upgraded to a county-level city in 1993, and the Liaozhong County
Liaozhong County
was incorporated into a new suburban district in 2016 as part of the provincial/national development plan. As a result, Shenyang
Shenyang
now officially has direct jurisdiction over 10 city districts, 1 satellite city and 2 rural counties:

Map

1 2 3 4 Tiexi Sujiatun Hunnan Shenbei Yuhong ※ ※ Liaozhong Kangping County Faku County Xinmin (city) 1. Heping 2. Shenhe 3. Dadong 4. Huanggu

Name Simplified Chinese Hanyu Pinyin Population (2014) Area (km2) Density (/km2)

City proper

Shenhe District 沈河区 Shěnhé Qū 716,417 60 12,037

Heping District 和平区 Hépíng Qū 645,399 59 10,849

Dadong District 大东区 Dàdōng Qū 689,576 100 6,887

Huanggu District 皇姑区 Huánggū Qū 817,288 66 12,349

Tiexi District 铁西区 Tiěxī Qū 907,091 286 3,171

Suburban

Hunnan
Hunnan
District 浑南区 Húnnán Qū 324,074 734 442

Sujiatun
Sujiatun
District 苏家屯区 Sūjiātún Qū 428,859 782 548

Shenbei New Area 沈北新区 Shěnběi Xīnqū 320,370 884 362

Yuhong District 于洪区 Yúhóng Qū 435,333 499 872

Liaozhong District 辽中区 Liáozhōng Qū 532,900 1,645 324

Satellite city

Xinmin City 新民市 Xīnmín Shì 690,703 3,297 210

Rural

Kangping County 康平县 Kāngpíng Xiàn 352,434 2,167 163

Faku County 法库县 Fǎkù Xiàn 447,952 2,281 196

Districts[edit] Shenhe District[edit]

Buildings along Youths Avenue (Qingnian Street, 青年大街) in southern Shenhe District

The Shenhe District
Shenhe District
(沈河区; "Shen River district") is the central area of Shenyang, and currently hosts the seat of the City Government. The old city wall is entirely located in Shenhe District. It has an area of 60 km2 (23 sq mi)[61] and a registered population of 716,417 (as per 2014).[62] There is the Central Temple (中心庙; Zhōngxīn Mìao), built during the Ming dynasty, showing the center of ancient Shenyang. This temple is located just south of the Middle Street (中街; Zhōng Jiē), one of the most famous shopping streets and the first commercial pedestrian zone in China. Shenhe District
Shenhe District
is also home to the famous Wu'ai Market (五爱市场; Wŭài Shìchǎng), the largest light industry wholesale trading center in the entire Bohai Economic Rim. Shenhe District
Shenhe District
is the site of the Mukden Palace, just south of the Central Temple. It is also the site of Zhang Zuolin's former home and headquarters, Shengjing Ancient Cultural Street. In the western Shenhe District there is a Muslim
Muslim
town, and the South Pagoda
Pagoda
(南塔; Nán tǎ) is located in southern Shenhe District. There are a lot of high-end hotels located in Shenhe District, such as Sheraton, Kempinski, Lexington, Marriott (which is the first Marriott Hotel directly named "Marriott" in mainland China, but due to finance conflicts is not administrated by Marriott International). The major thoroughfare of Youths Avenue (青年大街; Qīngnián Dà Jiē), the city's primary north-south arterial road that traverses past the City Government Square (市府广场; Shìfǔ Guǎngchǎng) at the modern center of the city linking Beiling Park
Park
to the Taoxian Airport, separates the southern portion of Shenhe District
Shenhe District
from the neighbouring southern Heping District. The iconic 305.5 m (1,002 ft) Liaoning Broadcast and TV Tower
Liaoning Broadcast and TV Tower
is situated alongside this avenue. Shenhe District
Shenhe District
is also home to Northeast China's main railway hub, the Shenyang North Railway Station
Shenyang North Railway Station
(locally known as the "North Station"). The railways leading to the station forms the border between Shenhe District
Shenhe District
and the neighbouring eastern portion of Huanggu District. The station building has recently[when?] undergone a major overhaul and extension. Heping District[edit]

Chairman Mao statue at Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Square

The Heping District (和平区; "peace district") is located slightly west of the center of Shenyang. It has an area of 59 km2 (23 sq mi)[61] and a population of 645,399 (2014).[62] Heping District has all manner of commercial businesses that are brightly neon-lit at night, centered around Taiyuan
Taiyuan
Street (太原街; Taìyuán Jīe), one of the most famous shopping district in the Northeast. The district, better known as the downtown, sprung up around Shenyang Railway Station (known locally as the "South Station" in contrast to the "North Station" in Shenhe District), the former hub of the South Manchurian Railway. At the center of the district is Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Square (中山广场; Zhōngshān Guǎngchǎng), which features one of China's largest statues of Chairman Mao—a record of the era of the Cultural Revolution. Northwest of Zhongshan
Zhongshan
Square lies the West Pagoda
Pagoda
Korean Neighborhood or Koreatown. Many of the boulevards in this area are lined of very large ginkgo trees, which become golden in color and produce their distinctive fruits in autumn. Heping District is also the core area for many political institutions in the Northeast, including CPC Liaoning
Liaoning
Provincial Committee, headquarters of the Northern Theater Command
Northern Theater Command
(previously the Shenyang Military Region), General Logistics Department
General Logistics Department
and the consulates-general of the United States, Japan, South Korea, North Korea
Korea
and other countries. Northeast Electricity, China
China
Post, railways, other such industrial hubs and many media outlets such as Liaoning
Liaoning
Radio and Television, Shenyang
Shenyang
Radio and Television and Shenyang
Shenyang
Daily newspaper are also located in this district. Dadong District[edit] The Dadong District
Dadong District
(大东区; "great east district") is an industrial zone and used to be the largest of the inner city districts. Its name derives from the fact that the district started off as the residential area immediately outside the old inner city wall's Fujin Gate (撫近門), which is also called Great East Gate (大東門). It has an area of 100 km2 (39 sq mi)[61] and a population of 689,576 (2014).[62] The district contains popular tourist landmarks such as the 9.18 Historical Museum, the North and East Pagodas, Bawang Temple
Temple
and the Wanquan Park. The oldest airfield in Shenyang, the now-defunct East Pagoda
Pagoda
Airport, is also located in Dadong District. Huanggu District[edit]

World Heritage Site: Zhao Mausoleum (Beiling park)

The Huanggu District
Huanggu District
(皇姑区; "royal aunt district") is named after Huanggutun ("tun" means village), where the Huanggutun Incident
Huanggutun Incident
took place. The name is actually a mis-tranliteration of the pronunciation for Fiyanggū (Manchu: ᡶᡳᠶᠠᠩᡤᡡ, Chinese: 費揚武, 1605–1643), the Manchu
Manchu
Prince Jian of the First Rank whose tomb was in the area. It has an area of 66 km2 (25 sq mi)[61] and a population of 817,288 (2014).[62] The district is the site of Beiling park, the large historical mausoleum of Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
emperor Huang Taiji, as well as the Liaoning Mansion Hotel. It also hosts the seat of the Provincial Government of Liaoning. Tiexi District[edit] The Tiexi District (铁西区; "railway's west district") is the most populous district and makes up the western part of the inner city, west of the South Manchurian Railway
South Manchurian Railway
(hence the district's name) and south of the Jingshen Railway, and is famous for its heavy industry. This mixed-use district also contains large blocks of residential complexes, so as well as strips of small to medium-sized shopping districts. It previously had only an area of 39 km2 (15 sq mi)[63] and a population of 764,419.[64] In May 2002, the Shenyang
Shenyang
city government annexed a large area of suburban land from the neighbouring Yuhong District
Yuhong District
to establish a new state-level development zone — the Shenyang
Shenyang
Economic and Technological Development Zone (沈阳经济技术开发区), and transferred its administration to Tiexi District to form the Tiexi New District (铁西新区), thus giving Tiexi District the current "necked" shape on the map. The new Tiexi District now has a population of 907,091 (2014),[62] a total area of 286 km2 (110 sq mi),[61] and enjoys the same administrative rank as a municipality (Administrative Committee of Shenyang). The district is featured in a 9-hour epic documentary film West of the Tracks by a young filmmaker Wang Bing. It shows the transition in this rust belt district—a palimpsest of not only Chinese but also world history. The first factories of this place were built in 1934 by the Japanese to produce war goods for the Imperial Army and nationalized after World War II. As late as the early 1980s, the factories here employed about one million workers, but all of them went jobless in the 1990s.[65] Hunnan
Hunnan
District[edit]

World Heritage Site: Fuling Tomb(Dongling Park)

The Hunnan District
Hunnan District
(浑南区; "Hun River's south district"), was formerly called the Dongling District
Dongling District
(东陵区; "East Mausoleum district") before June 17, 2014, referring to the UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site-listed tombs dedicated to Nurhachi, the founder of Later Jin, and his empress Monggo-Jerjer. The large suburban district is located on the east and southeast side of urban Shenyang, with most of its territory south of the Hun River, hence its current name. It has an area of 734 km2 (283 sq mi)[61] and a population of 324,074 (2014).[62] The Shenyang
Shenyang
Botanical Garden and the Shenyang International Expo Garden (which hosted the 2006 International Horticultural Exposition) are also located in this district. Hunnan District
Hunnan District
hosts the city's only operational commercial airport, the Taoxian International Airport, and is rapidly becoming high-end residential areas with luxury apartments, fine neighbourhoods and commercial developments, as suburbs of Shenyang
Shenyang
are growing steadily. The district is traversed by two corridors along two major highways, one leading to the Eastern Mausoleum and the neighbouring city of Fushun, and the other leading to the airport. Launched in 1988 as the Shenyang
Shenyang
National New and High-Tech Industrial Development Zone and elevated to a national-level zone in 1991, the Hunnan
Hunnan
New Area (浑南新区) focuses on electronic and information technology products such as software, computers, network systems, communication equipment and audio/visual equipment; advanced manufacturing technologies, especially for automobiles, medical equipment; advanced materials and biological and pharmaceutical products. The zone has hosted more than 5,700 enterprises, including 700 foreign-invested enterprises.[citation needed] Foreign companies such as the General Electric Co., Tyco International, and Mitsubishi Group operate in the zone. Currently, the Shenyang
Shenyang
City Government is working on expanding the city and plans to relocate its seat to the Hunnan
Hunnan
New Area from the current site in Shenhe District.[citation needed] Sujiatun
Sujiatun
District[edit] The Sujiatun District
Sujiatun District
(苏家屯区; "Su family village district") forms the southernmost part of the suburbs, located 15 km (9 mi) away from central Shenyang. The 2014 registered population of Sujiatun
Sujiatun
is 428,859.[62] and it has an area of 782 km2 (302 sq mi).[61] Sujiatun
Sujiatun
is known mostly for its agricultural and industrial activity. It borders the districts of Yuhong and Heping to the north, Dongling to the northeast, Tiexi to the northwest; it also borders the prefecture-level cities of Fushun to the east, Benxi
Benxi
to the southeast, and Liaoyang
Liaoyang
to the southwest. Shenbei New District[edit] The Shenbei New District
Shenbei New District
(沈北新区; "Shenyang's north new district"), formerly Xinchengzi District (新城子区; "new town district"), is a new development zone and forms the majority of the northern suburbs. It has an area of 884 km2 (341 sq mi)[61] and a population of 320,370 (2014).[62] It borders Hunnan District
Hunnan District
to the southeast, Dadong and Huanggu Districts to the south, Yuhong District
Yuhong District
to the southwest, Xinmin City
Xinmin City
and Faku County to the northwest; it also borders the prefecture-level cities of Tieling
Tieling
to the northeast and Fushun
Fushun
to the southeast. Yuhong District[edit] The Yuhong District
Yuhong District
(于洪区; "Yu and Hong district") forms part of the northwestern and western suburbs. It has an area of 499 km2 (193 sq mi)[61] and a population of 435,333 (2014).[62] It borders Shenbei New District
Shenbei New District
to the northeast, Huanggu District
Huanggu District
to the east, Tiexi District to the south, and Xinmin City
Xinmin City
to the west. China Resources Beverage, the distributor of C'estbon Water, has its Northeast regional office in the district. The large southwestern part of the neighbouring Tiexi District also used to belong to Yuhong District, but in May 2002, the southwestern part of Yuhong District
Yuhong District
was ceded on order of the city government to establish the Shenyang
Shenyang
Economic and Technological Development Zone, and the administration of the region was later transferred to Tiexi District instead. This annexation of land left an exclave territory lying between Tiexi District, Heping District and Sujiatun
Sujiatun
District, separated from the main body of Yuhong District, hence making the Tiexi District flanked at the "neck" by the two parts of Yuhong. Liaozhong District[edit] The Liaozhong District
Liaozhong District
(辽中区; "Liaoning's center district", referring to its central location within the province) is the newest and largest suburban district. Formerly the Liaozhong County (辽中县), its rural county status was made defunct in January 2016, and formally instated as a suburban city district on April 11, 2016. It lies 67 km (42 mi) southwest of downtown Shenyang, near the intersection of G1 Beijing– Harbin
Harbin
Expressway and G91 Liaozhong Ring Expressway. As of 2014[update], it had a population of 532,900[62] residing in an area of 1,645 km2 (635 sq mi).[61] It is the most southwestern part of Shenyang
Shenyang
City, bordering Xinmin City
Xinmin City
to the north, and Tiexi District to the northeast, as well as the prefecture-level cities of Liaoyang to the southeast, Anshan
Anshan
to the south and southwest, and Jinzhou
Jinzhou
to the west. Satellite city[edit] Xinmin City[edit]

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The Xinmin City
Xinmin City
(新民市; "new residents city"), formerly Xinmin County (新民县) before 1993, is a county-level city and contains the westernmost part of the Greater Shenyang
Shenyang
area, and by far the most spacious of any county-level divisions of Shenyang
Shenyang
with an area of 3,297 km2 (1,273 sq mi), with a registered population of 690,703 (2014). It borders Faku County
Faku County
to the northeast, Shenbei and Yuhong Districts to the east, Tiexi District to the southeast, Liaozhong District
Liaozhong District
to the south, the prefecture-level cities of Jinzhou
Jinzhou
to the west and Fuxin
Fuxin
to the northwest. Xinmin has one of the leading horticulture industries in China, especially in apples, watermelon and white cabbages, as well as animal husbandry such as chicken and pigs. Light manufacturing
Light manufacturing
is also an important part of Xinmin's economy, with 57% of its GDP derived from food processing, pharmaceuticals and packaging products in 2012. The city also has access to the Liaohe oil field. There are also proposals to relocated the defunct East Pagoda
Pagoda
Airport to Xinmin for reopening. Rural counties[edit] Faku County[edit] The Faku County
Faku County
(法库县) lies 77 kilometres (48 mi) north of urban Shenyang, and has an area of 2,281 square kilometres (881 square miles) with a population of 447,952 (2014). The county's name is reportedly a phonetic transliteration of the Manchu
Manchu
word for fishing weir, due to the county's fishing resources from its extensive network of rivers, lakes and reservoirs. The county borders the Kangping County to the north, Shenbei New District
Shenbei New District
to the southeast, Xinmin City to the southwest, and the prefecture-level cities of Tieling
Tieling
to the east, and Fuxin
Fuxin
to the west. Other than agriculture, Faku County has the richest source of minerals in the Shenyang
Shenyang
area, including the largest reserve of kaolinite and wollastonite in China. As a result, in recent years the county has attracted a lot of foreign investment from the ceramic industry. Kangping County[edit] The Kangping County
Kangping County
(康平县; "prosperous and peaceful county") is the northernmost and most remote part of the Greater Shenyang
Shenyang
area, and has an area of 2,167 km2 (837 sq mi) with a population of 352,434 (2014). It was historically first established in 1880 under the blessing of the Guangxu Emperor, hence the name. The county borders the Faku County
Faku County
to the south, the prefecture-level cities of Tieling
Tieling
to the east, Fuxin
Fuxin
to the southwest and Inner Mongolia's Tongliao
Tongliao
to the north. The county is mostly agricultural, with majority of its GDP coming from crop and fruit planting. However, in recent years the synthetic fabric, carbon fiber and alternative energy industries begin to take hold in Kangping. The county currently has the third largest wind farm in the whole province. Demographics[edit]

West Pagoda
Pagoda
(Xi Ta) Street, world's 2nd largest Koreatown.[66][67]

Shenyang
Shenyang
has a population of 8.1 million and its urban population is 5.74 million. By urban population, it is the largest city in northeast China
China
and among the top ten largest cities in China. Ethnically and culturally diverse, Shenyang
Shenyang
has 38 of China's 56 recognized ethnic groups, including the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
majority that make up 91.26 percent of Shenyang's population. The 37 minority groups are Manchu, Korean, Hui, Xibo, Mongolian, Zhuang, Miao, Tujia, Dong, Daur, Bai, Uyghur, Tibetan, Yi, Taiwanese Aboriginal People, She, Bouyei, Yao, Akha, Kazakh, Dai, Li, Shui, Nakhi, Jingpo, Kyrgyz, Tu, Mulao, Qiang, Maonan, Gelao, Russian, Evenks, Tatars, Oroqen, Nanai and Lhoba.[68] Most of these groups are not native to the Shenyang area; a few, such as the Manchus and the Xibe, are. Shenyang
Shenyang
has numerous temples, mosques, churches and other religious places of worship. Economy[edit]

The arch entrance of Middle (Zhongjie) Street, a 3.5 km-long pedestrian shopping strip in central Shenyang
Shenyang
beside Mukden Palace,[69] and is the longest shopping street in China.[70]

Shenyang
Shenyang
is an important industrial center in China
China
and is the core city of Shenyang
Shenyang
Economic Zone, a New Special
Special
Reform Zone. It has been focused on heavy industry, particularly aerospace, machine tools, heavy equipment and defence, and recently on software, automotive and electronics.[71][71] The heavy industry started in the 1920s and was well developed before the second world war.[72][73] During the first five-year plan (1951–1956) many factories were built in Tiexi district.[74] At its peak in the 1970s, Shenyang
Shenyang
was one of the top three industrial centers in China
China
alongside Shanghai
Shanghai
and Tianjin, and was at one time being considered for upgrading to a direct-controlled municipality. However, as the planned economy fell out of favor after the 1980s, the heavy industry had declined gradually and the city became a rust belt city, with hundreds of thousands of people laid off from bankrupted state-owned factories.[75][76][77] However, the economy of the city has revived significantly in recent years, thanks to the central government's "Revitalize Northeast China" campaign and the rapid development of software and auto manufacture industries.[78] Investment subsidies are granted to multinational corporations (MNCs) that set up offices or headquarters in Shenyang.[60] The services sector — especially banking — has been developing in Shenyang. Shenyang
Shenyang
has several foreign banks, such as South Korea's Hana Bank, Japan's Bank of Tokyo-Mitsubishi UFJ, Hong Kong's Bank of East Asia, Singapore's United Overseas Bank
United Overseas Bank
and the Britain-based HSBC. In 2006, the city hosted a total of 1,063 banks and bank branches and 144 insurance-related companies. By 2010, it aims to attract 30 foreign banks and 60 non-bank financial institutions.[60][needs update] The city has been identified by the Economist Intelligence Unit
Economist Intelligence Unit
in the November 2010 Access China
China
White Paper as a member of the CHAMPS (Chongqing, Hefei, Anshan, Maanshan, Pingdingshan
Pingdingshan
and Shenyang), an economic profile of the top 20 emerging cities in China.[79] Shenyang
Shenyang
has three development zones:

Shenyang
Shenyang
Finance and Trade Development Zone Shenyang
Shenyang
High-Tech Industrial Development Zone Shenyang
Shenyang
Economic & Technological Development Zone

Further information: Development zones of Shenyang Numerous major industrial companies have their headquarters in Shenyang. Brilliance Auto
Brilliance Auto
is a major Chinese automobile manufacturer, and most of its production plants are also located in Shenyang.[80][81] Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
produces airplanes for civilian use as well as for the PLAAF.[82] Neusoft Group
Neusoft Group
is the biggest software company in China.[83] Shenyang
Shenyang
Machine Tool Group is the largest machine tool manufacturer in China.[84] Tyco International, General Motors
General Motors
and Michelin
Michelin
Shenyang
Shenyang
Tyre Corporation are expanding their operations in Shenyang. The total GDP of the city of Shenyang
Shenyang
is 383.66 billion yuan in year 2009 (ranked 1st out of the 58 cities and counties in Liaoning province). The GDP per capita of the city of Shenyang
Shenyang
is 78490 yuan in 2009 (ranked 3rd out of all 58 cities and counties in Liaoning province).[85] Transportation[edit] As the transport hub of Northeast China, Shenyang
Shenyang
is served by air, rail, a currently two-line subway system and an extensive network of streets and expressways, with bus service throughout the city.[86] Terminal 3 at Shenyang
Shenyang
Taoxian International Airport
Taoxian International Airport
is the largest terminal in the northeast China.[87] A new tram network system was built in the city's south in 2013. Rail[edit]

The CRH5-001A EMU serving the Beijing– Shenyang
Shenyang
High-Speed Railway

Shenyang
Shenyang
is the railway hub of Northeast China. Eight railways connect Shenyang
Shenyang
with Beijing, Dalian, Changchun, Harbin
Harbin
and Fushun. The city is also served by the Qinhuangdao– Shenyang
Shenyang
High-Speed Railway, the main passenger transport corridor in and out across the Shanhai Pass, and the first passenger-specific railway line in China. In early 2007, a 200 km/h (120 mph) high-speed train decreased travel time between Beijing
Beijing
and Shenyang
Shenyang
by almost three-fold to around 4 hours. The Harbin– Dalian
Dalian
High-Speed Railway opened in late 2012 and connects Shenyang
Shenyang
with other major cities in Northeast China
Northeast China
such as Harbin, Changchun
Changchun
and Dalian
Dalian
at speeds of up to 300 km/h (190 mph).[88] Shenyang
Shenyang
has two major railway stations: the Shenyang
Shenyang
North Railway Station in Shenhe District, and the Shenyang Railway Station
Shenyang Railway Station
in Heping District.[89]

Shenyang
Shenyang
North Railway Station

The old Liaoning
Liaoning
General Station

The Shenyang North Railway Station
Shenyang North Railway Station
(Chinese: 沈阳北站; pinyin: Shěnyáng Bĕi Zhàn) was formerly the Liaoning
Liaoning
General Station (遼寧總站; Liáoníng Zǒngzhàn) before 1946, and colloquially known as the "Old North Station". The original station building (now a MHCSPNL-listed heritage building), initially named the Fengtian City Station (奉天城站; Fèngtīan Chéng Zhàn) at the time of completion, was built in 1927 at the terminal point of Jingfeng Railway, about 1 km (0.62 mi) southwest of the current station site, on the orders of warlord Zhang Zuolin
Zhang Zuolin
to compete with the then Japanese-administered Shenyang
Shenyang
Railway Station. The Main Station Building (主站房) of the current "New North Station" began construction in 1986 and was commissioned for operation in December 1990, and became one of the five most important railway hubs in China, earning itself the nickname "Northeast's No. 1 Station" (东北第一站).[90][91] In 2011, a huge expansion project known as the "North Station Transport Hub Reconstruction Project" (北站交通枢纽改造工程) was initiated in response to the growing demand of floor area posed by the increasing passenger traffic after introduction of the high-speed rail service. The station now has an additional 3-storey "Sub-Station Building" (子站房) and a "North Square" (北广场) on the northern (Huanggu District) side of the railways, while the old waiting lounge in the original 16-storey Main Station Building is now relocated to a large elevated concourse that bridges over the rail tracks, with a pillar-less roof (the largest in mainland China) doming the platforms. The original South Square (南广场) outside the Main Station Building was rebuilt into a multi-levelled complex, with two above ground forming an elevated airport-style drop-off zone and a large ground-level area for bus stops, as well as a three-level underground city providing shopping malls, parking lots, taxi pick-up and interchange with Subway Line 2, while also capable of rapid conversion into an air raid shelter if needed.

Shenyang
Shenyang
Railway Station

The Shenyang Railway Station
Shenyang Railway Station
(Chinese: 沈阳站; pinyin: Shěnyáng Zhàn) has a history of more than 100 years. It was built by the Russians in 1899 on the eastern side of the South Manchurian Railway and was named the Fengtian Station (Chinese: 奉天站; pinyin: Fèngtiān Zhàn) at the time. It was later expanded by the Japanese after the Russo-Japanese War
Russo-Japanese War
and renamed to Fengtian Yam (Chinese: 奉天驛; pinyin: Fèngtiān Yì) until the end of the World War II. Before adopting its current name, the station was known as the Shenyang South Railway Station (Chinese: 瀋陽南站; pinyin: Shĕnyáng Nán Zhàn) or simply the "South Station" (in contrast to the forementioned "North Station") between 1945 and 1950, a name the locals still use colloquially to present days (though the current Shenyang South Railway Station is actually at the suburban junction between Hunnan
Hunnan
and Sujiatun). Today, the station focuses on regular-speed passenger service and is being refurbished with a large archway and new terminal, reducing access to the boarding platforms by rerouting customers under and over ground while construction is completed. The station was expanded in 2010 with the addition of a new West Station Building (西站房) and a West Square (西广场) on the western side of the railways.[92] The old East Station Building (东站房) is currently on the provincial protected heritage list. Since 2011, a daily direct container rail service has carried automotive parts 11,000 km (6,800 mi) from Leipzig, Germany to Shenyang
Shenyang
through Siberia
Siberia
with a 23-day transit time.[93] Road[edit]

Shenyang's districts, landmarks and major roads

In the Manchukuo
Manchukuo
era, the initial road transportation network was laid out, as is now in the central districts of Shenyang. The city follows a largely grid-style urban layout, with the roads follow a slightly northwest-to-southeast orientation due to the South Manchurian Railway, which runs perpendicular to that direction. The streets in Shenyang
Shenyang
are almost always named according to a routine convention — one that runs more in the north-south direction is called a "street" (街; Jīe) or "avenue" (大街; Dà Jīe; "big street"), and one that runs more east-west are call a "road" (路; Lù) or "boulevard" (大道; Dà Dào; "big path"). The only exceptions to this rule are the east-west Middle Street in Shenhe District, which takes its historical name from ancient times (though its modern official name is actually the "Middle Street Road"); and the north-south Minzhu Road (民主路) in Heping District that traverses diagonally across the superblock between the Shenyang Railway Station
Shenyang Railway Station
and the Zhongshan Park, but as one of the only three diagonal streets in the entire city it is accommodated as a "road" instead of "street" in keeping with the other two diagonal counterparts that runs east-west. In addition to the grid streets, Shenyang
Shenyang
also was developing several ring road systems, going back as early as the "Fengtian City Plan" (奉天都邑計劃) proposed by the Japanese-controlled puppet Manchukuo
Manchukuo
government in 1932. Outside of the (now demolished) city walls, the city initially planned three beltways, namely the "inner ring", "middle ring" and "outer ring" roads. Gradually with urban development, the inner ring idea faded away into the inner city grids, but the middle ring concept was retained and later transformed into the nowadays 1st Ring Road (一环路, officially called the "Middle Ring Road" until 1995), and the outer ring morphed roughly into parts of the present day 2nd Ring Road (二环路). The 3rd Ring Road (三环路) was completed in 1995, and in 2013 was upgraded into an 8-lane, 82 km (51 mi) freeway — the G1501 Shenyang
Shenyang
Round City Expressway (沈阳绕城高速公路). The 10-lane, 132 km (82 mi) 4th Ring Road (四环路) is a limited-access highway about 8 km (5.0 mi) out from the 3rd Ring, completed in 2013. The planned 6-lane, 198 km (123 mi) 5th Ring Road (五环路) and the proposed 399 km (248 mi) 6th Ring Road (六环路), also known as the G91 Liaozhong Ring Expressway (辽中环线高速公路), are both currently under construction.

Jingshen Expressway

Shenyang
Shenyang
is connected to the other regions by several major expressways in radial pattern. The G15 Shenda Expressway (沈大高速公路) to the southwest is the first expressway built in China
China
and is an 8-lane, 348.5 km (216.5 mi) controlled-access highway with a maximum speed limit of 120 km/h (75 mph), connecting Shenyang
Shenyang
to Dalian, one of the largest port city in China. The 222 km (138 mi) Shendan Expressway (沈丹高速公路) to the southeast, part of the G1113 Dandong– Fuxin
Fuxin
Expressway that traverses Shenyang
Shenyang
from the northwest, is a 4-lane expressway leading to Benxi
Benxi
and Dandong, and also serves Shenyang
Shenyang
Taoxian International Airport. The 4-lane G1212 Shenji Expressway (沈吉高速公路) to the east was completed in 2011, linking Shenyang
Shenyang
to Jilin
Jilin
via Fushun. The 8-lane Jingshen Expressway (京沈高速公路) to the west is an integral part of the extended G1 Jingha Expressway
G1 Jingha Expressway
(京哈高速公路) beyond the northeast, and is a major interprovincial "trunk road" across the Shanhai Pass
Shanhai Pass
linking to the national capital Beijing
Beijing
some 658 km (409 mi) away. There are other smaller provincial-level expressways ("S routes") to other cities like Fushun, Liaoyang
Liaoyang
and Panjin, as well as many long-distance and express bus routes to Beijing
Beijing
and other large Northeastern regional centers via major national roads such as the China National Highways
China National Highways
101, 102, 203 and 304. Airport[edit]

Taoxian International Airport

The city is served by the Shenyang
Shenyang
Taoxian International Airport, located in Hunnan
Hunnan
District. It is one of the eight major airline hubs and the 20th busiest airport in China.[94][95] There are three other airports in Shenyang, none of them open to public. The East Pagoda
Pagoda
Airport (东塔机场) in Dadong District
Dadong District
is the oldest airport in Shenyang, opened in 1920s and retired in the 1980s,[96][97] though there has been proposals in 2013 to relocate and reopen it in Xinmin. The Beiling Airport (北陵机场) in Huanggu District is used by Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
for test flights. The Yuhong Airport (于洪机场) in Yuhong District
Yuhong District
is commissioned for military use only by the local Northern Theater Command garrisons.[98] Public transport[edit]

A CRV 70% Low-Floor Tram serving the Taoxian Airport

In Shenyang, there are more than 160 bus routes.[99] Shenyang
Shenyang
used to have about 20 trolley bus routes, one of the biggest trolley bus networks in China.[100] The entire network was demolished in 1999 after a serious electrocution accident that killed 5 passengers in August 12, 1998, and was replaced by diesel-powered buses. Trams in Shenyang
Trams in Shenyang
was introduced in Shenyang
Shenyang
from 1924, and had 6 lines in operation up until 1945. It suffered major disruptions during the Chinese Civil War
Chinese Civil War
from power outage and Kuomintang
Kuomintang
bombings, but quickly resumed operation after the conclusion of the Liaoshen Campaign. After the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the tram network was gradually replaced by the buses and trolley buses, and eventually closed in 1974.[101] In December 2011, the Shenyang
Shenyang
city government announced plan to rebuild light rail transit network in 2012, comprising 4 lines with 60 km (37 mi) distance in the Hunnan
Hunnan
New District. The Shenyang Modern Tram
Shenyang Modern Tram
network started operation in August 15, 2013.

Shenyang Metro
Shenyang Metro
Line 1

Shenyang
Shenyang
has been planning an underground rapid transit system since 1940, but was unable to materialize the idea due to the city's geology and engineering limitations.[102] On November 18, 2005, the construction of the first Shenyang Metro
Shenyang Metro
line finally started[103] and the construction of the second line started on November 18, 2006. The first (east-west) line was opened September 27, 2010 and the second (north–south) was opened on January 9, 2012. Construction is difficult due to the granite-rich bedrock on which the city is built. Healthcare[edit] Shenyang
Shenyang
has 731 medical and healthcare centers, 63,000 healthcare staff and 3.02 healthcare worker per 1,000 people. There are 34,033 hospital beds and 45,680 various kinds of medical and technical personnel, among whom there are 17,346 licensed doctors, 1,909 assistant licensed doctors, and 16887 certified nurses.[104] The average expected life-span of the people in Shenyang
Shenyang
is 73.8 years. The China
China
Medical University (中国医科大学; Zhōngguó Yīkē Dàxué) in Huanggu District
Huanggu District
is one of the top 10 medical schools in China
China
and is IMED-listed. Its diplomas are accredited worldwide.[105] Shenyang
Shenyang
is home to China
China
Medical University Hospital, China
China
Medical University 1st, 2nd (renamed Shengjing Hospital in 2003)[106] and 4th Affiliated Hospital, 202 Hospital, Liaoning
Liaoning
Tumor Hospital, Shenyang No.7 People's Hospital, Shenyang
Shenyang
Orthopaedics Hospital, Shenyang
Shenyang
Army General Hospital, North Hospital, and various other hospitals and clinics. Military[edit] Shenyang
Shenyang
hosts the headquarters of the People's Liberation Army's Northern Theater Command
Northern Theater Command
(formerly the Shenyang
Shenyang
Military Region) and garrisons its air force divisions. Shenyang
Shenyang
is also famous for its defense industries, with the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation (SAC), nicknamed "the cradle of Chinese jetfighters" (中国歼击机摇篮)", being the People's Republic's oldest and largest aircraft manufacturer, responsible for the design and manufacturing of the currently operational J-8, J-11, J-15, J-16 fighter aircraft and the in-development J-31 stealth aircraft. The Shenyang
Shenyang
Aeroengine Research Institute, a subdivision of SAC, is also responsible for designing the indigenous WS-10, WS-15 and WS-20 turbofan engines. In 2014, South Korea
Korea
and China
China
agreed to repatriate the remains of 400 People's Volunteer Army
People's Volunteer Army
soldiers killed during the Korean War, which had been buried in Paju, and scheduled to be reburied in a state military cemetery in Shenyang.[107] Culture[edit]

Korean-Chinese style barbecue in mud brazier (泥炉烧烤) is exclusively in Shenyang

Shenyang
Shenyang
dialect[edit] People native to Shenyang
Shenyang
speak the Shenyang
Shenyang
dialect, a variant of Northeastern Mandarin.[108] Shenyang
Shenyang
Dialect was formed in early period of Qing
Qing
Dynasty.[109][110] Shenyang dialect
Shenyang dialect
is similar to the other Northeastern dialects and also to the national standard of Mandarin, Putonghua, but is known as a form of Dongbeihua
Dongbeihua
and has a wide range of vocabulary that is not part of the country's official language.[108] As Shenyang dialect
Shenyang dialect
is mutually intelligible with most forms of Mandarin, some people prefer to characterize it as an "accent" rather than a different "dialect."[citation needed] Art[edit] Two northeast folk dances, Er Ren Zhuan and Yang Ge, are very popular in Shenyang.[111][112] The Big Stage Theatre (大舞台剧场) near Middle Street is famous for its Er Ren Zhuan and Chinese comedy skit performances by Zhao Benshan
Zhao Benshan
and his disciples. Due to the popularity enjoyed by many Shenyang-based comedians, the city is nationally recognized as a stronghold of Chinese comedy. Shenyang
Shenyang
is home of many performance art organizations, such as Shenyang
Shenyang
Acrobatic Troupe of China, Liaoning
Liaoning
Song and Dance Ensemble, and Liaoning
Liaoning
Ballet.[113] Many artists are from Shenyang, such as Zimei, Na Ying
Na Ying
and the pianist Lang Lang. Museums[edit]

9.18 Historical Museum

Liaoning
Liaoning
Provincial Museum (辽宁省博物馆), the largest museum in Northeast China. The museum hold many ancient relics and artefacts, including a selection of inscriptions in Chinese and Khitan that are some of the earliest known forms of writing. Shenyang
Shenyang
Steam Locomotive Museum (沈阳蒸汽机车博物馆), with 16 steam engines from America, Japan, Russia, Belgium, Poland, Germany, Czechoslovakia and China. 9.18 Historical Museum (九·一八历史博物馆), a museum in memory of Mukden Incident
Mukden Incident
on September 18, 1931. The museum has a shape of an opened calendar, and is located on the site where the Japanese troops destroyed the South Manchuria
Manchuria
Railway, the prelude to the invasion of Manchuria. Xinle Relic (新乐遗址), located on the location where the Xinle civilisation was first discovered, containing a reconstructed Xinle settlement and housing artefacts discovered there.

Sports[edit]

The Shenyang
Shenyang
Olympics Sports Center Statium

Shenyang
Shenyang
is famous for its football tradition. The local football club is the Liaoning
Liaoning
F.C., in the Chinese Super League. Liaoning
Liaoning
F.C. was once the consecutive national champion for 10 years from 1984 to 1993, and the first Chinese team to win the AFC Champions League
AFC Champions League
in 1990.[112] Another Chinese Super League
Chinese Super League
team, Shenyang Jinde
Shenyang Jinde
moved to Changsha
Changsha
in 2007. Shenyang
Shenyang
Olympic Sports Center Stadium, a 60,000-seated soccer stadium, was a venue for the football preliminary of 2008 Summer Olympics.[114] Shenyang
Shenyang
also has one of the five full-length (400 m) speed skating rink in China, the Bayi Speed Skating Arena (八一速滑馆). Shenyang
Shenyang
Sport University [2] is a famous professional sports university in China. The university is the training base for winter sports in China
China
and has many Olympic champions. Religion[edit] The Shenyang
Shenyang
city government legally recognizes five religious beliefs — Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Catholicism
Catholicism
and Protestantism. During the period between 1949 and 1976, religious practices were significantly repressed, but have recovered since the end of the Cultural Revolution. As of 2012[update], Shenyang
Shenyang
has seven city-level religious organizations, with 289 legally registered places of worship, 483 clerics and about 400,000 followers. Famous religious sites include: Buddhism

Chang'an Temple
Temple
(长安寺), a Zen Buddhism
Buddhism
temple, first built during the Tang dynasty Banruo Temple
Temple
(般若寺), built during the Qin dynasty Ci'en Temple
Temple
(慈恩寺), a Pure Land Buddhism
Buddhism
temple, Wugoujingguang Śarīra Pagoda
Pagoda
(无垢净光舍利塔), a 33-m-high Buddhist pagoda erected in 1044 during the Liao dynasty Shisheng Temple
Temple
(实胜寺), once known as Royal Temple
Temple
(皇寺), a Tibetan Buddhist
Tibetan Buddhist
temple built in 1636 for the Qing
Qing
royal family The East Pagoda
Pagoda
(东塔), North Pagoda
Pagoda
(北塔), West Pagoda
Pagoda
(西塔) and South Pagoda
Pagoda
(南塔), collectively known as the "Four Pagodas of Early Qing" (清初四塔; Qīngchū Sì Tǎ) are four white Tibetan Buddhist pagodas built by Hong Taiji
Hong Taiji
in 1639.

Taoism

Taiqing Palace (太清宫), built in 1663 Pengying Palace (蓬瀛宫), the only female Taoist temple in Northeast China, built in 1994 Doumu Palace (斗姆宫), formerly the second largest Taoist temple in Shenyang

Christianity

Sacred Heart Cathedral of Shenyang
Sacred Heart Cathedral of Shenyang
(沈阳圣心教堂), a Roman Catholic cathedral Dongguan Church
Dongguan Church
(东关教会), one of the largest and oldest Protestant churches in Northeast China, also known as the cradle of Christianity of the Koreans in China
China
and in the Korean Peninsula Xita Church
Xita Church
(西塔教会), a Protestant church for the Korean Chinese

Islamism

South Mosque
Mosque
(清真南寺), the largest mosque in Northeast China, built in Qing
Qing
dynasty

Cuisine[edit] Shenyang
Shenyang
has classic northeastern Chinese cuisine. Traditional meals in the region are suan cai (also called Chinese sauerkraut), stewed chicken and mushroom, and meat pie.[115] Korean food, such as rice cake (Hangul: 떡; RR: tteok) and cold noodle (Hangul: 냉면; Hanja: 冷麵; RR: naengmyeon; Chinese: 冷面; pinyin: Lěng Miàn), is a part of Shenyangers' diet as there is a sizeable ethnic Korean population in the city.[115] Also, as the area was traditionally occupied by Manchus, the cuisine in Shenyang
Shenyang
was fundamentally influenced by Manchu
Manchu
food, as well as the famous Manchu
Manchu
Han Imperial Feast.[116] Due to the sizeable Hui population in Shenyang, halal foods are a common and also enjoyed by non- Muslim
Muslim
people. Notable people[edit]

Dr. Min Chiu Li, therapeutic scientist, Albert Lasker Medical Research Award winner, Alfred Sloan Award in Cancer Research winner Zhang Zuolin, Chinese/Manchurian politician Guo Songling, Chinese/Manchurian general working with Zhang Xueliang Tetsuzo Fuyushiba, Japanese/Manchurian politician Gong Li, Singaporean/Chinese actress Na Ying, singer Lang Lang, pianist Ai Jing, singer Jing Boran, singer Zimei, artist and Guzheng player Kōbō Abe, Japanese novelist, brought up in Shenyang
Shenyang
(Mukden) Seiji Ozawa, Japanese conductor, born in Shenyang
Shenyang
(Mukden) Ma Lin, table-tennis player Wang Yongzhi, aerospace engineer and academic Jin Xing, dancer and actor Liu Dongsheng, geological and environmental engineer Chang Hsin-kang, professor, the former President of City University of Hong Kong Lin Gengxin, actor known for his role in Scarlet Heart Yoshiko Yamaguchi, stage name Li Xianglan, actress, peace-activist Xu Geyang, singer

Tourism[edit] Attractions[edit]

Mukden Palace
Mukden Palace
(沈阳故宫): the former imperial palace of the early Qing
Qing
dynasty. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. East Mausoleum (东陵): the tomb of the first Qing
Qing
emperor, Nurhaci. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Beiling Park
Park
and North Mausoleum (北陵): the tomb of the second Qing emperor, Huang Taiji. The park covers an area of 3,300,000 square metres (36,000,000 square feet), and is serviced by trams for visitors who do not wish to (or cannot) traverse the length of the park. It is a UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Site. Qipan Mountain (棋盘山): a recreation resort in Shenbei New District, northeast of Shenyang. Strange Slope (怪坡): an 80 m (87 yd)-long, 25 m (82 ft)-wide slope on the western side of Mao Mountain in Shenbei District, famous for the unexplained phenomenon of vehicles seemingly able to move uphill unpowered. Shenyang
Shenyang
Botanical Garden (沈阳植物园) is located within the Qipanshan Tourism District. With a total area of 2.46 km2 (610 acres), the garden hosted the International Horticultural Exposition in 2006. Since then it has also been known as the Shenyang International Expo Garden (沈阳世博园). A variety of botanical exhibitions are held throughout the year.[117] Meteorite Mountain Forest Park
Park
(陨石山森林公园), located in the southeast of Shenyang
Shenyang
in Hunnan
Hunnan
District. The biggest meteorite lies on the Huashitai Mountain of Lixiang County, and is 160 m (520 ft) long, 54 m (177 ft) wide, 42 m (138 ft) tall and about 2,000,000 t (2,200,000 short tons) in weight. It is the oldest meteorite in the world which was formed 4.5 billion years ago and fallen into the Earth 1.9 billion years ago.[citation needed] Xiaonan Cathedral of Shenyang
Shenyang
(小南天主教堂), the construction of the cathedral started in 1875 and finished in 1878.

Shopping areas[edit]

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Shenyang
Shenyang
has many shopping areas that provide necessities, luxuries and entertainments. One of the shopping districts is Middle Street (中街). Middle Street has a history of more than 100 years. In 2005, Middle Street gained the title of China
China
top 10 famous commercial shopping streets and in 2008; it won the International Golden Street title. Middle Street is also the first commercial pedestrian street in China. Middle Street features many western-style stores and restaurants, including Wal-Mart, Pizza Hut, Louis Vuitton flagship store, Häagen-Dazs retail store, etc. The largest shopping mall in Shenyang
Shenyang
is also located on Middle Street, selling products from all around the world. Taiyuan
Taiyuan
Street (太原街) is another shopping area which is similar to Middle Street. Taiyuan
Taiyuan
Street also features many restaurants and theaters for people to enjoy. Many spend their holidays shopping on these two streets. There is also a very large underground shopping center, offering lots of items, especially fashion jewelries, accessories and clothing. Another area, Wu'ai Market (五爱市场), features a large multi-story shopping center with a size comparable to that of many city blocks. It is famous for wholesaling cheap clothes and household items. The information technology center is in Sanhao street (三好街) in the southern part of the city. There are large superstores located throughout the city that sell everything from meat and dairy to clothes and electronics. Research and education[edit] Shenyang
Shenyang
has one of the highest concentrations of educational institutes in China. Roughly 30 colleges and universities and numerous research and training institutions are located in Shenyang, including core institutes of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. Research institutes[edit]

Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (中国科学院金属研究所) Shenyang
Shenyang
Institute of Automation, Chinese Academy of Sciences (中国科学院沈阳自动化研究所) Shenyang
Shenyang
Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所), formerly the Institute of Forestry and Pedology (林业土壤研究所) Shenyang
Shenyang
Institute of Computing Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences (中国科学院沈阳计算机技术研究所) Shenyang Aircraft Design Institute (沈阳飞机设计研究所), also known as the "601 Institute" Shenyang
Shenyang
Aeroengine Research Institute (沈阳发动机设计研究所), also known as the "606 Institute"

High schools[edit]

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Liaoning
Liaoning
Province Shiyan
Shiyan
High School (辽宁省实验中学) Shenyang
Shenyang
No. 2 High School (沈阳市第二中学) Shenyang
Shenyang
No. 4 High School (沈阳市第四中学) Shenyang
Shenyang
No. 20 High School (沈阳市第二十中学) Shenyang
Shenyang
No. 31 High School (沈阳市第三十一中学) Shenyang
Shenyang
No.120 High School (沈阳市第一二零中学) Northeast Yucai School (东北育才中学), a school founded by the Japanese and is still influenced by Japanese culture. It consists of various departments, such as Nursing Garden, Elementary School, Junior High School and Senior High School.

International schools[edit]

Shenyang International School
Shenyang International School
(沈阳国际学校), founded in 1998 by the International Schools of China
China
(ISC), a United States
United States
non-profit organization committed to educational work in China. Shenyang
Shenyang
Pacific International Academy (沈阳太平洋国际学校), located in Shenbei District. The school offers an American-style high school education.

Universities[edit]

China
China
Medical University (中国医科大学) Liaoning
Liaoning
University (辽宁大学) Liaoning
Liaoning
Communication University (辽宁传媒学院) Liaoning
Liaoning
University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (辽宁中医药大学) Lu Xun Academy of Fine Arts
Lu Xun Academy of Fine Arts
(鲁迅美术学院) Northeastern University (东北大学) Shenyang University
Shenyang University
(沈阳大学) Shenyang
Shenyang
City University (沈阳城市学院) Shenyang Aerospace University
Shenyang Aerospace University
(沈阳航空航天大学) Shenyang Agricultural University (沈阳农业大学) Shenyang Conservatory of Music
Shenyang Conservatory of Music
(沈阳音乐学院) Shenyang Institute of Engineering (沈阳工程学院) Shenyang
Shenyang
Architectural University (沈阳建筑大学) Shenyang Ligong University
Shenyang Ligong University
(沈阳理工大学) Shenyang Medical College (沈阳医学院) Shenyang Normal University (沈阳师范大学) Shenyang Pharmaceutical University (沈阳药科大学) Shenyang
Shenyang
Sport University (沈阳体育学院) Shenyang University
Shenyang University
of Chemical Technology (沈阳化工大学) Shenyang University
Shenyang University
of Technology (沈阳工业大学)

Defunct universities[edit]

Fengyong University (馮庸大學) was the first private university in China
China
to follow western teaching methods. It was established on August 8, 1927 with private funding by retired Fengtian clique
Fengtian clique
major general Feng Yong (馮庸, 1901–1981, later re-enlisted as a ROCAF lieutenant general). It contained the departments of Engineering, Law and Education. After the Mukden Incident, the campus was looted by Japanese troops and converted into an aircraft repair camp. The staffs and students were later forced to evacuate to Beiping, where the university continued teaching for two more years before merging with the National Northeastern University in September, 1933. Many of the university's alumni were active members of anti-Japanese volunteer armies.

International relations[edit] Foreign consulates[edit] Japan, Russia, South Korea. France, Germany, North Korea
Korea
and the United States
United States
all have consulates in Shenyang, located in Heping District. The German consulate is relatively new, opened in 2013. An Australian Consulate-General is due to be opened in 2018, with Austrade having operated in the city since 2011.[118][119][120] Twin towns – Sister cities[edit] Shenyang
Shenyang
has established sister/friendship city relationships with many other cities around the world. These relationships have sought to promote economic, cultural, educational and other ties. Sister cities[121]

Sapporo, Japan
Japan
1980 Kawasaki, Japan
Japan
1981 Turin, Italy
Italy
1985 Chicago, United States
United States
1985 Düsseldorf, Germany
Germany
1985 Irkutsk, Russia
Russia
1992 Quezon City, Philippines
Philippines
1993 Ramat Gan, Israel
Israel
1993 Gongju, South Korea
Korea
1996 Chuncheon, South Korea
Korea
1998 Seongnam, South Korea
Korea
1998 Yaoundé, Cameroon
Cameroon
1998 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
Vietnam
1999 Gumi, South Korea
Korea
1999 Thessaloniki, Greece
Greece
2000 Ostrava, Czech Republic
Czech Republic
2006 Katowice, Poland
Poland
2007 Hamamatsu, Japan
Japan
2010 Ufa, Russia
Russia
2011 Novosibirsk, Russia
Russia
2013 Incheon, South Korea
Korea
2014 La Plata, Argentina
Argentina
2014 Belfast, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
2016[122]

Friendship cities

Pittsburg, United States Marabá, Pará, Brazil

See also[edit]

List of cities in the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
by population Unit 100 List of twin towns and sister cities in China

Portals Access related topics

China
China
portal

Notes[edit]

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Shenyang
City People's Government. April 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-05.  ^ Kunming
Kunming
Online Encyclopedia. ^ "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions-Liaoning". PRC Central Government Official Website. 2001. Retrieved 2014-04-22.  ^ 2010 census ^ "2010年沈阳市第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报(Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China". National Bureau of Statistics of China.  ^ a b Ebrey (2010), pp. 220–224. ^ 陈海波:坚定不移朝着建设先进装备制造业基地目标加速前行 (in Chinese). 沈阳政府网. 2013-03-06. Retrieved 2013-04-28.  ^ 沈阳 (in Chinese). 新华网. 2012-10-09. Retrieved 2013-11-21.  ^ "Northeast Revitalization Plan (2007)" (in Chinese). China
China
State Council. Retrieved 31 August 2010.  ^ 顾奎相 (January 2013). "沈阳名称由来考——因"沈水"而得名,非"合成"说". 《理论界》 (01).  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Archaeology of Asia, pp.129 ^ 陈寿 (2000). 《三国志·魏志·东夷传》. 浙江古籍出版社. 昔萁子之后北朝鲜侯,自称为王,后子孙稍骄虐,燕乃遣将秦开,攻其西方,取地两千余里,至满番汗为界,朝鲜遂弱。  ^ 沈阳历史 (in Chinese). 中国网. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ a b c 盛京城史话 (in Chinese). 辽宁省档案信息网. Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2014-05-28.  ^ 三陵巷 三陵衙门和盛京将军 (in Chinese). 中国经济网. Archived from the original on 2013-05-15. Retrieved 2013-05-01.  ^ The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 68. NEW YORK: The Century Co. 1904. p. 581. Retrieved 2011-07-06. (Original from Harvard University) ^ Making of America Project (1904). The Century: a popular quarterly, Volume 68. NEW YORK: Scribner & Co. p. 581. Retrieved 2011-07-06. (Original from the University of Michigan) ^ Palmer, Colton & Kramer 2007, p. 673 ^ Spencer C. Tucker (23 December 2009). A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East. ABC-CLIO. p. 1542. ISBN 978-1-85109-672-5. Retrieved 27 April 2013.  ^ Menning p.187 ^ 刘思铎、陈伯超 (2013). "奉天省咨议局建筑特点研究". 《华中建筑》 (4).  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "沈阳市沈河区外经贸之窗". 中华人民共和国商务部. Archived from the original on 2013-12-21. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ "追溯沈阳行政区划的百年印记". 《沈阳晚报》. 2013-10-29. Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ Hata 288 ^ "日本早期对华侵略:皇姑屯事件". 新华网. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ 李彤 (2009-02-12). "奉天军械厂". 《沈阳日报》. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ The Cambridge History of Japan: The twentieth century, p. 294, Peter Duus, John Whitney Hall, Cambridge University Press: 1989. ISBN 978-0-521-22357-7 ^ a b c "82年前"九一八"". 《石家庄日报》. 2013-09-16. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ Behr 1987, p. 182 ^ Fenby, Jonathan. Chiang Kai-shek: China's Generalissimo and the Nation He Lost. Carroll & Graf: 2003, p. 202 ^ a b 詹德华 (2012-04-06). "初建,一个工业区的诞生". 《沈阳晚报》. Archived from the original on 2012-04-12. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ a b 卫岚. "沈阳四次编制城市总体规划". 东北新闻网. Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ "辽宁沈阳简介". 农业部都市重点实验室. Archived from the original on 2013-12-12. Retrieved 2014-05-29.  ^ Prasenjit Duara. "The New Imperialism and the Post-Colonial Developmental State: Manchukuo
Manchukuo
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 This article incorporates text from The Century illustrated monthly magazine, Volume 68, a publication from 1904 now in the public domain in the United States.  This article incorporates text from The Century: a popular quarterly, Volume 68, by Making of America Project, a publication from 1904 now in the public domain in the United States.

References[edit]

 Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Mukden". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.  Avila Tàpies, Rosalia (2012) Territorialidad y etnicidad en Manchuria: el ejemplo de la ciudad de Mukden (Shenyang) bajo la ocupación japonesa.[3] Biblio 3W. Revista Bibliográfica de Geografía y Ciencias Sociales. [En línea]. Barcelona: Universidad de Barcelona, 25 de enero de 2012, Vol. XVII, nº 959. <http://www.ub.es/geocrit/b3w-959.htm>. ISSN 1138-9796. Behr, Edward. The Last Emperor. Bantam. 1987. ISBN 0-553-34474-9. Hata, Ikuhiro. "Continental Expansion: 1905–1941". In The Cambridge History of Japan. Vol. 6. Cambridge University Press. 1988. Menning, Bruce W. Bayonets before Battle: The Imperial Russian Army, 1861–1914. Indiana University ISBN 0-253-21380-0 Palmer, R. R.; Colton, Joel; Kramer, Lloyd (2007). A History of the Modern World (10th ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 978-0-07-310748-6.  Shubert, John. A Biography of Yoshiko Yamaguchi. see www.yoshikoyamaguchi.blogspot.com

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shenyang.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Shenyang.

Shenyang
Shenyang
Government website Online Community of Shenyang

v t e

Sub-provincial City of Shenyang

Districts

Shenhe Huanggu Heping Dadong Tiexi Sujiatun Dongling Shenbei New Area Yuhong Hunnan
Hunnan
New Area*

County-level cities

Xinmin

Counties

Faku Liaozhong Kangping

Landmarks

Mukden Palace Fuling Tomb Beiling Park

Culture & demographics

Er Ren Zhuan Language Mukden Incident

Education

Northeastern University Liaoning
Liaoning
University China
China
Medical University

Transport

Shenyang
Shenyang
Metro Jingshen Expressway Shenyang
Shenyang
Taoxian International Airport

^* Not formal division

v t e

Metropolitan cities of China

Major Metropolitan regions

Jingjinji
Jingjinji
(JJJ) Pearl River Delta
Pearl River Delta
(PRD) / Yuegang'ao Greater Bay Area Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
(YRD)

Central Plain (Zhongyuan) Chengyu Cross-Strait Western Coast Guanzhong Mid-Southern Liaoning Shandong
Shandong
Peninsula Yangtze River Mid-Reaches (Yangtze River Valley)

Major Cities

National Central Cities

Beijinga Chongqinga Guangzhoub2 Shanghaia2 Tianjina2

Special
Special
Administrative Regions

Hong Kong Macau

Regional Central Cities

Chengdub Nanjingb Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb

Sub-provincial cities

Changchunb Chengdub Dalianc2 Guangzhoub2 Hangzhoub Harbinb Jinanb Nanjingb Ningboc2 Qingdaoc2 Shenyangb Shenzhenc1 Wuhanb Xi'anb Xiamenc1

Provincial capitals (Prefecture-level)

Changsha Fuzhou2 Guiyang Haikou Hefei Kunming Lanzhou Nanchang Shijiazhuang Taiyuan Xining Zhengzhou Taibei5

Autonomous regional capitals

Hohhot Lhasa Nanning Ürümqi Yinchuan

Comparatively large cities

Anshan Baotou Benxi Datong Fushun Handan Huainan Jilin Luoyang Suzhou Tangshan Qiqihar Wuxi Xuzhou Zibo

Prefecture-level cities
Prefecture-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Shijiazhuang* Tangshan* Qinhuangdao2 Handan* Xingtai Baoding Zhangjiakou Chengde Cangzhou Langfang Hengshui

Shanxi

Taiyuan* Datong* Yangquan Changzhi Jincheng Shuozhou Jinzhong Yuncheng Xinzhou Linfen Lüliang

Inner Mongolia

Hohhot* Baotou* Wuhai Chifeng Tongliao Ordos Hulunbuir Bayannur Ulanqab

Liaoning

Shenyang* Dalian* Anshan* Fushun* Benxi* Dandong Jinzhou Yingkou Fuxin Liaoyang Panjin Tieling Chaoyang Huludao

Jilin

Changchun* Jilin Siping Liaoyuan Tonghua Baishan Songyuan Baicheng

Heilongjiang

Harbin* Qiqihar* Jixi Hegang Shuangyashan Daqing Yīchun Jiamusi Qitaihe Mudanjiang Heihe Suihua

Jiangsu

Nanjing* Wuxi* Xuzhou* Changzhou Suzhou* Nantong Lianyungang2 Huai'an Yancheng Yangzhou Zhenjiang Tàizhou Suqian

Zhejiang

Hangzhou* Ningbo* Wenzhou2 Jiaxing Huzhou Shaoxing Jinhua Quzhou Zhoushan Tāizhou Lìshui

Anhui

Hefei* Wuhu Bengbu Huainan* Ma'anshan Huaibei Tongling Anqing Huangshan Chuzhou Fùyang Sùzhou Lu'an Bozhou Chizhou Xuancheng

Fujian

Fúzhou* Xiamen* Putian Sanming Quanzhou Zhangzhou Nanping Longyan Ningde

Jiangxi

Nanchang* Jingdezhen Píngxiang Jiujiang Xinyu Yingtan Ganzhou Jí'ān Yíchun Fǔzhou Shangrao

Shandong

Jinan* Qingdao* Zibo* Zaozhuang Dongying Yantai2 Weifang Jĭning Tai'an Weihai Rizhao Laiwu Linyi Dezhou Liaocheng Binzhou Heze

Henan

Zhengzhou* Kaifeng Luoyang* Pingdingshan Anyang Hebi Xinxiang Jiaozuo Puyang Xuchang Luohe Sanmenxia Nanyang Shangqiu Xinyang Zhoukou Zhumadian

Hubei

Wuhan* Huangshi Shiyan Yichang Xiangyang Ezhou Jingmen Xiaogan Jinzhou Huanggang Xianning Suizhou

Hunan

Changsha* Zhuzhou Xiangtan Hengyang Shaoyang Yueyang Changde Zhangjiajie Yiyang Chenzhou Yongzhou Huaihua Loudi

Guangdong

Guangzhou* Shaoguan Shenzhen* Zhuhai1 Shantou1 Foshan Jiangmen Zhanjiang2 Maoming Zhaoqing Huizhou Meizhou Shanwei Heyuan Yangjiang Qingyuan Dongguan Zhongshan Chaozhou Jieyang Yunfu

Guangxi

Nanning* Liuzhou Guilin Wuzhou Beihai2 Fangchenggang Qinzhou Guigang Yùlin Baise Hezhou Hechi Laibin Chongzuo

Hainan1

Haikou* Sanya Sansha4 Danzhou

Sichuan

Chengdu* Zigong Panzhihua Luzhou Deyang Mianyang Guangyuan Suining Neijiang Leshan Nanchong Meishan Yibin Guang'an Dazhou Ya'an Bazhong Ziyang

Guizhou

Guiyang* Liupanshui Zunyi Anshun Bijie Tongren

Yunnan

Kunming* Qujing Yuxi Baoshan Zhaotong Lìjiang Pu'er Lincang

Tibet

Lhasa* Shigatse Chamdo Nyingchi Shannan

Shaanxi

Xi'an* Tongchuan Baoji Xianyang Weinan Yan'an Hanzhong Yúlin Ankang Shangluo

Gansu

Lanzhou* Jiayuguan Jinchang Baiyin Tianshui Wuwei Zhangye Pingliang Jiuquan Qingyang Dingxi Longnan

Qinghai

Xining* Haidong

Ningxia

Yinchuan* Shizuishan Wuzhong Guyuan Zhongwei

Xinjiang

Ürümqi* Karamay Turpan Hami

Taiwan5

(none)

Other cities (partly shown below)

Prefecture-level capitals (County-level)

(Inner Mongolia: Ulanhot Xilinhot) Jiagedaqi3, Heilongjiang Enshi, Hubei Jishou, Hunan (Sichuan:Xichang Kangding Barkam) (Guizhou: Xingyi Kaili Duyun) (Yunnan: Chuxiong Mengzi Wenshan Jinghong Dali Mangshi Shangri-La Lushui) (Gansu: Linxia Hezuo) (Qinghai: Yushu Delingha) (Xinjiang: Changji Bole Korla Yining Artux Aksu Kashgar1 Hotan Tacheng Altay)

Province-governed cities (Sub-prefecture-level)

Jiyuan, Henan (Hubei: Xiantao Qiánjiang Tianmen Shennongjia) (Hainan1: Wuzhishan Qionghai Wenchang Wanning Dongfang) ( Xinjiang
Xinjiang
- XPCC(Bingtuan) cities: Shihezi Aral Tumxuk Wujiaqu Beitun Tiemenguan Shuanghe Kokdala Kunyu)

Former Prefecture-level cities

Chaohu, Anhui Yumen,Gansu Dongchuan, Yunnan Shashi, Hubei (Sichuan: Fuling Wanxian) (Jilin: Meihekou Gongzhuling)

Sub-prefecture-level cities (Prefecture-governed)

Qian'an, Hebei Manzhouli, Inner Mongolia Erenhot, Inner Mongolia Golmud, Qinghai

County-level cities
County-level cities
by Province

Hebei

Xinji Jinzhou Xinle Zunhua Qian'an* Wu'an Nangong Shahe Zhuozhou Dingzhou Anguo Gaobeidian Botou Renqiu Huanghua Hejian Bazhou Sanhe Shenzhou

Shanxi

Gujiao Lucheng Gaoping Jiexiu Yongji Hejin Yuanping Houma Huozhou Xiaoyi Fenyang

Inner Mongolia

Holingol Manzhouli* Yakeshi Zhalantun Ergun Genhe Fengzhen Ulanhot* Arxan Erenhot* Xilinhot*

Liaoning

Xinmin Wafangdian Zhuanghe Haicheng Donggang Fengcheng Linghai Beizhen Gaizhou Dashiqiao Dengta Diaobingshan Kaiyuan Beipiao Lingyuan Xingcheng

Jilin

Yushu Dehui Jiaohe Huadian Shulan Panshi Gongzhuling Shuangliao Meihekou Ji'an Linjiang Fuyu Taonan Da'an Yanji Tumen Dunhua Hunchun Longjing Helong

Heilongjiang

Shangzhi Wuchang Nehe Hulin Mishan Tieli Tongjiang Fujin Fuyuan Suifenhe Hailin Ning'an Muling Dongning Bei'an Wudalianchi Anda Zhaodong Hailun

Jiangsu

Jiangyin Yixing Xinyi Pizhou Liyang Changshu Zhangjiagang Kunshan Taicang Qidong Rugao Haimen Dongtai Yizheng Gaoyou Danyang Yangzhong Jurong Jingjiang Taixing Xinghua

Zhejiang

Jiande Lin'an Yuyao Cixi Fenghua Rui'an Yueqing Haining Pinghu Tongxiang Zhuji Shengzhou Lanxi Yiwu Dongyang Yongkang Jiangshan Wenling Linhai Longquan

Anhui

Chaohu Jieshou Tongcheng Tianchang Mingguang Ningguo

Fujian

Fuqing Changle Yong'an Shishi Jinjiang Nan'an Longhai Shaowu Wuyishan Jian'ou Zhangping Fu'an Fuding

Jiangxi

Leping Ruichang Gongqingcheng Lushan Guixi Ruijin Jinggangshan Fengcheng Zhangshu Gao'an Dexing

Shandong

Zhangqiu Jiaozhou Jimo Pingdu Laixi Tengzhou Longkou Laiyang Laizhou Penglai Zhaoyuan Qixia Haiyang Qingzhou Zhucheng Shouguang Anqiu Gaomi Changyi Qufu Zoucheng Xintai Feicheng Rongcheng Rushan Laoling Yucheng Linqing

Henan

Gongyi Xingyang Xinmi Xinzheng Dengfeng Yanshi Wugang Ruzhou Linzhou Weihui Huixian Qinyang Mengzhou Yuzhou Changge Yima Lingbao Dengzhou Yongcheng Xiangcheng Jiyuan*

Hubei

Daye Danjiangkou Yidu Dangyang Zhijiang Laohekou Zaoyang Yicheng Zhongxiang Yingcheng Anlu Hanchuan Shishou Honghu Songzi Macheng Wuxue Chibi Guangshui Enshi* Lichuan Xiantao* Qianjiang* Tianmen*

Hunan

Liuyang Liling Xiangxiang Shaoshan Leiyang Changning Wugang Miluo Linxiang Jinshi Yuanjiang Zixing Hongjiang Lengshuijiang Lianyuan Jishou*

Guangdong

Lechang Nanxiong Taishan Kaiping Heshan Enping Lianjiang Leizhou Wuchuan Gaozhou Huazhou Xinyi Sihui Xingning Lufeng Yangchun Yingde Lianzhou Puning Luoding

Guangxi

Cenxi Dongxing Guiping Beiliu Jingxi Yizhou Heshan Pingxiang

Hainan

Wuzhishan* Qionghai* Wenchang* Wanning* Dongfang*

Sichuan

Dujiangyan Pengzhou Qionglai Chongzhou Jianyang Guanghan Shifang Mianzhu Jiangyou Emeishan Langzhong Huaying Wanyuan Barkam* Kangding* Xichang*

Guizhou

Qingzhen Chishui Renhuai Xingyi* Kaili* Duyun* Fuquan

Yunnan

Anning Xuanwei Tengchong Chuxiong* Mengzi* Gejiu Kaiyuan Mile Wenshan* Jinghong* Dali* Ruili Mangshi* Lushui* Shangri-La*

Tibet

(none)

Shaanxi

Xingping Hancheng Huayin

Gansu

Yumen Dunhuang Linxia* Hezuo*

Qinghai

Yushu* Golmud* Delingha*

Ningxia

Lingwu Qingtongxia

Xinjiang

Changji* Fukang Bole* Alashankou Korla* Aksu* Artux* Kashgar* Hotan* Yining* Kuytun Korgas Tacheng* Wusu Altay* Shihezi* Aral* Tumxuk* Wujiaqu* Beitun* Tiemenguan* Shuanghe* Kokdala* Kunyu*

Taiwan5

(none)

Notes

* Indicates this city has already occurred above. aDirect-controlled Municipalities. bSub-provincial cities as provincial capitals. cSeparate state-planning cities. 1Special Economic Zone Cities. 2Coastal development cities. 3Prefecture capital status established by Heilongjiang
Heilongjiang
Province and not recognized by Ministry of Civil Affairs. Disputed by Oroqen Autonomous Banner, Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia
Inner Mongolia
as part of it. 4Only administers islands and waters in South China
China
Sea and have no urban core comparable to typical cities in China. 5The claimed province of Taiwan
Taiwan
no longer have any internal division announced by Ministry of Civil Affairs of PRC, due to lack of actual jurisdiction. See Template:Administrative divisions of the Republic of China
China
instead. All provincial capitals are listed first in prefecture-level cities by province.

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in China Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China (2010)

Rank Name Province Pop. Rank Name Province Pop.

Shanghai

Beijing 1 Shanghai Shanghai 20,217,700 11 Foshan Guangdong 6,771,900

Chongqing

Guangzhou

2 Beijing Beijing 16,858,700 12 Nanjing Jiangsu 6,238,200

3 Chongqing Chongqing 12,389,500 13 Shenyang Liaoning 5,890,700

4 Guangzhou Guangdong 10,641,400 14 Hangzhou Zhejiang 5,849,500

5 Shenzhen Guangdong 10,358,400 15 Xi'an Shaanxi 5,399,300

6 Tianjin Tianjin 10,007,700 16 Harbin Heilongjiang 5,178,000

7 Wuhan Hubei 7,541,500 17 Dalian Liaoning 4,222,400

8 Dongguan Guangdong 7,271,300 18 Suzhou Jiangsu 4,083,900

9 Chengdu Sichuan 7,112,000 19 Qingdao Shandong 3,990,900

10 Hong Kong Hong Kong 7,055,071 20 Zhengzhou Henan 3,677,000

v t e

Provincial capitals of China

Changchun
Changchun
(Jilin) Changsha
Changsha
(Hunan) Chengdu
Chengdu
(Sichuan) Fuzhou
Fuzhou
(Fujian) Guangzhou
Guangzhou
(Guangdong) Guiyang
Guiyang
(Guizhou) Haikou
Haikou
(Hainan) Hangzhou
Hangzhou
(Zhejiang) Harbin
Harbin
(Heilongjiang) Hefei
Hefei
(Anhui) Hohhot
Hohhot
(Inner Mongolia) Jinan
Jinan
(Shandong) Kunming
Kunming
(Yunnan) Lanzhou
Lanzhou
(Gansu) Lhasa (Tibet) Nanchang
Nanchang
(Jiangxi) Nanjing
Nanjing
(Jiangsu) Nanning
Nanning
(Guangxi) Shenyang
Shenyang
(Liaoning) Shijiazhuang
Shijiazhuang
(Hebei) Taibei¹ (Taiwan¹) Taiyuan
Taiyuan
(Shanxi) Ürümqi
Ürümqi
(Xinjiang) Wuhan
Wuhan
(Hubei) Xi'an
Xi'an
(Shaanxi) Xining
Xining
(Qinghai) Yinchuan
Yinchuan
(Ningxia) Zhengzhou
Zhengzhou
(Henan)

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

County-level divisions of Liaoning
Liaoning
Province

Shenyang
Shenyang
(capital)

Sub-provincial cities

Shenyang

Shenhe District Huanggu District Heping District Dadong District Tiexi District Sujiatun
Sujiatun
District Hunnan
Hunnan
District Shenbei New Area Yuhong District Liaozhong District Xinmin City Faku County Kangping County

Dalian

Xigang District Zhongshan
Zhongshan
District Shahekou District Ganjingzi District Lüshunkou District Jinzhou
Jinzhou
District Pulandian District Wafangdian
Wafangdian
City Zhuanghe
Zhuanghe
City Changhai County

Prefecture-level cities

Anshan

Tiedong District Tiexi District Lishan District Qianshan District Haicheng City Tai'an
Tai'an
County Xiuyan Autonomous County

Fushun

Shuncheng District Xinfu District Dongzhou District Wanghua District Fushun
Fushun
County Xinbin Autonomous County Qingyuan
Qingyuan
Autonomous County

Benxi

Pingshan District Xihu District Mingshan District Nanfen District Benxi
Benxi
Autonomous County Huanren Autonomous County

Dandong

Zhenxing District Yuanbao District Zhen'an District Fengcheng City Donggang City Kuandian Autonomous County

Jinzhou

Taihe District Guta District Linghe District Linghai
Linghai
City Beizhen
Beizhen
City Heishan County Yi County

Yingkou

Zhanqian District Xishi District Bayuquan District Laobian District Dashiqiao
Dashiqiao
City Gaizhou
Gaizhou
City

Fuxin

Haizhou District Xinqiu District Taiping District Qinghemen District Xihe District Zhangwu County Fuxin
Fuxin
Autonomous County

Liaoyang

Baita District Wensheng District Hongwei District Gongchangling District Taizihe District Dengta
Dengta
City Liaoyang
Liaoyang
County

Panjin

Xinglongtai District Shuangtaizi District Dawa District Panshan County

Tieling

Yinzhou District Qinghe District Diaobingshan
Diaobingshan
City Kaiyuan City Tieling
Tieling
County Xifeng County Changtu County

Chaoyang

Shuangta District Longcheng District Beipiao
Beipiao
City Lingyuan
Lingyuan
City Chaoyang County Jianping County Harqin Zuoyi Autonomous County

Huludao

Longgang District Lianshan District Nanpiao District Xingcheng
Xingcheng
City Suizhong County Jianchang County

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 246190381 GND: 4256791-9 N

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