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SHEM (/ʃɛm/ ; Hebrew : שֵׁם‎ Šēm; Greek : Σήμ Sēm; Ge\'ez : ሴም, Sēm; "renown; prosperity; name"; Arabic : سام Sām) was one of the sons of Noah
Noah
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
as well as in Islamic literature . Genesis 10:21 refers to relative ages of Shem
Shem
and his brother Japheth
Japheth
, but with sufficient ambiguity to have yielded different English translations. The verse is translated in the KJV
KJV
as "Unto Shem
Shem
also, the father of all the children of Eber , the brother of Japheth
Japheth
the elder, even to him were children born.". However, the New American Standard Bible gives, "Also to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, and the older brother of Japheth, children were born."

Genesis 11:10 records that Shem
Shem
was 100 years old at the birth of Arphaxad, two years after the flood ; and that he lived for another 500 years after this, making his age at death 600 years.

The children of Shem
Shem
were Elam
Elam
, Asshur , Arphaxad , Lud and Aram , in addition to daughters. Abraham
Abraham
, the patriarch of the Hebrews and Arabs, was one of the descendants of Arphaxad.

Islamic literature describes Shem
Shem
as one of the believing sons of Noah
Noah
. Some sources even identify Shem
Shem
as a prophet in his own right and that he was the next prophet after his father. In one Muslim legend, Shem
Shem
was one of the people whom God
God
made Jesus
Jesus
resurrect as a sign to the Children of Israel .

The 1st-century historian Flavius Josephus
Flavius Josephus
, among many others, recounted the tradition that these five sons were the progenitors of the nations of Elam
Elam
, Assyria
Assyria
, Chaldea
Chaldea
, Lydia
Lydia
, and Levantine , respectively.

The associated term Semitic is still a commonly used term for the Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, as a subset of the Afro-Asiatic languages
Afro-Asiatic languages
, denoting the common linguistic heritage of Arabic , Aramaic , Akkadian , Ethiopic , Hebrew and Canaanite-Phoenician languages.

According to some Jewish traditions (e.g., B. Talmud
B. Talmud
Nedarim 32b; Genesis Rabbah 46:7; Genesis Rabbah 56:10; Leviticus Rabbah
Leviticus Rabbah
25:6; Numbers Rabbah 4:8.), Shem
Shem
is believed to have been Melchizedek , King of Salem whom Abraham
Abraham
is recorded to have met after the battle of the four kings.

Shem
Shem
is mentioned several times in Genesis 5-11 as well as 1 Chronicles 1:4. Geographic identifications of Flavius Josephus
Flavius Josephus
, c. 100 AD; Japheth
Japheth
's sons shown in red, Ham 's sons in blue, Shem's sons in green. The genealogy of Shem
Shem
to Abraham
Abraham
according to the Bible, showing the origin of the Moabites , Israelites
Israelites
, Ammonites , Ishmaelites , Edomites , Midianites , Assurites , Leturites and Leumites .

CONTENTS

* 1 Descendants

* 1.1 Genesis 10 * 1.2 Genesis 11 * 1.3 Book of Jasher * 1.4 Book of Luke * 1.5 Early biographies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad

* 2 Family tree * 3 See also

* 4 Footnotes

* 4.1 Notes * 4.2 References

* 5 External links

DESCENDANTS

GENESIS 10

According to Genesis 10:22-31 (Jewish Publication Society Translation of 1917): 22 The sons of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arpachshad, and Lud, and Aram. 23 And the sons of Aram: Uz, and Hul, and Gether, and Mash. 24 And Arpachshad begot Shelah; and Shelah begot Eber. 25 And unto Eber were born two sons; the name of the one was Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name was Joktan. 26 And Joktan begot Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah; 27 and Hadoram, and Uzal, and Diklah; 28 and Obal, and Abimael, and Sheba; 29 and Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab; all these were the sons of Joktan. 30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest toward Sephar, unto the mountain of the east. 31 These are the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations. 32 These are the families of the sons of Noah, after their generations, in their nations; and of these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood.

GENESIS 11

Excerpts from Genesis 11:10-27— (Jewish Publication Society translation of 1917): ' Shem
Shem
was a hundred years old, and begot Arpachshad two years after the flood. ... Arpachshad lived five and thirty years, and begot Shelah. 13 And Arpachshad lived after he begot Shelah ... Shelah lived thirty years, and begot Eber. ... Eber lived four and thirty years, and begot Peleg. ... Peleg lived thirty years, and begot Reu. ... Reu lived two and thirty years, and begot Serug. '... Serug lived thirty years, and begot Nahor. ... Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begot Terah. ... Terah lived seventy years, and begot Abram, Nahor, and Haran. ... and Haran begot Lot.

BOOK OF JASHER

A rabbinic document that surfaced in the 17th century, claiming to be the lost Book of Jasher provides some names not found in any other source. Some have reconstructed more complete genealogies based on this information as follows:

Shem. Also Sem Literal meanings are named or renown (father of the Semitic races - Shemites). The sons of Shem
Shem
were:

* Elam
Elam
"eternity" (sons were Shushan, Machul and Harmon) - ( Elamites
Elamites
and Khuzestanis ) * Asshur "a step" or "strong" (sons were Mirus and Mokil) - (Assyrians ) * Arphaxad (sons were Shelach, Anar and Ashcol) - Chaldeans, Hebrews ( Israelites
Israelites
, Moabites , Ammonites , Edomites , Ishmaelites , and Qahtanites ) * Ziezi
Ziezi
- son of Shem
Shem
and a grandson of Noah. His name is mentioned in the excerpt Ziezi
Ziezi
ex quo vulgares meaning "Ziezi, of whom the Bulgars" but being regarded by some as the first European reference to the Bulgars
Bulgars
as a people. ( Bulgars
Bulgars
and Thracians —though modern scholarship classifies neither as Semitic; the former being Turkic and the latter Indo-European ) * Lud "strife" (sons were Pethor and Bizayon) - (Ludim, Lubim, Ludians, Ludu, Lydians , and other related groups in Asia Minor —generally classified today as Indo-European). * Aram "exalted" (sons were Uz, Chul, Gather and Mash) - (Aramaeans ).

BOOK OF LUKE

According to Luke 3:36 Jesus
Jesus
is a descendant of Shem.

EARLY BIOGRAPHIES OF THE ISLAMIC PROPHET MUHAMMAD

Early Islamic historians like Ibn Ishaq and Ibn Hisham always included Shem's name in the genealogy of Muhammad
Muhammad
.

FAMILY TREE

The following family tree contains information from the Hebrew Bible , without data from any other sources. According to Luke 3, an additional figure named Cainan is the son of Arpachshad and the father of Shelah.

Shem

Elam
Elam

Ashur
Ashur

Arpachshad

Lud

Aram

Salah

Uz

Hul
Hul

Gether

Mash

Eber

Peleg

Joktan

Reu

Almodad Sheleph Hazarmaveth Jerah Hadoram Uzal Diklah Obal Abimael Sheba Ophir Havilah Jobab

Serug

Nahor

Terah

ABRAHAM

Sarah
Sarah

Nahor

Haran

SEE ALSO

* Wives aboard the Ark

FOOTNOTES

NOTES

REFERENCES

* ^ Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism, Wheeler, Shem * ^ Stories of the Prophets, Ibn Kathir, Story of Jesus * ^ Genesis 5:32, 6:10; 7:13; 9:18,23,26-27; 10; 11:10 * ^ Parry, J. H. (ed.). "7:15". Book of Jasher . Translated by Moses, Samuel. * ^ "The Table of Nations: Ham, Shem
Shem
and Japheth, Sons of Noah
Noah
- Courtesy of Return To Glory". Freemaninstitute.com. Retrieved 2013-12-17. * ^ A B Parry, J. H. (ed.). "7:16". Book of Jasher . Translated by Moses, Samuel. * ^ A B Parry, J. H. (ed.). "7:17". Book of Jasher . Translated by Moses, Samuel. * ^ Ibn Ishāq, Sīrat Rasūl Allāh, tr. A. Guillaume (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 3

EXTERNAL LINKS

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