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SHEM (/ʃɛm/ ; Hebrew : שֵׁם, Modern _Shem_, Tiberian _Šēm_; Greek : Σήμ _Sēm_; Ge\'ez : ሴም, _Sēm_; "renown; prosperity; name"; Arabic : سام _Sām_) was one of the sons of Noah
Noah
in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
as well as in Islamic literature
Islamic literature
. Genesis
Genesis
10:21 refers to relative ages of Shem
Shem
and his brother Japheth
Japheth
, but with sufficient ambiguity to have yielded different English translations. The verse is translated in the KJV
KJV
as "Unto Shem
Shem
also, the father of all the children of Eber
Eber
, the brother of Japheth
Japheth
the elder, even to him were children born.". However, the New American Standard Biblegives, "Also to Shem, the father of all the children of Eber, and the older brother of Japheth, children were born."

Genesis
Genesis
11:10 records that Shem
Shem
was 100 years old at the birth of Arphaxad, two years after the flood ; and that he lived for another 500 years after this, making his age at death 600 years.

The children of Shem
Shem
were Elam
Elam
, Asshur , Arphaxad
Arphaxad
, Lud and Aram , in addition to daughters. Abraham
Abraham
, the patriarch of the Hebrews and Arabs, was one of the descendants of Arphaxad.

Islamic literature
Islamic literature
describes Shem
Shem
as one of the believing sons of Noah
Noah
. Some sources even identify Shem
Shem
as a prophet in his own right and that he was the next prophet after his father. In one Muslim legend, Shem
Shem
was one of the people whom God
God
made Jesus
Jesus
resurrect as a sign to the Children of Israel
Children of Israel
.

The 1st-century historian Flavius Josephus
Flavius Josephus
, among many others, recounted the tradition that these five sons were the progenitors of the nations of Elam
Elam
, Assyria
Assyria
, Chaldea
Chaldea
, Lydia
Lydia
, and Levantine , respectively.

The associated term _Semitic_ is still a commonly used term for the Semitic languages
Semitic languages
, as a subset of the Afro-Asiatic languages
Afro-Asiatic languages
, denoting the common linguistic heritage of Arabic , Aramaic , Akkadian , Ethiopic , Hebrew and Canaanite-Phoenician languages.

According to some Jewish traditions (e.g., B. TalmudNedarim 32b; Genesis
Genesis
Rabbah 46:7; Genesis
Genesis
Rabbah 56:10; Leviticus Rabbah
Leviticus Rabbah
25:6; Numbers Rabbah
Numbers Rabbah
4:8.), Shem
Shem
is believed to have been Melchizedek
Melchizedek
, King of Salem whom Abraham
Abraham
is recorded to have met after the battle of the four kings.

Shem
Shem
is mentioned in Genesis
Genesis
5:32, 6:10; 7:13; 9:18,23,26-27; 10; 11:10; also in 1 Chronicles
1 Chronicles
1:4. Geographic identifications of Flavius Josephus
Flavius Josephus
, c. 100 AD; Japheth
Japheth
's sons shown in red, Ham 's sons in blue, Shem's sons in green. The genealogy of Shem
Shem
to Abraham
Abraham
according to the Bible, showing the origin of the Moabites
Moabites
, Israelites
Israelites
, Ammonites , Ishmaelites, Edomites, Midianites, Assurites , Leturites and Leumites .

CONTENTS

* 1 Descendants

* 1.1 Genesis
Genesis
10 * 1.2 Genesis
Genesis
11 * 1.3 Book of Jasher * 1.4 Book of Luke * 1.5 Early biographies of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
Muhammad

* 2 Family tree * 3 See also

* 4 Footnotes

* 4.1 Notes * 4.2 References

* 5 External links

DESCENDANTS

GENESIS 10

According to Genesis
Genesis
10:22-31

22 The children of Shem: Elam, and Asshur, and Arphaxad
Arphaxad
and Lud and Aram. 23 And the children of Aram; Uz and Hul, and Getherand Mash. 24 And Arphaxad
Arphaxad
begat Salah and Salah begat Eber. 25 And unto Eber
Eber
were born two sons: the name of one __ Peleg; for in his days was the earth divided; and his brother's name __ Joktan. 26 And Joktanbegat Almodad, and Sheleph, and Hazarmaveth, and Jerah. 27 And Hadoram, and Uzaland Diklah, 28 And Obal, and Abimaeland Sheba, 29 And Ophir, and Havilah, and Jobab: all these were the sons of Joktan. 30 And their dwelling was from Mesha, as thou goest unto Sephar a mount of the east 31 These __ the sons of Shem, after their families, after their tongues, in their lands, after their nations.

GENESIS 11

Excerpts from Genesis
Genesis
11:10-26—

Shem
Shem
an hundred years old, and begat Arphaxad
Arphaxad
two years after the flood ... Arphaxad
Arphaxad
lived five and thirty years, and begat Salah ... Salah lived thirty years, and begat Eber
Eber
... Eber
Eber
lived four and thirty years, and begat Peleg... Peleglived thirty years, and begat Reu... Reulived two and thirty years, and begat Serug... Seruglived thirty years, and begat Nahor ... Nahor lived nine and twenty years, and begat Terah
Terah
... Terah
Terah
lived seventy years, and begat Abram, Nahor, and Haran... and Haranbegat Lot

BOOK OF JASHER

A rabbinic document that surfaced in the 17th century, claiming to be the lost Book of Jasher provides some names not found in any other source. Some have reconstructed more complete genealogies based on this information as follows:

Shem. Also Sem Literal meanings are named or renown (father of the Semitic races - Shemites). The sons of Shem
Shem
were:

* Elam
Elam
"eternity" (sons were Shushan, Machul and Harmon) - ( Elamites
Elamites
and Khuzestanis ) * Asshur "a step" or "strong" (sons were Mirus and Mokil) - (Assyrians ) * Arphaxad
Arphaxad
(sons were Shelach, Anar and Ashcol) - Chaldeans, Hebrews ( Israelites
Israelites
, Moabites
Moabites
, Ammonites , Edomites, Ishmaelites, and Qahtanites ) * Ziezi- son of Shem
Shem
and a grandson of Noah. His name is mentioned in the excerpt Zieziex quo vulgares meaning "Ziezi, of whom the Bulgars" but being regarded by some as the first European reference to the Bulgars
Bulgars
as a people. ( Bulgars
Bulgars
and Thracians
Thracians
—though modern scholarship classifies neither as Semitic; the former being Turkic and the latter Indo-European ) * Lud "strife" (sons were Pethor and Bizayon) - (Ludim, Lubim, Ludians, Ludu, Lydians
Lydians
, and other related groups in Asia Minor —generally classified today as Indo-European). * Aram "exalted" (sons were Uz, Chul, Gather and Mash) - (Aramaeans ).

BOOK OF LUKE

According to Luke 3:36 Jesus
Jesus
is a descendant of Shem.

EARLY BIOGRAPHIES OF THE ISLAMIC PROPHET MUHAMMAD

Early Islamic historians like Ibn Ishaqand Ibn Hishamalways included Shem's name in the genealogy of Muhammad
Muhammad
.

FAMILY TREE

The following family tree contains information from the Hebrew Bible , without data from any other sources. According to Luke 3, an additional figure named Cainanis the son of Arpachshad
Arpachshad
and the father of Shelah.

Shem

Elam
Elam

Ashur
Ashur

Arpachshad
Arpachshad

Lud

Aram

Salah

Uz

Hul
Hul

Gether

Mash

Eber
Eber

Peleg

Joktan

Reu

Almodad Sheleph Hazarmaveth Jerah Hadoram Uzal Diklah Obal Abimael Sheba Ophir Havilah Jobab

Serug

Nahor

Terah
Terah

ABRAHAM

Sarah
Sarah

Nahor

Haran

SEE ALSO

* Wives aboard the Ark

FOOTNOTES

NOTES

* ^ The 1557 Anno Mundi
Anno Mundi
birthdate for Shem
Shem
is based on the standard Masoretic text as represented in the Authorized Version. Septuagint and Samaritan texts have different values. See Chronology of the Bible .

REFERENCES

* ^ _Historical Dictionary of Prophets in Islam
Islam
and Judaism_, Wheeler, _Shem_ * ^ _Stories of the Prophets_, Ibn Kathir, _Story of Jesus_ * ^ Parry, J. H. (ed.). "7:15". _Book of Jasher _. Translated by Moses, Samuel. * ^ "The Table of Nations: Ham, Shem
Shem
and Japheth, Sons of Noah
Noah
- Courtesy of Return To Glory". Freemaninstitute.com. Retrieved 2013-12-17. * ^ _A_ _B_ Parry, J. H. (ed.). "7:16". _Book of Jasher _. Translated by Moses, Samuel. * ^ _A_ _B_ Parry, J. H. (ed.). "7:17". _Book of Jasher _. Translated by Moses, Samuel. * ^ Ibn Ishāq, _Sīrat Rasūl Allāh_, tr. A. Guillaume (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), p. 3

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