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Coordinates: 42°00′00″N 20°44′00″E / 42°N 20.7333°E / 42; 20.7333

Šar Mountains

Sharr Mountains

Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
as seen from Macedonia

Highest point

Peak Titov Vrv
Titov Vrv
(Macedonia)

Elevation 2,748 m (9,016 ft)

Geography

Location Macedonia- Polog
Polog
Valley Albania-Dibër County Kosovo[a]

The Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
(Macedonian and Serbian: Шар планина, Šar planina) or Sharr Mountains (Albanian: Malet e Sharrit), form a mountain range in the Balkans
Balkans
that extends from Kosovo[a] and the northwest of the Republic of Macedonia, to northeastern Albania. The mountain is colloquially called Šara[1] and forms part of a national park in Kosovo. The section within the territory of the Kosovo
Kosovo
was declared a national park.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Borders 3 Geographical characteristics 4 Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
in Kosovo 5 History 6 National Park

6.1 History 6.2 Geography 6.3 Plant life 6.4 Animal life

7 See also 8 Annotations 9 References 10 External links

Etymology[edit] In Antiquity, the mountains were known as Scardus, Scodrus, or Scordus (το Σκάρδον ὂρος in Polybius
Polybius
and Ptolemy).[2] which evolved into its modern name. In the early 16th century, it was recorded that the mountain was called Catena mundi (Latin for "the chains of the world").[1] Sometimes the range is called Carska planina ("Tsar's mountain"), as a reference to the capitals ( Prizren
Prizren
and Skopje), courts (Nerodimlje, Pauni, Svrčin, etc.) and monasteries (Monastery of the Holy Archangels) of the Serbian Empire
Serbian Empire
located in the region.[3] Borders[edit] The mountain borders extend from the city of Prizren, following the two rivers of the Prizren
Prizren
Lumbardhi and the Lepenac. In the east it passes by the town of Kaçanik
Kaçanik
through the Kačanik Gorge
Kačanik Gorge
and into Macedonia via the Polog
Polog
valley. The border passes near the Vardar spring called Vrutok and enters near the valley of Mavrovo. There the Radika
Radika
river separates the mountain massif from the higher Mount Korab. After that, the border is mounting, reaching the point of junction of three state borders: Kosovo, Macedonia and Albania. The border now follows the road to the small, mountainous, town of Restelica, the rivers of Globocica, Plava and the White Drin
White Drin
and finally reaches the city of Prizren. Geographical characteristics[edit]

Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
in Macedonia.

Bogovinje Lake

Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
peak Kobilica

Wild horses at Šar Mountains

The Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
have a total area of 1600 km. 56,25% of that area is in the Republic of Macedonia, 43.12% in Kosovo, and 0,63% in Albania.[4][better source needed] There are three plains Sirinić, Vraca and Rudoka.[5] The system is about 80 km (50 mi) long and 10–20 km (6–12 mi) wide. The mountain massif was formed in the Tertiary Period. The peaks are covered with ice and snow. It includes several high peaks:

Titov Vrv
Titov Vrv
(2,747 m or 9,012 ft) Mal Turčin (2,707 m or 8,881 ft) Bakardan (2,704 m or 8,871 ft) Borislavec (2,675 m or 8,776 ft) Great Rudoka (2,658 m or 8,720 ft) Bistra - east summit (Peskovi) (2,651 m or 8,698 ft) Bistra - west summit (2,641 m or 8,665 ft) Small Rudoka (2,629 m or 8,625 ft) Džini Beg
Džini Beg
(2,610 m or 8,563 ft) Lake Peak
Lake Peak
(2,604 m or 8,543 ft) Karabunar (2,600 m or 8,530 ft) White Lake Peak
Lake Peak
(2,590 m or 8,497 ft) Maja e zezë
Maja e zezë
(2,585 m or 8,481 ft) Big Vraca
Big Vraca
(2,582 m or 8,471 ft) Guzhbaba (2,582 m or 8,471 ft) Isa Aga (2,555 m or 8,383 ft) Black Peak (2,536 m or 8,320 ft) Kobilica
Kobilica
(2,528 m or 8,294 ft) Piribeg (2,524 m or 8,281 ft) Ljuboten
Ljuboten
(2,498 m or 8,196 ft) Maja Livadh (2,497 m or 8,192 ft) Zallina (2,493 m or 8,179 ft) Small Vraca
Small Vraca
(2,483 m or 8,146 ft) 41°53′10″N 20°44′15″E / 41.8861°N 20.7375°E / 41.8861; 20.7375 (Small Vraca) Kara Nikolla (2,409 m or 7,904 ft) 42°05′01″N 20°47′39″E / 42.0836°N 20.7942°E / 42.0836; 20.7942 (Kara Nikolla) Maja Koritnik
Koritnik
(2,393 m or 7,851 ft) Tumba Peak (2,346 m or 7,697 ft) Gemitash (2,183 m or 7,162 ft) 41°54′27″N 20°40′51″E / 41.9075°N 20.6808°E / 41.9075; 20.6808 (Gemitaš) Kalabak
Kalabak
(2,174 m or 7,133 ft) 41°55′05″N 20°34′34″E / 41.918°N 20.576°E / 41.918; 20.576 (Kalabak)[6] Crnkamenska Kula (2,117 m or 6,946 ft) 41°54′02″N 20°39′50″E / 41.9006°N 20.6639°E / 41.9006; 20.6639 (Crnkamenska Kula) Šerupa (2,092 m or 6,864 ft) tri-point 41°52′37″N 20°35′42″E / 41.877°N 20.595°E / 41.877; 20.595 (Maja e Ksula e Priftit)

There are 30 peaks higher than 2,500 m (8,200 ft) and 70 above the 2,000 m (6,600 ft).[1] The Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
extend to Mount Korab
Mount Korab
(2,764 m or 9,068 ft) in the southwest, and pass into northeastern Albania with very small part (0.63% of the entire length). Vegetation on the mountains includes crops up to around 1,000 m (3,281 ft), forests up to 1,700 m (5,577 ft), and above that lie high pastures which encompass around 550 km2 (212 sq mi). The Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
are the largest compact area covered with pastures on the European continent. The dog breed Šarplaninac
Šarplaninac
comes from this area. The snowy peaks of the Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
are depicted on the coat of arms of the city of Skopje, which in turn is incorporated in the city's flag.[7] Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
in Kosovo[edit]

Šarplaninac, a dog breed of the livestock guardian type named after the Šar Mountains

The Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
are located in the south and south-east of Kosovo, where 43.12% of the range is located. Many alpine and glacial mountain lakes are found on the Kosovar part of the Šar Mountains, especially south of the village of Dragaš, the area of Shutman and the region north of Vraca. The ski resort of Brezovica, with an elevation of 900 m (2,953 ft) to 2,524 m (8,281 ft) above sea level, is located north-east of the mountains. The mountain range in Kosovo
Kosovo
is divided into three main zones:The zone of Ljuboten
Ljuboten
and Brezovica, the central zone of Prizren
Prizren
and the zone of Opoja and Gora. The mountains border the Kosovo
Kosovo
Plain to the north-east and the Dukagjini Valley in the northwest. Kosovo
Kosovo
consists of the most eastern tip and the most northern part of the mountain ridge.

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The Ljuboten
Ljuboten
peak and the mountain of Skopska Crna Gora create the Kačanik Gorge
Kačanik Gorge
in Kosovo. The Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
are split from the Nerodimka Mountain
Nerodimka Mountain
by the Sirinić Valley. The Šar National Park is located in Kosovo. Villages and towns that are found near the mountain are:

Prizren
Prizren
largest city located at the foot of the mountains. Kaçanik Dragaš Brezovica Štrpce

Lakes in the Kosovo
Kosovo
part of the Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
are:

Big Jažinačko Lake Small Jažinačko Lake Šutmansko Lake Lower Defsko Lake Štrbačko Lake Black Vir Lake Donji Vir Lake Blateško Lake Upper Defsko Lake Dinivodno Lake

In total, there are 70 glacial lakes on Šara.[1] History[edit] The remains of the Široko complex are located near Mušutište. The complex originates from the period between the 10th and the 7th century BC, but also has medieval remnants. In Roman period, the mountain was a tripoint between the provinces of Dalmatia, Moesia
Moesia
and Macedonia. The route of an ancient road crossed the Scardus from 169 BC. The road was later named Velji ("Great") or Prizren
Prizren
road. Lisinski road was built. Remnants of the fort on the Kradište hill, near Prizren, dates from the 2nd to the 6th century and testifies the change of civilizations in this region: it started in the pre-Roman period, then became a Roman town and later a Byzantine one. Locality of Ravna Gora, predating the 6th century, where Slavs later cremated their dead, is situated in the area. Medieval military complex of Petrič Fortress, which consists of two fortresses, Little Petrič and Great Petrič, is also preserved. Remains of the Višegrad Fort, older part of the Prizren
Prizren
Fortress, are located in the gorge of the Bistrica river. When King Milutin
King Milutin
donated lands to the Our Lady of Ljeviš church, he also donated the Višegrad Fort to serve as an Prizren's defence outpost. Emperor Dušan
Emperor Dušan
later expanded the fort to the river and built his endowment, the Monastery of the Holy Archangels.[1] There are 45 Serbian Orthodox monasteries
Serbian Orthodox monasteries
on the slopes of the mountain, dating from the 12th to the 16th century. Additional 32 monasteries were damaged or demolished during the NATO bombing of Serbia
Serbia
in 1999 and in the later years. Church of the Dormition of the Mother of God in the village of Gotovuša
Gotovuša
in Sirinićka Župa was built in 16th century. It was destroyed later and rebuilt in the second half of the 19th century. During the works in churchyard in the 2010s a floor mosaic was discovered from the much older church from the Byzantine period.[1] National Park[edit] Main article: Sharr Mountains National Park

Sharr Mountains National Park

IUCN
IUCN
category II (national park)

Typical landscape.

Area 534.69 km2 (206.44 sq mi)

Established 1986

History[edit] Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
National Park is in the territory of Kosovo
Kosovo
and covers 534.69 km2 (206 sq mi) on the northern slopes of the Šar Mountains
Šar Mountains
as well as the mountains of Ošljak and Jezerce. The National Park "Šar-Planina Mt." was proclaimed in 1986 within the temporary boundaries of 390.00 km2 (150.58 sq mi),[8][9][10] and opened in 1995.[11] The final boundaries of the Park were expanded in 2012 to cover an area of 534.69 km2 (206.44 sq mi). Geography[edit] The park occupies the northwest sections of the mountain's main massif, including the highest peak, Bistra, an spreads over the sections of Prevalac, Ošljak, Ostrovica and Kodža Balkan. The park encompasses several different types of topographic relief: glacial (cirques, moraines and glacial lakes), periglacial (snow cirques, sliding blocks, "tundra mosaic" type of micro-shapes in the deposits of silt), karstic and fluvial. There are numerous rivers, springs, creeks, bogs and lakes.[10] Plant life[edit] In total, there are 1,800 plant species. The mountain is inhabited by 175 strictly protected plant species, 247 Balkan endemites and 18 plants which can be found only on Šara.[1] The park includes the endemic relict Macedonian Pine[10] and white-bark pine,[10] as well as the mugo pine[10] and Alpine rose. Other perennial plants include King Alexander's yarrow (Achillea alexandri-regis), Nikolić's silene (Heliosperma nikolicii), Bornmuellera dieckii, Šar carnation (Dianthus scardicus Wettst.),[10] Doerfler's cinquefoils and Macedonian meadow saffron (Colhicum macedonicum). One of the relic species is Natalie's ramonda. It went extinct from the most of Europe during the last ice age and today grows as an endemic species in several gorges in Serbia, Macedonia and Greece. It has been chosen as the Serbian symbol for the Armistice Day.[1] Animal life[edit] Rusenica locality on the mountain has been in the first level of protection, as the strict reserve of nature, since 1955. It is one of the rare habitats of Balkan lynx, the largest European cat. It is estimated that on the entire Balkans
Balkans
there are no more than 100 specimens. European pond turtle
European pond turtle
and Hermann's tortoise, only two European species of freshwater turtles, live on the mountain. There are 147 butterfly species (excluding moths), 45 amphibians and reptilians and 37 mammalian species.[1] Other animals include bear, chamois, wolf, roe deer, wild boar and other species including many bird species. The national park contains 720 chamois while the Opoja and Gora region contains 600 chamois. The National Park is administrated by the Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning (MESP) of Kosovo. See also[edit]

Mountains of the Republic of Macedonia List of mountains in Kosovo List of mountains in Serbia List of mountains in Albania

Annotations[edit]

^ a b Kosovo
Kosovo
is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo
Kosovo
and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the Brussels Agreement. Kosovo
Kosovo
has received formal recognition as an independent state from 113 out of 193 United Nations
United Nations
member states.

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i Dimitrije Bukvić (31 July 2017), "Trezor Evrope", Politika
Politika
(in Serbian), pp. 01 & 09  ^ Sir William Smith (1872). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography: Isabadius-Zymethus. 1857. John Murray. p. 928.  ^ Veselinović, Andrija; Radoš Ljušić (2001). Srpske dinastije (in Serbian). Novi Sad. ISBN 86-83639-01-0.  ^ Rista Nikolić (1912). Glacijacija Šar Planine i Koraba (in Serbian). Beograd.  ^ Živko Stefanovski. Šar Planina (in Macedonian). Tetovo: Napredok.  ^ "National Park Šar-Mountain". brezovica-ski.com.  ^ Official portal of the city of Skopje: City symbols. – Retrieved on 13 May 2009. ^ https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263503961_Extension_of_national_park_Sharri_boundaries_and_its_significance_for_nature_conservation_in_Kosovo ^ "Zakon o nacionalnim parkovima (National parks law)" (in Serbian). 5 October 2015.  ^ a b c d e f Aleksandra Mijalković (18 June 2017), "O očuvanju naše prirodne baštine: najbolja zaštita u naconalnim parkovima", Politika-Magazin (in Serbian), pp. 3–6  ^ Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning(in Albanian)

External links[edit] Media related to Šar Mountain at Wikimedia Commons

Nacionalni park Šar-planina (in Serbian) Šar planina (in Serbian) Brezovica Ski Resort

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