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The Shanghainese
Shanghainese
language, also known as the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect, Hu language or Hu dialect, is a variety of Wu Chinese
Wu Chinese
spoken in the central districts of the City of Shanghai
City of Shanghai
and its surrounding areas. It is classified as part of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Shanghainese, like other Wu variants, is mutually unintelligible with other varieties of Chinese, such as Mandarin.[2] In English, "Shanghainese" sometimes refers to all Wu languages, variants and dialects, although they are only partially intelligible with one another. Shanghainese
Shanghainese
proper is a representative language of Taihu Wu; it contains vocabulary and expressions from the entire Taihu Wu area of southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and northern Zhejiang. With nearly 14 million speakers, Shanghainese
Shanghainese
is also the largest single form of Wu Chinese. It serves as the lingua franca of the entire Yangtze River Delta region. Shanghainese
Shanghainese
is rich in vowels [i y ɪ ʏ ei ø ɛ ə ɐ a ɑ ɔ ɤɯ o ʊ u] (twelve of which are phonemic) and in consonants. Like other Taihu Wu dialects, Shanghainese
Shanghainese
has voiced initials [b d ɡ ɦ z v dʑ ʑ]: neither Cantonese
Cantonese
nor Mandarin has voiced initial stops or affricates. The Shanghainese
Shanghainese
tonal system is also significantly different from other Chinese varieties, sharing more similarities with the Japanese pitch accent, with two level tonal contrasts (high and low), whereas Cantonese
Cantonese
and Mandarin are typical of contour tonal languages.

Contents

1 History 2 Intelligibility and Variations 3 Phonology

3.1 Initials 3.2 Finals 3.3 Tones

3.3.1 Tone sandhi

4 Common words and phrases in Shanghainese

4.1 Literary and vernacular pronunciations

5 Plural pronouns 6 Writing 7 See also 8 References

8.1 Citations 8.2 Sources

9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit]

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Shanghai
Shanghai
did not become a regional center of commerce until it was opened to foreign investment during the late Qing dynasty. Consequently, languages and dialects spoken around Shanghai
Shanghai
had long been subordinate to those spoken around Jiaxing
Jiaxing
and later Suzhounese. In the late 19th century, most vocabulary of the Shanghai
Shanghai
area had been a hybrid between Southern Jiangsu
Jiangsu
and Ningbonese.[3] Since the 1850s, owing to the growth of Shanghai's economy, Shanghainese
Shanghainese
has become one of the fastest-developing languages of the Wu Chinese subgroup, undergoing rapid changes and quickly replacing Suzhounese as the prestige dialect of the Yangtze River Delta
Yangtze River Delta
region. It underwent sustained growth that reached a hiatus in the 1930s during the Republican era, when migrants arrived in Shanghai
Shanghai
and immersed themselves in the local tongue. After 1949, the government imposed Mandarin (Putonghua) as the official language of the whole nation of China. The dominance and influence of Shanghainese
Shanghainese
began to wane slightly. Since Chinese economic reform began in 1978, especially, Shanghai
Shanghai
became home to a great number of migrants from all over the country. Due to the national prominence of Mandarin, learning Shanghainese
Shanghainese
was no longer necessary for migrants, because those educated after the 1950s could generally communicate in Mandarin. However, Shanghainese
Shanghainese
remained a vital part of the city's culture and retained its prestige status within the local population. In the 1990s, it was still common for local radio and television broadcasts to be in Shanghainese. In 1995, the TV series Sinful Debt featured extensive Shanghainese
Shanghainese
dialogue; when it was broadcast outside Shanghai
Shanghai
(mainly in adjacent Wu-speaking provinces) Mandarin subtitles were added. The Shanghainese
Shanghainese
TV series Lao Niang Jiu (Old Uncle) was broadcast from 1995 to 2007 [4] and was popular among Shanghainese
Shanghainese
residents. Shanghainese
Shanghainese
programming has since slowly declined amid regionalist/localist accusations. From 1992 onward, Shanghainese
Shanghainese
use was discouraged in schools,[5] and many children native to Shanghai
Shanghai
can no longer speak Shanghainese.[6] In addition, Shanghai's emergence as a cosmopolitan global city consolidated the status of Mandarin as the standard language of business and services, at the expense of the local language.[3] Since 2005, new movements have emerged to protect Shanghainese
Shanghainese
from fading away. At municipal legislative discussions in 2005, former Shanghai opera
Shanghai opera
actress Ma Lili moved to "protect" the language, stating that she was one of the few remaining Shanghai opera
Shanghai opera
actresses who still retained authentic classic Shanghainese
Shanghainese
pronunciation in their performances. Shanghai's former party boss Chen Liangyu, a native Shanghainese
Shanghainese
himself, reportedly supported her proposal.[3] There have been talks of re-integrating Shanghainese
Shanghainese
into pre-kindergarten education, because many children are unable to speak any Shanghainese. A citywide program was introduced by the city government's language committee in 2006 to record native speakers of different Shanghainese
Shanghainese
varieties for archival purposes and, by 2010, many Shanghainese-language programs were running.[7] The Shanghai
Shanghai
government has begun to reverse its course and seek fluent speakers of authentic Shanghainese, but only two out of thirteen recruitment stations have found Traditional Shanghainese speakers; the rest of the 14 million people of Shanghai
Shanghai
speak modern Shanghainese,[clarification needed] and it has been predicted that local variants will be wiped out. Professor Qian Nairong is working on efforts to save the language.[8][9] In response to criticism, Qian reminds people that Shanghainese
Shanghainese
was once fashionable, saying, "the popularization of Mandarin doesn't equal the ban of dialects. It doesn't make Mandarin a more civilized language either. Promoting dialects is not a narrow-minded localism, as it has been labeled by some netizens”.[10] The singer and composer Eheart Chen sings many of his songs in Shanghainese
Shanghainese
instead of Mandarin to preserve the language.[11] Since 2006, the Modern Baby Kindergarten in Shanghai
Shanghai
has prohibited all of its students from speaking anything but Shanghainese
Shanghainese
on Fridays to preserve the language amongst younger speakers.[12][13] In 2011, Professor Qian said that the sole remaining speakers of real Shanghainese
Shanghainese
are a group of Shanghainese
Shanghainese
peoples over the age of 60 and native citizens who have little outside contact, and he strongly urges that Shanghainese
Shanghainese
be taught in the regular school system from kindergarten all the way to elementary, saying it is the only way to save Shanghainese, and that attempts to introduce it in university courses and operas are not enough.[14] Fourteen native Shanghainese
Shanghainese
speakers had audio recordings made of their Shanghainese
Shanghainese
on May 31, 2011. They were selected based on accent purity, way of pronunciation and other factors.[15] Intelligibility and Variations[edit]

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Shanghainese
Shanghainese
is not mutually intelligible with any language or dialect of Mandarin. It is around 50% intelligible[dubious – discuss] (with 28.9% lexical similarity) with the Mandarin heard in Beijing. Modern Shanghainese
Shanghainese
however, has been heavily influenced by modern Mandarin and some other Chinese languages, such as Cantonese. This makes the Shanghainese
Shanghainese
spoken by young people in the city different from that spoken by the older population, sometimes significantly. It also means that inserting Mandarin, Cantonese
Cantonese
or both into Shanghainese
Shanghainese
sentences during everyday conversation is very common, at least amongst young people. Like most subdivisions of Chinese, it is easier for a local speaker to understand Mandarin than it is for a Mandarin speaker to understand the local language. Shanghainese
Shanghainese
is part of the larger Wu subgroup of Chinese languages. It is somewhat similar, to a certain degree, to the speech of neighboring cities of Ningbo
Ningbo
and Suzhou. People mingling between these areas do not need to code-switch to Mandarin when they speak to one another. However, there are noticeable tonal and phonological changes which do not impede intelligibility. As the dialect continuum of Wu continues to further distances, however, significant changes occur in phonology and lexicon to the point where it is no longer possible to converse intelligibly. The majority of Shanghainese
Shanghainese
speakers find that by Wuxi, differences become significant and the Wuxi
Wuxi
dialect would take weeks to months for a Shanghainese
Shanghainese
speaker to fully learn. Similarly, Hangzhou dialect is understood by most Shanghainese speakers, but it is considered "rougher" and does not have as much glide and flow in comparison. The language evolved in and around Taizhou, Zhejiang, by which point it becomes difficult for a Shanghainese
Shanghainese
speaker to comprehend. Wenzhounese, spoken in the southernmost part of Zhejiang
Zhejiang
province, although considered part of the Wu group, is not at all intelligible with Shanghainese. Shanghainese
Shanghainese
is also mutually unintelligible with Cantonese, Southern Min (e.g. Hokkien
Hokkien
or Teochew), or any other language in any different groups of Chinese. Phonology[edit] Following conventions of Chinese syllable structure, Shanghainese syllables can be divided into initials and finals. The initial occupies the first part of the syllable. The final occupies the second part of the syllable and can be divided further into an optional medial and an obligatory rimes (sometimes spelled rhyme). Tone is also a feature of the syllable in Shanghainese.[16]:6–16 Syllabic tone, which is typical to the other Sinitic languages, has largely become verbal tone in Shanghainese.[citation needed] Initials[edit]

Initials of Shanghainese

  Labial Dental/Alveolar Alveolo-Palatal Velar Glottal

Nasal m n ɲ ŋ  

Plosive tenuis p t̪

k

aspirated pʰ t̪ʰ

kʰ  

voiced b d̪

ɡ  

Affricate tenuis

t͡s t͡ɕ

aspirated

t͡sʰ t͡ɕʰ

 

voiced

d͡ʑ

 

Fricative voiceless f s ɕ   h

voiced v z ʑ   ɦ

Lateral

l

Shanghainese
Shanghainese
has a set of tenuis, voiceless aspirated and voiced plosives and affricates, as well as a set of voiceless and voiced fricatives. Alveolo-palatal initials are also present in Shanghainese. Voiced
Voiced
stops are phonetically voiceless with slack voice phonation in stressed, word initial position.[17] This phonation (often referred to as murmur) also occurs in zero onset syllables, syllables beginning with fricatives, and syllables beginning with sonorants. These consonants are true voiced in intervocalic position.[18] Finals[edit] The table below lists the vowel nuclei of Shanghainese[19]

Front Central Back

Unrounded Rounded

Close /i/ /y/

/u, o/

Mid /ɛ/ /ø/ /ə/ /ɔ/

Open

/a/ /ɑ/

Diphthong /ei, ɤɯ/

The following chart lists all possible finals (medial + nucleus + coda) in Shanghainese
Shanghainese
represented in IPA.[20][16]:11

Coda Open Nasal Glottal stop

Medial ∅ j w ∅ j w ∅ j w

Nucleus u u                

i i                

o o                

y y                

ei ei   wei            

ɤɯ ɤɯ jɤɯ              

ə       ən   wən əʔ   wəʔ

ɛ ɛ jɛ wɛ ɪɲ     ɪʔ    

ɔ ɔ jɔ   ʊŋ jʊŋ   ʊʔ jʊʔ  

ø ø jø wø ʏɲ     ʏʔ    

a a ja wa ɐ̃ jɐ̃ wɐ̃ ɐʔ jɐʔ wɐʔ

ɑ       ɑ̃ jɑ̃ wɑ̃      

Syllabic continuants: [z̩] [m̩] [ŋ̩] [ɚ]

The transcriptions used above are broad and the following points are of note when pertaining to actual pronunciation:[19]

[u] and [o] are pronounced with similar tongue position, but the former is pronounced with compressed lip rounding while the latter is pronounced with protruded lip rounding ([ɯ̽ᵝ] and [ʊ] respectively). The vowel pairs [a, ɐ], [ɛ, ɪ], [ɔ, ʊ] and [ø, ʏ] are each pronounced nearly identically ([ɐ], [e], [o̞] and [ø] respectively) despite having different conventional transcriptions. /j/ is pronounced [ɥ] before rounded vowels.

The Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
[-ŋ] rimes are retained, while [-n] and [-m] are either retained or have disappeared in Shanghainese. Middle Chinese [-p -t -k] rimes have become glottal stops, [-ʔ].[21] Tones[edit] Shanghainese
Shanghainese
has five phonetically distinguishable tones for single syllables said in isolation. These tones are illustrated below in Chao tone names. In terms of Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
tone designations, the yin tone category has three tones (yinshang and yinqu tones have merged into one tone), while the yang category has two tones (the yangping, yangshang, and yangqu have merged into one tone).[22][16]:17

Five Shanghainese
Shanghainese
Citation Tones with Middle Chinese
Middle Chinese
Classifications

Ping (平) Shang (上) Qu (去) Ru (入)

Yin (阴) 52 (T1) 34 (T2) 44ʔ (T4)

Yang (阳) 14 (T3) 24ʔ (T5)

The conditioning factors which led to the yin–yang split still exist in Shanghainese, as they do in other Wu dialects: yang tones are only found with voiced initials [b d ɡ z v dʑ ʑ m n ɲ ŋ l ɦ], while the yin tones are only found with voiceless initials.[citation needed] The ru tones are abrupt, and describe those rimes which end in a glottal stop /ʔ/. That is, both the yin–yang distinction and the ru tones are allophonic (dependent on syllabic structure). Shanghainese has only a two-way phonemic tone contrast,[23] falling vs rising, and then only in open syllables with voiceless initials. Tone sandhi[edit] Tone sandhi is a process whereby adjacent tones undergo dramatic alteration in connected speech. Similar to other Northern Wu dialects, Shanghainese
Shanghainese
is characterized by two forms of tone sandhi: a word tone sandhi and a phrasal tone sandhi. Word tone sandhi in Shanghainese
Shanghainese
can be described as left-prominent and is characterized by a dominance of the first syllable over the contour of the entire tone domain. As a result, the underlying tones of syllables other than the leftmost syllable, have no effect on the tone contour of the domain. The pattern is generally described as tone spreading (T1-4) or tone shifting (T5, except for 4- and 5-syllable compounds, which can undergo spreading or shifting). The table below illustrates possible tone combinations.

Left-Prominent Sandhi Tone Values

Tone One syllable Two syllables Three syllables Four syllables Five syllables

T1 52 55 22 55 44 22 55 44 33 22 55 44 33 33 22

T2 34 33 44 33 44 22 33 44 33 22 33 44 33 33 22

T3 14 11 44 11 44 11 11 44 33 11 11 44 33 22 11

T4 44 33 44 33 44 22 33 44 33 22 33 44 33 22 22

T5 24 11 24 11 11 24 11 22 22 24 22 44 33 11 11 11 11 11 24 22 44 33 22 11

As an example, in isolation, the two syllables of the word for China are pronounced with T1 and T4: /tsʊŋ52/ and /kwəʔ44/. However, when pronounced in combination, T1 from /tsʊŋ/ spreads over the compound resulting in the following pattern /tsʊŋ55kwəʔ22/. Similarly, the syllables in a common expression for foolish have the following underlying phonemic and tonal representations: /zəʔ24/ (T5), /sɛ52/ (T1), and /ti34/ (T2). However, the syllables in combination exhibit the T5 shifting pattern where the first-syllable T5 shifts to the last syllable in the domain: /zəʔ11sɛ11ti24/.[16]:38–46 Phrasal tone sandhi in Shanghainese
Shanghainese
can be described as right-prominent and is characterized by a right syllable retaining its underlying tone and a left syllable receiving a mid-level tone based on the underlying tone's register. The table below indicates possible left syllable tones in right-prominent compounds.[16]:46–47

Possible Left Syllable Tone Values in Right-Prominent Sandhi

Tone Underlying Tone Neutralized Tone

T1 52 44

T2 34 44

T3 14 33

T4 44 44

T5 24 22

For instance, when combined, /ma14/ and /tɕjɤɯ34/ become /ma33tɕjɤɯ34/ (buy wine). Sometimes meaning can change based on whether left-prominent or right-prominent sandhi is used. For example, /tsʰɔ34/ and /mi14/ when pronounced /tsʰɔ33mi44/ (i.e., with left-prominent sandhi) means fried noodles. When pronounced /tsʰɔ44mi14/ (i.e., with right-prominent sandhi), it means to fry noodles.[16]:35 Common words and phrases in Shanghainese[edit] Note: Chinese characters for Shanghainese
Shanghainese
are not standardized and are provided for reference only. IPA transcription is for the Middle period of modern Shanghainese
Shanghainese
(中派上海话), pronunciation of those between 20 and 60 years old.

Translation IPA Chinese character
Chinese character
Transliteration

Shanghainese
Shanghainese
(language) [zɑ̃.hɛ ɦɛ.ɦo] 上海闲话 or 上海言话(上海閒話 or 上海言話)

Shanghainese
Shanghainese
(people) [zɑ̃.hɛ.ɲɪɲ] 上海人

I [ŋu] 我、吾

we or I [ɐʔ.la] 阿拉)

he/she [ɦi] 渠(佢, 伊, 其)

they [ɦi.la] 渠拉(佢拉, 伊拉)

you (sing.) [nʊŋ] 侬(儂)

you (plural) [na] 倷 (modern Mandarin-based approximation: 㑚)

hello [nʊŋ.hɔ] 侬好(儂好)

good-bye [tsɛ.ɦwei] 再会(再會)

thank you [ʑja.ja.nʊŋ] or [ʑja.ʑja.nʊŋ] 谢谢侬(謝謝儂)

sorry [tei.vəʔ.tɕʰi] 对勿起(對勿起)

but, however [dɛ.z̩], [dɛ.z̩.ni] 但是, 但是呢

please [tɕʰɪɲ] 请(請)

that one [ɛ.tsa], [i.tsa] 埃只, 伊只(埃隻, 伊隻)

this one [ɡəʔ.tsa] 箇只(箇隻)

there [ɛ.ta], [i.ta] 埃𡍲, 伊𡍲

over there [ɛ.mi.ta], [i.mi.ta] 埃面𡍲, 伊面𡍲

here [ɡəʔ.ta] 搿𡍲

to have [ɦjɤɯ.təʔ] 有得

to exist, here, present [lɐʔ.hɛ] 徕許, 勒許

now, current [ɦi.zɛ] 现在(現在)

what time is it? [ɦi.zɛ tɕi.ti tsʊŋ] 现在几点钟?(現在幾點鐘?)

where [ɦa.li.ta], [sa.di.fɑ̃] 何里𡍲(何裏𡍲), 啥地方

what [sa.ɦəʔ] 啥个

who [sa.ɲɪɲ] or [ɦa.li.ɦwei] 啥人, 何里位

why [ɦwei.sa] 为啥(為啥)

when [sa.zən.kwɑ̃] 啥辰光

how [na.nən], [na.nən.ka] 哪能 (哪恁), 哪能介 (哪恁介)

how much? [tɕi.di] 几钿?(幾鈿?)

yes [ɛ] 哎

no [m̩], [vəʔ.z̩], [m̩.məʔ], [vjɔ] 呒, 勿是, 呒没, 覅(嘸, 勿是, 嘸沒, 覅)

telephone number [di.ɦo ɦɔ.dɤɯ] 电话号头(電話號頭)

home [ʊʔ.li] 屋里(屋裏)

Come to our house and play. [tɔ ɐʔ.la ʊʔ.li.ɕjɑ̃ lɛ bəʔ.ɕjɐ̃] 到阿拉屋里向来孛相(白相)!(到阿拉屋裏向來孛相!)

Where's the restroom? [da.sɤɯ.kɛ ləʔ.ləʔ ɦa.li.ta] 汏手间勒勒何里𡍲?(汏手間勒勒何裏𡍲?)

Have you eaten dinner? [ɦja.vɛ tɕʰɪʔ.ku.ləʔ va] 夜饭吃过了𠲎?(夜飯喫過了𠲎?)

I don't know [ŋu vəʔ.ɕjɔ.təʔ] 我勿晓得.(我勿曉得.)

Do you speak English? [nʊŋ ɪɲ.vən kɑ̃.təʔ.lɛ va] 侬英文讲得来𠲎?(儂英文講得來𠲎?)

I adore you [ŋu ɛ.mu nʊŋ] 我爱慕侬.(我愛慕儂!)

I like you a lot [ŋu lɔ hwø.ɕi nʊŋ əʔ] 我老欢喜侬个!(我老歡喜儂个)

news [ɕɪɲ.vən] 新闻(新聞)

dead [ɕi.tʰəʔ.ləʔ] 死脱了

alive [ɦwəʔ.ləʔ.hɛ] 活勒嗨(活着)

a lot [tɕjɔ.kwɛ] 交关

inside, within [li.ɕjɑ̃] 里向

outside [ŋa.dɤɯ] 外頭

How are you? [nʊŋ hɔ va] 侬好𠲎?(儂好𠲎?)

Literary and vernacular pronunciations[edit]

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字 Pinyin English translation Literary Vernacular

家 jiā house tɕia˥˨ ka˥˨

顏 yán face ɦiɪ˩˩˧ ŋʱɛ˩˩˧

櫻 yīng cherry ʔiŋ˥˨ ʔɐ̃˥˨

孝 xiào filial piety ɕiɔ˧˧˥ hɔ˧˧˥

學 xué learning ʱjɐʔ˨ ʱʊʔ˨

物 wù thing vəʔ˨ mʱəʔ˨

網 wǎng web ʱwɑŋ˩˩˧ mʱɑŋ˩˩˧

鳳 fèng male phoenix voŋ˩˩˧ boŋ˩˩˧

肥 féi fat vi˩˩˧ bi˩˩˧

日 rì sun zəʔ˨ ɲʱiɪʔ˨

人 rén person zən˩˩˧ ɲʱin˩˩˧

鳥 niǎo bird ʔɲiɔ˧˧˥ tiɔ˧˧˥[citation needed]

Plural pronouns[edit] The first-person pronoun is suffixed with 伲 [ɲi˨˧] as in "我伲" [ŋu˨˨.ɲi˦˦], and third-person with 拉 [la˥˧]), but the second-person plural is a separate root, 㑚 [nʌ˨˧].[24] Writing[edit]

A table of Shanghai
Shanghai
Phonetic Symbols by Rev. J. A. Silsby

Chinese characters are used to write Shanghainese. Romanization
Romanization
of Shanghainese
Shanghainese
was first developed by Protestant
Protestant
English and American Christian missionaries
Christian missionaries
in the 19th century, including Joseph Edkins.[25] Usage of this romanization system was mainly confined to translated Bibles for use by native Shanghainese, or English- Shanghainese
Shanghainese
dictionaries, some of which also contained characters, for foreign missionaries to learn Shanghainese. Shanghainese
Shanghainese
is sometimes written informally using homophones: "lemon" (ningmeng), written 檸檬 in Standard Chinese, may be written 人門 (person-door) in Shanghainese; and "yellow" (huang黄) may be written 王 (king) rather than standard 黃. These are not homophones in Mandarin, but are homophones in Shanghainese. There are also some homophones in Mandarin which are not homophonic in Shanghainese, e.g. 做, 作 and 坐.[26] Protestant
Protestant
missionaries in the 1800s created the Shanghainese
Shanghainese
Phonetic Symbols to write Shanghainese
Shanghainese
phonetically. The symbols are a syllabary similar to the Japanese Kana
Kana
system. The system has not been used and is only seen in a few historical books.[27][28] See also[edit]

Shanghai
Shanghai
portal Language portal

Shanghainese
Shanghainese
people Haipai Wu Chinese

Suzhounese Ningbonese

List of varieties of Chinese Chinatown, Flushing

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Shanghainese". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ Encyclopedia Britannica – Chinese languages ^ a b c China
China
Newsweek Archived March 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Chinese page of Lao Niang Jiu 老娘舅, . ^ Yin Yeping (July 31, 2011). "60 years of Putonghua and English drown out local tongues". Global Times. Archived from the original on May 30, 2013.  ^ Zat Liu (August 20, 2010). "Is Shanghai's local dialect, and culture, in crisis?". CNN
CNN
GO. Retrieved June 5, 2011.  ^ "Call goes out: Language, please". Shanghai
Shanghai
Daily. April 6, 2010. Archived from the original on June 7, 2011.  ^ " Shanghai
Shanghai
struggles to save disappearing dialect". CNN
CNN
GO. November 22, 2010. Retrieved January 18, 2011.  ^ Tiffany Ap (November 18, 2010). "That ain't Shanghainese
Shanghainese
you're speaking". shanghaiist. Retrieved September 30, 2011.  ^ Tracy You (June 3, 2010). "Word wizard: The man bringing Shanghainese
Shanghainese
back to the people". CNN
CNN
GO. Retrieved January 18, 2011.  ^ Tracy You (July 26, 2010). "Eheart Chen: Shanghai's modern rocker with a nostalgic soul". CNN
CNN
GO. Retrieved January 18, 2011.  ^ Ni Dandan (May 16, 2011). "Dialect faces death threat". Global Times. Archived from the original on May 21, 2011. Retrieved June 5, 2011. we arranged Shanghai
Shanghai
Day on Fridays to promote the language and local culture  ^ Jia Feishang (May 13, 2011). "Stopping the local dialect becoming derelict". Shanghai
Shanghai
Daily. Retrieved February 11, 2017.  ^ Miranda Shek (February 2, 2011). "Local dialect in danger of vanishing". Global Times. Archived from the original on November 6, 2011. Retrieved December 1, 2016.  ^ Liang Yiwen (May 30, 2011). "14 Shanghainese
Shanghainese
selected for dialect recording". Shanghai
Shanghai
Daily. Retrieved September 30, 2011. [permanent dead link] ^ a b c d e f Zhu, Xiaonong (2006). A Grammar of Shanghai
Shanghai
Wu. Lincom.  ^ Ladefoged, Peter, Maddieson, Ian. The Sounds of the World's Languages. Wiley-Blackwell, 1996, p. 64-66. ^ Zhu, Xiaonong S. Shanghai
Shanghai
Tonetics. Lincom Europa, 1999, p. 12. ^ a b Chen & Gussenhoven (2015) ^ Zhu, Xiaonong S. Shanghai
Shanghai
Tonetics. Lincom Europa, 1999, p. 14-17. ^ Svantesson, Jan-Olof. " Shanghai
Shanghai
Vowels," Lund University, Department of Linguistics, Working Papers, 35:191-202 ^ Chen, Zhongmin. Studies in Dialects in the Shanghai
Shanghai
Area. Lincom Europa, 2003, p. 74. ^ Introduction to Shanghainese. Pronunciation (Part 3 - Tones and Pitch Accent) ^ Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla (2003). Graham Thurgood, Randy J. LaPolla, ed. The Sino-Tibetan languages. Volume 3 of Routledge language family series (illustrated ed.). Psychology Press. p. 86. ISBN 0-7007-1129-5. Retrieved March 10, 2012.  ^ Edkins, Joseph (1853). Grammar of the Shanghai
Shanghai
Dialect.  ^ Wm. V. Hannas (1997). Asia's orthographic dilemma. University of Hawaii Press. p. 20. ISBN 0-8248-1892-X. Retrieved December 8, 2011. Non-Mandarin speakers take their own shortcuts, such as 王 (Shanghai) wang "king" for 黃 wang "yellow" (pronounced Huáng in Mandarin) or 人門 (Shanghai) ningmeng (lit.) "person" and "door" for 檸檬 ningmeng "lemon," not to mention hundreds of unique forms and usages devised popularly that have no application to Mandarin at all. There is nothing new about this phenomenon. For at least two millennia, there have been two orthographies in China: the one formally sanctioned by lexicographers and the state, and a popular tradition used informally by people in their everyday lives. () ^ https://oldchinesebooks.wordpress.com/2012/12/ ^ https://archive.org/stream/chineserecorder19lodwuoft#page/106/mode/2up/search/phonetic

Sources[edit]

Lance Eccles, Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect: an introduction to speaking the contemporary language. Dunwoody Press, 1993. ISBN 1-881265-11-0. 230 pp + cassette. (An introductory course in 29 units). Xiaonong Zhu, A Grammar of Shanghai
Shanghai
Wu. LINCOM Studies in Asian Linguistics 66, LINCOM Europa, Munich, 2006. ISBN 3-89586-900-7. 201+iv pp.

Further reading[edit]

Chen, Yiya; Gussenhoven, Carlos (2015), " Shanghai
Shanghai
Chinese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (3): 321–327, doi:10.1017/S0025100315000043  John A. Silsby, Darrell Haug Davis (1907). Complete Shanghai
Shanghai
syllabary with an index to Davis and Silsby's Shanghai
Shanghai
vernacular dictionary and with the Mandarin pronunciation of each character. American Presbyterian Mission Press. p. 150. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  Joseph Edkins
Joseph Edkins
(1868). A grammar of colloquial Chinese: as exhibited in the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect (2 ed.). Presbyterian mission press. p. 225. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  Shanghai
Shanghai
Christian vernacular society (1891). Syllabary of the Shanghai
Shanghai
vernacular: Prepared and published by the Shanghai
Shanghai
Christian vernacular society. American Presbyterian mission press. p. 94. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  Rev.John Macgowan (1868). Collection Of Phrases In The Shanghai Dialect (2 ed.). The London Missionary Society. p. 113. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  Gilbert McIntosh (1908). Useful phrases in the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect: With index-vocabulary and other helps (2 ed.). American Presbyterian mission press. p. 113. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  Joseph Edkins
Joseph Edkins
(1869). A vocabulary of the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect. Presbyterian mission press. p. 151. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  Charles Ho, George Foe (1940). Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect in 4 weeks: with map of Shanghai. Chi Ming Book Co.press. p. 125. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  John Alfred Silsby (1911). Introduction to the study of the Shanghai vernacular. American Presbyterian Mission Press. p. 53. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  R. A. Parker (1923). Introduction Lessons in the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect: in romanized and character, with key to pronunciation. Shanghai. p. 265. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  Pott, F. L. Hawks (Francis Lister Hawks), 1864-1947 The ... Francis Lister Hawks Pott
Francis Lister Hawks Pott
(1907). Lessons in the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect. Shanghai: Printed at the American Presbyterian mission press.  Francis Lister Hawks Pott; Frank Joseph Rawlinson (1915). 滬語開路 = Conversational exercises in the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect / Hu yu kai lu = Conversational exercises in the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect. Shanghai: Shanghai mei hua shu guan.  Francis Lister Hawks Pott
Francis Lister Hawks Pott
(1924). Lessons in the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect (revised ed.). Printed at the Commercial Press. p. 174. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  Francis Lister Hawks Pott
Francis Lister Hawks Pott
(1924). Lessons in the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect. Commercial Press.  An English-Chinese vocabulary of the Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect (2 ed.). Printed at the American Presbyterian Mission Press. 1913. p. 593. Retrieved May 15, 2011.  " Shanghai
Shanghai
steps up efforts to save local language" (Archive). CNN. March 31, 2011.

External links[edit]

Wu edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect.

Shanghainese
Shanghainese
audio lesson series: Audio lessons with accompanying dialogue and vocabulary study tools Shanghai
Shanghai
Dialect: Resources on Shanghai
Shanghai
dialect including a Web site (in Japanese) that gives common phrases with sound files Shanghainese-Mandarin Soundboard: A soundboard (requires Flash) of common Mandarin Chinese
Mandarin Chinese
phrases with Shanghainese
Shanghainese
equivalents. Wu Association IAPSD International Association for Preservation of the Shanghainese Dialect Recordings of Shanghainese
Shanghainese
are available through Kaipuleohone, including talking about entertainment and food, and words and sentences

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