Sejanus (June 3, 20 BC – October 18, AD 31), commonly
Sejanus (/sɪˈdʒeɪnəs/), was an ambitious soldier,
friend and confidant of the
Roman Emperor Tiberius. An equestrian by
Sejanus rose to power as prefect of the Roman imperial
bodyguard, known as the Praetorian Guard, of which he was commander
from AD 14 until his death in AD 31.
Praetorian Guard was formally established under Emperor
Sejanus introduced a number of reforms which saw the unit
evolve beyond a mere bodyguard, into a powerful and influential branch
of the government involved in public security, civil administration
and ultimately political intercession; these changes would have a
lasting impact on the course of the Principate.
During the 20s,
Sejanus gradually accumulated power by consolidating
his influence over
Tiberius and eliminating potential political
opponents, including the emperor's son Drusus
Julius Caesar. When
Tiberius withdrew to
Capri in AD 26,
Sejanus was left in control of
the administration of the empire. For a time the most influential and
feared citizen of Rome,
Sejanus suddenly fell from power in AD 31, the
year his career culminated with the consulship. Amidst suspicions of
conspiracy against Tiberius,
Sejanus was arrested and executed, along
with his followers.
2 Rise to power
2.1 Praetorian prefect
2.2 Feud with Drusus
2.3 Consolidation of power
3.2 Execution and aftermath
4.1 Praetorian Guard
4.3 Literary interpretations
7 Further reading
8 External links
Sejanus was born in 20 BC at Volsinii, Etruria, into the family of
Lucius Seius Strabo. The Seii were Romans of the equestrian
class (or knights), the lower of the two upper social classes of the
Roman Republic and the early Roman Empire. Sejanus' grandfather
maintained relations with senatorial families through his marriage
with Terentia, a sister of the wife of Gaius Maecenas, who was one of
Emperor Augustus' most powerful political allies.:p. 76
Strabo married into equally illustrious families. He may have married
a daughter of Quintus Aelius Tubero, allying himself with the more
prestigious Aelian gens.:p. 76 Lucius Seius Tubero, who became
suffect consul in AD 18, was probably his son.:p. 76 Strabo's last
wife was Cosconia Gallita, sister of Servius Cornelius Lentulus
Maluginensis (suffect consul in AD 10) and Publius Cornelius Lentulus
Scipio (suffect consul in AD 2) and perhaps half-sister of Quintus
Junius Blaesus (suffect consul in AD 10).:p. 76
Sejanus could have
been a child of this marriage. He was later adopted into the Aelian
gens by Gaius Aelius Gallus, and by Roman custom became known as
Lucius Aelius Seianus or simply as Sejanus.
The adoptive family of
Sejanus counted two consuls among their ranks:
Quintus Aelius Tubero (consul in 11 BC) and Sextus Aelius Catus
(consul in AD 4), who was the father of Aelia Paetina, the second wife
of the future Emperor Claudius. Sejanus' uncle, Junius Blaesus,
distinguished himself as a military commander; he became proconsul of
Africa in AD 21 and earned triumphal honors by crushing the rebellion
According to the ancient historian Tacitus,
Sejanus was also a former
favourite of the wealthy Marcus Gavius Apicius, whose daughter may
have been Sejanus' first wife Apicata. With Apicata,
two sons, Strabo and Capito Aelianus, and a daughter, Junilla.
Rise to power
It is likely that Sejanus' father Strabo came to the attention of
Augustus through his father's connection with Maecenas. Sometime after
2 BC,[better source needed] Strabo was appointed prefect
of the Praetorian Guard, one of the two most powerful positions a
Roman knight could attain in the Empire. This office he carried on
dutifully and without incident until the death of
Augustus in AD 14.
Little is known about the life
Sejanus led prior to this date, but
according to Tacitus, he accompanied Gaius Caesar, adopted son of
Augustus, during his campaigns in Armenia in 1 BC. Upon the
Tiberius in AD 14,
Sejanus was appointed prefect of the
Praetorian Guard as the colleague of his father Strabo, and began his
rise to prominence.
Praetorian Guard was an elite unit of the
Roman army formed by
Augustus in 27 BC, with the specific function to serve as a bodyguard
to the emperor and members of the imperial
family.[better source needed] Much more than a guard
however, the Praetorians also managed the day-to-day care of the city,
such as general security and civil
administration.[better source needed] Furthermore, their
presence served as a constant reminder to the people and the Senate of
the substantial armed force which served as the basis for the imperial
power.[better source needed]
Augustus was careful however
to uphold the republican veneer of this regime, and only allowed nine
cohorts to be formed (one fewer than in a normal Roman legion), which
were inconspicuously scattered across various lodging houses in the
city, and commanded by two
prefects.[better source needed]
When Strabo was assigned to the governorship of Egypt in AD 15,
Sejanus became the sole commander of the Praetorians and instigated
reforms that helped shape the guard into a powerful tool of the
principate.[better source needed] In AD 20 the
scattered encampments inside the city were centralized into a single
garrison just outside Rome and the number of cohorts was
increased from nine to twelve,[better source needed] one
of which now held the daily guard at the palace. The practice of joint
leadership between two prefects was abandoned, and
appointed the centurions and tribunes. With these changes in
Sejanus now commanded the complete loyalty of a force of
around 12,000 soldiers, all of which were at his immediate disposal.
The facade of
Augustus was no longer maintained, and
displayed the strength of the guard at parades.
Feud with Drusus
Bust of Drusus the Younger (Drusus
Julius Caesar), son of Tiberius. In
a conspiracy that involved his own wife Livilla, Drusus was poisoned
in AD 23 by agents of Sejanus.
In his capacity of Praetorian prefect,
Sejanus quickly became a
trusted advisor to Tiberius. By AD 23, he exerted a considerable
influence over the decisions of the emperor, who referred to Sejanus
as "Socius Laborum" (my partner in my toils). By this time he had
been raised to the rank of praetor, a position which was not normally
granted to Romans of the equestrian class. A statue had been
erected in his honor in the Theatre of Pompey, and in the Senate,
his followers were advanced with public offices and governorships.
However this privileged position caused resentment among the
senatorial class and the imperial family, in particular earning him
the enmity of Tiberius' son Drusus
The history of
Sejanus and Drusus dated back to at least AD 15. That
year a mutiny had broken out among legions posted in
Germania. While his adopted son
Germanicus restored order in Germania,
Tiberius' biological son Drusus was sent to quell the uprising in
Pannonia, accompanied by
Sejanus and two Praetorian cohorts. In
part due to what the soldiers believed to be bad omens, Drusus quickly
managed to restore stability in the army, and publicly put the chief
instigators to death. The camp was purged of mutineers by the
Praetorians and the legions returned to the winter barracks.
Despite this success, the following years witnessed a growing
animosity between Drusus and Sejanus.
Since the accession of Tiberius, Drusus had been systematically
groomed as the successor of his father, successfully commanding
legions in Illyricum in AD 18, and sharing the consulship with
Tiberius in AD 21. In practice it was still
Sejanus who was the
second man in the empire and he was ambitious to further expand his
power. As early as AD 20,
Sejanus had sought to solidify his
connection with the imperial family, by betrothing his daughter
Junilla to the son of Claudius,
Claudius Drusus. At the time the
girl was only 4 years old but the marriage was prevented, when the boy
accidentally died a few days later of asphyxiation.
When this failed, it seems
Sejanus turned his attention toward
eliminating Drusus. By AD 23 the enmity between the two men had
reached a critical point. During an argument Drusus had struck the
prefect with his fist, and he openly lamented that "a stranger was
invited to assist in the government while the emperor's son was
Tiberius already in his sixties, there was a real
possibility of Drusus succeeding his father in the near future. To
secure his position,
Sejanus secretly plotted against Drusus and
seduced his wife Livilla. With her as an accomplice, Drusus was
slowly poisoned and died of seemingly natural causes on September 13,
Consolidation of power
Bust of Emperor
Tiberius (Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen). During
Tiberius became increasingly disillusioned with Roman
politics, and eventually withdrew to the island of Capri, leaving the
administration largely in the hands of Sejanus.
The loss of his son was a major blow to Tiberius, personally and
politically. Over the years he had grown increasingly disillusioned
with the position of princeps and by sharing the tribunician powers
with Drusus in AD 22 had prepared to relent some of his
responsibilities in favour of his son. With these hopes now
Tiberius left his administration more than ever in the care of
Sejanus and looked toward the sons of
Nero Caesar, Drusus
Caesar and Caligula) as possible heirs.
Germanicus had died in AD 19, in somewhat suspicious circumstances in
Syria. Following his death, his wife
Agrippina the Elder
Agrippina the Elder returned
Rome with their six children and became increasingly involved with
a group of senators who opposed the growing power of Sejanus. Her
Tiberius became increasingly fraught, as she made it
clear that she believed that he was responsible for the death of
Germanicus. The climate was further poisoned by the hatred that
Livia Drusilla (the widow of Augustus) felt for her,
since Agrippina's ambition, to be the mother of emperors and thus
Rome's first woman, was an open secret. To Sejanus, Agrippina's
Drusus Caesar and
Caligula were a threat to his
Sejanus again attempted to marry into the Julio-Claudian family.
Apicata two years earlier, he requested marriage with
Livilla in AD 25, possibly with an eye towards placing
himself, as an adopted Julian, in the position of a potential
successor. The emperor denied this request, warning
he was in danger of overstepping his rank. Alarmed by this sudden
Sejanus changed his plans and began to isolate Tiberius
from Rome. By fueling his paranoia towards Agrippina and the Senate,
he induced the emperor to withdraw to the countryside of Campania,
which he did in AD 26, and finally to the island of Capri, where he
lived until his death in AD 37. Guarded by the Praetorians,
Sejanus easily controlled all information that passed between Tiberius
and the capital.
Despite the withdrawal of
Tiberius from Rome's political scene, the
presence of Livia seems to have checked Sejanus' overt power for a
time. According to Tacitus, her death in AD 29 changed all that.
Sejanus began a series of purge trials of senators and wealthy
equestrians in the city, removing those capable of opposing his power
as well as extending the imperial (and his own) treasury. Networks of
spies and informers brought the victims to trial with false
accusations of treason, and many chose suicide over the disgrace of
being condemned and executed. Among those who perished were Gaius
Asinius Gallus, a prominent senator and opponent of
Tiberius who was
linked to Agrippina's faction. Agrippina and two of her sons, Nero
and Drusus were arrested and exiled in AD 30, and later starved to
death in suspicious circumstances. Only Caligula, the last
remaining son of Germanicus, managed to survive the purges of Sejanus,
by moving to
Tiberius in AD 31.
In AD 31, despite his equestrian rank,
Sejanus shared the consulship
Tiberius in absentia, and finally became betrothed to
Tiberius had not been seen in
Rome since AD 26 and senators
and equestrians courted Sejanus's favour as if he were Emperor.
His birthday was publicly observed and statues were erected in his
honour. With most of the political opposition crushed, Sejanus
felt his position was unassailable. The ancient historian Cassius Dio
Sejanus was so great a person by reason both of his excessive
haughtiness and of his vast power, that, to put it briefly, he himself
seemed to be the emperor and
Tiberius a kind of island potentate,
inasmuch as the latter spent his time on the island of Capreae.
Through years of crafty intrigues and indispensable service to the
Sejanus had worked himself up to become the most powerful man
in the Empire.
But suddenly, at the end of AD 31, he was arrested, summarily executed
and his body unceremoniously cast down the Gemonian stairs. What
caused his downfall is unclear:[better source needed]
ancient historians disagree about the nature of his conspiracy,
whether it was
Sejanus who struck first and in which order
subsequent events occurred. Modern historians consider it unlikely
Sejanus plotted to seize power and if he had planned so at all,
rather might have aimed at overthrowing
Tiberius to serve as a regent
Tiberius Gemellus, son of Drusus or possibly Gaius Caligula.
Unfortunately the relevant section pertaining to this period in the
Tacitus has been lost. According to Josephus, it was
Antonia, the mother of Livilla, who finally alerted
Tiberius to the
Sejanus posed (possibly with information provided by
Satrius Secundus), in a letter she dispatched to
Capri in the care of
her freedman Pallas. According to Juvenal, a letter was sent from
Capri with the orders to execute
Sejanus without a trial.
Further details concerning Sejanus' fall are provided by Cassius Dio,
writing nearly 200 years later in his Roman History. It appears that,
Tiberius heard to what extent
Sejanus had already usurped his
authority in Rome, he immediately took steps to remove him from power.
However, he realised that an outright condemnation could provoke
Sejanus to attempt a coup. Instead,
Tiberius addressed a number of
contradictory letters to the Senate, some of which praised
his friends and some of which denounced them.
announced that he would arrive in
Rome the next day or that he was at
the point of death. He stepped down as consul, forcing
do the same and conferred an honorary priesthood upon Caligula,
rekindling popular support for the house of Germanicus. The
ensuing confusion was successful in alienating
Sejanus from many of
his followers. With the intentions of the emperor no longer clear, it
was now deemed a safer course of action at
Rome to withdraw from overt
Sejanus until the matter was clearly settled.
When it became clear to
Tiberius that support for
Sejanus was not as
strong as the emperor had feared, his next step was to choose Naevius
Sutorius Macro, previously prefect of the vigiles (Roman police and
fire department), to replace
Sejanus and effect his
downfall.[better source needed] On October 18, AD
Sejanus was summoned to a Senate meeting by a letter from
Tiberius, ostensibly to bestow the tribunician powers upon him. At
dawn, he entered the Senate; but while the letter was being read,
Macro assumed control of the
Praetorian Guard and members of the
vigiles led by Graecinius Laco surrounded the building. The
senators at first congratulated
Sejanus but when the letter, which
first digressed into completely unrelated matters, suddenly denounced
him and ordered his arrest, he was immediately surrounded and escorted
Execution and aftermath
In AD 31,
Sejanus was arrested and condemned to death. The Senate
issued damnatio memoriae on him. His statues were destroyed and his
name obliterated from all public records. The above coin from Augusta
Bilbilis has the words L. Aelio Seiano erased.
That same evening the Senate convened at the
Temple of Concord
Temple of Concord and
Sejanus to death. He was led from prison and
strangled. His body was cast onto the Gemonian stairs, where the crowd
tore it to pieces. Riots ensued, in which crowds hunted and killed
anyone they could link to Sejanus. The Praetorians also resorted to
looting, when they were accused of having conspired with the former
prefect. Following the issue of damnatio memoriae by the Senate,
his statues were torn down and his name obliterated from all public
records. On October 24, Sejanus' eldest son Strabo was arrested and
executed. Upon learning of his death,
Apicata committed suicide
(October 26), after addressing a letter to Tiberius, claiming that
Drusus had been poisoned with the complicity of Livilla. The
accusations were further corroborated by confessions from Livilla's
slaves, who, under torture, admitted to having administered the poison
Enraged upon learning the truth,
Tiberius soon ordered more killings.
Livilla committed suicide or was starved to death by her mother
Antonia Minor. The remaining children of Sejanus, Capito Aelianus
and Junilla, were executed in December of that year. According
to ancient historians, because there was no precedent for the capital
punishment of a virgin, Junilla was raped first, with the rope around
her neck. Their bodies were thrown down the Gemonian stairs.
At the beginning of the following year, damnatio memoriae was also
passed on Livilla.
Rome at first rejoiced at the demise of Sejanus, the city
quickly plunged into more extensive trials, as
Tiberius persecuted all
those who could in any way be tied to the schemes of
Sejanus or had
courted his friendship. The Senatorial ranks were purged; the
hardest hit were those families with political ties to the
Julians. Even the imperial magistracy was not exempted from
Tiberius' wrath. Arrests and executions were now supervised by
Naevius Sutorius Macro, who succeeded
Sejanus as the Prefect of the
Praetorian Guard. The political turmoil continued until the death
Tiberius in AD 37, after which he was succeeded by Caligula.
Most historical documentation of Tiberius' revenge is given by
Suetonius and Tacitus; their portrayal of a tyrannical, vengeful
emperor has been challenged by several modern historians. Edward Togo
Salmon wrote that,
In the whole twenty two years of Tiberius' reign, not more than
fifty-two persons were accused of treason, of whom almost half escaped
conviction, while the four innocent people to be condemned fell
victims to the excessive zeal of the Senate, not to the Emperor's
tyranny.[full citation needed]
The reforms of
Sejanus most significantly included the founding of the
Castra Praetoria, which established the
Praetorian Guard as the
powerful political force, for which it is primarily known today.
Henceforth the Guard was at the disposal of the emperors, and the
rulers were equally at the mercy of the
Praetorians.[better source needed] The reality of this
was seen in AD 31, when
Tiberius was forced to rely upon the vigiles
against the soldiers of his own guard. Although the Praetorian
Guard proved faithful to the aging Tiberius, their potential political
power had been made clear.[better source needed]
Sejanus attained in his capacity as prefect proved Maecenas
right in his prediction to Augustus, that it was dangerous to allow
one man to command the guard.
Cassius Dio notes that after
Sejanus, no other prefect except Gaius Fulvius Plautianus, who
commanded the Guard under Septimius Severus, would rise to such
influence. Following his death, the Guard began to play an
increasingly ambitious and bloody role in the Empire. They
assassinated emperors, bullied their prefects or turned on the people
of Rome. In AD 41
Caligula was killed by conspirators from the
senatorial class and from the Guard. The Praetorians placed Claudius
on the throne, daring the Senate to oppose their decision. In the
late 1st century, a calculated uprising of Praetorians against Emperor
Nerva, led by Casperius Aelianus, forced
Nerva to adopt the more
Trajan as his son and successor.
While it is unproven that
Sejanus intended to overthrow Tiberius,
later prefects of the Guard did aspire to become emperor. Upon the
suicide of Emperor
Nero in AD 68, the Guard prefect Gaius Nymphidius
Sabinus attempted to have himself declared emperor, on the pretence
that he was the illegitimate son of Caligula. The attempt failed and
Sabinus was killed by his soldiers. In the early 3rd century,
Plautianus was executed after a failed conspiracy against Septimius
Severus. According to sources, the downfall of
Plautianus was largely due to suspicion of Severus' son Caracalla, who
was later murdered and replaced by his
Praetorian prefect Marcus
With the exception of Velleius Paterculus, ancient historians have
universally condemned Sejanus, although accounts differ regarding the
extent to which
Sejanus was manipulated by
Tiberius or the other way
Suetonius Tranquillus asserts that
merely an instrument of Tiberius, to hasten the downfall of Germanicus
and his family and that he was quickly disposed of once he ceased to
be useful. Tacitus, on the other hand, attributes much of the
decline of Tiberius' rule after AD 23 to the corrupting influence of
Sejanus, although he is generally also harsh on Tiberius.
Among the writers who fell victim to the regime of
Sejanus and its
aftermath, were the historians
Aulus Cremutius Cordus and Velleius
Paterculus and the poet Phaedrus. Cordus was brought to trial in AD 25
by Sejanus, under accusations of treason. He was charged for having
Marcus Junius Brutus
Marcus Junius Brutus and spoken of
Gaius Cassius Longinus
Gaius Cassius Longinus as
the last of the true Romans, which was considered an offence under the
Lex Maiestatis; the Senate ordered the burning of his
writings. His fall is elaborated upon by Seneca the Younger,
in his letter to Cordus' daughter Marcia To Marcia, On Consolation.
Seneca tells us that her father most likely incurred Sejanus'
displeasure for criticising him because he had commissioned a statue
of himself. We also know from this source that Cordus starved
himself to death. Marcia was instrumental in saving her father's
work so that it could be published again under Caligula.
Phaedrus was suspected of having alluded to
Sejanus in his Fables and
received some unknown punishment short of death (Cf. Fables I.1,
I.2.24, and I.17).
Velleius Paterculus was a historian and
contemporary of Sejanus, whose two-volume The Roman History details a
Rome from the fall of
Troy until the death of Livia Augusta
in AD 29. In his work he praised
Tiberius and Sejanus, even defending
the latter's high position in the government, despite not ranking
higher than equestrian. How much of Paterculus' writing is due to
genuine admiration, prudence or fear remains an open question, but it
has been conjectured that he was put to death as a friend of
Sejanus' fall is depicted in the section in Juvenal's Satire X on the
emptiness of power. This reviews the destruction of his statues
after the damnatio memoriae judgment and reflects on the fickleness of
public opinion. The dramatist
Ben Jonson borrowed from the poem for
some passages in his Sejanus: His Fall. The play is seen as a
topical reference to the fall of the former royal favourite, Robert
Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, executed for treason two years before.
Sejanus is also a leading figure in another Roman history play of
about this time, the anonymous Tragedy of
Making contemporary political points in this way through
reinterpretation of distant historical episodes was now common. In
17th century France, the fall of the powerful
Cardinal Mazarin was
celebrated in a political pamphlet that also drew parallels with the
career of Sejanus, L'Ambitieux ou le portraict d'Aelius
Sejanus en la
Cardinal Mazarin (Paris, 1642). In England other royal
favourites were seen in these terms too. George Villiers, 1st Duke of
Buckingham, is the target of an anonymous manuscript Roman tragedy,
The Emperor’s Favourite. The prudent need for anonymity, is
suggested by the arrest of Sir John Eliot, who was sent to the Tower
of London for his outspoken criticism of the Duke in the 1626
parliament, comparing him to Sejanus.
Following Buckingham’s death in 1628, when it was safer to do so, a
translation of a history by
Pierre Matthieu was published under the
title, The Powerful Favourite, the life of Aelius Sejanus. This
was followed in 1634 by another translation, Sir Thomas Hawkins'
Politicall Observations upon the Fall of Sejanus, which had originally
been titled Della peripetia di fortuna (Of Changes of Fortune) by its
author, Giovanni Battista Manzini. Later in the century
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, was the target of the
four-page political pamphlet Sejanus, or The popular favourite, now in
his solitude, and sufferings, signed with the pseudonym Timothy Tory
(1681). The story of Sejanus, with reference to the Earl's
imprisonment in the Tower on a charge of treason, is interpreted as an
argument for absolute monarchy, direct rule without the intermediary
The name of
Sejanus continued to be pressed into political service
during the 18th century. Prime Minister
Robert Walpole was attacked in
1735 in the course of a popular skit, C----- and country: A play of
seven acts...the whole concluding with the grand masque, call'd, The
downfall of Sejanus; its authorship is attributed to 'a masquerader'
and in the printed version the masque precedes the play, although it
is performed last. This gives the clue of how to take what is to
follow and consists of a conversation between Punch and the Hangman,
opening with the question 'Is this same
Sejanus to go out of the World
like a Man, or to die the Death of a mad Dog? For he has lived like a
sad One, from the first Day that the Emperor
Tiberius took him into
Favour.' A subtler attack on a later prime minister occurred in
1769 when Jonson's
Sejanus was reissued under the title of The
Favourite. This was prefaced with a tongue-in-cheek dedication to Lord
Bute, denying that there can be any comparison between the conduct of
Sejanus and that of his lordship.
Elsewhere in Europe there were other dramatic adaptations of the
story. They included Jean de Magnon's rhyming tragedy,
and Henri van der Zande's De dood van Elius
Sejanus of Spiegel voor
der vorsten gunstelingen (The death of Sejanus, a mirror for the
favourites of princes, Amsterdam 1716). Later there was
another recycling of Jonson's tragedy in England by the Irish actor
Francis Gentleman. Abridged and ‘improved’ by some additions of
his own, he published his Sejanus, a tragedy: as it was intended for
the stage (1752), when he could not get it acted. Later plays
include a 5-act tragedy by A.Arterton (1875) and the privately printed
Sejanus: A Tragedy in Five Acts by P. J. A. Chaulk (1923)
A later fictional treatment of the historical episode, appeared as the
first story of Edward Maturin's Sejanus, and Other Roman Tales (New
York 1839). It also figures in Robert Graves' I, Claudius
(1934). The novel was given new life when it was adapted for
television as I,
Claudius in 1976; in this Antonia sends the letter of
Tiberius via Claudius, after discovering her daughter is
Sejanus (Patrick Stewart). The Caesars (1968) was an
earlier television series which featured Sejanus.
Pontius Pilate was a nominee of
Sejanus and implicated in the latter's
anti-Jewish policies; this encouraged the inclusion of
novels dealing with the circumstances of Jesus Christ's
crucifixion. The first of these was Miles Gerald Keon's Dion and
the Sibyls: A Classic Christian Novel, published in London in 1866,
and by the Catholic Publication Society in New York in 1872. Later
examples include Paul L. Maier's
Pontius Pilate (Grand Rapids MI
1968) and Chris Seepe's The Conspiracy to Assassinate Jesus Christ
The aim of some later novels has been to concentrate as much on local
colour as on the story. This was true of William Percival Crozier's
historical romance The Fates Are Laughing (1945), set during the fall
Sejanus and the reign of Caligula, written by a classicist with an
eye for detail. It is equally true of some recent detective novels
set in Roman times. David Wishart's
Sejanus (London, 1998), features
Marcus Corvinus and James Mace's Empire Betrayed: Tribune Cursor and
the Fall of
Sejanus (2013) a military colleague, Aulus Nautius
Tacitus, Cornelius (1942) . Hadas, Moses, ed. The Complete Works
of Tacitus. The Annals (From the Passing of the Divine Augustus)
…. Church, Alfred John & Brodribb, William Jackson
(transl.). New York, NY: The Modern Library. ASIN B0006APTTQ.
Retrieved April 4, 2017. See digital versions at Wikisource,
MIT, and Perseus (Tufts University). A further edition, see Tacitus,
Cornelius (1942). Bryant, Sara, ed. The Complete Works of Tacitus. The
Annals…. Church & Brodribb (transl.). New York, NY:
Bingham, Sandra J. (1997). The
Praetorian Guard in the Political and
Social Life of Julio-Claudian
Rome (PDF) (Ph.D. Dissertation).
Vancouver, BC and Ottawa, ON: The University of British Columbia and
National Library of Canada. ISBN 0612271064. Retrieved April 4,
2017. [better source needed]
Dio Cocceianus, Cassius (1924). Foster, Herbert Baldwin, ed. Roman
History. Loeb Classical Library, Vol. VII, Books 56–60. Cary,
Earnest (transl.). London, New York: William Heinemann, Harvard
University Press. ISBN 0674991931. Retrieved April 4, 2017.
See digital versions at Wikisource, Penelope (The University of
Chicago), and Perseus (Tufts University).
Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius, Latin text
with English translation.[full citation needed]
Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews Book XVIII, Chapter 6 English
translation.[full citation needed]
Seneca the Younger, Essays To Marcia On Consolation English
translation.[full citation needed]
Juvenal Satires, 10th Satire Latin text.[full citation needed]
^ Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary (11th ed.). Springfield,
Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. 2003.
^ a b c d Tacitus, Annals IV.1
^ a b c d e f g h Adams, Freeman (1955). "The Consular Brothers of
Sejanus". The American Journal of Philology. 76 (1): 70–76.
doi:10.2307/291707. JSTOR 291707.
^ Tacitus, Annals III.72, III.73
^ a b c Tacitus, Annals IV.3
^ According to the Bingham dissertation, while the Guard had been
formally established by
Augustus in 27 BC, the first prefects were not
appointed until 2 BC. See Bingham, p. 39.
^ Bingham, p. 30.
^ Bingham, p. 238.
^ Bingham, p. 232.
^ Bingham, pp. 231, 40.
^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.19
^ Bingham, p. 43.
^ a b c d Tacitus, Annals IV.2
^ Syme believes
Tacitus delayed mention of these reforms until the
year 23 for stylistic reasons. The actual date the Castra Praetoria
was founded may have been AD 20. See Syme, Ronald (1958). Tacitus.
Vol. 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. p. 424.
^ Bingham, p. 50.
^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.22
^ a b c Seneca the Younger, Essays, To Marcia On Consolation
^ Tacitus, Annals I.24
^ Tacitus, Annals I.29, I.30
^ Tacitus, Annals II.44, II.62
^ Tacitus, Annals III.31
^ Tacitus, Annals III.29
^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of
^ Tacitus, Annals IV.7
^ a b Tacitus, Annals IV.8
^ Tacitus, Annals III.56
^ Tacitus, Annals II.72
^ Tacitus, Annals IV.52, IV.53, IV.54
^ a b Tacitus, Annals IV.12
^ Tacitus, Annals IV.39
^ Tacitus, Annals IV.40
^ Tacitus, Annals IV.57, IV.67
^ Tacitus, Annals IV.41
^ Tacitus, Annals V.3
^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.4
^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.3
^ Tacitus, Annals, VI.23 – VI.25
^ Tacitus, Annals VI.3
^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of
^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.1
^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.5
^ Bingham, p. 66.
^ a b c d e Boddington, Ann (January 1963). "Sejanus. Whose
Conspiracy?". The American Journal of Philology. 84 (1): 1–16.
doi:10.2307/293155. JSTOR 293155.
Antiquities of the Jews
Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.6.6
^ Juvenal, Satire X.67–72
^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.6
^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.7
^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.8
^ Bingham, p. 63.
^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.9
^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.10
^ a b c d Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.11
^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.12
^ A recovered fragment of the Fasti Ostienses, shows that Cassius Dio
erred in his account on the deaths of Sejanus' family (Dio, LVIII.11).
The eldest son Strabo was executed (October 24) and the remaining
children were executed sometime in December. See Freeman, Adams
(1955), op. cit., for the Latin inscription.
^ Tacitus, Annals IV.11
^ a b Tacitus, Annals V.9
^ Tacitus, Annals VI.2
^ Tacitus, Annals VI.19
^ Tacitus, Annals VI.10
^ Tacitus, Annals VI.29
^ Salmon, Edward Togo. A History of the Roman World From 30 B.C. to
A.D. 138. p. 183. [full citation needed]
^ Durry, Marcel (1938). Les Cohortes Prétoriennes. Paris: Editions De
Boccard. p. 156.
^ Bingham, p. 234f.
^ Bingham, p. 65f.
^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LII.24
^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.14
^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of
^ Seneca the Younger, Essays, To Marcia On Consolation
^ Philo, On the Embassy to Gaius XXIV
^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of
^ Tacitus, Annals III.7, VI.51
^ Tacitus, Annals IV.34–35
^ a b Seneca the Younger, Essays, To Marcia On Consolation I.2–4
^ Phaedrus, Fables Book III, preface
^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History, II.127–128 II.127–128
^ "Syme (1972), p. 265"[full citation needed] is cited here, but this
is impossible to independently connect to a specific work of Ronald
^ "A.S.Kline translation, lines 56–113". Poetryintranslation.com.
^ Brodersen, G. L.; Selden, J. (1 January 1953). "Seventeenth-Century
Translations of Juvenal". Phoenix. 7 (2): 57–76.
doi:10.2307/1086137. JSTOR 1086137.
^ "Online introduction and text". Extra.shu.ac.uk. Retrieved
^ Siobhan C. Keenan, “Staging Roman History, Stuart Politics, and
the Duke of Buckingham: The Example of The Emperor’s Favourite Early
Theatre 14.2 (2011)
^ John Forster, Lives of Eminent British Statesmen, London 1836,
^ Volume 1, Google Books
^ Google Books
^ Siobhan C. Keenan, "Staging Roman History, Stuart Politics, and the
Duke of Buckingham: The Example of The Emperor’s Favourite", Early
Theatre 14.2 (2011)
^ Google Books
^ W. Thomas, Wilfrid Laurier University 2006, The Crafting of Absalom
and Achitophel: Dryden’s Pen for a Party, pp.52–7
^ Masquerader (1735). C----- and Country. A Play of Seven Acts (In
which will be revived, the Entertaining Scene of the Blundering
Brothers. To which is Added, The Comical Humours of Punch. The Whole
concluding with the Grand Masque, call'd The Downfall of Sejanus).
London, ENG: T. Monger. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
^ Jonson, Ben (1770). The Favourite.
^ Magnon, Jean (1647). Sejanus.
^ Zande, Henri van der (1716). De dood van Elius
Sejanus of Spiegel
voor der vorsten gunstelingen.
^ See the preface, pp.v-xiii
^ "pp.1–55 Web archive text". Archive.org. Retrieved
^ Graves, Robert (2006-08-03). "Chapters 21-7". I, Claudius.
^ Gary DeLashmutt,
Sejanus and the Chronology of Christ's death, Xenos
^ Keon, Miles Gerald (1872). Dion and the Sibyls.
^ Maier, Paul L (1972). Pontius Pilate. ISBN 9780825497216.
^ "Background and sample chapters".
Theconspiracytoassassinatejesuschrist.com. Retrieved 2013-12-25.
^ Full text at the University of Florida libraries
^ Author's summary
Bingham, Sandra (2013). The Praetorian Guard: A History of Rome's
Special Forces. New York: I.B. Tauris.
Boddington, Ann (January 1963). "Sejanus. Whose conspiracy?". American
Journal of Philology. 84 (1): 1–16. doi:10.2307/293155.
Syme, Ronald (1956). "Seianus on the Aventine". Hermes. Franz Steiner
Verlag. 84 (3): 257–66. JSTOR 4474933.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sejanus.
Wikisource has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article
Sejanus, Lucius Aelius.
Sejanus, biography at xenos.org
Lucius Seius Strabo
Naevius Sutorius Macro
Lucius Naevius Surdinus,
and Gaius Cassius Longinus
as Suffect consul
Consul of the Roman Empire
Faustus Cornelius Sulla Lucullus,
and Sextus Tedius Valerius Catullus
as Suffect consul