HOME
The Info List - Seinfeld


--- Advertisement ---



Seinfeld
Seinfeld
is an American television sitcom that ran for nine seasons on NBC, from 1989 to 1998. It was created by Larry David
Larry David
and Jerry Seinfeld, with the latter starring as a fictionalized version of himself. Set predominantly in an apartment building in Manhattan's Upper West Side
Upper West Side
in New York City, the show features a handful of Jerry's friends and acquaintances, particularly best friend George Costanza (Jason Alexander), former girlfriend Elaine Benes (Julia Louis-Dreyfus), and neighbor across the hall Cosmo Kramer
Cosmo Kramer
(Michael Richards). It is often described as being "a show about nothing", as many of its episodes are about the minutiae of daily life.[1] Seinfeld
Seinfeld
was produced by Castle Rock Entertainment. In syndication, the series has been distributed by Sony Pictures Television
Sony Pictures Television
since 2002. It was largely written by David and Seinfeld
Seinfeld
with script writers who included Larry Charles, Peter Mehlman, Gregg Kavet, Carol Leifer, David Mandel, Jeff Schaffer, Steve Koren, Jennifer Crittenden, Tom Gammill, Max Pross, Dan O'Keefe, Charlie Rubin, Marjorie Gross, Alec Berg, Elaine Pope, and Spike Feresten. A favorite among critics, the series led the Nielsen ratings in seasons six and nine, and finished among the top two (with NBC's ER) every year from 1994 to 1998. Seinfeld
Seinfeld
is widely considered to be one of the greatest and most influential sitcoms ever made. It has been ranked among the best television shows of all time in publications such as Entertainment Weekly,[2] Rolling Stone,[3] and TV Guide.[4][5] The show's most renowned episodes include "The Chinese Restaurant", "The Parking Garage",[6] and "The Contest".[7] In 2013, the Writers Guild of America voted it the No. 2 Best Written TV Series of All Time (second to The Sopranos).[8] E! named the series the "Number 1 reason the '90s ruled",[9] and quotes from numerous episodes have become catchphrases in popular culture.

Contents

1 Premise

1.1 Characters 1.2 Plotlines 1.3 Themes 1.4 Catchphrases 1.5 Music

2 Episodes

2.1 Seasons 1–3 2.2 Seasons 4–5 2.3 Seasons 6–7 2.4 Seasons 8–9 2.5 Series finale 2.6 Syndication

3 Production 4 High-definition versions 5 Reception and legacy

5.1 U.S. television ratings 5.2 Awards and nominations

6 Consumer products 7 Home video releases

7.1 DVD
DVD
releases 7.2 Streaming on Hulu 7.3 Streaming on Stan

8 After Seinfeld

8.1 Another scene 8.2 The Seinfeld
Seinfeld
"curse" 8.3 Curb Your Enthusiasm 8.4 Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee

9 References

9.1 General references

10 External links

Premise Characters

Main

Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
(upper left); Jason Alexander
Jason Alexander
(upper right); Michael Richards (lower right); Julia Louis-Dreyfus
Julia Louis-Dreyfus
(lower left)

Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
(Himself) – Jerry is a "minor celeb" stand-up comedian who is often depicted as "the voice of reason" amidst the general insanity generated by the people in his world. The in-show character is a mild germaphobe and neat freak, as well as an avid Superman, New York Mets
New York Mets
and breakfast cereal fan. Jerry's apartment is the center of a world visited by his eccentric friends and a focus of the show.[10] Elaine Benes (Julia Louis-Dreyfus) – Elaine is Jerry's ex-girlfriend and later friend. She is attractive and genial, while also being humorous, arrogant and occasionally impulsive. She sometimes has a tendency to be too honest with people (usually by losing her temper), which often gets her into trouble.[11] She usually gets caught up in her boyfriends' quirks, eccentric employers' unusual behaviors and idiosyncrasies, and the maladjustment of total strangers. She tends to make poor choices in men she chooses to date and is often overly reactive. First she works at Pendant Publishing with Mr. Lippman, is later hired as a personal assistant for Mr. Pitt, and later works for the J. Peterman catalogue as a glorified assistant. Elaine is popularly described as an amalgamation of David's and Seinfeld's girlfriends during their early days in New York as struggling comedians. Cosmo Kramer
Cosmo Kramer
(Michael Richards) – Kramer is Jerry's "wacky neighbor". His trademarks include his humorous upright pompadour hairstyle, vintage clothes, and energetic sliding bursts through Jerry's apartment door. Kramer was heavily based on a neighbor of David's during his amateur comedic years in Manhattan. At times, he appears naïve, gullible, and ignorant, and at other times, intelligent, understanding, and well-read; similarly, he is exaggeratedly successful, socially, with his charisma and laid-back personality. This is seen in his success with women and employers. He has been described as a "hipster doofus". Although he never holds a steady job, he is rarely short of money and often invents wacky schemes that often work at first then eventually fail. Kramer is longtime friends with Newman, and they work well together despite their differences.[12] George Costanza
George Costanza
(Jason Alexander) – George is Jerry's best friend, and has been since high school. He is miserly, dishonest, petty and envious of others' achievements.[13] He is depicted as a loser who is perpetually insecure about his capabilities. He complains and lies easily about his profession, relationships and almost everything else, which usually creates trouble for him later. He often uses the alias Art Vandelay when lying or concocting a cover story. Despite these shortcomings, George has a sense of loyalty to his friends and success in dating women and eventually secures a successful career as Assistant to the Traveling Secretary for the New York Yankees.

Recurring

Main article: List of Seinfeld
Seinfeld
minor characters Many characters have made multiple appearances, like Jerry's nemesis Newman and his Uncle Leo. In addition to recurring characters, Seinfeld
Seinfeld
features numerous celebrities who appear as themselves or girlfriends, boyfriends, bosses and other acquaintances. Many actors who made guest appearances became household names later in their careers, or were already well known. Plotlines Many Seinfeld
Seinfeld
episodes are based on the writers' real-life experiences, with the experiences re-interpreted for the characters' storyline. For example, George's storyline, "The Revenge", is based on Larry David's experience at Saturday Night Live.[14] "The Contest" is also based on David's experiences. "The Smelly Car" storyline is based on Peter Mehlman's lawyer friend, who could not get a bad smell out of his car. "The Strike" is based on Dan O'Keefe's dad, who made up his own holiday—Festivus.[15] Other stories take on a variety of turns. "The Chinese Restaurant" consists of George, Jerry and Elaine waiting for a table throughout the entire episode.[16] "The Boyfriend", revolving around Keith Hernandez, extends through 2 episodes. "The Betrayal" is famous for using reverse chronology, and was inspired by a similar plot device in a Harold Pinter
Harold Pinter
play, Betrayal.[17] Some stories were inspired by headlines and rumors, as explained in the DVD features "Notes About Nothing", "Inside Look", and "Audio Commentary". In "The Maestro", Kramer's lawsuit is roughly similar to the McDonald's coffee case.[18] "The Outing" is based primarily on rumors that Larry Charles
Larry Charles
heard about Jerry Seinfeld's sexuality.[19] Themes The series was often described as "a show about nothing".[1][20] However, Seinfeld
Seinfeld
in 2014 stated "the pitch for the show, the real pitch, when Larry and I went to NBC
NBC
in 1988, was we want to show how a comedian gets his material. The show about nothing was just a joke in an episode many years later, and Larry and I to this day are surprised that it caught on as a way that people describe the show, because to us it's the opposite of that."[21] Seinfeld
Seinfeld
broke several conventions of mainstream television. The show offers no growth or reconciliation to its characters. It eschews sentimentality.[22] An episode is typically driven by humor interspersed with the superficial conflicts of characters with peculiar dispositions. Many episodes revolve around the characters' involvement in the lives of others with typically disastrous results. On the set, the notion that the characters should not develop or improve throughout the series was expressed as the "no hugging, no learning" rule.[22] Also unlike most sitcoms, there are no moments of pathos; the audience is never made to feel sorry for any of the characters. Even Susan's death elicits no genuine emotions from anybody in the show.[23] The characters are "thirty-something singles with vague identities, no roots, and conscious indifference to morals".[24] Usual conventions, like isolating the characters from the actors playing them and separating the characters' world from that of the actors and audience, were broken. One such example is the story arc where the characters promote a TV sitcom series named Jerry. The show within a show, Jerry, was much like Seinfeld
Seinfeld
in that it was "about nothing" and Seinfeld played himself. The fictional Jerry was launched in the season four finale, but unlike Seinfeld, it wasn't picked up as a series. Jerry is one of many examples of metafiction in the show. There are no fewer than twenty-two fictional movies featured, like Rochelle, Rochelle.[25] Because of these several elements, Seinfeld
Seinfeld
became the first TV series since Monty Python's Flying Circus
Monty Python's Flying Circus
to be widely described as postmodern.[26] Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
is an avid Abbott and Costello fan, and has cited the Abbott and Costello Show
Abbott and Costello Show
as an influence on Seinfeld. "Everybody on the show knows I'm a fan. We're always joking about how we do stuff from their show. George and I will often get into a riff that has the rhythm from the old Abbott and Costello shows. And sometimes I'll hit George in the chest the way Abbott would hit Costello." The series includes numerous references to the team. George Costanza's middle name is "Louis," after Costello.[27] "The Old Man" episode featured a cantankerous character named "Sid Fields" as a tribute to the landlord on the team's TV show. Kramer's friend is named Mickey Abbott. A copywriter for the J. Peterman catalog is named Eddie Sherman, after the team's longtime agent. In Episode 30, Kramer hears the famous Abbott and Costello line, "His father was a mudder. His mother was a mudder." Catchphrases Many terms were coined, popularized, or re-popularized in the series' run and have become part of popular culture.[28][29] Notable catchphrases and terms include:

"Yada, yada, yada" "No soup for you!" "These pretzels are making me thirsty" "Not that there's anything wrong with that!" Festivus spongeworthy double-dipping re-gifter Serenity Now!

The lexicon of Seinfeldian code words and recurring phrases that evolved around particular episodes is referred to as Seinlanguage, the title of Jerry Seinfeld's best-selling book on humor.[26] Music A signature of Seinfeld
Seinfeld
is its theme music. Composed by Jonathan Wolff, it consists of distinct solo sampled bass synthesizer riffs (played on a Korg M1
Korg M1
synthesizer)[30] which open the show and connect the scenes, often accompanied by beatboxing.[31] The bass synthesizer music eventually replaced the original music by Jep Epstein when it was played again after the first broadcast "The Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Chronicles". The show lacked a traditional title track and the riffs were played over the first moments of dialogue or action. They vary throughout each episode and are played in an improvised funk style. An additional musical theme with an ensemble, led by a synthesized mid-range brass instrument, ends each episode. In "The Note", the first episode of season three, the bumper music featured a scatting female jazz singer who sang a phrase that sounded like "easy to beat". Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
and executive producer Larry David both liked Wolff's additions, and three episodes were produced with this new style music. However, they had neglected to inform NBC
NBC
and Castle Rock executives of the change, and when the season premiere aired, the executives were surprised and unimpressed, and requested that they return to the original style. The subsequent two episodes were redone, leaving this episode as the only one with additional music elements.[32] In the commentary of "The Note", Louis-Dreyfus facetiously suggests it was removed because the perceived lyric related closely to the low ratings at the time.[33] In the final three seasons, the bits were tweaked slightly with more frantic rhythms; a bass guitar was added in addition to the sampled bass from earlier seasons. Throughout the show, the main theme could be re-styled in different ways depending on the episode. For instance, in "The Betrayal", part of which takes place in India, the theme is heard played on a sitar. Episodes Main article: List of Seinfeld
Seinfeld
episodes

Season Episodes Originally aired Nielsen ratings[34]

First aired Last aired Rank Rating

1 5 July 5, 1989 (1989-07-05) June 21, 1990 (1990-06-21) N/A N/A

2 12 January 23, 1991 (1991-01-23) June 26, 1991 (1991-06-26) N/A N/A

3 23 September 18, 1991 (1991-09-18) May 6, 1992 (1992-05-06) N/A N/A

4 24 August 12, 1992 (1992-08-12) May 20, 1993 (1993-05-20) 25 13.7

5 22 September 16, 1993 (1993-09-16) May 19, 1994 (1994-05-19) 3 19.4

6 24 September 22, 1994 (1994-09-22) May 11, 1995 (1995-05-11) 1 20.6

7 24 September 21, 1995 (1995-09-21) May 16, 1996 (1996-05-16) 2 21.2

8 22 September 19, 1996 (1996-09-19) May 15, 1997 (1997-05-15) 2 20.5

9 24 September 25, 1997 (1997-09-25) May 14, 1998 (1998-05-14) 1 22.0

Seinfeld
Seinfeld
stood out from family and group sitcoms of its time. None of the principal characters are related by family or work connections but remain distinctively close friends throughout the series.

Tom's Restaurant, a diner at 112th St. and Broadway, in Manhattan
Manhattan
that was used as the exterior image of Monk's Café
Monk's Café
in the show

Many characters were based primarily on Seinfeld's and David's real-life acquaintances. Two prominent recurring characters were based on well-known people: Jacopo Peterman of the J. Peterman catalog (based on John Peterman),[35] and George Steinbrenner, owner of the New York Yankees.[36] Many characters were introduced as new writers got involved with Seinfeld. Other characters based on real people include the Soup Nazi[37] and Jackie Chiles
Jackie Chiles
based on Johnnie Cochran.[38] Seinfeld
Seinfeld
follows its own structure: story thread is presented at the beginning of every episode, which involves the characters starting in their own situations. Rapid scene-shifts between plot lines bring the stories together. Even though it does not follow a pattern as other sitcoms, the characters' stories variously intertwine in each episode. Despite the separate plot strands, the narratives reveal the creators' "consistent efforts to maintain the intimacy" among the small cast of characters.[39] The show maintains a strong sense of continuity—characters and plots from past episodes are often referenced or expanded on. Occasionally, story arcs span multiple episodes and even entire seasons, the most memorable being season four, which revolved around the pilot pitch to NBC
NBC
by Jerry and George. Another example is Jerry's girlfriend Vanessa, who appears in "The Stake Out" and he ends the relationship when things do not work out in "The Stock Tip". Other examples are Kramer getting his jacket back and Elaine heading the "Peterman catalog". Larry David, the head writer and executive producer for the first seven seasons, was praised for keeping a close eye on minor details and making sure the main characters' lives remained consistent and believable. Curb Your Enthusiasm—David's later comedy series—expanded on this idea by following a specific theme for all but one season in the series. A major difference between Seinfeld
Seinfeld
and sitcoms which preceded it is that the principal characters never learn from their mistakes. In effect, they are indifferent and even callous towards the outside world and sometimes one another. A mantra of the show's producers was: "No hugging, no learning".[40] Entertainment Weekly's TV critic Ken Tucker has described them as "a group dynamic rooted in jealousy, rage, insecurity, despair, hopelessness, and a touching lack of faith in one's fellow human beings".[41] This leads to very few happy endings, except at somebody else's expense. More often in every episode, situations resolve with characters getting a justly deserved comeuppance. Seasons 1–3

The Los Angeles building used to depict the exterior of Jerry's apartment building at 129 West 81st Street, Manhattan

The show premiered as The Seinfeld Chronicles
The Seinfeld Chronicles
on July 5, 1989. After it aired, a pickup by NBC
NBC
seemed unlikely and the show was offered to Fox, which declined to pick it up. Rick Ludwin, head of late night and special events for NBC, however, diverted money from his budget by canceling a Bob Hope
Bob Hope
television special, and the next 4 episodes were filmed.[42][43] These episodes were highly rated as they followed summer re-runs of Cheers
Cheers
on Thursdays at 9:30 p.m., and the series was finally picked up. At one point NBC
NBC
considered airing these episodes on Saturdays at 10:30 p.m., but gave that slot to a short-lived sitcom called FM. The series was renamed simply Seinfeld after the failure of short-lived 1990 ABC series The Marshall Chronicles.[44] After airing in the summer of 1990, NBC
NBC
ordered thirteen more episodes. Larry David
Larry David
believed that he and Jerry Seinfeld
Seinfeld
had no more stories to tell, and advised Seinfeld
Seinfeld
to turn down the order, but Seinfeld
Seinfeld
agreed to the additional episodes.[43] Season two was bumped off its scheduled premiere of January 16, 1991, due to the outbreak of the (Persian) Gulf War. It settled into a regular time slot on Wednesdays at 9:30 p.m. and eventually flipped with veteran series Night Court
Night Court
to 9:00.[45] TV critics championed Seinfeld
Seinfeld
in its early seasons, even as it was slow to cultivate a substantial audience. For the first three seasons, Jerry's stand-up comedy act would bookend an episode, even functioning as cut scenes during the show. A few episodes set a benchmark for later seasons. "The Deal" establishes Jerry and Elaine's relationship by setting rules about sleeping together and remaining friends.[46] "The Parking Garage" was the first episode shot with no audience for the episode and, after "The Chinese Restaurant", with not showing Jerry's apartment.[47] "The Keys" contains a crossover to CBS
CBS
show Murphy Brown, marking the first such cooperation between rival networks.[48] "The Busboy" introduces George, Kramer and Elaine as having their own storylines for the first time. Although Castle Rock Entertainment's Glenn Padnick thought Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
was too generous, showcasing his co-stars' comedic talent became a trademark throughout the series.[49] Larry Charles
Larry Charles
wrote an episode for season two, "The Bet", in which Elaine buys a gun from Kramer's friend. This episode wasn't filmed because the content was deemed unacceptable, and was replaced by the episode "The Phone Message".[50] "The Stranded", aired in season three, was intended for season two. In the beginning of this episode, Jerry clears up the continuity error over George's real estate job.[51] Seasons 4–5 Season four marked the sitcom's entry into the Nielsen ratings Top 30, coinciding with several popular episodes, such as "The Bubble Boy" in which George and the bubble boy argue over Trivial Pursuit,[52] and "The Junior Mint" in which Jerry and Kramer accidentally fumble a mint in the operating room.[53] This was the first season to use a story arc of Jerry and George creating their own sitcom, Jerry. Also at this time, the use of Jerry's stand-up act slowly declined, and the stand-up segment in the middle of Seinfeld
Seinfeld
episodes was cut. Much publicity followed the controversial episode, "The Contest", an Emmy Award-winning episode written by co-creator Larry David, whose subject matter was considered inappropriate for prime time network TV. To circumvent this taboo, the word "masturbation" was never used in the script, instead substituted for by a variety of oblique references.[54] Midway through that season, Seinfeld
Seinfeld
was moved from its original 9:00 p.m. time slot on Wednesdays to 9:30 p.m. on Thursdays, following Cheers
Cheers
again, which gave the show even more popularity. Ratings also sparked the move, as Tim Allen's sitcom Home Improvement on ABC had aired at the same time and Improvement kept beating Seinfeld
Seinfeld
in the ratings. NBC
NBC
moved the series after Ted Danson announced the end of Cheers
Cheers
and Seinfeld
Seinfeld
quickly surpassed the ratings of the 9:00 p.m. Cheers
Cheers
reruns that spring.[55] The show won an Emmy Award
Emmy Award
for Outstanding Comedy Series in 1993, beating out its family-oriented, time-slot competitor Home Improvement, which was only in its second season on fellow network ABC. Season five was an even bigger ratings-hit, consisting of popular episodes, such as "The Puffy Shirt" in which Jerry feels embarrassed wearing a "pirate" shirt on The Today Show,[56] "The Non-Fat Yogurt" featuring Rudy Giuliani, the Republican then-mayor-elect of New York,[57] and "The Opposite" in which George, doing the opposite of what his instincts tell him he should do, lands a job with the New York Yankees and Elaine leaves "Pendant Publishing" because of a comedy of errors that lead to its demise. Another story arc has George returning to live with his parents. In the midst of the story arc, Kramer creates and promotes his coffee table book.[58] The show was again nominated for Outstanding Comedy Series, but lost to the Cheers spin-off Frasier, then in its first season. Seinfeld
Seinfeld
was nominated for the same award every year for its entire run but always lost to Frasier, which went on to win a record thirty-nine Emmy Awards. Seasons 6–7 In season six, Andy Ackerman replaced Tom Cherones as director of the show. The series remained well-regarded and produced some of its most famous episodes, such as "The Beard" in which Jerry is put through a lie detector test to make him admit that he watched Melrose Place,[59] "The Switch" in which Kramer's mom, Babs, reveals that his first name is Cosmo,[60] and "The Understudy" in which Elaine meets J. Peterman for the first time.[61] Story arcs used in this season were Elaine working as a personal assistant to her eccentric boss Justin Pitt and George's parents' temporary separation. This was the first season win which Seinfeld
Seinfeld
reached No. 1 in the Nielsen Ratings. The use of Jerry's stand-up act declined with the end stand-up segment no longer appearing, as the storylines for all four characters grew denser. In season seven, a story arc involved George getting engaged to his ex-girlfriend, Susan Ross, after the pilot Jerry proved unsuccessful. In it, George spends most of the season regretting and trying to get out of the engagement. Along with the regular half-hour episodes, two notable one-hour episodes were "The Cadillac" in which George plans to date award-winning actor Marisa Tomei[62] and "The Bottle Deposit" with Elaine and Sue Ellen participating in a bidding war to buy JFK's golf clubs in an auction.[63] Seasons 8–9 The show's ratings were still going strong in its final two seasons. Larry David
Larry David
left at the end of season seven, although he continued to voice Steinbrenner, so Seinfeld
Seinfeld
assumed David's duties as showrunner, and, under the direction of a new writing staff, Seinfeld
Seinfeld
became a faster-paced show. The show no longer contained extracts of Jerry performing stand-up comedy—Jerry had no time or energy for this with his new responsibilities—and storylines occasionally delved into fantasy and broad humor. For example, in "The Bizarro Jerry", Elaine is torn between exact opposites of her friends and Jerry dates a woman who has the now-famed "man hands".[64] Some notable episodes from season eight include "The Little Kicks" showing Elaine's horrible dancing,[65] and "The Chicken Roaster" which portrays the Kenny Rogers Roasters chicken restaurant which opened during that time.[66] A story arc in this season involves Peterman going to Burma
Burma
in "The Foundation"[67] until he recovered from a nervous breakdown in "The Money",[68] followed by Elaine writing Peterman's biography in "The Van Buren Boys",[69] which leads to Kramer's parody of Kenny Kramer's Reality Tour seen in "The Muffin Tops".[70] The final season included episodes like "The Merv Griffin Show" in which Kramer converts his apartment into a talk-show studio and plays the character of talk-show host,[71] "The Betrayal" that presents in reverse chronological order what happened to Sue Ellen's wedding in India, and "The Frogger" in which George pushes a Frogger
Frogger
machine across the street.[72] The last season included a story arc in which Elaine has an on/off relationship with Puddy. Despite the enormous popularity and willingness of the cast to return for a tenth season, Seinfeld
Seinfeld
decided to end the show after season nine, believing he would thereby be able to ensure the show would maintain its quality and go out on top.[73] NBC
NBC
offered him over $100 million for a tenth season, but Seinfeld
Seinfeld
declined the offer.[74][citation needed] A major controversy caused in this final season was the accidental burning of a Puerto Rican flag
Puerto Rican flag
by Kramer in "The Puerto Rican Day". This scene caused a furor among Puerto Ricans, and as a result, NBC showed this episode only once. However, Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
defused the protestors by not letting this episode continue in syndication, as revealed in "Inside Look" on DVD.[75] Series finale Main article: The Finale (Seinfeld) After nine years on the air, NBC
NBC
and Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
announced on December 25, 1997, that the series would end production the following spring in 1998. The announcement made the front page of the major New York newspapers, including the New York Times. Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
was featured on the cover of Time magazine's first issue of 1998.[76] The series ended with a seventy-five-minute episode (cut to 60 minutes in syndication, in two parts) written by co-creator and ex-executive producer Larry David, which aired on May 14, 1998. Before the finale, a forty-five-minute retrospective clip show, "The Chronicle", was aired. The retrospective was expanded to an hour after the original airing and aired again on NBC
NBC
as an hour-long episode, and has since aired in syndication. It was the first episode since the finale of season seven, "The Invitations", to feature opening and closing stand-up comedy acts by Jerry Seinfeld. The finale was filmed before an audience of NBC executives and friends of the show. The press and public were shut out of the taping in order to keep its plot secret; those who attended the shoot of the final episode were required to sign written "vows of silence".[77] The secrecy only seemed to increase speculation about how the series would end. The producers of the show tweaked the media about the hype, spreading a false rumor about Newman ending up in the hospital and Jerry and Elaine sitting in a chapel, presumably to marry.[78] The final episode enjoyed a historic[79] audience, estimated at 76.3 million viewers (58% of all viewers that night) making it the fourth most watched regular series finale in U.S. TV history, behind M*A*S*H, Cheers
Cheers
and The Fugitive. However, the finale received mixed reviews from critics and fans of the show. The finale poked fun at the many rumors that were circulating, seeming to move into multiple supposed plots before settling on its true storyline—a lengthy trial where the gang is prosecuted for violating a "Good Samaritan law" and sentenced to prison terms. According to Forbes
Forbes
magazine, Jerry Seinfeld's earnings from the show in 1998 came to US$267 million, including syndication earnings.[80] He refused NBC's offer of $5 million per episode, or over $100 million total, to continue the show into a tenth season. The offer NBC
NBC
made to Seinfeld
Seinfeld
was over three times higher per episode than anyone on TV had ever been offered before.[81] Seinfeld
Seinfeld
told the network that he was not married nor had children, and wished to focus on his personal life.[82][43] As reported in July 2007, he was the second-highest earner in the TV industry, earning at the time $60 million a year.[83] The show became the first TV series to command over $1 million a minute for advertising–a mark previously attained only by the Super Bowl.[84] Syndication According to Barry Meyer, chairman of Warner Bros.
Warner Bros.
Entertainment, Seinfeld
Seinfeld
made $2.7 billion through June 2010.[85] As of February 2017[update] the show has made an estimated $4.06 billion in syndication. Steve Bannon, who invested in the show, later said "We calculated what it would get us if it made it to syndication. We were wrong by a factor of five".[86] Production Seinfeld
Seinfeld
began as a twenty-three-minute pilot titled The Seinfeld Chronicles. Created by Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
and Larry David, developed by NBC
NBC
executive Rick Ludwin, and produced by Castle Rock Entertainment, it was a mix of Seinfeld's stand-up comedy routines and idiosyncratic, conversational scenes focusing on mundane aspects of everyday life like laundry, the buttoning of the top button on one's shirt and the effort by men to properly interpret the intent of women spending the night in Seinfeld's apartment.[87] The pilot was filmed at Stage 8 of Desilu Cahuenga studios, the same studio where The Dick Van Dyke Show
The Dick Van Dyke Show
was filmed (this was seen by the crew as a good omen),[88] and was recorded at Ren-Mar Studios in Hollywood.[89] The pilot was first screened to a group of two dozen NBC
NBC
executives in Burbank, California
Burbank, California
in early 1989. It didn't yield the explosion of laughter garnered by the pilots for the decade's previous NBC
NBC
successes like The Cosby Show
The Cosby Show
and The Golden Girls. Brandon Tartikoff, was not convinced that the show would work. A Jewish man from New York himself, Tartikoff characterized it as "Too New York, too Jewish". Test audiences were even harsher. NBC's practice at the time was to recruit 400 households by phone to ask them to evaluate pilots it aired on an unused channel on its cable system. An NBC
NBC
research department memo summarized the pilot's performance among the respondents as "Weak", which Littlefield called "a dagger to the heart".[87] Comments included, "You can't get too excited about two guys going to the laundromat"; "Jerry's loser friend George isn't a forceful character"; "Jerry needs a stronger supporting cast"; and "Why are they interrupting the stand-up for these stupid stories?"[89] Seinfeld
Seinfeld
and David didn't see the memo for several years, but after they became aware of it, they hung it in a bathroom on the set. Seinfeld
Seinfeld
comments, "We thought, if someone goes in to use this bathroom, this is something they should see. It fits that moment."[87] When NBC
NBC
announced its 1989–90 primetime schedule in May 1989, The Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Chronicles was not included, but supporters of the show didn't give up on it. The pilot first aired on July 5, 1989, and finished second in its time slot against the CBS
CBS
police drama Jake and the Fatman,[87] receiving a Nielsen rating of 10.9/19, meaning that the pilot was watched by 10.9% of American households, and that 19% of all TVs in use at the time were tuned into it.[89] The ratings didn't exhibit regional skew that Tartikoff predicted, much to the encouragement of the show's supporters. Despite the poor test results, Ludwin cancelled one of the Bob Hope
Bob Hope
specials budgeted for that season so that the entertainment division had the money to order six more episodes of The Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Chronicles, which formed the rest of the show's first season,[87][90] a move without which Chicago Tribune columnist Phil Rosenthal later stated there would be no Seinfeld.[91] Although this was a very low order number for a new series (the smallest sitcom order in TV history[89]), Castle Rock failed to find any other buyers when it shopped the show to other networks, and accepted the order.[87] The show was renamed simply Seinfeld, but it wouldn't return to the airwaves until May 30, 1990, and it would be another three years before it became a Top 5-rated show. Preston Beckman, who was in charge of NBC's research department at the time, reminisced, "The show was different. Nobody had seen anything like it. It wasn't unusual for poor-testing shows to get on the air, but it was very rare that they became hits." When it was first repeated on July 5, 1990, it received a rating of 13.9/26. These ratings were high enough to secure a second season.[89] NBC
NBC
research showed that the show was popular with young male adults, a demographic sought after by advertisers. This gave NBC
NBC
an incentive to keep broadcasting the show.[92] One DVD
DVD
reviewer, Britt Gillette, wrote that "this initial episode exhibits the flashes of brilliance that made Seinfeld
Seinfeld
a cultural phenomenon."[93] High-definition versions There are two high-definition versions of Seinfeld. The first is that of the network TV (non-syndicated) versions in the original aspect ratio of 4:3 that were downscaled for the DVD
DVD
releases.[94] Syndicated broadcast stations and the cable network TBS began airing the syndicated version of Seinfeld
Seinfeld
in HD. Unlike the version used for the DVD, Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
cropped the top and bottom parts of the frame, while restoring previously cropped images on the sides, from the 35 mm film source, to use the entire 16:9 frame.[95] Reception and legacy Elizabeth Magnotta and Alexandra Strohl analyze the success of Seinfeld
Seinfeld
with recourse to the incongruity theory of humor: "The Incongruity Theory claims that humor is created out of a violation of an expectation. For humor to result from this unexpected result, the event must have an appropriate emotional climate, comprised of the setting, characters, prior discourse, relationships of the characters, and the topic."[96] Specifically, Magnotta and Strohl focus on "The Marine Biologist", where George is embroiled in yet another lie, and on "The Red Dot", where George tries to save a few dollars at Elaine's expense by giving her a marked-down cashmere sweater. Nod Miller, of the University of East London, has discussed the self-referential qualities of the show:

Seinfeld
Seinfeld
is suffused with postmodern themes. To begin with, the boundary between reality and fiction is frequently blurred: this is illustrated in the central device of having Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
play the character Jerry Seinfeld. In the show's fourth season, several episodes revolved around the narrative of Jerry and George (whose character is co-creator Larry David's alter ego) pitching 'a show about nothing' based on the everyday life of a stand-up comedian to NBC. The reaction of the fictional NBC
NBC
executives, by all accounts, mirrored the initial responses of those who eventually commissioned Seinfeld. The fourth season ends with 'The Pilot', an episode focusing on the casting, taping and screening of the show-within-the-show, Jerry. This episode also illustrates neatly the self-referential quality which is one of Seinfeld's hallmarks. The series finale was so replete with references to earlier shows as to render it largely incomprehensible to those not already well-versed in the personae and preoccupations of the Seinfeld
Seinfeld
universe.[97]

William Irwin has edited an anthology of scholarly essays on philosophy in Seinfeld
Seinfeld
and Philosophy: A Book about Everything and Nothing. Some entries include "The Jerry Problem and the Socratic Problem", "George's Failed Zest for Happiness: An Aristotelian Analysis", "Elaine's Moral Character", "Kramer the 'Seducer'", "Making Something Out of Nothing: Seinfeld, Sophistry and the Tao", "Seinfeld, Subjectivity, and Sartre", "Mr. Peterman, the Wicked Witch of the West, and Me", and "Minimally Decent Samaritans and Uncommon Law".[98] U.S. television ratings

TV viewership in the United States

Season TV season Episodes Timeslot Original air dates Nielsen ratings[99] Most watched episode

Season premiere Season finale Rank Rating Viewers (millions) Title Viewers (millions)

1 1989–90 5 Wednesday at 9:30pm (Episode 1) Thursday at 9:30 pm (Episodes 2-5) July 5, 1989 June 21, 1990 N/A N/A 19.26 "The Stake Out" 22.5[100]

2 1990–91 12 Wednesday at 9:30 pm (Episodes 1–4, 12) Thursday at 9:30 pm (Episodes 5-11) January 23, 1991 June 26, 1991 #46 12.5 18.07 "The Apartment" 24.7[101]

3 1991–92 23 Wednesday at 9:30 pm (Episodes 1–11, 18) Wednesday at 9:00 pm (Episodes 12–17, 19–23) September 18, 1991 May 6, 1992 #42 12.5 17.66 "The Letter" 22.3[102]

4 1992–93 24 Wednesday at 9:00 pm (Episodes 1–3, 5–15) Wednesday at 9:30 pm (Episode 4) Thursday at 9:30 pm (Episodes 16–22) Thursday at 8:00 pm (Episode 23) Thursday at 8:30 pm (Episode 24) August 12, 1992 May 20, 1993 #25 13.7 20.91 "The Pilot" 32.8[103]

5 1993–94 22 Thursday at 9:00 pm (Episodes 1–18, 20–22) Thursday at 9:30 pm (Episode 19) September 16, 1993 May 19, 1994 #3 19.6 29.59 "The Stall" and "The Marine Biologist" 35.0[104][105]

6 1994–95 24 Thursday at 9:00 pm (Episodes 1–14, 16–24) Thursday at 9:30 pm (Episode 15) September 22, 1994 May 18, 1995 #1 20.6 30.06 "The Switch" 36.6[106]

7 1995–96 24 Thursday at 9:00 pm (Episodes 1–14, 16–21, 23–24) Thursday at 9:30 pm (Episodes 15, 22) September 21, 1995 May 16, 1996 #2 21.2 33.19 "The Engagement" 37.6[107]

8 1996–97 22 Thursday at 9:00 pm September 19, 1996 May 15, 1997 #2 20.5 32.48 "The Money" 37.3[108]

9 1997–98 24 Thursday at 9:00 pm (Episodes 1–20, 23) Thursday at 8:00 pm (Episode 21) Thursday at 8:30 pm (Episode 22) Thursday at 9:30 pm (Episode 24) September 25, 1997 May 14, 1998 #1 22.0 38.03 (32.15)[109] "The Finale" ("The Puerto Rican Day") 76.3[110] (38.8)[109][111]

Awards and nominations Main article: List of awards and nominations received by Seinfeld Seinfeld
Seinfeld
has received awards and nominations in various categories throughout the mid-1990s. It was awarded the Emmy for "Outstanding Comedy Series" in 1993, Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for "Best TV-Series (Comedy)" in 1994 and Screen Actors Guild Award
Screen Actors Guild Award
for "Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series" in 1995, 1997 and 1998.[112][113][114][115] Apart from these, the show was also nominated for an Emmy award from 1992 to 1998 for "Outstanding Comedy series", Golden Globe award from 1994 to 1998 for "Best TV-Series (Comedy)", and Screen Actors Guild Award
Screen Actors Guild Award
for "Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series" from 1995 to 1998.[116] TV Guide
TV Guide
named it the greatest TV show of all time in 2002.[117] and in 2013, they ranked it as the second greatest TV show.[5] Consumer products A recurring feature of Seinfeld
Seinfeld
was its inclusion of specific products, especially candy, as plot points. These might be a central feature of a plot (e.g., Junior Mints, Twix, Jujyfruits, bite size Three Musketeers, Snickers, Nestlé Chunky, Oh Henry!, Drake's Coffee Cake and PEZ), or an association of candy with a guest character (e.g. Oh Henry!
Oh Henry!
bars) or simply a conversational aside (e.g., Chuckles, Clark Bar, Twinkies). A large number of non-candy products were also featured throughout the series. The show's creators claim that they weren't engaging in a product placement strategy for commercial gain. One motivation for the use of real-world products, quite unrelated to commercial considerations, is the comedy value of funny-sounding phrases and words. "I knew I wanted Kramer to think of watching the operation like going to see a movie", explained Seinfeld
Seinfeld
writer/producer Andy Robin in an interview published in The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter. "At first, I thought maybe a piece of popcorn falls into the patient. I ran that by my brother, and he said, 'No, Junior Mints
Junior Mints
are just funnier.'"[118] Many advertisers capitalized on the popularity of Seinfeld. American Express created a webisode where Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
and an animated Superman
Superman
(voiced by Patrick Warburton, who played the role of Puddy) starred in its commercial. The makers of the Today Sponge created the "Spongeworthy" game, on their website, inspired by "The Sponge". An advertisement featured Jason Alexander
Jason Alexander
in a Chrysler
Chrysler
commercial. In this, Alexander acts much like his character George, and his relationship with Lee Iacocca
Lee Iacocca
plays on his George's relationship with Steinbrenner. Similarly, Michael Richards
Michael Richards
was the focus of a series of advertisements for Vodafone
Vodafone
which ran in Australia where he dressed and acted exactly like Kramer, including the trademark bumbling pratfalls. In addition, the show occasionally incorporated fictional products like a Scotch brand called "Hennigan's" (a portmanteau of "Hennessy" and "Brannigans") and a canned meat product called "Beef-a-reeno" (a parody of "Beef-a-roni"). Home video releases DVD
DVD
releases Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
released all nine seasons of Seinfeld on DVD
DVD
in Regions 1, 2 and 4 between 2004 and 2007.[119] On November 6, 2007, Seinfeld: The Complete Series was released on DVD. The complete series box set includes a 2007 "roundtable" reunion of the four main cast members and Larry David; only highlights of this were also included in the Season 9 set.

DVD
DVD
name Release dates

Region 1 Region 2 Region 4

Vol 1: Seasons 1 & 2 November 23, 2004[119] November 1, 2004[120] October 13, 2004[121]

Vol 2: Season 3 November 23, 2004[119] November 1, 2004[122] October 18, 2004[123]

Vol 3: Season 4 May 17, 2005[119] June 13, 2005[124] May 25, 2005[125]

Vol 4: Season 5 November 22, 2005[119] November 28, 2005[126] November 23, 2005[127]

Vol 5: Season 6 November 22, 2005[119] November 28, 2005[128] November 23, 2005[129]

Vol 6: Season 7 November 21, 2006[119] November 20, 2006[130] November 8, 2006[131]

Vol 7: Season 8 June 5, 2007[119] June 4, 2007[132] June 13, 2007[133]

Vol 8: Season 9 November 6, 2007[119] November 19, 2007[134] October 24, 2007[135]

Streaming on Hulu On April 29, 2015, it was officially announced, during Hulu's upfronts presentation in New York, that all nine seasons of Seinfeld
Seinfeld
would be available for online streaming, via the video service, starting in June 2015.[136][137] The news was first reported by Variety and Deadline, citing the deal at around $130 million to $180 million.[138] On May 20, 2015, Hulu
Hulu
announced that every episode would be available, on June 24, 2015.[139] Streaming on Stan On November 8, 2016, the Australian streaming service Stan announced via Twitter that later in the week all episodes would be available to stream for the first time in Australia.[140] All episodes were available from November 11, 2016 with the remastered versions of all episodes on the service featuring HD and Widescreen enhancements.[141] The widescreen offered was cropped from the original 4:3 format negatives, thus resulting in better visual quality than the previously available DVD
DVD
version, however the top and bottom portions of the frame were cut out to achieve the widescreen aspect ratio. After Seinfeld Another scene On the November 1, 2007, episode of The Daily Show
The Daily Show
with Jon Stewart, Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
mentioned the possibility of shooting one last scene, after they leave jail. He mentioned that he was too busy to do it at the time, but didn't announce what the scene would entail, as its production isn't a certainty.[142] In commentary from the final season DVD, Seinfeld
Seinfeld
outlines that he and Jason Alexander
Jason Alexander
spoke about this scene being in Monk's Cafe, with George saying "That was brutal" in reference to the foursome's stint in prison.[143] The Seinfeld
Seinfeld
"curse" Louis-Dreyfus, Alexander, and Richards have all tried to launch new sitcoms as title-role characters. Almost every show was canceled quickly, usually within the first season. This gave rise to the term Seinfeld
Seinfeld
curse: the failure of a sitcom starring one of the three, despite the conventional wisdom that each person's Seinfeld
Seinfeld
popularity should almost guarantee a strong, built-in audience for the actor's new show. Shows specifically cited regarding the Seinfeld
Seinfeld
curse are Julia Louis-Dreyfus's Watching Ellie, Jason Alexander's Bob Patterson and Listen Up!, and Michael Richards' The Michael Richards
Michael Richards
Show. Larry David said of the curse, "It's so completely idiotic. It's very hard to have a successful sitcom."[144] This phenomenon was mentioned throughout the second season of Larry David's HBO program Curb Your Enthusiasm. However, the Emmy award-winning success of Julia Louis-Dreyfus
Julia Louis-Dreyfus
in the CBS
CBS
sitcom The New Adventures of Old Christine led many to believe that she had broken the curse.[145] In her acceptance speech, Louis-Dreyfus held up her award and exclaimed, "I'm not somebody who really believes in curses, but curse this, baby!"[146] The show was on the air for five seasons starting March 13, 2006 before its cancellation on May 18, 2010; the series produced enough episodes to air in reruns in syndication for several years, something the other shows didn't achieve.[147] The Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
episode guest-hosted by Louis-Dreyfus made references to the curse. Louis-Dreyfus went on to win six further Lead Actress in a Comedy Emmys for her acclaimed performance as Vice President Selina Meyer
Selina Meyer
in HBO's comedy series Veep.[148] Curb Your Enthusiasm Main articles: Curb Your Enthusiasm
Curb Your Enthusiasm
Season 7 and Seinfeld
Seinfeld
(Curb Your Enthusiasm) Early in March 2009, it was announced that the Seinfeld
Seinfeld
cast would reunite for season seven of Curb Your Enthusiasm.[149] The cast first appeared in the third episode of the season, all playing their real life selves. The season-long story is that Larry David
Larry David
tries to initiate a Seinfeld
Seinfeld
reunion show as a ploy to get his ex-wife, Cheryl, back. Along with the four main characters, some Seinfeld
Seinfeld
supporting actors like Wayne Knight, Estelle Harris
Estelle Harris
and Steve Hytner appeared in the ninth episode at a table read for the reunion show. Though much dialogue in Curb Your Enthusiasm
Curb Your Enthusiasm
is improvised, the plot was scripted, and the Seinfeld
Seinfeld
special that aired within the show was scripted and directed by Seinfeld
Seinfeld
regular Andy Ackerman, making this the first time since Seinfeld
Seinfeld
went off the air that the central cast appeared together in a scripted show. Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee Main article: The Over-Cheer (Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee) Jerry Seinfeld, Jason Alexander
Jason Alexander
and Wayne Knight, playing their respective Seinfeld
Seinfeld
characters, appeared in a spot presented during halftime of Super Bowl
Super Bowl
XLVIII on February 2, 2014.[150] FOX came up with the idea of doing such a spot, due in part to the Super Bowl's location being New York that year.[150][151] An uncut version appeared on Crackle.com immediately afterward, as an episode of Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee titled "The Over-Cheer".[150] Although the spot was used to advertise Seinfeld's web series, it was not considered a commercial, as Sony, who produces the series, did not pay for it.[150] Seinfeld
Seinfeld
has indicated that he thinks the webisode will probably be the last cast reunion, saying, "I have a feeling you've seen the final coda on that very unique experience."[152] References

^ a b "Seinfeld". BBC. Archived from the original on April 27, 2006. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  ^ "TV: 10 All-Time Greatest". Entertainment Weekly. June 27, 2013.  ^ Stuever, Hank (September 28, 2016). " Rolling Stone
Rolling Stone
has come up with the 100 greatest TV shows of all time. My list was a little different". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 23, 2017.  ^ Cosgrove-Mather, Bootie (2002-04-26). " TV Guide
TV Guide
Names Top 50 Shows". CBS
CBS
News. Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-11-15.  ^ a b Fretts, Bruce; Roush, Matt. "The Greatest Shows on Earth". TV Guide Magazine. 61 (3194–3195): 16–19.  ^ " Special
Special
Collector's Issue: 100 Greatest Episodes of All Time". TV Guide (June 28–July 4). 1997.  ^ "TV's Top 100 Episodes of All Time and over 6.5 billion different people have watched an episode" TV Guide; June 15, 2009; pp. 34–49. ^ "101 Best Written TV Series List".  ^ "Reasons the '90s Ruled 101 – 81", TV.com ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Cast and characters – Jerry". Sony pictures. Archived from the original on December 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-11.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Cast and characters – Elaine". Sony pictures. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-11.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Cast and characters – Kramer". Sony pictures. Archived from the original on December 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-11.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Cast and Characters". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on January 27, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ "Seinfacts: The Revenge". Sony Pictures. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-30.  ^ "The Strike". Sony Pictures. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-08.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Chinese Restaurant". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on January 11, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ "The Betrayal". Sony Pictures. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-08.  ^ "The Maestro". Sony Pictures. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-08.  ^ "The Outing". Sony Pictures. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2009-01-08.  ^ Erickson, Hal. "Seinfeld: Overview". Allmovie. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  ^ Seinfeld, Jerry. " Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
here. I will give you an answer". Reddit. Retrieved 15 January 2015.  ^ a b Zurawik, David (May 3, 1998). "The world according to 'Seinfeld' No hugging, no learning. No aging, commitment or obligation. We've laughed at such postmodern sentiments for nine years. Is there anything wrong with that?". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved September 13, 2011.  ^ Hajari, Nisid (June 7, 1996). "Killing Time". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved September 13, 2011.  ^ Hurd, R. Wesley (June 1998). "Postmodernism: A New Model of Reality". McKenzie Study Center. Retrieved 2007-06-30.  ^ "All The Fictional Movies On 'Seinfeld,' Ranked". UPROXX.  ^ a b Grenz, Stanley J. (February 1996). A Primer on Postmodernism. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.
ISBN 0-8028-0864-6.  ^ Carter, Bill (21 November 1994). " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
as Opening Act For Abbott and Costello". Retrieved 19 January 2018 – via NYTimes.com.  ^ Caryn James (1998-05-12). "Goodbye! Already". New York Times. Archived from the original on 2008-01-23. Retrieved 2007-12-22.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
influence". People.com. Archived from the original on 2008-01-26. Retrieved 2007-12-22.  ^ Neal, Meg (December 29, 2015). "A Beginner's Guide To The Synth". Retrieved November 30, 2016.  ^ "Entertainment Tonight – Jonathan Wolff Seinfeld
Seinfeld
music". YouTube.  ^ Season 3 DVD: Inside Look of 'The Note' ^ Season 3 DVD: 'The Note' commentary ^ Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle (2007). The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946-Present (Ninth Edition). Ballantine Books. p. 1693-1695. ISBN 978-0-345-49773-4.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on January 19, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on October 9, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ Gantz, Katherine. "Not That There's Anything Wrong with That": Reading the Queer in Seinfeld. In Calvin Thomas (Ed.). Straight with a Twist: Queer Theory and the Subject of Heterosexuality. Champaign. Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06813-0 ^ "About Seinfeld". TV1. Archived from the original on 2007-08-31. Retrieved 2008-01-22.  ^ Tucker, Ken. "The Fantastic 4" in Entertainment Weekly: Special Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Issue. Entertainment Weekly. May 4, 1998, p. 13. ^ Boudreaux, Jonathan (2004-11-24). "Seinfeld: Season 1 & 2 DVD Review". tvdvdreviews.com. Archived from the original on April 18, 2008. Retrieved 2008-04-22.  ^ a b c Littlefield, Warren (2012-05-29). "QA: Former NBC
NBC
honcho offered Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
over $100 million for one more 'Seinfeld' season". Fox411 (Interview). Interview with Gostin, Nicki. Retrieved May 30, 2012.  ^ Nigro, Nicholas (2015-06-01). Seinfeld
Seinfeld
FAQ: Everything Left to Know About the Show About Nothing. Hal Leonard Corporation. ISBN 9781495035357. Retrieved 2015-12-29.  ^ Carter, Bill (May 5, 1998). " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Says It's All Over, And It's No Joke for NBC". New York Times.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Deal". Sonypictures.com. 1991-05-02. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Parking Garage". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on November 16, 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Keys". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
-– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on November 14, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The phone message". Sony pictures. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-27.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on December 19, 2008. Retrieved 2010-08-22.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on January 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on September 25, 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ Cerone, Daniel (March 4, 1993). " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Is Suddenly Something". Los Angeles Times.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on November 17, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on November 18, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Opposite". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on February 1, 2014. Retrieved 2014-01-28.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Switch". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on November 17, 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sony Pictures. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Bizarro Jerry". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on January 17, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Little Kicks". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on December 19, 2011. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on November 30, 2012. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Muffin Tops". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on May 16, 2013. Retrieved 2012-03-07.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Frogger". Sonypictures.com. Archived from the original on October 10, 2012. Retrieved 2011-09-18.  ^ Bauder, David (26 December 1997). "'Seinfeld' to end on 'peak' this spring". Google News. The Daily Courier. Retrieved 28 September 2016.  ^ Nicki Gostin (29 May 2012). "QA: Former NBC
NBC
honcho offered Jerry Seinfeld
Seinfeld
over $100 million for one more 'Seinfeld' season". Fox News. Fox News Network LLC. Retrieved 14 September 2017.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
– Now Playing – The Puerto Rican Day". Sony pictures. Archived from the original on December 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-25.  ^ "Time Magazine Cover: Jerry Seinfeld". Time. 1998-01-12. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  ^ "The 'Seinfeld' e-mail for April 8, 1998". CNN.com. 1998-04-08. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  ^ Ryan, Joal (1998-03-27). "Clues to "Seinfeld" Sign Off". E! News. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  ^ Lowry, Brian (May 16, 1998). "'Seinfeld's' Finale Ends Up in Sixth Place of All Time". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Retrieved 2015-04-28.  ^ "Seinfeld's $267 Million Tops Celebrity-pay List In Forbes". Chicago Tribune. 1999-03-08. Retrieved 2011-09-09.  ^ "The Highest Paid TV Actors Of All Time Per Per Episode". UPROXX.  ^ Staff (1997-12-26). " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
calls decision to end show "all about timing"". CNN. Retrieved 2007-12-18.  ^ "Oprah and Seinfeld
Seinfeld
top TV's richest". Retrieved 2007-12-18.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
and advertising". Retrieved 2007-12-22.  ^ Pilkington, Ed (7 June 2010). "TV show Seinfeld
Seinfeld
earn $2.7bn from reruns". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 7 June 2010.  ^ Craw, Victoria (2017-02-08). " Steve Bannon
Steve Bannon
is still making money from 'Seinfeld' reruns". The New York Post. Retrieved 2017-09-07.  ^ a b c d e f Battaglio, Stephen (June 30, 2014). "'Annoying' 'Disorienting' 'Boring': On Seinfeld's 25th anniversary an exclusive look at the memo that almost killed the show". TV Guide. pp. 18–19. ^ Rob Reiner
Rob Reiner
(2004-11-23). Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Seasons 1 & 2: Inside Looks – "The Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Chronicles" (DVD). Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
Home Entertainment.  ^ a b c d e Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Seasons 1 & 2: Notes about Nothing – "The Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Chronicles" (DVD). Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
Home Entertainment. 2004-11-23.  ^ Duffy, Mike (2004-11-24). "Give thanks for 'The 'Seinfeld' Story'". azcentral.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-23. Retrieved 2008-03-19.  ^ Rosenthal, Phil (August 21, 2005). " NBC
NBC
executive stands apart by taking stands". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved September 26, 2012.  ^ Rapp, David (2006-05-31). "Seinfeld: The Unlikeliest Success Story". American Heritage. Archived from the original on 2008-03-15. Retrieved 2008-03-19.  ^ Gillette, Britt (2006-09-20). " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
(Seasons 1 & 2) DVD Review". Article City. Retrieved 2008-03-19.  ^ "'Seinfeld' in HD on TBS HD! Page 2". videojanitor. Retrieved 2009-09-23.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
goes HD on TBS HD". AOL. 2008-09-03. Archived from the original on 2013-01-16. Retrieved 2009-10-28.  ^ Magnotta, Elizabeth and Alexandra Strohl. "A linguistic analysis of humor: A look at Seinfeld". Retrieved August 2, 2012.  ^ Miller, Nod. "Applying Insights from Cultural Studies to Adult Education: What Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Says About the AERC". Adult Education Research Conference. Archived from the original on June 24, 2014. Retrieved August 1, 2012.  ^ Irwin, William (2000). Seinfeld
Seinfeld
and Philosophy: A Book about Everything and Nothing. Open Court 2000. ISBN 9780812694093. Retrieved August 1, 2012.  ^ Brooks, Tim; Marsh, Earle (2007). The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946–Present (Ninth Edition). Ballantine Books. pp. 1693–1695. ISBN 978-0-345-49773-4.  ^ "'Seinfeld' is a standup hit". USA Today. Gannett Company. 1990-06-06. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-30.  ^ "Nielsen ratings" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. 1991-04-10. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ "Nielsen ratings" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. 1992-04-01. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ Gable, Donna (1993-05-26). "'Cheers' brings happy times to NBC" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ DeRosa, Robin (1994-01-12). "'Improvement' leads ABC charge" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ "Nielsen ratings" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. 1994-12-14. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-31.  ^ "Nielsen ratings" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. 1995-01-11. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-30.  ^ Graham, Jefferson (1995-09-27). " NBC
NBC
Sunday starters stumble" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-30.  ^ "Nielsen ratings" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. 1997-01-22. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-30.  ^ a b Excluding The Finale (76.26 million viewers) and The Clip Show (58.53 million viewers) ^ "Nielsen ratings" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. 1998-05-20. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-30.  ^ "Nielsen ratings" (PDF). USA Today. Gannett Company. 1998-05-13. p. D3. Retrieved 2013-12-30.  ^ Emmy Awards official site Archived October 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. "Seinfeld" "1993" emmys.org. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 ^ 1st Annual Screen Actors Guild Awards – "Seinfeld" Retrieved on March 14, 2008 ^ 3rd Annual Screen Actors Guild Awards – Official Site "Seinfeld" Screen Actors Guild Awards. Retrieved on March 14, 2008 ^ Annual Screen Actors Guild Awards – "Seinfeld" Retrieved on March 14, 2008 ^ Emmy Awards official site Archived October 14, 2011, at the Wayback Machine. search "Seinfeld" and years "1992 to 1998" emmys.org. Retrieved on May 8, 2008 ^ Bootie Cosgrove-Mather (2002-04-26). " TV Guide
TV Guide
Names Top 50 Shows". CBS
CBS
News. Retrieved 2010-10-18.  ^ Staff (2005-04-28). "A look at some of the biggest hits in movie and TV product placement". The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-10.  ^ a b c d e f g h i " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
region 1 DVD
DVD
release dates". TVShowsOnDVD.com. Retrieved 2008-03-23.  ^ "Season 1&2 (Region 2)". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-03-20.  ^ "Season 1&2 (Region 4)". JB Hi-Fi Online. Retrieved 2008-03-21.  ^ "Season 3 (Region 2)". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-03-20.  ^ "Season 3 (Region 4)". JB Hi-Fi Online. Retrieved 2008-03-21.  ^ "Season 4 (Region 2)". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-03-20.  ^ "Season 4 (Region 4)". JB Hi-Fi Online. Retrieved 2008-03-21.  ^ "Season 5 (Region 2)". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-03-20.  ^ "Season 5 (Region 4)". JB Hi-Fi Online. Retrieved 2008-03-21.  ^ "Season 6 (Region 2)". Amazon.co.uk. Retrieved 2008-03-20.  ^ "Season 6 (Region 4)". JB Hi-Fi Online. Retrieved 2008-03-21.  ^ "Season 7 (Region 2) review". dvdactive.com. Retrieved 2008-03-25.  ^ "Season 7 (Region 4)". JB Hi-Fi Online. Retrieved 2008-03-21.  ^ "Season 8 (Region 2) review". realmovienews.com. Archived from the original on March 2, 2008. Retrieved 2008-03-24.  ^ "Season 8 (Region 4)". JB Hi-Fi Online. Retrieved 2008-03-21.  ^ "Season 9 (Region 2) Review". dvdactive.com. Retrieved 2008-03-25.  ^ "Season 9 (Region 4)". JB Hi-Fi Online. Retrieved 2008-03-21.  ^ Jacob Kastrenakes. " Hulu
Hulu
confirms it's the exclusive streaming home of Seinfeld". The Verge. Vox Media.  ^ "hulu on Twitter". Twitter.  ^ Sam Byford. " Hulu
Hulu
reportedly lands streaming rights to all 180 Seinfeld
Seinfeld
episodes". The Verge. Vox Media.  ^ "Sweet Fancy Moses, every "Seinfeld" episode is on #hulu 6/24. Get ready for #AllTheNothing". Twitter.  ^ "Stan. on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2016-11-29.  ^ "180 Seinfeld
Seinfeld
episodes come to Stan with new Sony Pictures Television deal". www.mediaweek.com.au. Retrieved 2016-11-29.  ^ Axler, Rachel; Bleyer, Kevin; Blomquist, Richard; Bodow, Steve; Carvell, Tim; Havlan, J.R.; Scott Jacobson, Scott; Javerbaum, David; Karlin, Ben; Kutner, Rob; Lieb, Josh; Means, Sam; Reich, Jason; Ross, Jason; Stewart, Jon (2007-11-01). "Episode dated 1 November 2007". The Daily Show. Comedy Central.  ^ Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Season 9: Notes about Nothing – "The Finale" (DVD). Sony Pictures
Sony Pictures
Home Entertainment. 2007-11-06.  ^ Baerg, Greg (2002-03-05). "'Curb's' Larry David: 'Seinfeld' Curse 'Idiotic'". Zap2it. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  ^ Susman, Gary (21-03-2006) "Has Julia Louis Dreyfus broken the 'Seinfeld' curse?" Entertainment Weekly
Entertainment Weekly
Retrieved on 29-08-2008 ^ Hall, Sarah (2006-08-27). "Emmys Clock into "24", "Office"". E! News. Retrieved 2007-05-17.  ^ Hibberd, James (May 18, 2010). " CBS
CBS
cancels seven shows, including 'Ghost,' 'Case'". The Hollywood
Hollywood
Reporter.  ^ Turchiano, Danielle (September 18, 2016). " Julia Louis-Dreyfus
Julia Louis-Dreyfus
makes Emmy history". Variety. Retrieved September 18, 2017.  ^ Rice, Lynette (2009-03-05). "Exclusive: 'Seinfeld' cast to appear on 'Curb Your Enthusiasm'". EW.com. Retrieved 2009-03-05.  ^ a b c d Carter, Bill (Feb 2, 2014). "Halftime Brings a Much-Anticipated 'Seinfeld' Reunion". Retrieved Feb 2, 2014.  ^ " Seinfeld
Seinfeld
reunited! Jerry dines with George Costanza
George Costanza
at Tom's Restaurant in Super Bowl
Super Bowl
ad that sees nemesis Newman show up". Daily Mail. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 4 February 2014.  ^ Etkin, Jaimie (3 February 2014). " Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
Thinks That "Seinfeld" Super Bowl
Super Bowl
Reunion Is The Last One We'll See". BuzzFeed: Entertainment. Retrieved 18 February 2014. 

General references

Mirzoeff, Nicholas. "Seinfeld". British Film Institute, TV Classics. 2007. ISBN 1-84457-201-3. Fretts, Bruce. The Entertainment Weekly
Entertainment Weekly
Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Companion. New York: Warner Books. 1993. ISBN 0-446-67036-7. Dawson, Ryan (2006). "Seinfeld: a show about something" Cambridge University. William Irwin (Ed.). Seinfeld
Seinfeld
and Philosophy: A Book about Everything and Nothing. Peru, Illinois: Open Court Publishing Company. 1999. ISBN 0-8126-9409-0. Gantz, Katherine. "Not That There's Anything Wrong with That": Reading the Queer in Seinfeld. In Calvin Thomas (Ed.). Straight with a Twist: Queer Theory and the Subject of Heterosexuality. Champaign. Illinois: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-06813-0. Gattuso, Greg. The Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Universe: The Entire Domain. New York: Citadel Press. 1996. ISBN 0-8065-2001-9. Murphy, Noah. Seinfeld: A Beginner's Guide. Brisbane: Penguin Books. 2011. Seinfeld, Jerry. Sein Language. Bantam. 1993. ISBN 0-553-09606-0. Weaver, D.T. & Oliver, M.B. (2000) Summary of the paper: "Television Programs and Advertising: Measuring the Effectiveness of Product Placement Within Seinfeld".

External links

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Seinfeld

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Seinfeld.

Official website Seinfeld
Seinfeld
on IMDb Seinfeld
Seinfeld
at Rotten Tomatoes Seinfeld
Seinfeld
at TV.com Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Emmys Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Minute Podcast

v t e

Seinfeld

Episodes

Season 1 Season 2 Season 3 Season 4 Season 5 Season 6 Season 7 Season 8 Season 9

Characters

Jerry Seinfeld George Costanza Elaine Benes Cosmo Kramer

Supporting characters

Newman Uncle Leo Jackie Chiles

Related

Awards and nominations Monk's Café Festivus Kenny Kramer "Seinfeld" (Curb Your Enthusiasm) "SeinfeldVision" (30 Rock) Castle Rock Entertainment, Inc. v. Carol Publishing Group Inc. The Album About Nothing

v t e

Seinfeld
Seinfeld
episodes

Season 1

"The Seinfeld
Seinfeld
Chronicles" "The Stake Out" "The Robbery" "Male Unbonding" "The Stock Tip"

Season 2

"The Ex-Girlfriend" "The Pony Remark" "The Jacket" "The Phone Message" "The Apartment" "The Statue" "The Revenge" "The Heart Attack" "The Deal" "The Baby Shower" "The Chinese Restaurant" "The Busboy"

Season 3

"The Note" "The Truth" "The Pen" "The Dog" "The Library" "The Parking Garage" "The Cafe" "The Tape" "The Nose Job" "The Stranded" "The Alternate Side" "The Red Dot" "The Subway" "The Pez Dispenser" "The Suicide" "The Fix-Up" "The Boyfriend" "The Limo" "The Good Samaritan" "The Letter" "The Parking Space" "The Keys"

Season 4

"The Trip" "The Pitch" "The Ticket" "The Wallet" "The Watch" "The Bubble Boy" "The Cheever Letters" "The Opera" "The Virgin" "The Contest" "The Airport" "The Pick" "The Movie" "The Visa" "The Shoes" "The Outing" "The Old Man" "The Implant" "The Junior Mint" "The Smelly Car" "The Handicap Spot" "The Pilot"

Season 5

"The Mango" "The Puffy Shirt" "The Glasses" "The Sniffing Accountant" "The Bris" "The Lip Reader" "The Non-Fat Yogurt" "The Barber" "The Masseuse" "The Cigar Store Indian" "The Conversion" "The Stall" "The Dinner Party" "The Marine Biologist" "The Pie" "The Stand In" "The Wife" "The Raincoats" "The Fire" "The Hamptons" "The Opposite"

Season 6

"The Chaperone" "The Big Salad" "The Pledge Drive" "The Chinese Woman" "The Couch" "The Gymnast" "The Soup" "The Mom & Pop Store" "The Secretary" "The Race" "The Switch" "The Label Maker" "The Scofflaw" "The Highlights of 100" "The Beard" "The Kiss Hello" "The Doorman" "The Jimmy" "The Doodle" "The Fusilli Jerry" "The Diplomat's Club" "The Face Painter" "The Understudy"

Season 7

"The Engagement" "The Postponement" "The Maestro" "The Wink" "The Hot Tub" "The Soup Nazi" "The Secret Code" "The Pool Guy" "The Sponge" "The Gum" "The Rye" "The Caddy" "The Seven" "The Cadillac" "The Shower Head" "The Doll" "The Friar's Club" "The Wig Master" "The Calzone" "The Bottle Deposit" "The Wait Out" "The Invitations"

Season 8

"The Foundation" "The Soul Mate" "The Bizarro Jerry" "The Little Kicks" "The Package" "The Fatigues" "The Checks" "The Chicken Roaster" "The Abstinence" "The Andrea Doria" "The Little Jerry" "The Money" "The Comeback" "The Van Buren Boys" "The Susie" "The Pothole" "The English Patient" "The Nap" "The Yada Yada" "The Millennium" "The Muffin Tops" "The Summer of George"

Season 9

"The Butter Shave" "The Voice" "The Serenity Now" "The Blood" "The Junk Mail" "The Merv Griffin Show" "The Slicer" "The Betrayal" "The Apology" "The Strike" "The Dealership" "The Reverse Peephole" "The Cartoon" "The Strongbox" "The Wizard" "The Burning" "The Bookstore" "The Frogger" "The Maid" "The Puerto Rican Day" "The Chronicle" "The Finale"

Indicates two-part episode

v t e

Jerry Seinfeld

Television/web series

Seinfeld
Seinfeld
(episodes, awards) (1989–98) The Marriage Ref (2010–11) Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee
Comedians in Cars Getting Coffee
(since 2012)

Film

Comedian (2002) Bee Movie
Bee Movie
(2007)

Stand-up

Stand-Up Confidential (1987) I'm Telling You for the Last Time
I'm Telling You for the Last Time
(1998) Jerry Before Seinfeld (2017)

Books

Seinlanguage
Seinlanguage
(1993) Halloween (2002)

Related

Jessica Seinfeld
Jessica Seinfeld
(wife) The Adventures of Seinfeld
Seinfeld
& Superman Jerry Seinfeld
Jerry Seinfeld
(character) "Seinfeld" (Curb Your Enthusiasm) "SeinfeldVision" (30 Rock)

v t e

Primetime Emmy Award
Emmy Award
for Outstanding Comedy Series

The Red Skelton Show
The Red Skelton Show
(1952) I Love Lucy
I Love Lucy
(1953) I Love Lucy
I Love Lucy
(1954) Make Room for Daddy (1955) The Phil Silvers Show
The Phil Silvers Show
(1956) The Phil Silvers Show
The Phil Silvers Show
(1957) The Phil Silvers Show
The Phil Silvers Show
(1958) The Jack Benny Program
The Jack Benny Program
(1959) The Art Carney Special
Special
(1960) The Jack Benny Program
The Jack Benny Program
(1961) The Bob Newhart Show (1962) The Dick Van Dyke Show
The Dick Van Dyke Show
(1963) The Dick Van Dyke Show
The Dick Van Dyke Show
(1964) The Dick Van Dyke Show
The Dick Van Dyke Show
(1965) The Dick Van Dyke Show
The Dick Van Dyke Show
(1966) The Monkees (1967) Get Smart
Get Smart
(1968) Get Smart
Get Smart
(1969) My World and Welcome to It (1970) All in the Family
All in the Family
(1971) All in the Family
All in the Family
(1972) All in the Family
All in the Family
(1973) M*A*S*H (1974) The Mary Tyler Moore Show
The Mary Tyler Moore Show
(1975) The Mary Tyler Moore Show
The Mary Tyler Moore Show
(1976) The Mary Tyler Moore Show
The Mary Tyler Moore Show
(1977) All in the Family
All in the Family
(1978) Taxi (1979) Taxi (1980) Taxi (1981) Barney Miller
Barney Miller
(1982) Cheers
Cheers
(1983) Cheers
Cheers
(1984) The Cosby Show
The Cosby Show
(1985) The Golden Girls
The Golden Girls
(1986) The Golden Girls
The Golden Girls
(1987) The Wonder Years
The Wonder Years
(1988) Cheers
Cheers
(1989) Murphy Brown
Murphy Brown
(1990) Cheers
Cheers
(1991) Murphy Brown
Murphy Brown
(1992) Seinfeld
Seinfeld
(1993) Frasier
Frasier
(1994) Frasier
Frasier
(1995) Frasier
Frasier
(1996) Frasier
Frasier
(1997) Frasier
Frasier
(1998) Ally McBeal
Ally McBeal
(1999) Will & Grace (2000) Sex and the City
Sex and the City
(2001) Friends
Friends
(2002) Everybody Loves Raymond
Everybody Loves Raymond
(2003) Arrested Development (2004) Everybody Loves Raymond
Everybody Loves Raymond
(2005) The Office (2006) 30 Rock
30 Rock
(2007) 30 Rock
30 Rock
(2008) 30 Rock
30 Rock
(2009) Modern Family
Modern Family
(2010) Modern Family
Modern Family
(2011) Modern Family
Modern Family
(2012) Modern Family
Modern Family
(2013) Modern Family
Modern Family
(2014) Veep
Veep
(2015) Veep
Veep
(2016) Veep
Veep
(2017)

v t e

Golden Globe Award
Golden Globe Award
for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy

The Governor & J.J. (1969) The Carol Burnett Show
The Carol Burnett Show
(1970) All in the Family, season 1/season 2 (1971) All in the Family, season 2/season 3 (1972) All in the Family, season 3/season 4 (1973) Rhoda, season 1 (1974) Barney Miller, season 1/season 2 (1975) Barney Miller, season 2/season 3 (1976) All in the Family, season 7/season 8 (1977) Taxi, season 1 (1978) Alice/Taxi, season 1/season 2 (1979) Taxi, season 2/season 3 (1980) M*A*S*H, season 9/season 10 (1981) Fame (1982) Fame (1983) The Cosby Show, season 1 (1984) The Golden Girls, season 1(1985) The Golden Girls, season 1/season 2 (1986) The Golden Girls, season 2/season 3 (1987) The Wonder Years, season 1/season 2 (1988) Murphy Brown
Murphy Brown
(1989) Cheers, season 8/season 9 (1990) Brooklyn Bridge (1991) Roseanne, season 4/season 5 (1992) Seinfeld, season 4/season 5 (1993) Frasier, season 1/season 2 & Mad About You
Mad About You
(1994) Cybill
Cybill
(1995) 3rd Rock from the Sun, season 1/season 2 (1996) Ally McBeal, season 1 (1997) Ally McBeal, season 1/season 2 (1998) Sex and the City, season 2 (1999) Sex and the City, season 3 (2000) Sex and the City, season 4 (2001) Curb Your Enthusiasm
Curb Your Enthusiasm
(2002) The Office (UK) (2003) Desperate Housewives, season 1 (2004) Desperate Housewives, season 1/season 2 (2005) Ugly Betty, season 1 (2006) Extras (2007) 30 Rock, season 2/season 3 (2008) Glee, season 1 (2009) Glee, season 1/season 2 (2010) Modern Family, season 2/season 3 (2011) Girls, season 1 (2012) Brooklyn Nine-Nine, season 1 (2013) Transparent, season 1 (2014) Mozart in the Jungle, season 1 (2015) Atlanta, season 1 (2016) The Marvelous Mrs. Maisel, season 1 (2017)

v t e

Screen Actors Guild Award
Screen Actors Guild Award
for Outstanding Performance by an Ensemble in a Comedy Series

Seinfeld, season 5/season 6 (1994): Alexander; Louis-Dreyfus; Richards; Seinfeld

Friends, season 1/season 2 (1995): Aniston; Cox; Kudrow; LeBlanc; Perry; Schwimmer

Seinfeld, season 7/season 8 (1996): Alexander; Louis-Dreyfus; Richards; Seinfeld

Seinfeld, season 8/season 9 (1997): Alexander; Louis-Dreyfus; Richards; Seinfeld

Ally McBeal, season 1/season 2 (1998): Bellows; Carson; de Rossi; Flockhart; Germann; Krakowski; Liu; MacNicol; Shepard; Thorne-Smith

Frasier, season 6/season 7 (1999): Butler; Gilpin; Grammer; Leeves; Mahoney; Pierce

Complete list (1994–1999) (2000–2009) (2010–2019)

v t e

Nielsen Media Research
Nielsen Media Research
top-rated United States network television show

1950s

50–51: Texaco Star Theater 51–52: Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts 52–53, 53–54, 54–55: I Love Lucy 55–56: The $64,000 Question 56–57: I Love Lucy 57–58, 58–59, 59–60: Gunsmoke

1960s

60–61: Gunsmoke 61–62: Wagon Train 62–63, 63–64: The Beverly Hillbillies
The Beverly Hillbillies
(S1, S2) 64–65, 65–66, 66–67: Bonanza 67–68: The Andy Griffith Show
The Andy Griffith Show
(S8) 68–69, 69–70: Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In

1970s

70–71: Marcus Welby, M.D. 71–72, 72–73, 73–74, 74–75, 75–76: All in the Family
All in the Family
(S2, S3, S4, S5, S6) 76–77: Happy Days
Happy Days
(S4) 77–78, 78–79: Laverne & Shirley (S3, S4) 79–80: 60 Minutes

1980s

80–81, 81–82: Dallas (S4, S5) 82–83: 60 Minutes 83–84: Dallas (S7) 84–85: Dynasty 85–86, 86–87, 87–88, 88–89: The Cosby Show
The Cosby Show
(S2, S3, S4, S5) 89–90: Roseanne
Roseanne
(S2)/ The Cosby Show
The Cosby Show
(S6)

1990s

90–91: Cheers
Cheers
(S9) 91–92, 92–93, 93–94: 60 Minutes 94–95: Seinfeld
Seinfeld
(S6) 95–96, 96–97: ER (S2, S3) 97–98: Seinfeld
Seinfeld
(S9) 98–99: ER (S5) 99–2000: Who Wants to Be a Millionaire

2000s

00–01: Survivor
Survivor
(S2-AO) 01–02: Friends
Friends
(S8) 02–03, 03–04, 04–05,: CSI: Crime Scene Investigation (S3, S4, S5) 05–06, 06–07, 07–08, 08–09, 09–10: American Idol
American Idol
(S5, S6, S7, S8, S9)

2010s

10–11: American Idol
American Idol
(S10) 11-12: NBC
NBC
Sunday Night Football 12-13: NCIS (S10) 13-14, 14-15, 15-16, 16–17: NBC
NBC
Sunday Night Football

v t e

TCA Award for Outstanding Achievement in Comedy

The Cosby Show, season 1 (1985) The Cosby Show, season 2 (1986) It’s Garry Shandling’s Show, season 1 (1987) Frank’s Place, season 1 / The Wonder Years, season 1 (1988) Murphy Brown, season 1 (1989) The Simpsons, season 1 (1990) Murphy Brown, season 3 (1991) Seinfeld, season 3 (1992) Seinfeld, season 4 (1993) Frasier, season 1 (1994) Frasier, season 2 (1995) Frasier, season 3 (1996) The Larry Sanders Show, season 5 (1997) The Larry Sanders Show, season 6 (1998) Sports Night, season 1 (1999) Malcolm in the Middle, season 1 (2000) Malcolm in the Middle, season 2 (2001) The Bernie Mac Show, season 1 (2002) The Daily Show
The Daily Show
with Jon Stewart, season 7/season 8 (2003) Arrested Development, season 1 (2004) Arrested Development, season 2 (2005) The Office, season 2 (2006) The Office, season 3 (2007) 30 Rock, season 2 (2008) The Big Bang Theory, season 2 (2009) Modern Family, season 1 (2010) Modern Family, season 2 (2011) Louie, season 2 (2012) The Big Bang Theory, season 6 / Parks and Recreation, season 5 (2013) Louie, season 4 / Veep, season 3 (2014) Inside Amy Schumer, season 3 (2015) Black-ish, season 2 (2016) Atlanta, season 1 (2017)

v t e

TCA Heritage Award

The Simpsons
The Simpsons
(2002) Buffy the Vampire Slayer
Buffy the Vampire Slayer
(2003) 60 Minutes
60 Minutes
(2004) Nightline
Nightline
(2005) The West Wing
The West Wing
(2006) The Sopranos
The Sopranos
(2007) The Wire
The Wire
(2008) ER (2009) M*A*S*H (2010) The Dick Van Dyke Show
The Dick Van Dyke Show
(2011) Cheers
Cheers
(2012) All in the Family
All in the Family
(2013) Saturday Night Live
Saturday Night Live
(2014) Late Show / Late Night with David Letterman
Late Night with David Letterman
(2015) The Mary Tyler Moore Show
The Mary Tyler Moore Show
(2016) Seinfeld
Seinfeld
(2017)

Authority control

BNF:

.