Security agency
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A security agency is a
governmental organization A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an Administratio ...
that conducts
intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Concepts are defined as abstract ideas or general notions that occur in the mind, ...
activities for the
internal security Internal security is the act of keeping peace within the border Borders are boundaries of or legal s, such as s, , , and other . Borders are established through agreements between political or social entities that control those areas; the cr ...
of a
nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Level of analysis" is distinct from the term " unit of observation ...

nation
. They are the domestic cousins of foreign
intelligence agencies An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, Intelligence analysis, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives. Means of inf ...
, and typically conduct
counterintelligence Counterintelligence is an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program from an opposition's intelligence service. It includes gathering information and conducting activities to prevent espionage Espionage or spying is the ...
to thwart other countries' foreign intelligence efforts. For example, the United States
Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Conce ...

Federal Bureau of Investigation
(FBI) is the internal intelligence, security and
law enforcement File:CBP female officers going aboard a ship.jpg, upU.S. Customs and Border Protection officers boarding a ship 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, dete ...
agency, while the
Central Intelligence Agency The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA; ), known informally as the Agency and the Company, is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the federal government of the United States The federal government of the United States (U.S. fed ...
(CIA) is an external intelligence service, which deals primarily with intelligence collection overseas. A similar relationship exists in
Britain Britain usually refers to: * United Kingdom, a sovereign state in Europe comprising the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland and many smaller islands * Great Britain, the largest island in the United Kingdom * Ro ...

Britain
between
MI5 The Security Service, also known as MI5 ( Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency, and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Gov ...
and MI6. The distinction, or overlap, between security agencies, national police, and
gendarmerie Wrong info! --> A vedette of the French ''Gendarmerie Maritime'' in La Rochelle harbour A gendarmerie () is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily ...

gendarmerie
organizations varies by country. For example, in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It consists of 50 , a , five major , 326 , and some . At , it is the world's . The United States shares significan ...

United States
, one organization, the FBI, is a national police, an internal security agency, and a counterintelligence agency. In other countries, separate agencies exist, although the nature of their work causes them to interact. For example, in France, the Police nationale and the Gendarmerie nationale both handle policing duties, and the Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur handles counterintelligence. Likewise, the distinction, or overlap, between military and civilian security agencies varies between countries. In the United States, the FBI and CIA are civilian agencies, although they have various paramilitary traits and have professional relationships with the U.S.'s military intelligence organizations. In many countries all intelligence efforts answer to the military, whether by official design or at least on a de facto basis. Countries where various military and civilian agencies divide responsibilities tend to reorganize their efforts over the decades to force the various agencies to cooperate more effectively, integrating (or at least coordinating) their efforts with some unified directorate. For example, after many years of turf wars, the member agencies of the United States Intelligence Community are now coordinated by the Director of National Intelligence, with the hope to reduce stovepiping of information. In Republic of Ireland, Ireland, for example, intelligence operations relevant to internal security are conducted by the military (Directorate of Intelligence (Ireland), G2) and police (Special Detective Unit, SDU), rather than civilian agencies. Security agencies frequently have "security", "intelligence" or "service" in their names. Private organizations that provide services similar to a security agency might be called a "security company" or "security service", but those terms can also be used for organizations that have nothing to do with intelligence gathering.


Security agency vs. secret police

There is debate about whether some security agencies should be characterized as secret police forces. The extent to which security agencies use domestic covert operations to exert political control varies by country and political system. Such operations can include surveillance, infiltration, and disruption of dissident groups, attempts to publicly discredit dissident figures, and even assassination or extrajudicial detention and execution. Security agencies are constrained in some countries by a mesh of judicial and legislative accountability, whereas in others they may answer only to a single leader or executive committee.


Security agencies

* Armenia: National Security Service (Armenia) * Australia: Australian Security Intelligence Organisation * Bahrain: National Security Agency (Bahrain) *Bangladesh: National Security Intelligence (NSI) * Belarus: State Security Agency of the Republic of Belarus (KDB or KGB) * Bosnia and Herzegovina: Intelligence-Security Agency of Bosnia and Herzegovina * Brunei: Internal Security Department (Brunei) * Canada: Canadian Security Intelligence Service, successor of RCMP Security Service * China: Ministry of State Security (China) * Croatia: Military Security and Intelligence Agency (Croatian: Vojna sigurnosno-obavještajna agencija or VSOA or VSA) * East Germany (former): Stasi * Estonia: Estonian Internal Security Service (KAPO) * European Union: European Union Agency for Network and Information Security (ENISA, originally European Network and Information Security Agency) * Finland: Finnish Security Intelligence Service (SUPO) * France: functions divided between Police nationale, Gendarmerie nationale, and Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur * Germany: Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (Germany), Federal Criminal Police Office (Germany), Bundeskriminalamt * India: Intelligence Bureau (India) * Indonesia: Indonesian State Intelligence Agency * Ireland: **Directorate of Military Intelligence (Ireland) **Special Detective Unit, formerly the Special Branch and before that the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) * Israel: Shin Bet (Israel Security Agency (ISA)) and others: see Israeli Intelligence Community * Japan: Public Security Intelligence Agency (PSIA) * Malaysia: Royal Malaysian Police Special Branch * Netherlands: General Intelligence and Security Service * New Zealand: New Zealand Security Intelligence Service * Nigeria: State Security Service (Nigeria), State Security Service (SSS) * Norway: Norwegian Police Security Service * Oman: Internal Security Service * Pakistan: **Inter-Services Intelligence, Inter-Services Intelligence - ISI **Intelligence Bureau (Pakistan) **Federal Investigation Agency * Poland: Agencja Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego * Portugal: **Sistema de Informações da República Portuguesa (SIRP) **former: PIDE, or Polícia Internacional e de Defesa do Estado * Russia: **Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (FSB), successor of Federal Counterintelligence Service (FSK), successor of KGB **Main Directorate of Special Programs of the President of the Russian Federation **Main Intelligence Directorate (Russia) * Serbia: Military Security Agency (BIA) (Serbian: Безбедносно-информативна агенција, БИА / Bezbednosno-informativna agencija, BIA) * Singapore: Internal Security Department (Singapore) * Slovenia: Slovenian Intelligence and Security Agency * Somalia: National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) (Somali: Hay'ada Sirdoonka iyo Nabadsugida) * Soviet Union (former): **Cheka **State Political Directorate (GPU) **NKVD, People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) which became Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia), Ministry for Internal Affairs (MVD) **People's Commissariat for State Security (NKGB) which became Ministry of State Security (Soviet Union), Ministry for State Security (MGB) **SMERSH **KGB, Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (Russian: Комите́т госуда́рственной безопа́сности (КГБ) * South Africa: State Security Agency (South Africa) * Spain: Centro Nacional de Inteligencia (CNI) * Sweden: Swedish Security Service (Säkerhetspolisen) * Switzerland: Swiss intelligence agencies, Intelligence Service of the Federation (Nachrichtendienst des Bundes) * Turkey: National_Intelligence_Organization_(Turkey), The National Intelligence Organization (Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı, MIT) * Ukraine: Security Service of Ukraine * United Kingdom (all the following agencies have security and security intelligence functions): **
MI5 The Security Service, also known as MI5 ( Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency, and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Gov ...
(also known as the Security Service) ** MI6 (also known as the Secret intelligence Service) ** Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) ** Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) * United States (all the following agencies have security and security intelligence functions): **Central Security Service **
Federal Bureau of Investigation The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is the domestic intelligence Intelligence has been defined in many ways: the capacity for abstraction Abstraction in its main sense is a conceptual process where general rules and concept Conce ...

Federal Bureau of Investigation
**National Security Agency **Defense Intelligence Agency


See also

* List of intelligence agencies * Secret police * Secret service * Security Service (disambiguation) * International security {{DEFAULTSORT:Security Agency Intelligence agencies Law enforcement Security National security, *