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Secretary is a title often used in organizations to indicate a person having a certain amount of authority, power, or importance in the organization. Secretaries announce important events and communicate to the organization. The term is derived from the Latin word secernere, "to distinguish" or "to set apart", the passive participle (secretum) meaning "having been set apart", with the eventual connotation of something private or confidential, as with the English word secret. A secretarius was a person, therefore, overseeing business confidentially, usually for a powerful individual (a king, pope, etc.). The official title of the leader of most Communist and Socialist political parties is the "General Secretary of the Central Committee" or "First Secretary of the Central Committee". When a Communist party is in power, the General Secretary is usually the country's de facto leader (though sometimes this leader also holds state-level positions to monopolize power, such as a presidency or premiership in order to constitute de jure leadership of the state), such as China
China
and Cuba.[1] In England, the term secretarius was used "from the beginning of the thirteenth century in the varying meanings of a confidential clerk, an ambassador, or a member of the king's council".[2] In the fourteenth century, the title became strongly associated with the keeper of the king's signet.[2] From the Renaissance to the late 19th century, men involved in the daily correspondence and the activities of the powerful assumed the title of secretary. With time, like many titles, the term was applied to more and varied functions, leading to compound titles to specify the authority associated with its use, like general secretary or financial secretary. In some countries, such as the United States, the term secretary is used to indicate the holder of a cabinet-level post. This usage derives in part from the desire of the founders of the United States to differentiate the country from the United Kingdom[citation needed], which denoted such offices as Ministers. There are a number of popular variations of the title used to indicate that the secretary in question has a high degree of authority, such as general secretary (or, following usage in the Norman language, secretary-general), first secretary, and executive secretary. In a club or society, the secretary is also considered to be, in most cases, the third person in charge of the organization, after the president/chairman and vice president/vice chairman.[3] In smaller organizations, the secretary typically takes meeting minutes, notifies members of meetings, contacts various persons in relation to the society, administers the day-to-day activities of the organization, and creates the order of business. The secretary of a non-governmental organization (NGO) or international non-governmental organization (INGO) can be vice president/vice chairman.[3]

Contents

1 General secretary 2 Secretary-General

2.1 International intergovernmental organizations 2.2 International nongovernmental organizations 2.3 Sports governing bodies

3 First secretary 4 Executive secretary 5 See also 6 References

General secretary[edit] General secretary occurs as the title of a ministerial position of authority found in various organizations, often including labor unions and communist party organizations. Examples include:

General Secretary of the Communist Party General Secretary of the Communist Party of China General Secretary of the Communist Party of Vietnam General Secretary of the Lao People's Revolutionary Party General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union General Secretary of the Communist Party of Kampuchea General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Mongolian People's Party General Secretary of the Labour Party General Secretary of the Trades Union Congress

Secretary-General[edit] Examples include: International intergovernmental organizations[edit]

Organization Title

Andean Community
Andean Community
(CAN)

Arab League

Asia-Pacific Telecommunity (APT)

Association of Caribbean States
Association of Caribbean States
(ACS)

Association of Southeast Asian Nations
Association of Southeast Asian Nations
(ASEAN) Secretary General of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations

Bureau International des Expositions
Bureau International des Expositions
(BIE)

Caribbean Community
Caribbean Community
(CARICOM) Secretary-General of the Caribbean Community

Collective Security Treaty Organization
Collective Security Treaty Organization
(CSTO)

Caribbean Tourism Organization
Caribbean Tourism Organization
(CTO)

Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth Secretary-General
Commonwealth Secretary-General
is the de facto leader. The secretary-general advises member nations and heads conferences with the Head of the Commonwealth, currently Queen Elizabeth II.

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES)

Council of Europe
Council of Europe
(COE) Secretary General of the Council of Europe

Council of the European Union Secretary-General of the Council of the European Union

EDU - Intergovernmental Organization (EDU)

EUCLID (university)

European Commission Secretary-General of the European Commission

European Court of Auditors Secretary-General of the European Court of Auditors

European Economic and Social Committee Secretary-General of the European Economic and Social Committee

Global Organization of Parliamentarians Against Corruption
Global Organization of Parliamentarians Against Corruption
(GOPAC)

INTERPORTPOLICE Secretary General of the INTERPORTPOLICE[4]

International Civil Aviation Organization

International Criminal Police Organization
International Criminal Police Organization
(Interpol)

International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance
(IDEA)

Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
(OIF)

International Maritime Organization

The Permanent Commission for the South Pacific(CPPS)

International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU)

Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU)

Jeunesses Musicales International
Jeunesses Musicales International
(JMI)

League of Nations
League of Nations
(1919–1946) Secretary General of the League of Nations

North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
North Atlantic Treaty Organisation
(NATO) The Secretary General of NATO is the chief administrative officer of NATO and supreme commander of NATO forces when mobilized.

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD) Secretary-General of the OECD

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC) Secretary General of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

Organization of American States
Organization of American States
(OAS) Secretary General of the Organization of American States

Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries
(OPEC) Secretary General of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
(OSCE)

Pacific Islands Forum Secretary General of the Pacific Islands Forum
Pacific Islands Forum
Secretariat

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO)

Union of South American Nations
Union of South American Nations
(UNASUR) Secretary General of the UNASUR

United Nations
United Nations
(UN) The Secretary-General of the United Nations
United Nations
is described as the chief administrative officer and the de facto head of the United Nations. The Office of the Secretary-General of the United Nations
United Nations
hires, terminates, and controls all United Nations
United Nations
staff and relief efforts around the World.

Western European Union
Western European Union
(WEU) Secretary-General of the Western European Union

World Customs Organization
World Customs Organization
(WCO)

International nongovernmental organizations[edit] European Medical Students' Association(EMSA) International Federation of Medical Students' Associations(IFMSA)

Organization

Amnesty International
Amnesty International
(AI)

Anglican Consultative Council
Anglican Consultative Council
(ACC)

Council of Diaspora Métis (CDM)

The Duke of Edinburgh's Award International Association (IAA)

European Law Students' Association
European Law Students' Association
(ELSA)

The European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment

International Alert

International Chamber of Shipping

The International Community of Breeders of Asexually Reproduced Ornamental and Fruit Varieties - CIOPORA

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies (IFRC)

International People's Conference Organisation (IPCO)

International Association for Political Science Students
International Association for Political Science Students
(IAPSS)

No Peace Without Justice

The Orange Defense Network (ODN)

Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization

World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT)

World Organization of the Scout Movement

Sports governing bodies[edit]

- International Basketball Federation
International Basketball Federation
(FIBA)

First secretary[edit] First secretary is the title of the chief officer or leader in many organizations, and is also a modern diplomatic rank. Examples include:

Some church organizations, such as the National Council of Churches and the World Council of Churches Some consumer organizations, such as the National Consumers League Some political parties, especially Communist or Socialist Parties First Secretary of State, a cabinet position in the United Kingdom First Secretary for Wales, now First Minister of Wales First Secretary of the Admiralty—see Secretary to the Admiralty In Workers' Party and Communist Party organizations:

First Secretary of the Communist Party of Armenia (Soviet Union) First Secretary of the Communist Party of China—see Party chief of the Communist Party of China

First Secretary of the Communist Youth League of China

First Secretary of the Communist Party of Cuba First Secretary of the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia First Secretary of the French Socialist Party First Secretary of the Georgian Communist Party First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Korea First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Lithuania First Secretary of the Central Committee of Polish United Workers' Party First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union—see General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

First Secretary of the Moscow Communist Party

First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan First Secretary of the Communist Party of Ukraine (Soviet Union) First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam

Some trade unions, especially in the United Kingdom The General Secretariat for Macedonia and Thrace, a government agency for the Greek regions of Macedonia and Thrace

Executive secretary[edit] Examples include:

Executive Secretary (Commonwealth of Independent States) Executive Secretary (Philippines) Executive Secretary for Integral Development, Organization of American States Executive Secretary of the Department of State, United States

See also[edit]

Secretary (other)

References[edit]

^ "Xi's here to stay: China
China
leader tipped to outstay term". Daily Mail. 9 August 2016. "A lot of analysts now see it as a given" that Xi will seek to stay Party General Secretary, the country's most powerful post, said Christopher K. Johnson, a former CIA analyst and now China specialist at the Washington-based Center for Strategic and International Studies.  ^ a b J. Otway-Ruthven, The King's Secretary and the Signet Office in the XV Century (1939), p. 60. ^ a b Robert's Rules of Order Newly Revised, 4th edition, Scott, Foresman and Company, Chicago, 1915, pp.

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