Second lieutenant (called lieutenant in some countries) is a junior
commissioned officer military rank in many armed forces, comparable to
NATO OF-1b rank.
7 New Zealand
10 United Kingdom & other Commonwealth countries
11 United States
13 See also
The rank of second lieutenant existed in the military forces of the
Australian colonies and
Australian Army until 1986.
In the colonial forces, which closely followed the practices of the
British military, the rank of second lieutenant began to replace ranks
such as Ensign and Cornet from 1871.
New appointments to the rank of second lieutenant ceased in the
Regular Army in 1986. Immediately prior to this change, the rank
had been effectively reserved for new graduates from the Officer Cadet
School, Portsea which closed in 1985. (Graduates of the Australian
Defence Force Academy and the
Royal Military College, Duntroon
Royal Military College, Duntroon are
commissioned as lieutenants.)
In the rank structure of the
Royal Australian Navy
Royal Australian Navy the equivalent of
second lieutenant is Acting Sub-Lieutenant.
The Royal Australian Air Force, which generally uses the rank system
of the British Royal Air Force, maintains the rank of Pilot Officer
– the equivalent of second lieutenant.
Canadian Forces adopted the rank with insignia of a single gold
ring around the service dress uniform cuff for both army and air
personnel upon unification in 1968 until the late 2000s. For a
time, naval personnel used this rank but reverted to the Royal
Canadian Navy rank of acting sub-lieutenant, though the CF green
uniform was retained until the mid-1980s. Currently, the Canadian Army
insignia for second lieutenant is a pip and the Royal Canadian Air
Force insignia for lieutenant is one thick braid. The equivalent rank
Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Canadian Navy is acting sub-lieutenant. Also known as an
Ensign in the
Foot Guards units. (
Canadian Grenadier Guards
Canadian Grenadier Guards &
Governor General's Foot Guards
Governor General's Foot Guards )
The insignia consists of a metal-colored bar in accordance with the
color of the ceremonial uniform buttons and hat's symbol.
For example, for the infantry, gold being the metal of the ceremonial
dress' buttons, the symbol on the képi being a golden grenade with
two crossed rifles, therefore the Sous-Lieutenant's insignia is a
For cavalry or forest rangers (light infantry mobilised from the Water
and Forests Corp), ceremonial dress' buttons were silver, as was the
hunting horn on the forest commissioned officer's képi, therefore the
Sous-Lieutenant's insignia is a silver-colored bar.
Main article: Anthypolochagos
The insignia consists of a single silver star (or a star and a bar for
reserve officers). Officers holding this rank should be addressed as
"Kyrie Anthypolochage" (Κύριε Ανθυπολοχαγέ) by their
subordinates, or "Anthypolochage + family name" by their superior
Main article: Indonesian military ranks
The second lieutenant rank insignia of the Indonesian Army
In Indonesia, "second lieutenant" is known as letnan dua (letda) which
is the most junior ranked officer in the Indonesian Military. Cadets
who graduate from the
Indonesian Military Academy achieve this rank as
young officers. Senior non-commissioned officers promoted to becoming
commissioned officers go to the officer's candidate school (Sekolah
Calon Perwira) in
Bandung to achieve the second lieutenant rank. The
lieutenant rank has two levels, which are second lieutenant (Letda)
First lieutenant (Lettu). Lieutenants in
Indonesia usually command
a platoon level of troops and are referred to as "danton" abbreviated
from komandan pleton (platoon commander) in Indonesian.
Israel Defense Forces
Israel Defense Forces ranks
Since 1951 in the
Israel Defense Forces
Israel Defense Forces (סגן-משנה (סג"מ
segen mishne (sagam) has been equivalent to a second lieutenant (NATO
OF-1). From 1948 – 1951 the corresponding rank was that of a
(סגן) segen, which since 1951 has been equivalent to lieutenant.
Segen mishne means "junior lieutenant" and segen literally translates
as "assistant". Typically it is the rank of a platoon commander. Note
that the IDF uses this rank across all three of its services.
Like many other Commonwealth countries, the rank structures of the New
Zealand Defence Force usually follow British traditions. Hence the New
Zealand Army maintains a rank of second lieutenant and the Royal New
Zealand Air Force has its exact equivalent, Pilot Officer.
Royal New Zealand Navy
Royal New Zealand Navy breaks with British tradition and
uses the name ensign for its most junior commissioned officer rank
(rather than the usual equivalents, such as acting sub-lieutenant or
The equivalent rank in Norway (O-1) is "fenrik". This is the first
rank, where they are commanding officer. Fenriks are usually former
experienced sergeants but to become a fenrik one has to go through
officer's training and education. Fenriks fill roles as second in
command within a platoon. Fenriks are in some cases executive
officers. Most fenriks have finished the War Academy as well, and are
fully trained officers. To qualify for the Military Academy, Fenriks
are required to do minimum 6 months service in international missions,
before or after graduation.
Pakistan Army follows the British pattern of ranks. A second
lieutenant is represented by one metal pip on each shoulder in case of
"khaki uniform" and one four quadric[clarification needed] printed
star on the chest in case of camouflage combat dress. However a second
lieutenant in the
Pakistan Army is usually promoted to lieutenant 6
months after commissioning.
United Kingdom & other Commonwealth countries 
The rank of second lieutenant (2Lt; colloquially known as a one-pip)
was introduced throughout the
British Army in 1877 to replace the
short-lived rank of sub-lieutenant, although it had long been used in
the Royal Artillery, Royal Engineers,
Fusilier and Rifle regiments. At
first the rank bore no distinct insignia. In 1902, a single Bath star
(now commonly referred to as a pip) was introduced; the ranks of
lieutenant and captain had their number of stars increased by one to
(respectively) two and three. The rank is also used by the Royal
British Army officers are normally commissioned as second
lieutenants at the end of their commissioning course at RMA Sandhurst,
and continue with specific training with their units, often with
mentoring from senior NCOs. Progression to lieutenant rank usually
occurs after about a year. In the British armed forces, second
lieutenant is a rank which is not used as a form of address. Instead a
second lieutenant named, for example, Smith is addressed and referred
to as Mr Smith, with the exception that the alternative titles ensign
and cornet are still used verbally in the
Foot Guards and the Blues
and Royals respectively. As these form six of the seven regiments
that comprise the Household Division, the Life Guards are therefore
the only Household regiment to which the exception does not apply.
In the Royal Air Force, the comparable rank is pilot officer. The
Royal Navy has no exact equivalent rank, and a second lieutenant is
senior to a
Royal Navy midshipman but junior to a sub-lieutenant.
In the United States, second lieutenant is the normal entry-level rank
for most commissioned officers in the Army, Air Force and Marine Corps
and is equivalent to the rank of ensign in the Navy and Coast Guard.
In the Army and Marine Corps, a second lieutenant typically leads a
platoon-size element (16 to 44 soldiers or Marines). In the army,
until December 1917, the rank bore no insignia other than a brown
sleeve braid on blouses and an officer's cap device and hat cord. In
December 1917, a gold-colored bar similar to the silver-colored bar of
a first lieutenant was introduced. In US military slang, the rank is
sometimes called "butterbar" in reference to the insignia.
In the Air Force, depending upon the career field, a second lieutenant
(2d Lt) may supervise flights (of varying sizes) as a flight leader or
deputy flight leader, or may work in a variety of administrative
positions at the squadron, group, or wing level. A significant number
of Air Force second lieutenants are full-time flight students in
training for eventual designation as USAF pilots, combat systems
officers or air battle managers.
The following are a selection of second lieutenant rank insignia,
attempting to illustrate the range of variation (and similarity)
between the insignia. Note that although many air forces use the rank
of second lieutenant, in most Commonwealth air forces the equivalent
rank of pilot officer is used. Very few navies use the rank "second
Forest & Environment Corps
Note: U.S. Marine Corps (USMC) second lieutenant insignia bars have
squared off edges.
British Army officer rank insignia
Comparative military ranks
Cornet (military rank)
U.S. Army officer rank insignia
Military ranks of Ukraine
^ "Commissioned Officer Ranks". Australian Army. Retrieved 18 August
^ "General Service Officer". Defence Jobs. Defence Force Recruiting.
Retrieved 18 August 2016.
^ Navy marks centennial by reinstating 'executive curl'
Canadian Army goes back to the future with return to British-style
ranks and designations
^ "The Household Cavalry Command Structure - Forms of Address".
householdcavalry.info. Enasec Ltd. Retrieved 18 November 2016. In The
Blues And Royals, the most junior Officer rank (equivalent to 2nd
Lieutenant) is known as "Cornet".
^ Dalzell, Tom (2009). The Routledge Dictionary of Modern American
Slang and Unconventional English. Taylor & Francis. p. 154.
^ Marine Corps Uniform Regulations MARINE CORPS ORDER P1020.34G W/CH
1-5, CHAPTER 4. INSIGNIA AND REGULATIONS FOR WEAR, Sec. 4005. INSIGNIA
OF GRADE, OFFICERS, Para. 2. Description by Grade, h. Captain, i.
First Lieutenant, & j. Second
Lieutenant (p. 4-25) and Figure
4-11. Officers' Grade Insignia (Shoulder/Collar) (p. 4-21)
Commissioned officer ranks of the British Armed Forces
NATO rank code
Adm of the Fleet
Royal Air Force
Off Cdt / SO
APO / Plt Off
Air Chf Mshl
Mshl of the RAF
Commissioned officer ranks of the Canadian Armed Forces
NATO rank code
Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Canadian Air Force
United States uniformed services commissioned officer and officer
Pay grade / branch of service
CDT / OC
Midn / Cand
MIDN / OC
Cadet / OT / OC
CDT / OC
 No universal insignia for officer candidate rank; Navy candidate
Official 1945 proposal for
General of the Armies
General of the Armies insignia; John J.
Pershing's GAS insignia: ; George Dewey's
Admiral of the Navy
 Rank used for specific officers in wartime only, not permanent
addition to rank structure
 Grade is authorized by the U.S. Code for use but has not been
 Grade has never been created or authorized
 USAF and U.S. Army insignia shown
United States warrant officer ranks
 Grade inactive
 Grade is authorized for use by U.S. Code but has not been created
 Grade never cre