The Info List - Second Great Awakening

--- Advertisement ---

The Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
was a Protestant religious revival during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800 and, after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist
and Methodist
congregations whose preachers led the movement. It was past its peak by the late 1850s. The Second Great Awakening reflected Romanticism
characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the super-natural. It rejected the skeptical rationalism and deism of the Enlightenment. The revivals enrolled millions of new members in existing evangelical denominations and led to the formation of new denominations. Many converts believed that the Awakening heralded a new millennial age. The Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
stimulated the establishment of many reform movements designed to remedy the evils of society before the anticipated Second Coming
Second Coming
of Jesus Christ.[1] Historians named the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
in the context of the First Great Awakening
Great Awakening
of the 1730s and 1740s and of the Third Great Awakening of the late 1850s to early 1900s. These revivals were part of a much larger Romantic religious movement that was sweeping across Europe at the time, mainly throughout England, Scotland, and Germany.[2]


1 Spread of revivals

1.1 Background 1.2 Theology 1.3 Burned-over district 1.4 West and Tidewater South 1.5 West 1.6 Church membership soars

2 Subgroups

2.1 Adventism 2.2 Holiness movement 2.3 Restoration Movement

3 Culture and society 4 Slaves and free Africans 5 Women 6 Prominent figures 7 Political implications 8 See also 9 References 10 Further reading

10.1 Historiography

Spread of revivals[edit]

Part of a series on



Christianity Protestantism Puritanism Anabaptism


Priesthood of all believers Individual soul liberty Separation of church and state Sola scriptura Congregationalism Ordinances Offices Confessions

Key figures

John Smyth Thomas Helwys Roger Williams John Clarke John Bunyan Shubal Stearns Andrew Fuller Charles Spurgeon D. N. Jackson James Robinson Graves William Bullein Johnson William Carey Luther Rice Martin Luther
Martin Luther
King Jr. Billy Graham


denominations Baptist
colleges and universities Baptist
World Alliance


v t e

Part of a series on


John Calvin


Christianity St. Augustine The Reformation Five Solas Synod of Dort


Theology of John Calvin Covenant theology Lord's Supper Regulative principle Predestination in Calvinism


Institutes of the Christian Religion Geneva Bible Three Forms of Unity Westminster Standards Canons of Dort Second Helvetic Confession Heidelberg Catechism Belgic Confession La Rochelle Confession Savoy Declaration 1689 Baptist
Confession of Faith First Helvetic Confession Scots Confession


Huldrych Zwingli Martin Bucer Peter Martyr Vermigli William Farel Heinrich Bullinger John Calvin John Knox Theodore Beza Francis Turretin Jonathan Edwards Charles Hodge


Continental Reformed Presbyterian Congregationalist Reformed Baptist Low church
Low church


Afrikaners Huguenots Pilgrims Puritans

Largest groups

World Communion of Reformed Churches World Reformed Fellowship International Conference of Reformed Churches North American Presbyterian
and Reformed Council Presbyterianism
in South Korea List of Reformed denominations


v t e

Background[edit] Like the First Great Awakening
Great Awakening
a half century earlier, the Second reflected Romanticism
characterized by enthusiasm, emotion, and an appeal to the super-natural.[3] It rejected the skepticism, deism, and rationalism left over from the Enlightenment.[4] At about the same time, similar movements flourished in Europe. Pietism
was sweeping German countries.[5] Evangelicalism
was waxing strong in England.[6] The Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
occurred in several episodes and over different denominations; however, the revivals were very similar.[4] As the most effective form of evangelizing during this period, revival meetings cut across geographical boundaries,[7] and the movement quickly spread throughout Kentucky, Tennessee and southern Ohio. Each denomination had assets that allowed it to thrive on the frontier. The Methodists had an efficient organization that depended on itinerant ministers, known as circuit riders, who sought out people in remote frontier locations. The circuit riders came from among the common people, which helped them establish rapport with the frontier families they hoped to convert. Theology[edit] Main article: Postmillennialism Postmillennialism
theology dominated American Protestantism
in the first half of the 19th century. Postmillennialists believed that Christ will return to earth after the "millennium", which could entail either a literal 1,000 years or a figurative "long period" of peace and happiness. Christians thus had a duty to purify society in preparation for that return. This duty extended beyond American borders to include Christian Restorationism. George Fredrickson argues that Postmillennial theology "was an impetus to the promotion of Progressive reforms, as historians have frequently pointed out."[8] During the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
of the 1830s, some diviners expected the millennium to arrive in a few years. By the 1840s, however, the great day had receded to the distant future, and postmillennialism became a more passive religious dimension of the wider middle-class pursuit of reform and progress.[8] Burned-over district[edit] Main article: Burned-over district In the early nineteenth century, western New York State
New York State
was called the "burned-over district" because of the highly publicized revivals that crisscrossed the region.[9][10] Charles Finney, a leading revivalist active in the area, coined the term.[11] Linda K. Pritchard uses statistical data to show that compared to the rest of New York State, the Ohio River Valley in the lower Midwest, and the country as a whole, the religiosity of the Burned-over District was typical rather than exceptional.[12] West and Tidewater South[edit] On the American Frontier, evangelical denominations sent missionary preachers and exhorters out to the people in the backcountry, which supported the growth of membership among Methodists and Baptists. Revivalists' techniques were based on the camp meeting, with its Scottish Presbyterian
roots. Most of the Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolutionary War settled in the backcountry of Pennsylvania and down the spine of the Appalachian Mountains.[13] These denominations were based on an interpretation of man's spiritual equality before God, which led them to recruit members and preachers from a wide range of classes and all races. Baptists
and Methodist revivals were successful in some parts of the Tidewater in the South, where an increasing number of common planters, plain folk, and slaves were converted. West[edit] Main article: Revival of 1800 In the newly settled frontier regions, the revival was implemented through camp meetings. These often provided the first encounter for some settlers with organized religion, and they were important as social venues. The camp meeting was a religious service of several days' length with preachers. Settlers in thinly populated areas gathered at the camp meeting for fellowship as well as worship. The sheer exhilaration of participating in a religious revival with crowds of hundreds and perhaps thousands of people inspired the dancing, shouting, and singing associated with these events. The revivals followed an arc of great emotional power, with an emphasis of the individual's sins and need to turn to Christ, restored by a sense of personal salvation. Upon their return home, most converts joined or created small local churches, which grew rapidly.[14] The Second Great Awakening marked a religious transition in society in America. Many Americans from the Calvinist
sect emphasized man's inability to save themselves and that their only way to be saved was from grace from God.[15] The Revival of 1800
Revival of 1800
in Logan County, Kentucky, began as a traditional Presbyterian
sacramental occasion. The first informal camp meeting began there in June, when people began camping on the grounds of the Red River Meeting House. Subsequent meetings followed at the nearby Gasper River and Muddy River congregations, all three under the ministry of James McGready. One year later, an even larger sacrament occasion was held at Cane Ridge, Kentucky
Cane Ridge, Kentucky
under Barton Stone, attracting perhaps as many as 20,000 people. Numerous Presbyterian, Baptist
and Methodist
ministers participated in the services. Thanks to such leaders as Barton W. Stone
Barton W. Stone
(1772–1844) and Alexander Campbell (1788–1866), the camp meeting revival became a major mode of church expansion for the Methodists and Baptists.[16] The Cumberland Presbyterian
Church emerged in Kentucky. Cane Ridge was also instrumental in fostering what became known as the Restoration Movement. This was made up of non-denominational churches committed to what they saw as the original, fundamental Christianity
of the New Testament. They were committed to individuals' achieving a personal relationship with Christ. Churches with roots in this movement include the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada[17] Church membership soars[edit]

1839 Methodist
camp meeting

The Methodist
circuit riders and local Baptist
preachers made enormous gains; to a lesser extent the Presbyterians
gained members, particularly with the Cumberland Presbyterian
Church in sparsely settled areas. As a result, the numerical strength of the Baptists
and Methodists rose relative to that of the denominations dominant in the colonial period—the Anglicans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists. Among the new denominations that grew from the religious ferment of the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
are the Churches of Christ, Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Seventh-day Adventist Church, and the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada.[17][18] The converts during the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
were predominantly female. A 1932 source estimated at least three female converts to every two male converts between 1798 and 1826. Young people (those under 25) also converted in greater numbers, and were the first to convert.[19] Subgroups[edit] Adventism[edit]

Part of a series on


William Miller

Background Christianity Protestantism Anabaptists Restorationism Pietism Millerism

History Second Great Awakening Great Disappointment

Biographies William Miller Nelson H. Barbour Joseph Bates Sylvester Bliss Jonathan Cummings Elon Galusha Apollos Hale Joshua V. Himes Charles F. Hudson Josiah Litch Rachel O. Preston T. M. Preble George Storrs John T. Walsh Jonas Wendell Ellen G. White James White John Thomas

Theology Annihilationism Conditional immortality Historicism Intermediate state Premillennialism

Denominations Advent Christian Church Christadelphians Seventh-day Adventist Church Church of God (Seventh-Day) Church of God General Conference Church of the Blessed Hope Seventh Day Adventist Reform Movement Davidian SDA (Shepherd's Rod) United Seventh-Day Brethren Branch Davidians Primitive Advent Christian Church Sabbath Rest Advent Church

v t e

The Advent Movement emerged in the 1830s and 1840s in North America, and was preached by ministers such as William Miller, whose followers became known as Millerites. The name refers to belief in the soon Second Advent of Jesus
Second Advent of Jesus
(popularly known as the Second coming) and resulted in several major religious denominations, including Seventh-day Adventists and Advent Christians.[20] Holiness movement[edit]

Part of a series on


John Wesley


History (in the United States)

Anglicanism Arminianism First Great Awakening Nonconformism Pietism Wesleyanism


Articles of Religion Assurance of salvation

Conditional preservation of the saints

Four sources of theological authority

Covenant theology Substitutionary atonement Imparted righteousness New birth Prevenient grace Plain dress Real presence Sanctification Sunday Sabbatarianism Temperance Christian perfection Works of Piety Works of Mercy


John Wesley Charles Wesley

George Whitefield

Richard Allen Francis Asbury Thomas Coke William Law William Williams Pantycelyn Howell Harris Albert Outler James Varick Countess of Huntingdon

Bishops Theologians

Groups Churches

Church of Great Britain Free Methodist
Church United Methodist
Church World Methodist
Council Other Methodist


Connexionalism Methodist

Related groups

Holiness movement Conservative holiness movement Pentecostalism Evangelicalism

Other topics

Circuit rider Saints in Methodism Christian views on alcohol Methodist
local preacher Homosexuality and Methodism Ordination of women in Methodism


v t e

Main article: Holiness movement Though its roots are in the First Great Awakening
Great Awakening
and earlier, a re-emphasis on Wesleyan teachings on sanctification emerged during the Second Great Awakening, leading to a distinction between Mainline Methodism
and Holiness churches. Restoration Movement[edit] Main article: Restoration Movement See also: Restorationism The idea of restoring a "primitive" form of Christianity
grew in popularity in the U.S. after the American Revolution.[21]:89–94 This desire to restore a purer form of Christianity
without an elaborate hierarchy contributed to the development of many groups during the Second Great Awakening, including the Mormons, Baptists
and Shakers.[21]:89 Several factors made the restoration sentiment particularly appealing during this time period:[21]:90–94

To immigrants in the early 19th century, the land in the United States seemed pristine, edenic and undefiled – "the perfect place to recover pure, uncorrupted and original Christianity" – and the tradition-bound European churches seemed out of place in this new setting.[21]:90 A primitive faith based on the Bible
alone promised a way to sidestep the competing claims of the many denominations available and for congregations to find assurance of being right without the security of an established national church.[21]:93

The Restoration Movement
Restoration Movement
began during, and was greatly influenced by, the Second Great Awakening.[22]:368 While the leaders of one of the two primary groups making up this movement, Thomas Campbell and Alexander Campbell, resisted what they saw as the spiritual manipulation of the camp meetings, the revivals contributed to the development of the other major branch, led by Barton W. Stone.[22]:368 The Southern phase of the Awakening "was an important matrix of Barton Stone's reform movement" and shaped the evangelistic techniques used by both Stone and the Campbells.[22]:368 Culture and society[edit] Efforts to apply Christian teaching to the resolution of social problems presaged the Social Gospel of the late 19th century. Converts were taught that to achieve salvation they needed not just to repent personal sin but also work for the moral perfection of society, which meant eradicating sin in all its forms. Thus, evangelical converts were leading figures in a variety of 19th century reform movements.[23] Congregationalists set up missionary societies to evangelize the western territory of the northern tier. Members of these groups acted as apostles for the faith, and also as educators and exponents of northeastern urban culture. The Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
served as an "organizing process" that created "a religious and educational infrastructure" across the western frontier that encompassed social networks, a religious journalism that provided mass communication, and church-related colleges.[22]:368 Publication and education societies promoted Christian education; most notable among them was the American Bible
Society, founded in 1816. Women made up a large part of these voluntary societies.[24] The Female Missionary Society and the Maternal Association, both active in Utica, NY, were highly organized and financially sophisticated women's organizations responsible for many of the evangelical converts of the New York frontier.[25] There were also societies that broadened their focus from traditional religious concerns to larger societal ones. These organizations were primarily sponsored by affluent women. They did not stem entirely from the Second Great Awakening, but the revivalist doctrine and the expectation that one's conversion would lead to personal action accelerated the role of women's social benevolence work.[26] Social activism influenced abolition groups and supporters of the Temperance movement. They began efforts to reform prisons and care for the handicapped and mentally ill. They believed in the perfectibility of people and were highly moralistic in their endeavors. Slaves and free Africans[edit]

Part of a series on Slavery


Child labour Child soldiers Conscription Debt Forced marriage

Bride buying Wife selling

Forced prostitution Human trafficking Peonage Penal labour Sexual slavery Wage slavery



Ancient Rome Babylonia Ancient Greece

Topics and practices

Atlantic slave trade

Middle Passage

Arab slave trade

Ghilman Mamluk Saqaliba

Aztec Blackbirding Byzantine Empire Coolie Corvée
labor Field slaves in the United States House slaves Kholop Medieval Europe Panyarring Thrall Serfs

History Russia

Slave market Slave raiding Child soldiers


Galley slave Impressment Pirates Shanghaiing Slave ship

By country or region

Sub-Saharan Africa

Contemporary Africa Slavery
on the Barbary Coast Barbary slave trade Slave Coast Angola Chad Ethiopia Mali Mauritania Niger Somalia South Africa Sudan Seychelles

North and South America

Americas indigenous

U.S. Natives


Lei Áurea

Canada Caribbean

Barbados Code Noir

Cuba Haiti

revolt Restavek

Latin America Puerto Rico Trinidad United States

colonial maps female partus penal labor Slave codes interregional Human trafficking

Virgin Islands

Central, East, and South Asia

Human trafficking
Human trafficking
in Southeast Asia Bhutan China

Booi Aha Laogai


Debt bondage Chukri System


comfort women

South Korea

Yankee princess

North Korea Vietnam

Australia and Oceania

in Australia Human trafficking
Human trafficking
in Australia Slave raiding
Slave raiding
in Easter Island Human trafficking
Human trafficking
in Papua New Guinea Blackbirding
in Polynesia

Europe and North Asia

Sex trafficking in Europe Britain Denmark Dutch Republic Germany in World War II Malta Norway Poland Portugal Romania Russia Spain



North Africa and West Asia

Iran Libya Human trafficking
Human trafficking
in the Middle East Ottoman Empire Yemen


Bible Christianity

Catholicism Mormonism


21st century

Judaism Bahá'í Faith

Opposition and resistance

Timeline Abolitionism

U.K. U.S.

Anti- Slavery
International Blockade of Africa

U.K. U.S.

Compensated emancipation Freedman


Freedom suit Abolitionists Slave Power Underground Railroad


Slave rebellion Slave Trade Acts International law 13th Amendment to the United States
United States


Common law Indentured servitude Unfree labour Fugitive slaves

laws Great Dismal Swamp maroons

List of slaves


Slave narrative

films songs

Slave name Slave catcher Slave patrol Slave Route Project Treatment in U.S.

breeding court cases Washington Jefferson Adams Lincoln 40 acres Freedmen's Bureau bit

Emancipation Day

v t e

and Methodists in the South preached to slaveholders and slaves alike. Conversions and congregations started with the First Great Awakening, resulting in Baptist
and Methodist
preachers being authorized among slaves and free African Americans more than a decade before 1800. "Black Harry" Hosier, an illiterate freedman who drove Francis Asbury
Francis Asbury
on his circuits, proved to be able to memorize large passages of the Bible
verbatim and became a cross-over success, as popular among white audiences as the black ones Asbury had originally intended for him to minister.[27] His sermon at Thomas Chapel
Thomas Chapel
in Chapeltown, Delaware, in 1784 was the first to be delivered by a black preacher directly to a white congregation.[28] Despite being called the "greatest orator in America" by Benjamin Rush[29] and one of the best in the world by Bishop Thomas Coke,[28] Hosier was repeatedly passed over for ordination and permitted no vote during his attendance at the Christmas Conference
Christmas Conference
that formally established American Methodism. Richard Allen, the other black attendee, was ordained by the Methodists in 1799, but his congregation of free African Americans in Philadelphia left the church there because of its discrimination. They founded the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) in Philadelphia. After first submitting to oversight by the established Methodist
bishops, several AME congregations finally left to form the first independent African-American denomination in the United States
United States
in 1816. Soon after, the African Methodist
Episcopal Zion Church (AME Zion) was founded as another denomination in New York City. Early Baptist
congregations were formed by slaves and free African Americans in South Carolina and Virginia. Especially in the Baptist Church, African Americans were welcomed as members and as preachers. By the early 19th century, independent African American congregations numbered in the several hundred in some cities of the South, such as Charleston, South Carolina, and Richmond and Petersburg, Virginia.[30] With the growth in congregations and churches, Baptist
associations formed in Virginia, for instance, as well as Kentucky and other states. The revival also inspired slaves to demand freedom. In 1800, out of African American revival meetings in Virginia, a plan for slave rebellion was devised by Gabriel Prosser, although the rebellion was discovered and crushed before it started.[31] Despite white attempts to control independent African American congregations, especially after the Nat Turner
Nat Turner
Uprising of 1831, a number of African American congregations managed to maintain their separation as independent congregations in Baptist
associations. State legislatures passed laws requiring them always to have a white man present at their worship meetings.[30] Women[edit] Women, who made up the majority of converts during the Awakening, played a crucial role in its development and focus. It is not clear why women converted in larger numbers than men. Various scholarly theories attribute the discrepancy to a reaction to the perceived sinfulness of youthful frivolity, an inherent greater sense of religiosity in women, a communal reaction to economic insecurity, or an assertion of the self in the face of patriarchal rule. Husbands, especially in the South, sometimes disapproved of their wives' conversion, forcing women to choose between submission to God or their spouses. Church membership and religious activity gave women peer support and place for meaningful activity outside the home, providing many women with communal identity and shared experiences.[32] Despite the predominance of women in the movement, they were not formally indoctrinated or given leading ministerial positions. However, women took other public roles; for example, relaying testimonials about their conversion experience, or assisting sinners (both male and female) through the conversion process. Leaders such as Charles Finney
Charles Finney
saw women's public prayer as a crucial aspect in preparing a community for revival and improving their efficacy in conversion.[33] Women also took crucial roles in the conversion and religious upbringing of children. During the period of revival, mothers were seen as the moral and spiritual foundation of the family, and were thus tasked with instructing children in matters of religion and ethics.[34] The greatest change in women's roles stemmed from participation in newly formalized missionary and reform societies. Women's prayer groups were an early and socially acceptable form of women's organization. Through their positions in these organizations, women gained influence outside of the private sphere.[35][36] Changing demographics of gender also affected religious doctrine. In an effort to give sermons that would resonate with the congregation, ministers stressed Christ's humility and forgiveness, in what the historian Barbara Welter calls a "feminization" of Christianity.[37] Prominent figures[edit]

Richard Allen, founder, African Methodist
Episcopal Church Francis Asbury, Methodist, circuit rider and founder of American Methodism Henry Ward Beecher, Presbyterian Lyman Beecher, Presbyterian, his father Antoinette Brown Blackwell, Congregationalist
& later Unitarian, the first ordained female minister in the United States Alexander Campbell, Presbyterian, and early leader of the Restoration Movement Thomas Campbell Presbyterian, then early leader of the Restoration Movement Peter Cartwright, Methodist Lorenzo Dow, Methodist Timothy Dwight IV, Congregationalist Charles Finney, Presbyterian
& anti-Calvinist "Black Harry" Hosier, Methodist, the first African American to preach to a white congregation Ann Lee, Shakers Jarena Lee, Methodist, a female AME circuit rider Robert Matthews, cult following as Matthias the Prophet William Miller, Millerism, forerunner of Adventism Asahel Nettleton, Reformed Benjamin Randall, Free Will Baptist Joseph Smith, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Barton Stone, Presbyterian
non-Calvinist, then early leader of the Restoration Movement Nathaniel William Taylor, heterodox Calvinist Ellen G. White, Seventh-day Adventist Church

Political implications[edit] Revivals and perfectionist hopes of improving individuals and society continued to increase from 1840 to 1865 across all major denominations, especially in urban areas. Evangelists often directly addressed issues such as slavery, greed, and poverty, laying the groundwork for later reform movements.[1] The influence of the Awakening continued in the form of more secular movements.[38] In the midst of shifts in theology and church polity, American Christians began progressive movements to reform society during this period. Known commonly as antebellum reform, this phenomenon included reforms in against the consumption of alcohol, for women's rights and abolition of slavery, and a multitude of other issues faced by society.[39] The religious enthusiasm of the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
was echoed by the new political enthusiasm of the Second Party System.[40] More active participation in politics by more segments of the population brought religious and moral issues into the political sphere. The spirit of evangelical humanitarian reforms was carried on in the antebellum Whig party.[41] Historians stress the understanding common among participants of reform as being a part of God's plan. As a result, local churches saw their roles in society in purifying the world through the individuals to whom they could bring salvation, and through changes in the law and the creation of institutions. Interest in transforming the world was applied to mainstream political action, as temperance activists, antislavery advocates, and proponents of other variations of reform sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. While Protestant religion had previously played an important role on the American political scene, the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
strengthened the role it would play.[1] See also[edit]

portal Methodism
portal Calvinism
portal Seventh-day Adventist Church
Seventh-day Adventist Church
portal Latter Day Saints portal LDS Church portal

Advent Christian Church Christian revival Christianity
in the 19th century The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints Cumberland Presbyterian
Church Ethnocultural politics in the United States Holiness movement Restoration Movement Seventh-day Adventist Church


^ a b c Timothy L. Smith, Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism
on the Eve of the Civil War (1957). ^ Heyrman, Christine Leigh. "The First Great Awakening". Divining America, TeacherServe. National Humanities Center. ^ Henry B. Clark (1982). Freedom of Religion in America: Historical Roots, Philosophical Concepts, Contemporary Problems. Transaction Publishers. p. 16.  ^ a b Nancy Cott, "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
in New England," Feminist Studies, (1975), 3#1 p. 15. JSTOR 3518952. doi:10.2307/3518952. ^ Hans Schwarz (2005). Theology in a Global Context: The Last Two Hundred Years. Wm. B. Eerdmans. p. 91.  ^ Frederick Cyril Gill, The romantic movement and Methodism: a study of English romanticism and the evangelical revival (1937). ^ Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Women and Religion in America (Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press, 1996): 59 ^ a b Fredrickson, George M. (1998). "The Coming of the Lord: The Northern Protestant Clergy and the Civil War Crisis". In Miller, Randall M.; Stout, Harry S.; Wilson, Charles Reagan. Religion and the American Civil War. Oxford University Press. pp. 110–30. ISBN 9780198028345.  ^ Whitney R. Cross, The Burned-over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New, 1800–1850 (1951) ^ Judith Wellman, Grassroots Reform in the Burned-over District of Upstate New York: Religion, Abolitionism, and Democracy (2000) excerpt and text search ^ Geordan Hammond; William Gibson (March 1, 2012). Wesley and Methodist
Studies. Clements. p. 32.  ^ Linda K. Pritchard, "The burned-over district reconsidered: A portent of evolving religious pluralism in the United States." Social Science History (1984): 243–265. JSTOR 1170853. doi:10.2307/1170853. ^ On Scottish influences see Long (2002) and Elizabeth Semancik, "Backcountry Religious Ways" at [1] ^ Dickson D. Bruce, Jr., And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845, (1974) ^ ushistory.org, Religious Transformation and the Second Great Awakening, U.S. History Online Textbook, http://www.ushistory.org/us/22c.asp Monday, October 27, 2014 (2014) ^ Douglas Foster, et al., The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement (2005) ^ a b Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (2004) ^ Melton, Encyclopedia of American Religions (2009) ^ Nancy Cott, "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
in New England," Feminist Studies, (1975), 3#1 pp. 15–16. JSTOR 3518952. doi:10.2307/3518952. ^ Gary Land, Adventism
in America: A History (1998) ^ a b c d e C. Leonard Allen and Richard T. Hughes, Discovering Our Roots: The Ancestry of the Churches of Christ, Abilene Christian University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-89112-006-8 ^ a b c d Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement: Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Christian Churches/Churches of Christ, Churches of Christ, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-8028-3898-7, ISBN 978-0-8028-3898-8, 854 pages, entry on Great Awakenings ^ Elizabeth J.Clapp, and Julie Roy Jeffrey, ed., Women, Dissent and Anti-slavery in Britain and America, 1790–1865, (Oxford ; New York: Oxford University Press, 2011): 13–14 ^ Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in Clio's Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. New York: Octagon Books, 1976, 139 ^ Mary Ryan, "A Woman's Awakening: Evangelical Religion and the Families of Utica, New York, 1800 to 1840," American Quarterly 30, no. 5 (Winter 1978): 616–19 ^ Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Women and Religion in America, 1st paperback ed, (Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press, 1996): 65 ^ Morgan, Philip. Slave Counterpoint: Black Culture in the Eighteenth-Century Chesapeake and Lowcountry, p. 655. UNC Press (Chapel Hill), 1998. Accessed 17 October 2013. ^ a b Smith, Jessie C. Black Firsts: 4,000 Ground-Breaking and Pioneering Historical Events (3rd ed.), pp. 1820–1821. "Methodists: 1781". Visible Ink Press (Canton), 2013. Accessed 17 October 2013. ^ Webb, Stephen H. "Introducing Black Harry
Black Harry
Hoosier: The History Behind Indiana's Namesake". Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. XCVIII (March 2002). Trustees of Indiana University. Accessed 17 October 2013. ^ a b Albert J. Raboteau, Slave Religion: The 'Invisible Institution' in the Antebellum South, New York: Oxford University Press, 2004, p. 137, accessed 27 Dec 2008 ^ Alan Brinkley, The Unfinished Nation, p 168 ^ Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Women and Religion in America, 1st paperback ed, (Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press, 1996): 59–61. ^ Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Women and Religion in America, 1st paperback ed, (Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press, 1996): 61–62. ^ Mary Ryan, "A Woman's Awakening: Evangelical Religion and the Families of Utica, New York, 1800 to 1840," American Quarterly 30, no. 5 (Winter 1978): 614 ^ Mary Ryan, "A Woman's Awakening: Evangelical Religion and the Families of Utica, New York, 1800 to 1840," American Quarterly 30, no. 5 (Winter 1978): 619. ^ Susan Hill Lindley, You Have Stept Out of Your Place: a History of Women and Religion in America, 1st paperback ed, (Louisville, Ky: Westminster John Knox
John Knox
Press, 1996): 62–63. ^ Barbara Welter, "The Feminization of American Religion: 1800–1860," in Clio's Consciousness Raised, edited by Mary S. Hartman and Lois Banner. New York: Octagon Books, 1976, 141 ^ Barbara Leslie Epstein, The Politics of Domesticity. Middletown: Wesleyan University Press, 1981. ^ Alice Felt Tyler, Freedom's Ferment: Phases of American Social History from the Colonial Period to the Outbreak of the Civil War (1944). ^ Stephen Meardon, "From Religious Revivals to Tariff Rancor: Preaching Free Trade and Protection during the Second American Party System," History of Political Economy, Winter 2008 Supplement, Vol. 40, p. 265-298 ^ Daniel Walker Howe, "The Evangelical Movement and Political Culture in the North During the Second Party System", The Journal of American History 77, no. 4 (March 1991), p. 1218 and 1237.

Further reading[edit]

Abzug, Robert H. Cosmos Crumbling: American Reform and the Religious Imagination (1994) (ISBN 0-195-04568-8) Ahlstrom, Sydney. A Religious History of the American People (1972) (ISBN 0-385-11164-9) Billington, Ray A. The Protestant Crusade. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1938. Birdsall, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
and the New England Social Order", Church History 39 (1970): 345–364. JSTOR 3163469. Bratt, James D. "Religious Anti-revivalism in Antebellum America", Journal of the Early Republic (2004) 24(1): 65–106. ISSN 0275-1275. JSTOR 4141423. Brown, Kenneth O. Holy Ground; a Study on the American Camp Meeting. Garland Publishing, Inc., (1992). Brown, Kenneth O. Holy Ground, Too, the Camp Meeting Family Tree. Hazleton: Holiness Archives, (1997). Bruce, Dickson D., Jr. And They All Sang Hallelujah: Plain Folk Camp-Meeting Religion, 1800–1845 (1974) Butler, Jon. Awash in a Sea of Faith: Christianizing the American People. 1990. Carwardine, Richard J. Evangelicals and Politics in Antebellum America. Yale University Press, 1993. Carwardine, Richard J. "The Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
in the Urban Centers: An Examination of Methodism
and the 'New Measures'", Journal of American History 59 (1972): 327–340. JSTOR 1890193. doi:10.2307/1890193. Cott, Nancy F. "Young Women in the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
in New England," Feminist Studies, (1975), 3#1 pp. 15–29. JSTOR 3518952. doi:10.2307/3518952 Cross, Whitney, R. The Burned-Over District: The Social and Intellectual History of Enthusiastic Religion in Western New York, 1800–1850, (1950). Foster, Charles I. An Errand of Mercy: The Evangelical United Front, 1790–1837, (University of North Carolina Press, 1960) Hambrick-Stowe, Charles. Charles G. Finney and the Spirit of American Evangelicalism. (1996). Hankins, Barry. The Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
and the Transcendentalists. Greenwood, 2004. Hatch, Nathan O. The Democratization of American Christianity
(1989). Heyrman, Christine Leigh. Southern Cross: The Beginnings of the Bible Belt (1997). Johnson, Charles A. "The Frontier Camp Meeting: Contemporary and Historical Appraisals, 1805–1840", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review (1950) 37#1 pp. 91–110. JSTOR 1888756. doi:10.2307/1888756. Kyle, I. Francis, III. An Uncommon Christian: James Brainerd Taylor, Forgotten Evangelist in America's Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
(2008). See Uncommon Christian Ministries Long, Kimberly Bracken. "The Communion Sermons of James Mcgready: Sacramental Theology and Scots-Irish Piety on the Kentucky Frontier", Journal of Presbyterian
History, 2002 80(1): 3–16. ISSN 0022-3883. JSTOR 23336302. Loveland Anne C. Southern Evangelicals and the Social Order, 1800–1860, (1980) McLoughlin William G. Modern Revivalism, 1959. McLoughlin William G. Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform: An Essay on Religion and Social Change in America, 1607–1977, 1978. Marsden, George M. The Evangelical Mind and the New School Presbyterian
Experience: A Case Study of Thought and Theology in Nineteenth-Century America (1970). Meyer, Neil. "Falling for the Lord: Shame, Revivalism, and the Origins of the Second Great Awakening." Early American Studies 9.1 (2011): 142–166. JSTOR 23546634. Posey, Walter Brownlow. The Baptist
Church in the Lower Mississippi Valley, 1776–1845 (1957) Posey, Walter Brownlow. Frontier Mission: A History of Religion West of the Southern Appalachians to 1861 (1966) Raboteau, Albert. Slave Religion: The "invisible Institution' in the Antebellum South, (1979) Roth, Randolph A. The Democratic Dilemma: Religion, Reform, and the Social Order in the Connecticut River Valley of Vermont, 1791–1850, (1987) Smith, Timothy L. Revivalism and Social Reform: American Protestantism on the Eve of the Civil War (1957)


Conforti, Joseph. "The Invention of the Great Awakening, 1795–1842". Early American Literature (1991): 99–118. JSTOR 25056853. Griffin, Clifford S. "Religious Benevolence as Social Control, 1815–1860", The Mississippi Valley Historical Review, (1957) 44#3 pp. 423–444. JSTOR 1887019. doi:10.2307/1887019. Mathews, Donald G. "The Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
as an organizing process, 1780–1830: An hypothesis". American Quarterly (1969): 23–43. JSTOR 2710771. doi:10.2307/2710771. Shiels, Richard D. "The Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
in Connecticut: Critique of the Traditional Interpretation", Church History 49 (1980): 401–415. JSTOR 3164815. Varel, David A. "The Historiography of the Second Great Awakening
Great Awakening
and the Problem of Historical Causation, 1945–2005". Madison Historical Review (2014) 8#4 online

v t e

Restoration Movement


Background revivalism

Second Great Awakening Cane Ridge Revival

Predecessor movements

Christians (Stone Movement) Disciples of Christ (Campbell Movement)

Formative documents

Last Will and Testament of The Springfield Presbytery Declaration and Address
Declaration and Address
of the Christian Association of Washington

Early related groups

Brush Run Church Christian Association of Washington Christian Connection Mahoning Baptist
Association Redstone Baptist
Association Springfield Presbytery

Early leaders

Alexander Campbell Thomas Campbell Isaac Errett Tolbert Fanning Benjamin Franklin Marshall Keeble David Lipscomb William Lipscomb Charles J. Lister Elijah Martindale John William McGarvey James O'Kelly David Purviance Walter Scott "Raccoon" John Smith Daniel Sommer Barton W. Stone

Pre-1900 journals

The British Millennial Harbinger Christian Baptist Christian Messenger Christian Standard Firm Foundation Gospel
Advocate Millennial Harbinger

U.S. branches

Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)


Christian churches and churches of Christ

North American Christian Convention

Churches of Christ

The churches of Christ (non-institutional) Sponsoring church

International Churches of Christ


International Christian Church


Non-U.S. branches

Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in Australia Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)
in Canada Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
in Europe Evangelical Christian Church in Canada


v t e

History of Christianity

Centuries:1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st

Ministry of Jesus and Apostolic Age


Ministry Crucifixion Resurrection

Holy Spirit Leadership

Apostles Seventy disciples Paul the Apostle Council of Jerusalem

Great Commission New Testament

Background Gospels Acts Pauline epistles General epistles Revelation

Ante-Nicene Period

Judaism split Justin Martyr Ignatius Persecution Fathers Irenaeus Marcionism Canon Tertullian Montanism Origen

Late ancient

Constantine Monasticism Councils: Nicaea I Creed Athanasius Arianism Jerome Augustine Constantinople I Ephesus I Chalcedon

Eastern Christianity

Eastern Orthodoxy Church of the East Oriental Orthodoxy Chrysostom Nestorianism Iconoclasm Great Schism Fall of Constantinople Armenia Georgia Greece Egypt Syria Ethiopia Bulgaria Ottoman Empire Russia America

Middle Ages

Pelagianism Gregory I Celtic Germanic Scandinavian Kievan Rus' Investiture Anselm Abelard Bernard of Clairvaux Bogomils Cathars Crusades Waldensians Inquisition Scholasticism Dominic Francis Bonaventure Aquinas Wycliffe Avignon Papal Schism Bohemian Reformation Hus Conciliarism


Primacy development Papacy Timeline Lateran IV Trent Counter-Reformation Thomas More Leo X Guadalupe Jesuits Jansenists Xavier Monastery dissolution Wars Teresa Vatican I and II Modernism



Erasmus Five solae Eucharist Calvinist–Arminian debate Arminianism Dort Wars


Martin Luther 95 Theses Diet of Worms Melanchthon Orthodoxy Eucharist Book of Concord


Zwingli Calvin Presbyterianism Scotland Knox TULIP Dort Three Forms of Unity Westminster


Timeline Henry VIII Cranmer Settlement 39 Articles Common Prayer Puritans Civil War


Radical Reformation Grebel Swiss Brethren Müntzer Martyrs' Synod Menno Simons Smyth


Revivalism English denominations Baptists Congregationalism First Great Awakening Methodism Millerism Pietism Neo- and Old Lutherans


Camp meeting Holiness movement Independent Catholic denominations Second Great Awakening Restoration Movement Jehovah's Witnesses Mormonism Seventh-day Adventist Adventism Third Great Awakening Azusa Revival Fundamentalism Ecumenism Evangelicalism Jesus movement Mainline Protestant Pentecostalism Charismatics Liberation theology Christian right Christian left Genocide by ISIL

Timeline Missions Timeline Martyrs Theology Eastern Orthodoxy Oriental Orthodoxy Protest