HOME
The Info List - Sea Of Japan


--- Advertisement ---



The Sea of Japan
Japan
(see below for other names) is a marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and Russia. The Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago
separates the sea from the Pacific Ocean. It is bordered by Japan, Korea
Korea
(North and South) and Russia. Like the Mediterranean Sea, it has almost no tides due to its nearly complete enclosure from the Pacific Ocean.[1] This isolation also reflects in the fauna species and in the water salinity, which is lower than in the ocean. The sea has no large islands, bays or capes. Its water balance is mostly determined by the inflow and outflow through the straits connecting it to the neighboring seas and Pacific Ocean. Few rivers discharge into the sea and their total contribution to the water exchange is within 1%. The seawater has an elevated concentration of dissolved oxygen that results in high biological productivity. Therefore, fishing is the dominant economic activity in the region. The intensity of shipments across the sea has been moderate owing to political issues, but it is steadily increasing as a result of the growth of East Asian economies.

Contents

1 Names

1.1 Naming dispute

2 History 3 Geography and geology 4 Climate 5 Extent 6 Hydrology 7 Flora and fauna 8 Economy 9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

Names Sea of Japan
Japan
is the dominant term used in English for the sea, and the name in most European languages is equivalent, but it is sometimes called by different names in surrounding countries, often reflecting historical claims to hegemony over the sea.[citation needed] The sea is called Rìběn hǎi (日本海, literally " Japan
Japan
Sea") or originally Jīng hǎi (鲸海, literally "Whale Sea") in China,[2] Yaponskoye more (Японское море, literally "Japanese Sea") in Russia, Chosŏn Tonghae (조선동해, literally "Korean East Sea") in North Korea, and Donghae (동해, literally "East Sea") in South Korea. A naming dispute exists about the sea name, with South Korea promoting the English translation of its native name as the East Sea. Naming dispute Main article: Sea of Japan
Japan
naming dispute The use of the term "Sea of Japan" as the dominant name is a point of contention. South Korea
Korea
wants the name "East Sea" to be used, either instead of or in addition to "Sea of Japan;"[3][4] while North Korea prefers the name "East Sea of Korea".[5] The primary issue in the dispute revolves around a disagreement about when the name "Sea of Japan" became the international standard. Japan claims the term has been the international standard since at least the early 19th century,[6] while the Koreas claim that the term "Sea of Japan" arose later while Korea
Korea
was under Japanese rule, and before that occupation other names such as "Sea of Korea" or "East Sea" were used in English.[7] The International Hydrographic Organization, the international governing body for the naming bodies of water around the world, in 2012 recognized the term "Sea of Japan" as the only title for the sea, and stated they would will likely review the issue again in 2017.[8] History For centuries, the sea had protected Japan
Japan
from land invasions, particularly by the Mongols. It had long been navigated by Asian and, from the 18th century, by European ships. Russian expeditions of 1733–1743 mapped Sakhalin
Sakhalin
and the Japanese islands. In the 1780s, the Frenchman Jean-François de Galaup, comte de Lapérouse, traveled northward across the sea through the strait later named after him. In 1796, a British naval officer, William Robert Broughton explored the Strait
Strait
of Tartary, the eastern coast of the Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and the Korean Peninsula. In 1803–1806, the Russian navigator Adam Johann von Krusenstern while sailing across the globe in the ship Nadezhda also explored, in passing, the Sea of Japan
Japan
and the eastern shores of Japanese islands. In 1849, another Russian explorer Gennady Nevelskoy
Gennady Nevelskoy
discovered the strait between the continent and Sakhalin
Sakhalin
and mapped the northern part of the Strait
Strait
of Tartary. Russian expeditions were made in 1853–1854 and 1886–1889 to measure the surface temperatures and record the tides. They also documented the cyclonal character of the sea currents. Other notable expeditions of the 19th century include the American North Pacific Exploring and Surveying Expedition
North Pacific Exploring and Surveying Expedition
(1853–1856) and British Challenger expedition
Challenger expedition
(1872–1876). The aquatic life was described by V. K. Brazhnikov in 1899–1902 and P. Yu. Schmidt in 1903–1904. The Japanese scientific studies of the sea began only in 1915 and became systematic since the 1920s.[9][10] American and French whaleships cruised for whales in the sea between 1848 and 1892.[11] Most entered the sea via Korea
Korea
Strait[12] and left via La Pérouse Strait,[13] but some entered and exited via Tsugaru Strait.[14] They primarily targeted right whales,[15] but began catching humpbacks as right whale catches declined.[16] They also made attempts to catch blue[17] and fin whales,[18] but these species invariably sank after being killed. Right whales were caught from March to August, with peak catches in May and June.[19] During the peak years of 1848 and 1849 a total of over 150 vessels cruised in the Sea of Japan,[20] with significantly lesser numbers in following years.[21] Geography and geology

Map showing Japanese archipelago, Sea of Japan
Japan
and surrounding part of continental East Asia
East Asia
in Early Miocene (23–18 Ma).

Map showing Japanese archipelago, Sea of Japan
Japan
and surrounding part of continental East Asia
East Asia
in Middle Pliocene to Late Pliocene (3.5–2 Ma).

The Sea of Japan
Japan
was a landlocked sea when the land bridge of East Asia
Asia
existed.[22] The onset of formation of the Japan
Japan
Arc was in Early Miocene.[23] The Early Miocene period also corresponds to the Japan Sea starting to open, and the northern and southern parts of the Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago
separating from each other.[23] During the Miocene, there was expansion of Sea of Japan.[23] The north part of the Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago
was further fragmented later until orogenesis of the northeastern Japanese archipelago
Japanese archipelago
began in the later Late Miocene.[23] The south part of the Japanese archipelago remained as a relatively large landmass.[23] The land area had expanded northward in the Late Miocene.[23] The orogenesis of high mountain ranges in northeastern Japan
Japan
started in Late Miocene and lasted in Pliocene
Pliocene
also.[23] Nowadays the Sea of Japan
Japan
is bounded by the Russian mainland and Sakhalin
Sakhalin
island to the north, the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
to the west, and the Japanese islands of Hokkaidō, Honshū
Honshū
and Kyūshū
Kyūshū
to the east and south. It is connected to other seas by five straits: the Strait of Tartary between the Asian mainland and Sakhalin; La Pérouse Strait between the Sakhalin
Sakhalin
and Hokkaidō; the Tsugaru Strait
Tsugaru Strait
between Hokkaidō
Hokkaidō
and Honshū; the Kanmon Straits
Kanmon Straits
between Honshū
Honshū
and Kyūshū; and the Korea
Korea
Strait
Strait
between the Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and Kyūshū. The Korea
Korea
Strait
Strait
is composed of the Western Channel and the Tsushima Strait, on either side of Tsushima Island. The straits were formed in recent geologic periods. The oldest of them are the Tsugaru and Tsushima straits. Their formation had interrupted the migration of elephants into the Japanese islands at the end of the Neogene
Neogene
Period (about 2.6 million years ago). The most recent is La Perouse Strait, which formed about 60,000 to 11,000 years ago closing the path used by mammoths which had earlier moved to northern Hokkaidō.[9] All the straits are rather shallow with a minimal depth of the order of 100 meters or less. This hinders water exchange, thereby isolating the water and aquatic life of the Sea of Japan
Japan
from the neighboring seas and oceans.[24] The sea has a surface area of about 978,000 km2 (378,000 sq mi), a mean depth of 1,752 m (5,748 ft) and a maximum depth of 3,742 m (12,277 ft). It has a carrot-like shape, with the major axis extending from southwest to northeast and a wide southern part narrowing toward the north. The coastal length is about 7,600 km (4,700 mi) with the largest part (3,240 km or 2,010 mi) belonging to Russia. The sea extends from north to south for more than 2,255 km (1,401 mi) and has a maximum width of about 1,070 km (660 mi).[10] It has three major basins: the Yamato Basin in the southeast, the Japan
Japan
Basin in the north and the Tsushima Basin
Tsushima Basin
(Ulleung Basin) in the southwest.[9] The Japan
Japan
Basin is of oceanic origin and is the deepest part of the sea, whereas the Tsushima Basin
Tsushima Basin
is the shallowest with the depths below 2,300 m (7,500 ft).[10] On the eastern shores, the continental shelves of the sea are wide, but on the western shores, particularly along the Korean coast, they are narrow, averaging about 30 km (19 mi).[24] There are three distinct continental shelves in the northern part (above 44° N). They form a staircase-like structure with the steps slightly inclined southwards and submerged to the depths of 900–1,400 (3,000–4,600), 1,700–2,000 (5,600–6,600) and 2,300–2,600 m (7,500–8,500 ft). The last step sharply drops to the depths of about 3,500 m (11,500 ft) toward the central (deepest) part of the sea. The bottom of this part is relatively flat, but has a few plateaus. In addition, an underwater ridge rising up to 3,500 m (11,500 ft) runs from north to south through the middle of the central part.[24] The Japanese coastal area of the sea consists of Okujiri Ridge, Sado Ridge, Hakusan Banks, Wakasa Ridge and Oki Ridge. Yamato Ridge is of continental origin and is composed of granite, rhyolite, andesite and basalt. It has uneven bottom covered with boulders of volcanic rock. Most other areas of the sea are of oceanic origin. Seabed down to 300 m (980 ft) is of continental nature and is covered with a mixture of mud, sand, gravel and fragments of rock. The depths between 300 and 800 m (980 and 2,620 ft) are covered in hemipelagic sediments (i.e., of semi-oceanic origin); these sediments are composed of blue mud rich in organic matter. Pelagic sediments of red mud dominate the deeper regions.[9] There are no large islands in the sea. Most of the smaller ones are near the eastern coast, except for Ulleungdo
Ulleungdo
(South Korea). The most significant islands are Moneron, Rebun, Rishiri, Okushiri, Ōshima, Sado, Okinoshima, Ulleungdo, Askold, Russky and Putyatin. The shorelines are relatively straight and are lacking large bays or capes; the coastal shapes are simplest for Sakhalin
Sakhalin
and are more winding in the Japanese islands. The largest bays are Peter the Great Gulf, Sovetskaya Gavan; Vladimira Bay, Olga; Posyet Bay
Posyet Bay
in Russia; East Korea
Korea
Bay in North Korea; and Ishikari (Hokkaidō), Toyama (Honshū), and Wakasa (Honshū) Bays in Japan. Prominent capes include Lazareva, Peschanyi (sandy), Povorotny, Gromova, Pogibi, Tyk, and Korsakova in Russia; Crillon on Sakhalin; Sōya, Nosappu, Tappi, Nyuda, Rebun, Rishiri, Okushiri, Daso and Oki in Japan;[24][10] and Musu Dan
Musu Dan
in North Korea.

Relief of the Sea of Japan
Japan
and nearby areas

A bay at Sibiryakov Island, 50 km (31 mi) south from Vladivostok

Sunset on Little Verkhovsky Islands (ru) near Vladivostok

Climate

Von Kármán vortices off the coast of Rishiri Island[25]

The sea climate is characterized by warm waters and monsoons. This combination results in strong evaporation, which is especially noticeable between October and March when the strong (12–15 m/s [39–49 ft/s] or higher) northwestern monsoon wind brings cold and dry continental air. The evaporation is blown further south causing snowfall in the mountainous western coasts of Japan. This winter monsoon brings typhoons and storms with the waves reaching 8–10 m (26–33 ft) which erode the western coasts of Japan. Tsunami
Tsunami
waves were also recorded in the sea. In addition, the monsoon enhances the surface water convection, down to the depths of 30 m (98 ft). The coldest months are January and February with the average air temperature of −20 °C (−4 °F) in the north and 5 °C (41 °F) in the south. The northern one-quarter of the sea, particularly the Siberian coast and the Strait
Strait
of Tartary, freezes for about 4−5 months.[9] The timing and extent of freezing vary from year to year, so ice may start forming in the bays as early as in October and its remains may be seen even in June. Ice cover is continuous only in the bays and forms floating patches in the open sea. Ice melting in spring results in cold currents in the northern areas.[24] In summer the wind weakens to 2–7 m/s (6.6–23.0 ft/s) and reverses its direction, blowing warm and humid air from the North Pacific onto the Asian mainland. The warmest month is August with the average air temperature of 15 °C (59 °F) in the north and 25 °C (77 °F) in the south.[24] Annual precipitation increases from 310–500 mm (12–20 in) in the north-west to 1,500–2,000 mm (59–79 in) in the south-east.[10] A peculiar turbulent cloud pattern, named von Kármán vortices, is sometimes observed over the Sea of Japan. It requires a stable field of low clouds driven by the wind over a small (isolated) and tall obstacle, and usually forms over small mountainous islands.[25] The Sea of Japan
Japan
meets these conditions as it has frequent winds and cloudy skies, as well as compact, tall islands such as Rishiri (1,721 m or 5,646 ft), Ulleungdo
Ulleungdo
(984 m or 3,228 ft) and Ōshima (732 m or 2,402 ft). Extent The International Hydrographic Organization
International Hydrographic Organization
defines the limits of the " Japan
Japan
Sea" as follows:[26]

On the Southwest. The Northeastern limit of the Eastern China Sea [From Nomo Saki (32°35′ N) in Kyusyu to the South point of Hukae Sima (Goto Retto) and on through this island to Ose Saki (Cape Goto) and to Hunan Kan, the South point of Saisyu To (Quelpart), through this island to its Western extreme and thence along the parallel of 33°17′ North to the mainland] and the Western limit of the Inland Sea [defined circuitously as "The Southeastern limit of the Japan
Japan
Sea"]. On the Southeast. In Simonoseki Kaikyo. A line running from Nagoya Saki (130°49′,5 E) in Kyûsyû through the islands of Uma Sima and Muture Sima (33°58′,5 N) to Murasaki Hana (34°01′ N) in Honsyû. On the East. In the Tsugaru Kaikô. From the extremity of Siriya Saki (141°28′ E) to the extremity of Esan Saki (41°48′ N). On the Northeast. In La Perouse Strait
Strait
(Sôya Kaikyô). A line joining Sôni Misaki and Nishi Notoro Misaki (45°55′ N). On the North. From Cape Tuik (51°45′ N) to Cape Sushcheva.[27]

Hydrology

Tategami rock

Mitsukejima
Mitsukejima
"Battleship Island"

The sea currents circulate in the counterclockwise direction. The Kuroshio ( Japan
Japan
Current), the Tsushima Current and the East Korea
Korea
Warm Current bring warmer and more saline water to the north. There they merge into the Tsugaru Current and flow into the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
through the Tsugaru Strait. They also feed the Sōya Current and exit through the La Perouse Strait
Strait
to the Sea of Okhotsk. The returning branch is composed of the Liman, North Korea
Korea
and Central (or Mid-) Japan
Japan
Sea currents which bring fresh and cold water along the Asian coast to the south.[9] Water temperature is mostly affected by exchange with the atmosphere in the northern part of the sea and by the currents in the southern part. Winter temperatures are 0 °C (32 °F) or below in the north and 10–14 °C (50–57 °F) in the south. In this season, there is a significant temperature difference between the western and eastern parts owing to the circular currents. So at the latitude of Peter the Great Gulf, the water temperature is about 0 °C (32 °F) in the west and 5–6 °C (41–43 °F) in the east. This east-west difference drops to 1–2 °C (34–36 °F) in summer, and the temperatures rise to 18–20 °C (64–68 °F) in the north and 25–27 °C (77–81 °F) in the south.[24] As a result of the enclosed nature of the sea, its waters form clearly separated layers which may show seasonal and spatial dependence. In winter, the temperature is almost constant with the depth in the northern part of the sea. However, in central-southern parts, it may be 8–10 °C (46–50 °F) down to 100–150 m (330–490 ft), 2–4 °C (36–39 °F) at 200–250 m (660–820 ft), 1.0–1.5 °C (33.8–34.7 °F) at 400–500 m (1,300–1,600 ft) and then remain at about 0 °C (32 °F) until the bottom. Heating by the sun and tropical monsoons increases the depth gradient in spring–summer. In the north the surface layer (down to 15 m or 49 ft) may heat up to 18–20 °C (64–68 °F). The temperature would sharply drop to 4 °C (39 °F) at 50 m (160 ft), then slowly decrease to 1 °C (34 °F) at 250 m (820 ft) and remain so down to the seabed. On the contrary, the temperature in the south could gradually decrease to 6 °C (43 °F) at 200 m (660 ft), then to 2 °C (36 °F) at 260 m (850 ft) and to 0.04–0.14 °C (32.07–32.25 °F) at 1,000–1,500 m (3,300–4,900 ft), but then it would rise to about 0.3 °C (32.5 °F) near the bottom. This cold layer at about 1,000 m (3,300 ft) is formed by sinking of cold water in the northern part of the sea in winter and is brought south by the sea currents; it is rather stable and is observed all through the year.[9][24] The hydrological isolation of the Sea of Japan
Japan
also results in slightly lower average water salinity (34.09‰, where ‰ means parts per thousand) compared with the Pacific Ocean. In winter, the highest salinity at 34.5‰ is observed in the south where evaporation dominates over precipitation. It is the lowest at 33.8‰ in the south-east and south-west because of frequent rains and remains at about 34.09‰ in most other parts. Thawing of ice in spring reduces water salinity in the north, but it remains high at 34.60–34.70‰ in the south, partly because of the inflow of salty water through the Korea
Korea
Strait. A typical variation of salinity across the sea in summer is 31.5‰ to 34.5‰ from north to south. The depth distribution of salinity is relatively constant. The surface layer tends to be more fresh in the sea parts which experience ice melting and rains.[24] The average water density is 1.0270 g/m3 (0.0017311 lb/cu yd) in the north and 1.0255 g/m3 (0.0017285 lb/cu yd) in the south in winter. It lowers in summer to 1.0253 and 1.0215 g/m3 (0.0017282 and 0.0017218 lb/cu yd), respectively.[10]

The Tumen River, at the border between North Korea
Korea
and China. The picture is taken from the Chinese city of Tumen; the North Korean city of Namyang is across the bridge.

The mouth of Partizanskaya River
Partizanskaya River
near Nakhodka. View from Sopka Sestra (ru).

Few rivers flow into the Sea of Japan
Japan
from mainland Asia, the largest being Tumen,[10] Rudnaya, Samarga, Partizanskaya and Tumnin; all of them have mountainous character. In contrast, numerous large rivers flow from Honshū
Honshū
and Hokkaidō
Hokkaidō
into the sea, including Japan’s four largest rivers in the Shinano, Ishikari, Agano and Mogami. The total annual river discharge into the sea is 210 km3 (50 cu mi) and is relatively constant through the year, except for a minor increase in July.[24] Most water (97% or 52,200 km3 [12,500 cu mi]) flows into the sea through the Korea
Korea
Strait
Strait
and discharges through the Tsugaru (64% or 34,610 km3 [8,300 cu mi], La Pérouse 10,380 km3 [2,490 cu mi]) and Korea
Korea
straits. Rainfall, evaporation and riverine inflow make only 1% of the water balance. Between October and April, the outflow exceeds the inflow due to the lower income through the Korea
Korea
Strait; this balance reverses between May and September.[24][10] The sea has complex tides, which are induced by the tidal wave of the Pacific Ocean
Pacific Ocean
penetrating through the Korea
Korea
Strait
Strait
and Tsugaru strait. The tides are semi-diurnal (rise twice a day) in the Korea
Korea
Strait
Strait
and in the northern part of the Strait
Strait
of Tartary. They are diurnal at the eastern shore of Korea, Russian Far East
Russian Far East
and the Japanese islands of Honshū
Honshū
and Hokkaidō. Mixed tides occur in Peter the Great Gulf
Peter the Great Gulf
and Korea
Korea
strait. The tidal waves have a speed of 10–25 cm/s (3.9–9.8 in/s) in the open sea. They accelerate in the Korea Strait
Strait
(40–60 cm/s or 16–24 in/s), La Pérouse Strait (50–100 cm/s or 20–39 in/s) and especially in the Tsugaru Strait
Tsugaru Strait
(100–200 cm/s or 39–79 in/s). The amplitude of the tides is relatively low and strongly varies across the sea. It reaches 3 meters in the south near the Korea Strait, but quickly drops northwards to 1.5 m (4.9 ft) at the southern tip of Korean Peninsula
Korean Peninsula
and to 0.5 m (1.6 ft) meters at the North Korean shores. Similar low tides are observed in Hokkaidō, Honshū
Honshū
and south Sakhalin. The amplitude however increases to 2.3–2.8 m (7.5–9.2 ft) toward the north of the Strait of Tartary due to its funnel-like shape. Apart from tides, the water level also experiences seasonal, monsoon-related variations across the entire sea with the highest levels observed in summer and lowest in winter. Wind may also locally change the water level by 20–25 cm (7.9–9.8 in); for example, it is higher in summer at the Korean and lower at the Japanese coasts.[24] The sea waters have blue to green-blue color and a transparency of about 10 m (33 ft). They are rich in dissolved oxygen, especially in the western and northern parts, which are colder and have more phytoplankton than the eastern and southern areas. The oxygen concentration is 95% of the saturation point near the surface, it decreases with the depth to about 70% at 3,000 m (9,800 ft).[24][10] Flora and fauna

Sea lions
Sea lions
on Moneron Island

The high concentration of dissolved oxygen results in the rich aquatic life of the Sea of Japan
Japan
– there are more than 800 species of aquatic plants and more than 3,500 animal species, including more than 900 species of crustaceans, about 1,000 of fish and 26 of mammals. The coastal areas contain several kg/m2 of biomass. Pelagic (oceanic) fishes include saury, mackerel, Jack mackerels, sardines, anchovies, herring, sea bream, squid and various species of salmon and trout. The demersal (sea-bottom) fishes include cod, pollock and Atka mackerel. Mammals are represented by seals and whales (ancient name for the basin in Chinese was "Sea of Whales"[2]), and the crustaceans by shrimps and crabs.[9] Because of the shallow straits connecting the sea with Pacific Ocean, the Sea of Japan
Japan
has no characteristic oceanic deep-water fauna.[10] Flora and fauna unique to the region near the Sea of Japan
Japan
are known as " Japan
Japan
Sea elements".[23] Economy

Heishi rock near Kamome Island, Hokkaido

Zolotoy Rog
Zolotoy Rog
bay near Vladivostok, Russia

Fishery had long been the main economic activity on the Sea of Japan. It is mainly carried out on and near the continental shelves and focuses on herring, sardines and bluefin tuna. These species are however depleted from after World War II. Squid is mostly caught near the sea center and salmon near the northern and southwestern shores.[9] There is also a well-developed seaweed production.[24] The importance of the fishery in the sea is illustrated by the territorial disputes between Japan
Japan
and South Korea
Korea
over Liancourt Rocks and between Japan
Japan
and Russia
Russia
over the Kuril Islands. It is also reflected in various legends, such as the legend of the Heishi rock, which says that once when herring vanished, an old fairy threw a bottle with a magic water into the sea, and the herring returned. The bottle got stuck to the seabed and turned into a rock, which became a representation of the God of the Sea of Japan.[28][29] Vladivostok
Vladivostok
is a base for the Russian whaling fleet. Although it operates in the northern seas, its production is processed and partly distributed in the Vladivostok
Vladivostok
area. Vladivostok
Vladivostok
is also a terminal point of the Trans-Siberian Railway
Trans-Siberian Railway
which brings much goods to and from this major port. There is a regular ferry service across the Strait
Strait
of Tartary between the Russian continental port of Vanino and Kholmsk
Kholmsk
in Sakhalin.[24] The sea has magnetite sands as well as natural gas and petroleum fields near the northern part of Japan
Japan
and Sakhalin
Sakhalin
Island. The intensity of shipments across the sea is moderate, owing to the cold relations between many bordering countries. As a result, the largest Japanese ports are on the Pacific coast, and the significant ports on the Sea of Japan
Japan
are Niigata, Tsuruta and Maizuru. Major South Korean ports are Busan, Ulsan, and Pohang
Pohang
situated on the southeastern coast of the Korean Peninsula, but they also mainly target countries not bordering the Sea of Japan. The major Russian port of Vladivostok
Vladivostok
mainly serves inland cargos, whereas Nakhodka
Nakhodka
and Vostochny are more international and have a busy exchange with Japan
Japan
and South Korea. Other prominent Russian ports are Sovetskaya Gavan, Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky and Kholmsk, and the major ports of North Korea
Korea
are Wonsan, Hamhung
Hamhung
and Chongjin.[10] The intensity of shipments across the Sea of Japan
Japan
is steadily increasing as a result of the growth of East Asian economies.[9] See also

Geography of Japan Geography of Korea

Geography of North Korea Geography of South Korea

Geography of Russia Category: Islands
Islands
of the Sea of Japan

References This article incorporates CC-BY-2.0 text from this reference:[23]

^ "Tides in Marginal, Semi-Enclosed and Coastal Seas – Part I: Sea Surface Height". ERC-Stennis at Mississippi State University. Archived from the original on March 18, 2004. Retrieved 2007-02-02.  ^ a b 2006. “鲸海”这个名字如何改成了“日本海”. Retrieved on March 07, 2017 ^ East Sea or "Sea of Japan". Korea.net. Retrieved on 2013-03-21. ^ Ministry of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries 2005. The Name East Sea Used for Two Millennia. Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Korea, 2005 ^ Efforts of the Government of Japan
Japan
in Response to the Issue of the Name of the Sea of Japan
Japan
(1) The 8th UNCSGN, The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan ^ "Japanese Basic Position on the Naming of the " Japan
Japan
Sea"". Japan Coast Guard. March 1, 2005. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011.  ^ "Legitimacy for Restoring the Name East Sea" (PDF). Republic of Korea
Korea
Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade. Retrieved 28 September 2010.  ^ Kyodo News, "IHO nixes 'East Sea' name bid", Japan
Japan
Times, 28 April 2012, p. 2; Rabiroff, Jon, and Yoo Kyong Chang, "Agency rejects South Korea's request to rename Sea of Japan", Stars and Stripes, 28 April 2012, p. 5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Sea of Japan, Encyclopædia Britannica on-line ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sea of Japan, Great Soviet Encyclopedia
Great Soviet Encyclopedia
(in Russian) ^ Vesper, of New London, Apr. 20-Aug. 26, 1848, G. W. Blunt White Library (GBWL); Northern Light, of New Bedford, May 14 – July 22, 1875, Old Dartmouth Historical Society (ODHS); Cape Horn Pigeon, of New Bedford, Apr. 17 – July 13, 1892, Kendall Whaling Museum (KWM). ^ Splendid, of Edgartown, Apr. 17, 1848, Nicholson Whaling Collection (NWC); Fortune, of New Bedford, Mar. 12, 1849, ODHS; Sea Breeze, of New Bedford, Apr. 14, 1874, GWBL. ^ Bowditch, of Warren, Aug. 2, 1848, NWC; Arnolda, of New Bedford, June 17, 1874, ODHS. ^ Good Return, of New Bedford, Apr. 30, 1849, ODHS; Milo, of New Bedford, Apr. 16–18, 1850, ODHS. ^ Eliza Adams, of Fairhaven, Apr. 21-Aug. 4, 1848, ODHS; Huntress, of New Bedford, May 4 – July 3, 1848, NWC. ^ Florida, of Fairhaven, May 12–27, 1860, in One Whaling Family (Williams, 1964); Sea Breeze, of New Bedford, May 11–12, June 4–5, 1874, GWBL. ^ George Washington, of Wareham, May 16, 1849, ODHS; Florida, of Fairhaven, May 5, 1860, in One Whaling Family (Williams, 1964). ^ Daniel Wood, of New Bedford, Apr. 6, 1854, NWC. ^ Complied catch in 1848 of Vesper (GWBL); Eliza Adams (ODHS); Splendid (NWC); Bowditch (NWC); and Huntress (NWC); in 1849 by Mary and Susan, of Stonington (NWC). ^ Ships spoken in 1848 by Vesper (GWBL); Eliza Adams (ODHS); Splendid (NWC); Bowditch (NWC); Huntress (NWC); Liverpool 2nd, of New Bedford (NWC); Cherokee, of New Bedford (NWC); and Mechanic, of Newport (NWC); in 1849 by Huntress (NWC); Good Return (ODHS); Fortune (ODHS); Ocmulgee, of Holmes Hole (ODHS); Mary and Susan (NWC); Maria Theresa, of New Bedford (ODHS); George Washington (ODHS); Liverpool 2nd (NWC); Julian, of New Bedford (NWC); and Henry Kneeland, of New Bedford (ODHS). ^ Ships spoken in 1856 by Pacific, of Fairhaven (NWC), and Onward, of New Bedford (NWC); and from 1859 to 1861 by Florida, of Fairhaven, in One Whaling Family (Williams, 1964). ^ Totman, Conrad D. (2004). Pre-Industrial Korea
Korea
and Japan
Japan
in Environmental Perspective. ISBN 9004136266. Retrieved 2007-02-02.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Kameda Y. & Kato M. (2011). "Terrestrial invasion of pomatiopsid gastropods in the heavy-snow region of the Japanese Archipelago". BMC Evolutionary Biology 11: 118. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-11-118. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o A. D. Dobrovolskyi and B. S. Zalogin Seas of USSR. Sea of Japan, Moscow University (1982) (in Russian) ^ a b STS-100 Shuttle Mission Imagery, NASA, 19 April – 1 May 2001 ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. p. 32. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ "Limits of Oceans and Seas, 3rd edition" (PDF). International Hydrographic Organization. 1953. p. 32. Retrieved 7 February 2010.  ^ 瓶子岩 Official website of Hiyama Prefecture, Hokkaido (in Japanese) ^ かもめ島 Archived 2011-07-20 at the Wayback Machine. Esashi Town Guide (in Japanese)

Further reading

Fukuoka N. (1966). "On the distribution patterns of the so-called Japan
Japan
Sea elements confined to the Sea of Japan
Japan
region". Journal of Geobotany (es) 15: 63–80.

External links

Media related to Sea of Japan
Japan
at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of Sea of Japan
Japan
at Wiktionary

v t e

Earth's oceans and seas

Arctic Ocean

Amundsen Gulf Barents Sea Beaufort Sea Chukchi Sea East Siberian Sea Greenland Sea Gulf of Boothia Kara Sea Laptev Sea Lincoln Sea Prince Gustav Adolf Sea Pechora Sea Queen Victoria Sea Wandel Sea White Sea

Atlantic Ocean

Adriatic Sea Aegean Sea Alboran Sea Archipelago Sea Argentine Sea Baffin Bay Balearic Sea Baltic Sea Bay of Biscay Bay of Bothnia Bay of Campeche Bay of Fundy Black Sea Bothnian Sea Caribbean Sea Celtic Sea English Channel Foxe Basin Greenland Sea Gulf of Bothnia Gulf of Finland Gulf of Lion Gulf of Guinea Gulf of Maine Gulf of Mexico Gulf of Saint Lawrence Gulf of Sidra Gulf of Venezuela Hudson Bay Ionian Sea Irish Sea Irminger Sea James Bay Labrador Sea Levantine Sea Libyan Sea Ligurian Sea Marmara Sea Mediterranean Sea Myrtoan Sea North Sea Norwegian Sea Sargasso Sea Sea of Åland Sea of Azov Sea of Crete Sea of the Hebrides Thracian Sea Tyrrhenian Sea Wadden Sea

Indian Ocean

Andaman Sea Arabian Sea Bali Sea Bay of Bengal Flores Sea Great Australian Bight Gulf of Aden Gulf of Aqaba Gulf of Khambhat Gulf of Kutch Gulf of Oman Gulf of Suez Java Sea Laccadive Sea Mozambique Channel Persian Gulf Red Sea Timor Sea

Pacific Ocean

Arafura Sea Banda Sea Bering Sea Bismarck Sea Bohai Sea Bohol Sea Camotes Sea Celebes Sea Ceram Sea Chilean Sea Coral Sea East China Sea Gulf of Alaska Gulf of Anadyr Gulf of California Gulf of Carpentaria Gulf of Fonseca Gulf of Panama Gulf of Thailand Gulf of Tonkin Halmahera Sea Koro Sea Mar de Grau Molucca Sea Moro Gulf Philippine Sea Salish Sea Savu Sea Sea of Japan Sea of Okhotsk Seto Inland Sea Shantar Sea Sibuyan Sea Solomon Sea South China Sea Sulu Sea Tasman Sea Visayan Sea Yellow Sea

Southern Ocean

Amundsen Sea Bellingshausen Sea Cooperation Sea Cosmonauts Sea Davis Sea D'Urville Sea King Haakon VII Sea Lazarev Sea Mawson Sea Riiser-Larsen Sea Ross Sea Scotia Sea Somov Sea Weddell Sea

Landlocked seas

Aral Sea Caspian Sea Dead Sea Salton Sea

  Book   Category

Coordinates: 40°N 135°E / 40°N 135°E / 40; 135

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 253576047 GND: 43096

.