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Scottish independence (Scottish Gaelic: Neo-eisimeileachd na h-Alba; Scots: Scots unthirldom[1]) is the political movement for Scotland to become a sovereign state, independent from the United Kingdom.[2][3][4][5]

Scotland was an independent kingdom through the Middle Ages, having won wars of independence against England. The two kingdoms were joined in personal union in 1603 when the Scottish King James VI became King James I of England, and the two kingdoms united politically in 1707. Political campaigns for Scottish self-government began in the nineteenth century, initially in the form of demands for home rule within the United Kingdom. Two referendums on devolution were held in 1979 and 1997, with a devolved Scottish Parliament being established on 1 July 1999.

The pro-independence Scottish National Party first became the governing party of the devolved parliament in 2007, and it won an outright majority of seats at the 2011 Scottish Parliament election. This led to an agreement between the Scottish and UK governments to hold the 2014 Scottish independence referendum. Voters were asked: "Should Scotland be an independent country?"[6] 44.7 percent of voters answered "Yes" and 55.3 percent answered "No", with a record voter turnout of 85 percent.[7][8] After the UK referendum on EU membership in June 2016, the Scottish Parliament authorised the Scottish Government to seek a section 30 order to hold a Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (HM Government).svg

Boris Johnson (C)

Rishi Sunak (C)


Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Government in Scotland).svgBoris Johnson (C)

Rishi Sunak (C)


  • Scotland

    Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom (Government in Scotland).svg

    Alister Jack (C)


    • UK Parliament
      Scottish Gaelic: Neo-eisimeileachd na h-Alba; Scots: Scots unthirldom[1]) is the political movement for Scotland to become a sovereign state, independent from the United Kingdom.[2][3][4][5]

      Scotland was an independent kingdom through the Middle Ages, having won wars of independence against England. The two kingdoms were joined in personal union in 1603 when the Scottish King James VI became King James I of England, and the two kingdoms united politically in 1707. Political campaigns for Scottish self-government began in the nineteenth century, initially in the form of demands for home rule within the United Kingdom. Two referendums on devolution were held in 1979 and 1997, with a devolved Scottish Parliament being established on 1 July 1999.

      The pro-independence Scottish National Party first became the governing party of the devolved parliament in 2007, and it won an outright majority of seats at the 2011 Scottish Parliament election. This led to an agreement between the Scottish and UK governments to hold the 2014 Scottish independence referendum. Voters were asked: "Should Scotland be an independent country?"[6] 44.7 percent of voters answered "Yes" and 55.3 percent answered "No", with a record voter turnout of 85 percent.[7][8] After the UK referendum on EU membership in June 2016, the Scottish Parliament authorised the Scottish Government to seek a section 30 order to hold a second referendum on independence.[9]