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The Info List - Scottish–Norwegian War


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Kingdom of Norway

Kingdom of the Isles Earldom of Orkney

Kingdom of Scotland

Commanders and leaders

Haakon IV of Norway

Magnus Olafsson Magnus III of Orkney Ogmund Crouchdance

Alexander III of Scotland

Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland Patrick III, Earl of Dunbar

Strength

Around 12,000 light armed soldiers, no cavalry, around 120 leidang ships[1] Around 5,000 heavy armed soldiers and 800 heavy cavalry[2]

[1]: Magnus III of Orkney did not participate in the war; he remained nominal head of the forces who participated in the war from the Earldom of Orkney. [2]: Haakon IV of Norway
Haakon IV of Norway
died during the war, according to some historians, even though he resided in Orkney, the war was still ongoing.

The Scottish–Norwegian War
Scottish–Norwegian War
was a conflict from 1262 to 1266.[3] The conflict arose because of disagreement over the ownership of the Hebrides. The war contained only skirmishes and feuds between the kings. The only major battle was the indecisive Battle of Largs.[4]

Contents

1 Background 2 War (1262–1263) 3 Resolution 4 See also 5 References 6 Other sources

Background[edit]

Map of North Sea showing relative location of Scotland and Norway, in relation to Shetland, Orkney
Orkney
and Hebrides
Hebrides
islands

Both the Hebrides
Hebrides
and the Isle of Man
Isle of Man
had come under Norwegian influence dating to the reign of King Harald Fairhair
Harald Fairhair
of Norway. Norwegian control had been formalised in 1098, when Edgar, King of Scotland signed the islands over to King Magnus III of Norway, setting the boundary between Scots and Norwegian claims in the west. The Scottish acceptance came after the Norwegian king had imposed more direct royal control over the Hebrides
Hebrides
as well as Orkney
Orkney
and the Isle of Man in a swift campaign earlier the same year, directed against the local Norse-Gaelic leaders of the various islands. In Norwegian terms, the islands were the Suðreyjar, meaning Southern Isles.[5][6][7] The Norwegian suzerainty over the Hebrides
Hebrides
had been contested since the 1240s, when the Scottish king, Alexander II, began asking King Haakon IV of Norway
Haakon IV of Norway
if he could purchase the islands from him. For almost a decade these attempts were unsuccessful, and the negotiations ceased for thirteen years after Alexander II died. When his son Alexander III came to power in 1262, by obtaining majority support among the clansmen, he sent Haakon a final request saying that if Haakon did not sell them the Islands they would take them by force.[8][9] War (1262–1263)[edit] Haakon responded to this request by gathering a fleet of over 120 leidang warships and setting out in July 1263 to defend the Isles. Haakon stopped at the Isle of Arran
Isle of Arran
where negotiations were started. Knowing Haakon had to win a decisive victory before the winter, Alexander III stalled during the negotiations until the autumn storms. In October 1263, several of King Haakon's ships got stranded at Largs in stormy weather. A rescue party was sent ashore to help salvage the ships, where the Scottish forces launched a surprise attack, and a minor skirmish followed. The battle ended indecisively. The following morning King Haakon’s forces sailed back to Orkney
Orkney
for the winter, where he died in December. Haakon's successor, King Magnus VI of Norway, had problems at home and lacked the funding to launch a new expedition.[10] Resolution[edit] Although the war was not really decided while Haakon was king, he was a major player in the events leading up to the conflict. Alexander III captured the Hebrides
Hebrides
in 1264, and then made another formal claim to the Islands which were bought from Norway for 4,000 marks, and 100 every year after under the terms of Treaty of Perth, by which the Scots at the same time recognised Norwegian rule over Shetland
Shetland
and Orkney.[11] See also[edit]

Battle of Largs Treaty of Perth Lord of the Isles Scandinavian Scotland History of the Outer Hebrides

References[edit]

^ According to various sources, there could have been up to 20,000 soldiers (^ a b c Lawrie (1783), p. 26). ^ According to several sources (^ a b c Lawrie (1783), p. 26). ^ Tour Scotland: Scottish Battles ^ Steven Brocklehurst (14 December 2012). "The last battle of the Vikings". BBC Scotland News website. Retrieved 29 October 2015.  ^ Odd Bruce Hansen. "Hebridene". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 29 October 2015.  ^ Claus Krag. "Magnus 3 Olavsson Berrføtt, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 29 October 2015.  ^ "Suðreyjar". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 29 October 2015.  ^ Knut Helle. "Håkon 4 Håkonsson, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 29 October 2015.  ^ Haakon Holmboe. "Aleksander 3". Store norske leksikon. Retrieved 29 October 2015.  ^ Knut Helle. "Magnus 6 Håkonsson Lagabøte, Konge". Norsk biografisk leksikon. Retrieved 29 October 2015.  ^ Alastair Kneale (20 July 2013). "Celts and Vikings - Scandinavian Influences on the Celtic Nations". Transceltic. Retrieved 29 October 2015. 

Other sources[edit]

Armit, Ian (2006) Scotland's Hidden History (Stroud. Tempus) ISBN 0-7524-3764-X Barrett, James H. "The Norse in Scotland" in Brink, Stefan (ed) (2008) The Viking World (Abingdon. Routledge) ISBN 0-415-33315-6 Crawford, Barbara E. (1987) Scandinavian Scotland
Scandinavian Scotland
(Leicester University Press) ISBN 978-0718511975 Graham-Campbell, James and Batey, Colleen E. (1998) Vikings in Scotland: An Archaeological Survey(Edinburgh University Press) ISBN 978-0-7486-0641-2 Haswell-Smith, Hamish (2004) The Scottish Islands (Edinburgh: Canongate) ISBN 978-1-84195-454-7. McDonald, R. Andrew (1998) The Kingdom of the Isles: Scotland's Western Seaboard, 1100–c1336 (Tuckwell Press, Ltd. ) ISBN 978-1898410850 Murray, W. H. (1973) The Islands of Western Scotland (London. Eyre Methuen) ISBN 0-413-30380-2 Simpson, Grant. G. (ed) (1990) Scotland and Scandinavia 800-1800 (John Donald) ISBN 978-0859762205 Woolf, Alex (ed.) (2009) Scandinavian Scotland
Scandinavian Scotland
– Twenty Years After (St Andrews. St Andrews University Press) ISBN 978-0-9512573-7-1

v t e

Scandinavian Scotland

Rulers

List of kings Earls of Orkney Crovan dynasty Lords of Argyll Mormaers of Caithness Uí Ímair

Notable women

Aud the Deep-Minded Bethóc, Prioress of Iona Bjaðǫk Cacht ingen Ragnaill Gormflaith ingen Murchada Gunnhild Gormsdóttir Helga Moddansdóttir Ingeborg of Norway Ingibjörg the Earls'-Mother Isabel Bruce Máel Muire ingen Amlaíb Margaret, Maid of Norway Margaret, Queen of Norway Margaret of Denmark, Queen of Scotland Ragnhild Eriksdotter

Other notable men

Caittil Find Ingimundr Ljótólfr Olaf the White Olvir Rosta Páll Bálkason Ragnall ua Ímair Sweyn Asleifsson Thorbjorn Thorsteinsson Thorstein the Red

History

Kingdom of the Isles Dál Riata Gall-Ghàidheil Lochlann Orkney Outer Hebrides Shetland Scottish–Norwegian War
Scottish–Norwegian War
(1262-66) Scotland Norway

Archaeology

Bornish Birsay Bishop's Palace Brough of Birsay Camas Uig Cubbie Roo's Castle Earl's Bu Jarlshof Kirkwall Castle Linton Chapel Maeshowe Old Scatness Port an Eilean Mhòir boat burial Rubha an Dùnain Scar boat burial St Magnus Church

Artifacts and culture

Birlinn Chronicles of Mann Darraðarljóð Galloway Hoard Hogbacks Lewis chessmen Manx runestones Orkneyinga saga Ounceland Sen dollotar Ulaid St Magnus Cathedral Udal law

Althings

Delting Dingwall Law Ting Holm Lunnasting Nesting Sandsting Tingwall Tynwald

Language

Middle Irish Norn Old Norse Pictish Old Norwegian

Etymology

Scottish island names Northern Isles Hebrides

Battles and treaties

Bauds Brunanburh Clontarf Dollar Barry Epiphany Isle of Man Largs Renfrew Skyhill Tara Vestrajǫrðr Treaty of 1098 Treaty of Perth

Associated clans and septs

Gunn Uí Ímair Somhairle Macaulay of Lewis Mac Coitir MacDougall MacLeod

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