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The Schuman Declaration
Schuman Declaration
is the statement made by the French foreign minister Robert Schuman
Robert Schuman
on 9 May 1950. It proposed to place French and German production of coal and steel under one common High Authority. This organization would be open to participation of Western European countries. This cooperation was to be designed in such a way as to create common interests between European countries which would lead to gradual political integration, a condition for the pacification of relations between them: “Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity. The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany”. Schuman's speech did not fall on deaf ears, as West German
West German
Chancellor Adenauer
Adenauer
responded swiftly with a positive reply as did the governments of the Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Luxembourg. Within one year, on 18 April 1951, the six founding members signed the Treaty of Paris. It created the European Coal and Steel Community
European Coal and Steel Community
- Europe’s first supranational Community. This organization paved the way for the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
and subsequently the European Union, which is still run by the innovative type of European institutions conceived in 1950. However, Schuman's efforts did not stop there. He became a great proponent of further integration through a European Defence Community and in 1958 he became the first President of the predecessor to the current European Parliament. When he left office the Parliament bestowed on him the title of ‘Father of Europe’. Because of the significance of his ‘Schuman Declaration’ on 9 May 1950, this day has been designated as ‘Europe Day’. And, in honour of his pioneering work towards a united Europe, the district housing the headquarters of several European Union
European Union
institutions in Brussels is named after him.

Contents

1 Background 2 Aim and drafting 3 Legacy 4 See also 5 Notes 6 Bibliography 7 External links

Background[edit]

Map showing details of the 1946 French proposal for the detachment of the Ruhr area and parts of the Rhineland
Rhineland
from Germany.

The new Cold War
Cold War
split Europe between two spheres of influence (either side of the Iron Curtain). With the desire not to repeat such destruction, there was a strong momentum towards European co-operation. Winston Churchill, standing next to Robert Schuman, had called for Franco-German reconciliation
Franco-German reconciliation
in a united Europe in a speech in Metz
Metz
on 14 July 1946. In Zurich, Churchill later called for a "United States of Europe" and, in the meantime, the formation of a "Council of Europe".[1] Anxious to see greater European economic integration in order to be able to form a block against the Soviet Union, the US used the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
to force the adoption of more open markets as a prerequisite to receive aid. The Organisation for European Economic Co-operation was founded in 1948 to help coordinate the Marshall Plan. Its guiding principles were:[2]

promote co-operation between participating countries and their national production programmes for the reconstruction of Europe, develop intra-European trade by reducing tariffs and other barriers to the expansion of trade, study the feasibility of creating a customs union or free trade area, study multi-lateralisation of payments, and achieve conditions for better utilisation of labour.

The United States also directly funded prominent European pro-federalists through the government funded American Committee on United Europe. Under the Monnet Plan
Monnet Plan
of 1946–1950, designed to increase French steel production at the expense of Germany, France had absorbed the Saarland, a center for coal mining, from Germany and turned it into a protectorate. French attempts to detach the industrial region of the Ruhr with its many steel plants and coal mines from Germany met with greater resistance. However, in 1949 the International Authority for the Ruhr was founded. It was an international body that set limits on the production and production capacity in the Ruhr, and controlled distribution of the production, i.e. export or domestic. The organisation was dissolved with the introduction of the common market and the European Coal and Steel Community. In speeches before the United Nations, Schuman announced that a revitalized Germany must be placed inside a European democracy.[3] The Council of Europe
Council of Europe
was duly created to provide the great framework of a European union (as it was originally called) in which the European Communities could be inserted. The Council was a herald of these supranational communities to come on the path to a full European integration. Schuman had stated that the idea of a European Coal and Steel Community dated from before he attended university. Schuman initiated policies in preparation for this major change of European politics while Prime Minister of France (1947–48) and Foreign Minister from 1948 onwards. He spoke about the principles of sharing European resources in a supranational union at the signing of the Statute of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
in London, 5 May 1949. The Declaration had several distinct aims, which it tackled together:

It marked the birth of Europe as a political entity It aimed to make war between Member States impossible It encouraged world peace It would transform Europe by a 'step by step' process (building through sectoral supranational communities) leading to the unification of Europe, including both East and West Europe separated by the Iron Curtain The world's first international anti-cartel agency It created a single market across the Community This, starting with the coal and steel sector, would revitalise the whole European economy by similar community processes It claimed to improve the world economy and of the developing countries, such as those in Africa.[4]

According to Professor Dr. Hans Ritschl, Schuman made a speech arguing that the Schuman Plan was really a continuation of the Monnet Plan, and that it was solely for the sake of supporting French steel exports that they had taken on that task.[5] Professor Dr. Hans Ritschl says this speech was never intended to reach German ears.[6] However, Prof Ritschl cites no sources and the characteristics, objectives and method of the Schuman Plan and the Monnet Plan
Monnet Plan
are quite different as noted above. Aim and drafting[edit]

The speech was made at Quai d'Orsay, home of the French Foreign Ministry

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (July 2008)

The Declaration itself was first drafted by Paul Reuter, Schuman's colleague and the lawyer at the Foreign ministry. It was edited by Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
and others including Schuman's Directeur de Cabinet, Bernard Clappier. The draft documents of the Declaration have been published by the Jean Monnet
Jean Monnet
Foundation.[7] They show that Reuter pencilled the first draft and Monnet made only minor corrections. Monnet crossed out the word "supranational" — the key concept used by Schuman to describe the new form of European superstate — and replaced it with the ambiguous word "federation". All the key elements—a new organisation of Europe, the supranational innovations, the European Community, the High Authority, fusion of vital interests such as coal and steel, and a single European market and economy — were floated in a series of major speeches given by Schuman in the previous, preparatory years. They include his speeches at the United Nations, at St James's Palace, London
London
at the signing of the Statutes of the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and in Brussels, Strasbourg and in North America. The Proposal for a supranational Community was made to the European peoples in the dismal, fearful years of the Cold War as it ruled out another war with Germany. The proposals became a Declaration of French government policy when after two Cabinet discussions it was agreed on 9 May 1950 that France would abide by such a Community establishing European rule. In his introductory remarks, Schuman revealed that this seemingly technical, social and industrial innovation would have huge political repercussions, not only for European democracy but for bringing democratic liberty to other areas such as Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe, to aid the developing countries and for establishing world peace. 'Europe will be born of this, a Europe which is solidly united and constructed around a strong framework,' he said. The declaration's immediate goal was for France, Italy, West Germany, and the Benelux countries to share strategic resources in order to 'make war not only unthinkable but materially impossible'. The immediate outcome of this initiative was the 18 April 1951 creation of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC), first of the three European Communities
European Communities
and a predecessor of the European Union. At the signing of the Treaty of Paris on 18 April 1951, the six signatory states affirmed in a separate document that this date represented Europe's birth: "By the signature of this Treaty, the participating Parties give proof of their determination to create the first supranational institution and that thus they are laying the true foundation of an organised Europe. This Europe remains open to all countries that are free to choose. We profoundly hope that other countries will join us in our common endeavour." Legacy[edit]

2000 stamp. 50 years of Schuman’s declaration.

The Schuman Declaration
Schuman Declaration
marked the beginning of post-World War II Franco-German cooperation and the re-integration of West Germany into Western Europe. Konrad Adenauer, Chancellor of West Germany, said of the declaration, "That's our breakthrough."[8] The ECSC was created by the Treaty of Paris and, on 18 April 1951, the leaders of the six member countries (including Schuman) signed the Europe Declaration stating that "marked the true foundation of Europe." The supranational Community as the fruit of the Declaration provided five still-developing European institutions: the European Commission, the European Parliament, the Consultative Committees (representing organised civil society), the Council of Ministers and the European Court of Justice.[9] The resulting ECSC introduced a common steel and coal market across the member countries with freely set market prices, and without internal import/export duties or subsidies. The success of ECSC led to further steps, foreseen by Schuman, being taken with the creation of the European Economic Community
European Economic Community
and the European Atomic Energy Community. The two European Commissions of the latter Rome Treaties and the High Authority merged into a single European Commission
European Commission
in the 1960s. Further intergovernmental, (non-supranational), bodies and areas of activities were created leading to the creation of the European Union
European Union
in 1993. The Declaration is viewed as one of the main founding events of the EU. In 1985, during Jacques Delors's tenure as President of the European Commission, the leaders of the European Council
European Council
met in Milan to decide upon 'national' symbols for the Community. They adopted those chosen by the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
previously but they changed the date of Europe Day
Europe Day
from 5 May to 9 May, in commemoration of the Schuman Declaration. The day is now also known as Schuman Day. See also[edit]

Council of Europe History of the European Communities
European Communities
(1945-1957) North Atlantic Treaty Organization

Notes[edit]

^ The Zurich
Zurich
speech European NAvigator ^ OECD ^ Schuman's UN speeches 1948 and 1949 ^ What were Schuman's purposes in creating a European Community? ^ DER SCHUMANPLAN: DIE NEUE RUHRBEHÖRDE Professor Dr. Hans Ritschl Der Spiegel 1951 ^ DER SCHUMANPLAN: DIE NEUE RUHRBEHÖRDE Professor Dr. Hans Ritschl Der Spiegel 1951 ^ Rieben (2000) ^ Judt (1994), 31. ^ Treaty establishing the European Coal and Steel Community, ECSC Treaty

Bibliography[edit]

Diebold, William. The Schuman plan: a study in economic cooperation, 1950–1959 (Praeger, 1959). Hitchcock, William I. "France, the Western Alliance, and the Origins of the Schuman Plan, 1948–1950" Diplomatic History (1997) 21#4: 603–630. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-7709.00090 Kaiser, Wolfram. Christian democracy and the origins of European Union (Cambridge UP, 2007). Lovett, A. W. "The United States and the Schuman Plan. a study in French diplomacy 1950–1952." Historical Journal 39#2 (1996): 425–455. McDougall, Walter. "Political Economy versus National Sovereignty: French Structures for German Economic Integration after Versailles." The Journal of Modern History 51#1 (1979): 4–23. Mahant, Edelgard Elsbeth. Birthmarks of Europe: the origins of the European Community
European Community
reconsidered (Gower Publishing, 2004). Scheingold, Stuart A. The rule of law in European integration: The path of the Schuman Plan (Quid Pro Books, 2013). Shore, Cris. "Inventing the 'People's Europe': Critical Approaches to European Community
European Community
'Cultural Policy.'" Man 28, no. 4. (Dec., 1993): 779–800. Shore, Cris and Annabel Black. "The European Communities
European Communities
and the Construction of Europe." Anthropology Today 8, no. 3. (Jun., 1992): 10–11. Schuman, Robert. Pour l'Europe (Paris 1963). Vernon, Raymond. "The Schuman Plan: Sovereign Powers of the European Coal and Steel Community." American Journal of International Law 47.2 (1953): 183–202. in JSTOR

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Schuman Declaration

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Schuman Declaration.

EUROPA – Declaration of 9 May 1950 Schuman Project gives Schuman's pre-Declaration speeches and the full text of Declaration (including introduction) in English with analysis. Video of the 9 May 1950 declaration (French) European Navigator The 9th may's declaration : which past for an inheritance?, on "EUROS DU VILLAGE"

v t e

Treaties of the European Union
Treaties of the European Union
and related documents

Legal basis

Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
European Union
(2007) Treaty on European Union
European Union
(2007) Euratom Treaty (1957)

Main treaties

Paris (European Coal and Steel Community, 1951) Rome (European Economic Community, 1957) Merger (1965) Single European Act
Single European Act
(1986) Maastricht (1992) Amsterdam (1997) Nice (2001) Lisbon (2007)

Accession Treaties

1972 1979 1985 1994 2003 2005 2011

Minor treaties

Netherlands Antilles Association Convention (1962) First Budgetary Treaty (1970) Second Budgetary Treaty (1975) Greenland Treaty
Greenland Treaty
(1984)

Minor amendments

Protocol 36 (2011) Article 136 (2011)

Abandoned treaties and agreements

Treaty establishing the European Defence Community
Treaty establishing the European Defence Community
(1952) Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe
Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe
(2004) UK renegotiation of EU membership (2016)

Declarations

Schuman Declaration
Schuman Declaration
(1950) Solemn Declaration (1983) Charter of Fundamental Rights (2000) Berlin Declaration (2007)

Other documents

Schengen Agreement
Schengen Agreement
(1985) Schengen Convention
Schengen Convention
(1990) Schengen acquis
Schengen acquis
of the EU (1999) PFI Convention (2002) Prüm Convention
Prüm Convention
(2005) Treaty Establishing the European Stability Mechanism
Treaty Establishing the European Stability Mechanism
(2012) European Fiscal Compact
European Fiscal Compact
(2012) Agreement on a Unified Patent Court
Unified Patent Court
(2013) Single Resolution Fund Agreement (2014)

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