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Sapporo
Sapporo
(札幌市, Sapporo-shi) is the fifth largest city of Japan
Japan
by population, and the largest city on the northern Japanese island of Hokkaido. It is the capital city of Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Prefecture, and is an ordinance-designated city. Sapporo
Sapporo
is known for having hosted the 1972 Winter Olympics
1972 Winter Olympics
(the first ever held in Asia), and for its annual Sapporo
Sapporo
Snow Festival, which draws more than 2 million tourists from abroad.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Early history 1.2 Modern history (20th century) 1.3 21st century

2 Geography

2.1 Climate 2.2 Wards

3 Economy 4 Culture and entertainment

4.1 Music 4.2 Art 4.3 Literature 4.4 Film 4.5 Points of interest 4.6 Park / Gardens 4.7 Events / Festival 4.8 Cuisine 4.9 Sports

4.9.1 Professional sport teams

5 Demographics 6 Transportation

6.1 Rapid transit 6.2 Rail 6.3 Air 6.4 Airport shuttle, tour and charter bus service

7 Education

7.1 Universities

7.1.1 National 7.1.2 Public 7.1.3 Private

7.2 Primary and secondary schools

8 Twin towns – sister cities 9 See also 10 References 11 External links

History[edit] Early history[edit] Before its establishment, the area occupied by Sapporo
Sapporo
(known as the Ishikari Plain) was home to a number of indigenous Ainu settlements.[2] In 1866, at the end of the Edo period, construction began on a canal through the area, encouraging a number of early settlers to establish Sapporo
Sapporo
village.[3] The settlement's name was taken from the Ainu language
Ainu language
sat poro pet (サッ・ポロ・ペッ), and can be translated as "dry, great river".[4] In 1868, the officially recognized year celebrated as the "birth" of Sapporo, the new Meiji government concluded that the existing administrative center of Hokkaido, which at the time was the port of Hakodate, was in an unsuitable location for defense and further development of the island. As a result, it was determined that a new capital on the Ishikari Plain should be established. The plain itself provided an unusually large expanse of flat, well drained land which is relatively uncommon in the otherwise mountainous geography of Hokkaido. During 1870–1871, Kuroda Kiyotaka, vice-chairman of the Hokkaido Development Commission (Kaitaku-shi), approached the American government for assistance in developing the land. As a result, Horace Capron, Secretary of Agriculture under President Ulysses S. Grant, became an oyatoi gaikokujin and was appointed as a special advisor to the commission. Construction began around Odori Park, which still remains as a green ribbon of recreational land bisecting the central area of the city. The city closely followed a grid plan with streets at right-angles to form city blocks. The continuing expansion of the Japanese into Hokkaido
Hokkaido
continued, mainly due to migration from the main island of Honshu
Honshu
immediately to the south, and the prosperity of Hokkaido
Hokkaido
and particularly its capital grew to the point that the Development Commission was deemed unnecessary and was abolished in 1882. Edwin Dun (oyatoi gaikokujin) came to Sapporo
Sapporo
to establish sheep and cattle ranches in 1876. He also demonstrated pig raising and the making of butter, cheese, ham and sausage. He was married twice, to Japanese women. He once went back to the US in 1883 but returned to Japan
Japan
as a secretary of government. William S. Clark
William S. Clark
(oyatoi gaikokujin), who was the president of the Massachusetts Agricultural College (now the University of Massachusetts Amherst), came to be the founding vice-president of the Sapporo Agricultural College (now Hokkaido
Hokkaido
University) for only eight months from 1876 to 1877. He taught academic subjects in science and lectured on the Bible as an "ethics" course, introducing Christian principles to the first entering class of the College. In 1880, the entire area of Sapporo
Sapporo
was renamed as "Sapporo-ku" ( Sapporo
Sapporo
Ward),[5] and a railroad between Sapporo
Sapporo
and Temiya, Otaru was laid. That year the Hōheikan, a hotel and reception facility for visiting officials and dignitaries, was erected adjacent to the Odori Park. It was later moved to Nakajima Park
Nakajima Park
where it remains today. Two years later, with the abolition of the Kaitaku-shi, Hokkaidō was divided into three prefectures: Hakodate, Sapporo, and Nemuro. The name of the urban district in Sapporo
Sapporo
remained Sapporo-ku, while the rest of the area in Sapporo-ku was changed to Sapporo-gun. The office building of Sapporo-ku was also located in the urban district.[5] Sapporo, Hakodate, and Nemuro Prefectures were abolished in 1886, and Hokkaidō government office building, an American-neo-baroque-style structure with red bricks, constructed in 1888. The last squad of the Tondenhei, the soldiers pioneering Hokkaido, settled in the place where the area of Tonden in Kita-ku, Sapporo
Kita-ku, Sapporo
is currently located. Sapporo-ku administered surrounding Sapporo-gun until 1899, when the new district system was announced. After that year, Sapporo-ku was away from the control of Sapporo-gun.[5] The "ku" (district) enforced from 1899 was an autonomy which was a little bigger than towns, and smaller than cities. In Hokkaido
Hokkaido
at that time, Hakodate-ku and Otaru-ku also existed.[citation needed] Modern history (20th century)[edit]

Sapporo
Sapporo
city map in 1891

Odori Park
Odori Park
in 1936

The Former Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Government Office Building

In 1907, the Tohoku Imperial University
Tohoku Imperial University
was established in Sendai Miyagi Prefecture, and Sapporo Agricultural College was controlled by the University. Parts of neighbouring villages including Sapporo Village, Naebo Village, Kami Shiroishi Village, and districts where the Tonden-hei had settled, were integrated into Sapporo-ku in 1910. The Sapporo Streetcar
Sapporo Streetcar
was opened in 1918, and Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Imperial University was established in Sapporo-ku, as the fifth Imperial University in Japan. Another railroad operated in Sapporo, the Jōzankei Railroad, which was ultimately abolished in 1969. In 1922, the new city system was announced by the Tokyo
Tokyo
government, and Sapporo-ku was officially changed to Sapporo
Sapporo
City.[3] The Sapporo Municipal Bus System was started in 1930. In 1937, Sapporo
Sapporo
was chosen as the site of the 1940 Winter Olympics, but due to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, this was cancelled the next year. Maruyama Town was integrated as a part of Chūō-ku in 1940, and the Okadama Airport
Okadama Airport
was constructed in 1942. During the last days of World War II, on July 14 and 15, 1945, 30 B-29 Superfortress bombers dropped 889 tons of E-46 500 lbs incendiary cluster bombs and 500 lbs T4E4 fragmentation cluster bombs into Sapporo
Sapporo
at lunchtime in two separate air raids. In the resulting firestorm 190 civilians were killed, 6,788 were injured, 78,000 others remained homeless, and many structures burned for a total of 17.5 percent of the city destroyed as a part of Allied air raids on Hokkaido. The city was reconstructed after the war. The first Sapporo Snow Festival
Sapporo Snow Festival
was held in 1950. In the same year, adjacent Shiroishi Village was integrated into Sapporo
Sapporo
City, rendered as a part of Shiroishi-ku, and Atsubetsu-ku.[6] In 1955, Kotoni Town, the entire Sapporo
Sapporo
Village, and Shinoro Village were merged into Sapporo, becoming a part of the current Chūō-ku, Kita-ku, Higashi-ku, Nishi-ku, and Teine-ku.[6] The expansion of Sapporo continued, with the merger of Toyohira Town in 1961, and Teine Town in 1967, each becoming a part of Toyohira-ku, Kiyota-ku, and Teine-ku.[6] The ceremony commemorating the 100th anniversary of the foundation of Sapporo
Sapporo
and Hokkaido
Hokkaido
was held in 1968. The Sapporo
Sapporo
Municipal Subway system was inaugurated in 1971, which made Sapporo
Sapporo
the fourth city in Japan
Japan
to have a subway system. From February 3 to 13, 1972, the 1972 Winter Olympics were held, the first Winter Olympics held in Asia.[3] On April 1 of the same year, Sapporo
Sapporo
was designated as one of the cities designated by government ordinance, and seven wards were established.[6] The last ever public performance by the opera singer, Maria Callas, was in Sapporo
Sapporo
at the Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Koseinenkin Kaikan on 11 November 1974.[7] The Sapporo Municipal Subway
Sapporo Municipal Subway
was expanded when the Tōzai line started operation in 1976, and the Tōhō line was opened in 1988. In 1989, Atsubetsu-ku and Teine-ku were separated from Shiroishi-ku and Nishi-ku. Annual events in Sapporo
Sapporo
were started, such as the Pacific Music Festival in 1990, and Yosakoi Sōran Festival in 1992. A professional football club, Consadole Sapporo, was established in 1996. In 1997, Kiyota-ku was separated from Toyohira-ku. In the same year, Hokkaidō Takushoku Bank, a Hokkaido-based bank with headquarters in Odori, went bankrupt.[8] 21st century[edit]

The 34th G8 summit
34th G8 summit
protest march in 2008

In 2001 the construction of the Sapporo Dome
Sapporo Dome
was completed, and in 2002 the Dome hosted three games during the 2002 FIFA World Cup; Germany
Germany
vs Saudi Arabia, Argentina vs England and Italy
Italy
vs Ecuador, all of which were in the first round. Fumio Ueda, was elected as Sapporo
Sapporo
mayor for the first time in 2003. Sapporo
Sapporo
became the home to a Nippon Professional Baseball
Nippon Professional Baseball
team, Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Nippon-Ham Fighters, in 2004, which won the 2006 Japan
Japan
Series, and the victory parade was held on Ekimae-Dōri (a street in front of Sapporo
Sapporo
Station) in February 2007. The 34th G8 summit
34th G8 summit
took place in Tōyako in 2008, and a number of people including anti-globalisation activists marched in the heart of the city to protest. Police officers were gathered in Sapporo
Sapporo
from all over Japan, and the news reported that four people were arrested in the demonstrations.[9] The Hokkaidō Shinkansen
Hokkaidō Shinkansen
line, which currently connects Honshu
Honshu
to Hakodate through the Seikan Tunnel, is planned to link to Sapporo
Sapporo
by 2030.[10] Geography[edit]

The Sapporo TV Tower
Sapporo TV Tower
located west of the Sōsei River

Sapporo
Sapporo
is a city located in the southwest part of Ishikari Plain and the alluvial fan of the Toyohira River, a tributary stream of the Ishikari River.[11] Roadways in the urban district are laid to make a grid plan. The western and southern parts of Sapporo
Sapporo
are occupied by a number of mountains including Mount Teine, Maruyama, and Mount Moiwa, as well as many rivers including the Ishikari River, Toyohira River, and Sōsei River. Sapporo
Sapporo
has many parks, including Odori Park, which is located in the heart of the city and hosts a number of annual events and festivals throughout the year. Moerenuma Park
Moerenuma Park
is also one of the largest parks in Sapporo, and was constructed under the plan of Isamu Noguchi, a Japanese-American artist and landscape architect. Neighbouring cities are Ishikari, Ebetsu, Kitahiroshima, Eniwa, Chitose, Otaru, Date, and adjoining towns are Tōbetsu, Kimobetsu, Kyōgoku. Climate[edit] Sapporo
Sapporo
has a humid continental climate (Koppen Dfa), with a wide range of temperature between the summer and winter. Summers are generally warm but not overly humid, and winters are cold and very snowy, with an average snowfall of 5.96 m (19 ft 7 in).[12] Sapporo
Sapporo
is one of the few metropolises in the world with such heavy snowfall,[13] enabling it to hold events and festivals with snow statues. The heavy snowfall is due to the Siberian High developing over the Eurasian land mass and the Aleutian Low developing over the northern Pacific Ocean, resulting in a flow of cold air southeastward across Tsushima Current and to western Hokkaido. The city's annual average precipitation is around 1,100 mm (43.3 in), and the mean annual temperature is 8.5 °C (47.3 °F).[11]

Climate data for Sapporo, Hokkaido
Hokkaido
(1981–2010)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 11.2 (52.2) 10.8 (51.4) 16.8 (62.2) 28.0 (82.4) 31.1 (88) 33.7 (92.7) 36.0 (96.8) 36.2 (97.2) 32.7 (90.9) 26.4 (79.5) 22.4 (72.3) 14.8 (58.6) 36.2 (97.2)

Average high °C (°F) −0.6 (30.9) 0.1 (32.2) 4.0 (39.2) 11.5 (52.7) 17.3 (63.1) 21.5 (70.7) 24.9 (76.8) 26.4 (79.5) 22.4 (72.3) 16.2 (61.2) 8.5 (47.3) 2.1 (35.8) 12.9 (55.2)

Daily mean °C (°F) −3.6 (25.5) −3.1 (26.4) 0.6 (33.1) 7.1 (44.8) 12.4 (54.3) 16.7 (62.1) 20.5 (68.9) 22.3 (72.1) 18.1 (64.6) 11.8 (53.2) 4.9 (40.8) −0.9 (30.4) 8.9 (48)

Average low °C (°F) −7 (19) −6.6 (20.1) −2.9 (26.8) 3.2 (37.8) 8.3 (46.9) 12.9 (55.2) 17.3 (63.1) 19.1 (66.4) 14.2 (57.6) 7.5 (45.5) 1.3 (34.3) −4.1 (24.6) 5.3 (41.5)

Record low °C (°F) −27.0 (−16.6) −28.5 (−19.3) −22.6 (−8.7) −14.6 (5.7) −4.2 (24.4) 0.0 (32) 5.2 (41.4) 5.3 (41.5) −0.9 (30.4) −4.4 (24.1) −15.5 (4.1) −24.7 (−12.5) −28.5 (−19.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 113.6 (4.472) 94.0 (3.701) 77.8 (3.063) 56.8 (2.236) 53.1 (2.091) 46.8 (1.843) 81.0 (3.189) 123.8 (4.874) 135.2 (5.323) 108.7 (4.28) 104.1 (4.098) 111.7 (4.398) 1,106.5 (43.563)

Average snowfall cm (inches) 173 (68.1) 147 (57.9) 98 (38.6) 11 (4.3) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 2 (0.8) 32 (12.6) 132 (52) 597 (235)

Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm) 21.8 19.0 18.5 11.7 10.2 8.3 9.7 9.5 11.1 13.9 17.5 19.2 170.3

Average snowy days 28.8 25.4 23.5 6.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 13.9 26.5 125.9

Average relative humidity (%) 70 69 66 62 66 72 76 75 71 67 67 69 69

Mean monthly sunshine hours 92.5 104.0 146.6 176.5 198.4 187.8 164.9 171.0 160.5 152.3 100.0 85.9 1,740.4

Source: Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency (records 1872–present)[14][15][16]

Wards[edit] Sapporo
Sapporo
has ten wards (区, ku):

Atsubetsu-ku (厚別区) (purple)

Chūō-ku (中央区) (blue) – administrative center

Higashi-ku (東区) (skyblue)

Kita-ku (北区) (orange-red)

Kiyota-ku (清田区) (green)

Minami-ku (南区) (red)

Nishi-ku (西区) (orange)

Shiroishi-ku (白石区) (brown)

Teine-ku (手稲区) (forest green)

Toyohira-ku (豊平区) (pink)

Color shows the location of each ku in the map above. Economy[edit]

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Sapporo
Sapporo
MEA

The tertiary sector dominates Sapporo's industry. Major industries include information technology, retail, and tourism, as Sapporo
Sapporo
is a destination for winter sports and events and summer activities due to its comparatively cool climate.[citation needed] The city is also the manufacturing centre of Hokkaido, manufacturing various goods such as food and related products, fabricated metal products, steel, machinery, beverages, and pulp and paper.[citation needed] Hokkaido
Hokkaido
International Airlines (Air Do) is headquartered in Chūō-ku.[17] In April 2004, Air Nippon Network
Air Nippon Network
was headquartered in Higashi-ku.[18] Greater Sapporo, Sapporo
Sapporo
Metropolitan Employment Area (2.3 million people), had a total GDP
GDP
of US $84.7 billion in 2010.[19][20] Culture and entertainment[edit] Music[edit]

2018 The Sapporo
Sapporo
Community Plaza opens (October) 1997 The Sapporo Concert Hall
Sapporo Concert Hall
Kitara opened 1990 The Pacific Music Festival (PMF) started 1986 The Sapporo
Sapporo
Art Park include the Outdoor Stage and Art Hall (27 July) 1974 Maria Callas
Maria Callas
last public performance at the Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Koseinenkin Kaikan (11 November) [7] 1966 Berliner Philharmoniker
Berliner Philharmoniker
with Herbert von Karajan
Herbert von Karajan
performed Brahms's Symphony No. 2 at Sapporo
Sapporo
Shimin Kaikan (April) 1962 John Cage
John Cage
and David Tudor visited Sapporo 1960 The Sapporo Symphony Orchestra founded 1936 Russian composer Alexander Tcherepnin
Alexander Tcherepnin
visited Sapporo 1934 The International contemporary music festival was held by Akira Ifukube, Fumio Hayasaka, Atsushi Miura, and Isamu Ifukube (30 September)

Art[edit]

the Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Museum of Modern Art represents Hokkaido
Hokkaido
artists like Eien Iwahashi, Kinjiro Kida, Nissho Kanda, Tamako Kataoka, and especially glass objects of Ecole de Paris the Sapporo
Sapporo
Art Park contains Art museum featuring outdoor installations & a sculpture garden, and the old house of Takeo Arishima. the Moerenuma Park
Moerenuma Park
including the Glass Pyramid, designed by Isamu Noguchi the Migishi Kotaro Museum of Art the Hongo Shin Memorial Museum of Sculpture the Miyanomori Art Museum the Sapporo
Sapporo
Odori 500-m Underground Walkway Gallery

member of UNESCO
UNESCO
Creative Cities Network as a Creative City of Media Arts since 2013

Sapporo
Sapporo
International Art Festival (2014/2017)

Literature[edit]

The Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Museum of Literature

Takeo Arishima
Takeo Arishima
Residence in Sapporo
Sapporo
Art Park

Junichi Watanabe Museum of Literature

Film[edit]

The Idiot (1951 film)
The Idiot (1951 film)
by Akira Kurosawa

The Northern Museum of Visual Culture Theater Kino The Sapporo
Sapporo
International Short Film Festival and Market

Points of interest[edit]

Sapporo
Sapporo
Beer Museum

Susukino, the entertainment district of Sapporo

Registered Tangible Cultural Properties in Sapporo

the former Hokkaidō government office building the Sapporo
Sapporo
Clock Tower the Hokkaidō Shrine the Sapporo
Sapporo
City Archive Museum (Former Sapporo
Sapporo
Court of Appeal) the Edwin Dun Memorial Hall the Hokkaido
Hokkaido
University the Sapporo Beer Museum
Sapporo Beer Museum
& Sapporo
Sapporo
Factory

the Sapporo
Sapporo
TV Tower the Sapporo
Sapporo
Convention Center the Sapporo
Sapporo
Salmon
Salmon
Museum in Makomanai Park the Sunpiazza Aquarium

Sapporo JR Tower
Sapporo JR Tower
adjacent to Sapporo
Sapporo
Station. [21] Sapporo
Sapporo
Ramen Yokocho and Norubesa (a building with a Ferris wheel) are in Susukino
Susukino
district. The district also has the Tanuki Kōji Shopping Arcade, the oldest shopping mall in the city. The district of Jōzankei in Minami-ku is a site that has many hotels with steam baths and hot springs. Peace Pagoda, one of many such monuments across the world built by the Buddhist order Nipponzan Myohoji to promote and inspire world peace. Stupa
Stupa
was built in 1959,[citation needed] halfway up Mount Moiwa, to commemorate peace after World War II. It contains some of the ashes of the Buddha that were presented to the Emperor of Japan
Japan
by Prime Minister Nehru in 1954.[citation needed] Another part were presented to Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
by the Nipponzan-Myohoji monk, Junsei Terasawa.[citation needed] Park / Gardens[edit]

The Odori Park The Nakajima Park The Maruyama Park is located next to the Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Shrine and houses the Maruyama Zoo. The Moerenuma Park The Nishioka Park is a location of rich nature which centers around a pond and consists of marshland and the forest of the Tsukisamu River and its upper river basin. This park also serves as one of the main habitats in Hokkaido
Hokkaido
for many types of wild birds. The Asahiyama Memorial Park
Asahiyama Memorial Park
offers great views of the city.

The Hokkaido University
Hokkaido University
Botanical Gardens and The Chizaki Rose Garden

The Hitsujigaoka Observation Hill
Hitsujigaoka Observation Hill
has a farm with sheep and attracts visitors with a statue of William S. Clark.

Events / Festival[edit]

Dancers in the Yosakoi Sōran Festival

February: the Sapporo Snow Festival
Sapporo Snow Festival
The main site is at Odori Park, and other sites include Susukino
Susukino
(known as the Susukino
Susukino
Ice Festival) and Sapporo
Sapporo
Satoland. Many of the snow and ice statues are built by members of the Japan
Japan
Ground Self-Defense Force. [22] May: the Sapporo
Sapporo
Lilac Festival. Lilac was brought to Sapporo
Sapporo
in 1889 by an American educator, Sarah Clara Smith. At the festival, people enjoy the flowers, wine and live music. June: the Yosakoi Soran Festival. The sites of the festival are centered on Odori Park
Odori Park
and the street leading to Susukino, and there are other festival sites. In the festival, many dance teams dance to music composed based on a Japanese traditional song, "Sōran Bushi." Members of the dancing teams wear special costumes and compete on the roads or stages constructed on the festival sites. In 2006, 350 teams were featured with around 45,000 dancers, and over 1,860,000 people visited the festival.[22] the Sapporo
Sapporo
Summer Festival. People enjoy drinking at the beer garden in Odori Park
Odori Park
and on the streets of Susukino. This festival consists of a number of fairs such as Tanuki Festival and Susukino Festival.[22] September: the Sapporo
Sapporo
Autumn Festival December: Christmas market
Christmas market
in Odori Park, similar to German Christmas markets. From November through January, many citizens enjoy the Sapporo
Sapporo
White Illumination. Cuisine[edit]

Soup curry

The city is known home to Sapporo
Sapporo
Brewery, and the white chocolate biscuits 'shiroi koibito' (白い恋人), also as the birthplace of miso ramen,[23] . The Kouraku Ramen Meitengai in Susukino
Susukino
district, an alley lined with many miso ramen restaurants since 1951. After its demolition due to plans for the Sapporo
Sapporo
Olympics, the Ganso Sapporo Ramen Yokocho was established in the same place. It attracts many tourists throughout the year.[23] From the year 1966, a food company named Sanyo Foods began to sell instant ramen under the brand name " Sapporo
Sapporo
Ichiban." Haskap, a local variety of edible honeysuckle, similar to blueberries, is a specialty in Sapporo. Other specialty dishes of Sapporo
Sapporo
are soup curry, a soupy curry made with vegetables and chicken or other meats, and jingisukan, a barbecued lamb dish, named for Genghis Khan. Sapporo Sweets is a confectionery using many ingredients from Hokkaido
Hokkaido
and the Sapporo
Sapporo
Sweets Competition is held annually.[24] Sapporo
Sapporo
is also well known for fresh seafood including salmon, sea urchin and crab. Sports[edit]

The Sapporo Dome
Sapporo Dome
in winter

The Sapporo Dome
Sapporo Dome
was constructed in 2001 and currently is the host to the local soccer team, Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Consadole Sapporo, the baseball team Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Nippon-Ham Fighters and the basketball team Levanga Hokkaido. Sapporo
Sapporo
was selected to be the host of the 5th Winter Olympics scheduled on February 3 to 12, 1940, but Japan
Japan
had to give the Games back to the IOC, after the Second Sino-Japanese War
Second Sino-Japanese War
broke out in 1937. In 1972, Sapporo
Sapporo
hosted the 11th Winter Olympics. Some structures built for Olympic events remain in use today, including the ski jumps at Miyanomori and Okurayama. Olympic representatives in Sapporo
Sapporo
have said that the city is considering a bid for the 2026 or 2030 Winter Olympics. The city predicts it may cost as much as 456.5 billion yen ($4.3 billion) to host the games and is planning to have 90 percent of the facilities within half an hour of the Olympic village, according to a report published 12 May 2016. The Alpen course would be in Niseko, the world’s second-snowiest resort, while the village would be next to the Sapporo
Sapporo
Dome, the report said.[25] The plans were presented to the Japanese Olympic Committee
Japanese Olympic Committee
on 8 November 2016.[26][27] In 2002, Sapporo
Sapporo
hosted three group matches of the FIFA World Cup at the Sapporo
Sapporo
Dome. In 2006, Sapporo
Sapporo
hosted some games of the 2006 Basketball World Championship
2006 Basketball World Championship
and also for the 2006 Women's Volleyball World Championship. In 2007, Sapporo
Sapporo
hosted the FIS Nordic World Ski Championships at the Sapporo
Sapporo
Dome, Miyanomori ski jump, Okurayama ski jump, and the Shirahatayama cross country course. It has been host city of two Asian Winter Games
Asian Winter Games
and hosted the 2017 Asian Winter Games with Obihiro. Skiing remains a major sport in Sapporo
Sapporo
with almost all children skiing as a part of the school curriculum. Okurayama Elementary School is unusual in having its own ski hill and ski jumping hill on the school grounds. Within the city are commercial ski hills including Moiwayama, Bankeiyama, KobaWorld, Sapporo
Sapporo
Teine and Fu's. Many sports stadiums and domes are located in Sapporo, and some of them have been designated as venues of sports competitions. The Sapporo
Sapporo
Community Dome, also known by its nickname "Tsu-Dome", has hosted the Golden Market, a huge flea market event which is usually held twice a year, along with some sports events. The Makomanai Ice Arena, in Makomanai Park, was one of the venues of the Sapporo Olympics in 1972. It was renamed the Makomanai Sekisuiheim Ice Arena in 2007, when Sekisui Chemical Co., Ltd., acquired naming rights and renamed the arena after their real estate brand.[28] Other large sports venues include the Makomanai Open Stadium, Tsukisamu Dome, Maruyama Baseball
Baseball
Stadium, and the Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Prefectural Sports Center. Toyota Big Air is a major international snowboarding event held annually in Sapporo
Sapporo
Dome. As one of the richest events of its kind in the world, it draws many of the world's best snowboarders. Professional sport teams[edit]

Club Sport League Venue Established

Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Nippon-Ham Fighters Baseball Nippon Professional Baseball Sapporo
Sapporo
Dome 2004

Levanga Hokkaido Basketball B.League
B.League
Division 1 Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Prefectural Sports Center, Tsukisamu Dome 2006

Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Consadole Sapporo Football (soccer) J1 League Sapporo
Sapporo
Atsubetsu Park Stadium, Sapporo
Sapporo
Dome 1996

J. League
J. League
Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Consadole Sapporo
Consadole Sapporo
(J1 in 1998, 2001–2002, 2008, 2012, 2017–; J2 in 1999–2000, 2003–2007, 2009–2011, 2013–2016) . NPB – Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Nippon Ham Fighters in Pacific League

Demographics[edit] The city has an estimated population of 1,947,097 as of September 30, 2016 and a population density of 1,700 persons per km2 (4,500 persons per mi2). The total area is 1,121.12 km2 (432.87 sq mi). Transportation[edit]

Sapporo
Sapporo
Station

Sapporo
Sapporo
has one streetcar line, three JR Hokkaido
Hokkaido
lines, three subway lines and JR Bus, Chuo Bus and other bus lines. Sapporo
Sapporo
Subway trains have rubber-tyred wheels. Rapid transit[edit]

Sapporo
Sapporo
Municipal Subway

Sapporo Municipal Subway
Sapporo Municipal Subway
is the only rubber tyre metro system in Asia

Sapporo
Sapporo
Streetcar

Sapporo Streetcar
Sapporo Streetcar
is the only circular tram system in Asia

Mount Moiwa Ropeway Teineyama Ropeway

Rail[edit]

JR Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Stations in Sapporo

Hakodate Line: (Zenibako) – Hoshimi – Hoshioki – Inaho – Teine – Inazumi Kōen – Hassamu – Hassamu Chūō – Kotoni – Sōen – Sapporo
Sapporo
– Naebo – Shiroishi – Atsubetsu – Shinrin Kōen – (Ōasa) Chitose Line: Heiwa – Shin Sapporo
Sapporo
– Kami Nopporo – (Kita-Hiroshima) Sasshō Line(Gakuentoshi Line): Sōen – Hachiken – Shinkawa – Shinkotoni – Taihei – Yurigahara – Shinoro – Takuhoku – Ainosato Kyōikudai – Ainosato Kōen – (Ishikari Futomi)

Air[edit] The Sapporo
Sapporo
area is served by two airports: Okadama Airport, which offers regional flights within Hokkaido, and New Chitose Airport, a larger international airport located in the city of Chitose 30 miles (48 km) away connected by regular rapid trains taking around 40 minutes. Airport shuttle, tour and charter bus service[edit] An airport shuttle bus servicing all hotels in Sapporo
Sapporo
operates every day of the year. SkyExpress was founded in 2005 and also provides transport to and from various ski resorts throughout Hokkaido, including Niseko. Education[edit] Universities[edit]

The Sapporo
Sapporo
Clock Tower, formerly a part of Hokkaido University
Hokkaido University
in the 19th century

At Hokkaido
Hokkaido
University

National[edit]

Hokkaido
Hokkaido
University Hokkaido University
Hokkaido University
of Education

See Japanese national university Public[edit]

Sapporo
Sapporo
Medical University Sapporo
Sapporo
City University

Private[edit]

Sapporo
Sapporo
University Hokusei Gakuen University Hokkai School of Commerce Hokkai Gakuen University Fuji Women's University Sapporo
Sapporo
International University Tenshi College Health Sciences University of Hokkaido Sapporo
Sapporo
Ōtani University Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Tokai University Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Musashi Women's Junior College Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Bunkyo University Hokkaido University
Hokkaido University
of Science Koen Gakuen Women's Junior College Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Institute of Technology Hokkaido
Hokkaido
College of Pharmacy Sapporo University
Sapporo University
of Health Sciences Japan
Japan
Health Care College

Primary and secondary schools[edit]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (October 2015)

Sapporo
Sapporo
Odori High School

Sapporo Odori High School
Sapporo Odori High School
provides Japanese-language classes to foreign and Japanese returnee students, and the school has special admissions quotas for these groups.[29] The city has two private international schools:

Hokkaido
Hokkaido
International School Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Korean Primary, Middle and High School (North Korean school)

Twin towns – sister cities[edit]

Sapporo
Sapporo
City Hall (June 2007)

Sapporo
Sapporo
has twinning relationships with several cities worldwide.[30][31]

Portland, Oregon, United States, since 1959 Munich, Germany, since 1972 Shenyang, China, since 1980 Novosibirsk, Russia, since 1990 Daejeon, South Korea, since 2010

See also[edit]

Sapporo
Sapporo
Brewery

References[edit]

^ City of Sapporo. "City of Sapporo". 札幌市.  ^ "Recognition at last for Japan's Ainu ". BBC News. July 6, 2008 ^ a b c "サイト閉鎖のお知らせ".  ^ 札幌市. "ふるさとの川史話いっぱい". 札幌市.  ^ a b c New Sapporo
Sapporo
History 2nd edition (新札幌市史 第2巻, Shin Sapporo
Sapporo
Shishi) ^ a b c d New Sapporo
Sapporo
History 5th edition (新札幌市史 第5巻, Shin Sapporo
Sapporo
Shishi) ^ Sutherland, Robert Maria Callas
Maria Callas
Diaries of a Friendship London Constable 1999 p265 ISBN 0-09-478790-5 ^ lawsuit against the bankruptcy of the Takushoku Bank ^ "Arrests made during scuffles at G8 protest in Japan". 5 July 2008.  ^ "Celebrating the opening of the Hokkaido
Hokkaido
Shinkansen—travel by train from Hakodate to Sapporo
Sapporo
while exploring along the way".  ^ a b 札幌市. "札幌市のあらまし". 札幌市.  ^ (in Japanese) 気象庁 平年値(年・月ごとの値) ^ City of Sapporo. "General Overview of Sapporo" (PDF). City of Sapporo
Sapporo
via Web.Archive.org (in English and Japanese). Retrieved 30 March 2018. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link) ^ "気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値)". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 23, 2016.  ^ 気象庁 / 平年値(年・月ごとの値) (in Japanese). Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 23, 2016.  ^ 観測史上1~10位の値( 年間を通じての値) (in Japanese). Japan
Japan
Meteorological Agency. Retrieved December 17, 2014.  ^ "会社概要." Hokkaido
Hokkaido
International Airlines. Retrieved on May 20, 2009. ^ "会社概要." Air Nippon Network. April 6, 2004. Retrieved on May 20, 2009. ^ Yoshitsugu Kanemoto. "Metropolitan Employment Area (MEA) Data". Center for Spatial Information Science, The University of Tokyo.  ^ Conversion rates - Exchange rates - OECD Data ^ Tourism Statistics of Sapporo, 2006, p.35 (pdf file) ^ a b c Tourism Statistics of Sapporo, 2006, p.29 (pdf file) ^ a b "元祖さっぽろラーメン横丁公式サイト".  ^ Sapporo, the sweets republic ^ Sapporo
Sapporo
to Show JOC Plan for 2026 Olympic Winter Games After Rio ^ "札幌で再びオリンピックを JOCに開催提案書" (in Japanese). NHK. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.  ^ "Olympics: Sapporo
Sapporo
shows 2026 Winter Games plan to JOC". kyodonews.net. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 13 November 2016.  ^ Makomanai Sekisuiheim Ice Arena Homepage ^ "Education" (Archive). City of Sapporo. Retrieved on October 12, 2015. ^ 札幌市 – 国際交流 – 姉妹都市 (in Japanese) ^ Sister Cities International Community Bureau (in Japanese)

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sapporo.

Official Website Sapporo
Sapporo
Travel Unesco Media City Sapporo [1] Information on living in Sapporo
Sapporo
for foreign residents Live view of Odori Park
Odori Park
from Sapporo TV Tower
Sapporo TV Tower
(in Japanese)

v t e

Winter Olympic Games
Winter Olympic Games
host cities

1924: Chamonix 1928: St. Moritz 1932: Lake Placid 1936: Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1940: Cancelled due to World War II 1944: Cancelled due to World War II 1948: St. Moritz 1952: Oslo 1956: Cortina d'Ampezzo 1960: Squaw Valley 1964: Innsbruck 1968: Grenoble 1972: Sapporo 1976: Innsbruck 1980: Lake Placid 1984: Sarajevo 1988: Calgary 1992: Albertville 1994: Lillehammer 1998: Nagano 2002: Salt Lake City 2006: Turin 2010: Vancouver 2014: Sochi 2018: Pyeongchang 2022: Beijing 2026: TBD 2030: TBD

v t e

Metropolitan cities of Japan

Tokyo
Tokyo
Metropolis

Special
Special
wards of Tokyo※ (Adachi Arakawa Bunkyo Chiyoda Chūō Edogawa Itabashi Katsushika Kita Koto Meguro Minato Nakano Nerima Ōta Setagaya Shibuya Shinagawa Shinjuku Suginami Sumida Toshima Taitō)

Designated cities

Chiba※ Fukuoka※ Hamamatsu Hiroshima※ Kawasaki Kitakyushu Kobe※ Kumamoto※ Kyoto※ Nagoya※ Niigata※ Okayama※ Osaka※ Sagamihara Saitama※ Sakai Sapporo※ Sendai※ Shizuoka※ Yokohama※

Core cities

Akita※ Amagasaki Aomori※ Asahikawa Fukuyama Funabashi Gifu※ Hachinohe Hachiōji Hakodate Higashiōsaka Himeji Hirakata Iwaki Kagoshima※ Kanazawa※ Kashiwa Kawagoe Kōchi※ Kōriyama Koshigaya Kurashiki Kure Kurume Maebashi※ Matsuyama※ Miyazaki※ Morioka※ Naha Nagano※ Nagasaki※ Nara※ Nishinomiya Ōita※ Okazaki Ōtsu※ Sasebo Shimonoseki Takamatsu※ Takasaki Takatsuki Toyama※ Toyohashi Toyonaka Toyota Utsunomiya※ Wakayama※ Yokosuka

Special
Special
cities

Akashi Atsugi Chigasaki Fuji Fukui※ Hiratsuka Ibaraki Ichinomiya Isesaki Jōetsu Kakogawa Kasugai Kasukabe Kawaguchi Kishiwada Kōfu※ Kumagaya Matsue※ Matsumoto Mito※ Nagaoka Neyagawa Numazu Odawara Ōta Saga※ Sōka Suita Takarazuka Tokorozawa Tottori※ Tsukuba Yamagata※ Yamato Yao Yokkaichi

Prefectural capitals

Fukushima Tsu Tokushima Yamaguchi

Note: ※ also a prefectural capital

v t e

Hokkaido

Sapporo
Sapporo
(capital)

v t e

Ishikari Subprefecture

Wards of Sapporo

Atsubetsu Chūō Higashi Kita Kiyota Minami Nishi Shiroishi Teine Toyohira

Cities

Chitose Ebetsu Eniwa Ishikari Kitahiroshima

Ishikari District

Shinshinotsu Tōbetsu

v t e

Oshima Subprefecture

Core city

Hakodate

City

Hokuto

Futami District

Yakumo

Kameda District

Nanae

Kamiiso District

Kikonai Shiriuchi

Kayabe District

Mori Shikabe

Matsumae District

Fukushima Matsumae

Yamakoshi District

Oshamambe

v t e

Hiyama Subprefecture

Hiyama District

Assabu Esashi Kaminokuni

Kudō District

Setana

Nishi District

Otobe

Okushiri District

Okushiri

Setana District

Imakane

v t e

Shiribeshi Subprefecture

City

Otaru

Abuta District

Kimobetsu Kutchan Kyōgoku Makkari Niseko Rusutsu

Furubira District

Furubira

Furuu District

Kamoenai Tomari

Iwanai District

Iwanai Kyōwa

Isoya District

Rankoshi

Shakotan District

Shakotan

Shimamaki District

Shimamaki

Suttsu District

Kuromatsunai Suttsu

Yoichi District

Akaigawa Niki Yoichi

v t e

Sorachi Subprefecture

Cities

Akabira Ashibetsu Bibai Fukagawa Iwamizawa Mikasa Sunagawa Takikawa Utashinai Yūbari

Kabato District

Shintotsukawa Tsukigata Urausu

Sorachi District

Kamisunagawa Naie Nanporo

Uryū District

Chippubetsu Hokuryū Moseushi Numata Uryū

Yūbari District

Kuriyama Naganuma Yuni

v t e

Kamikawa Subprefecture

Core city

Asahikawa

Cities

Furano Nayoro Shibetsu

Kamikawa (Ishikari) District

Aibetsu Biei Higashikagura Higashikawa Kamikawa Pippu Takasu Tōma

Kamikawa (Teshio) District

Kenbuchi Shimokawa Wassamu

Nakagawa District

Bifuka Nakagawa Otoineppu

Sorachi District

Kamifurano Minamifurano Nakafurano

Uryū District

Horokanai

Yūfutsu District

Shimukappu

v t e

Rumoi Subprefecture

City

Rumoi

Mashike District

Mashike

Rumoi District

Obira

Teshio District

Enbetsu Teshio

Tomamae District

Haboro Shosanbetsu Tomamae

v t e

Sōya Subprefecture

City

Wakkanai

Esashi District

Esashi Hamatonbetsu Nakatonbetsu

Rebun District

Rebun

Rishiri District

Rishiri Rishirifuji

Sōya District

Sarufutsu

Teshio District

Toyotomi Horonobe

v t e

Okhotsk Subprefecture

Cities

Abashiri Kitami Monbetsu

Abashiri District

Bihoro Ōzora Tsubetsu

Monbetsu District

Engaru Nishiokoppe Okoppe Ōmu Takinoue Yūbetsu

Shari District

Kiyosato Koshimizu Shari

Tokoro District

Kunneppu Oketo Saroma

v t e

Iburi Subprefecture

Cities

Date Muroran Noboribetsu Tomakomai

Abuta District

Tōyako Toyoura

Shiraoi District

Shiraoi

Usu District

Sōbetsu

Yūfutsu District

Abira Atsuma Mukawa

v t e

Hidaka Subprefecture

Hidaka District

Shinhidaka

Horoizumi District

Erimo

Niikappu District

Niikappu

Samani District

Samani

Saru District

Biratori Hidaka

Urakawa District

Urakawa

v t e

Tokachi Subprefecture

City

Obihiro

Ashoro District

Ashoro Rikubetsu

Hiroo District

Hiroo Taiki

Kamikawa District

Shimizu Shintoku

Kasai District

Memuro Nakasatsunai Sarabetsu

Katō District

Kamishihoro Otofuke Shihoro Shikaoi

Nakagawa District

Honbetsu Ikeda Makubetsu Toyokoro

Tokachi District

Urahoro

v t e

Kushiro Subprefecture

City

Kushiro

Akan District

Tsurui

Akkeshi District

Akkeshi Hamanaka

Kawakami District

Shibecha Teshikaga

Kushiro District

Kushiro

Shiranuka District

Shiranuka

v t e

Nemuro Subprefecture

City

Nemuro

Menashi District

Rausu

Notsuke District

Betsukai

Shibetsu District

Nakashibetsu Shibetsu

Kuril Islands dispute

Shikotan District

Shikotan

Kunishiri District

Tomari Ruyobetsu

Etorofu District

Rubetsu

Shana District

Shana

Shibetoro District

Shibetoro

List of mergers in Hokkaido

v t e

Host cities of Asian Games

Summer

1951: Delhi 1954: Manila 1958: Tokyo 1962: Jakarta 1966: Bangkok 1970: Bangkok 1974: Tehran 1978: Bangkok 1982: Delhi 1986: Seoul 1990: Beijing 1994: Hiroshima 1998: Bangkok 2002: Busan 2006: Doha 2010: Guangzhou 2014: Incheon 2018: Jakarta/Palembang 2022: Hangzhou

Winter

1986: Sapporo 1990: Sapporo 1996: Harbin 1999: Kangwon 2003: Aomori 2007: Changchun 2011: Astana-Almaty 2017: Sapporo

v t e

Metropolitan areas in Japan
Japan
with a population of over a million

Hokkaido
Hokkaido
region

Sapporo(ja)

Ishikari Shiribeshi Sorachi

Tōhoku region

Sendai(ja)

Miyagi

Kantō region

Utsunomiya(ja)

Tochigi

Maebashi(ja)

Gunma

Tokyo(ja)

Saitama Chiba Tokyo Kanangawa Ibaraki Yamanashi

Chūbu region

Niigata(ja)

Niigata

Shizuoka(ja)

Shizuoka

Hamamatsu(ja)

Shizuoka

Nagoya(ja)

Gifu Aichi Mie

Kinki region

Kyoto(ja)

Shiga Kyoto

Osaka(ja)

Kyoto Osaka Hyogo Nara Wakayama

Kobe(ja)

Hyogo

Chūgoku region

Okayama(ja)

Okayama

Hiroshima(ja)

Hiroshima

Kyushu
Kyushu
region

Kitakyushu(ja)

Fukuoka

Fukuoka(ja)

Fukuoka Saga

Kumamoto(ja)

Kumamoto

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 257507796 LCCN: n80026068 ISNI: 0000 0004 0404 0130 GND: 4051677-5 N

.