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The Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
(Family of Organisations[1][2]) refers to the family of Hindu nationalist
Hindu nationalist
organisations which have been started by members of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
(RSS) or drew inspiration from its ideology. The Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
represents the Hindu nationalist movement.[3] It includes the RSS and several dozen affiliated organisations, whose members' expressed opinions have been diverse over a range of topics.[4] Nominally, the different organisations within the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
run independently and have different policies and activities.

Contents

1 History 2 Philosophy

2.1 Culture and diversity 2.2 Economics 2.3 Ecology 2.4 Reception

3 Social impact

3.1 Social reform 3.2 Social and political empowerment 3.3 Deendayal Research Institute 3.4 Politics 3.5 Babri Mosque demolition

4 Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
members 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References

History[edit] In the 1960s, the volunteers of the RSS joined the different social and political movements in India, including the Bhoodan, a land reform movement led by prominent Gandhian Vinobha Bhave[5] and the Sarvodaya led by another Gandhian Jayaprakash Narayan.[6] RSS also supported the formation of a trade union, the Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh
Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh
and a student's organisation Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad
Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad
and many other organisations like Seva Bharati, Lok Bharati, Deendayal Research Institute etc. These organisations started and supported by the RSS volunteers came to be known collectively as the Sangh Parivar.[7] Next few decades have seen a steady growth in the influence of the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
in the social and political space of India. Philosophy[edit]

Part of a series on

Hindu politics

Concepts

Gandhism Gandhian socialism Hindu environmentalism Hindu nationalism Hindutva Hindu revivalism Integral humanism Litigation-Free Model Pseudo-secularism Shuddhi Swadeshi Ram Janmabhoomi Uniform Civil Code Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam

Early figures

Dattopant Thengadi Lala Lajpat Rai Sri Aurobindo Bal Gangadhar Tilak Bipin Chandra Pal Madan Mohan Malaviya Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi Vallabhbhai Patel Purushottam Das Tandon Vinayak Damodar Savarkar Keshava Baliram Hedgewar Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar

Political leaders

Syama Prasad Mukherjee Deendayal Upadhyaya Nanaji Deshmukh Atal Bihari Vajpayee Lal Krishna Advani Subramanian Swamy Murli Manohar Joshi Bal Thackeray Narendra Modi Uma Bharti Yogi Adityanath

Political parties

Bharatiya Janata Party Shiv Sena Hindu Mahasabha Maharashtrawadi Gomantak Party Rastriya Prajatantra Party

Defunct parties Bharatiya Jana Sangh Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad Bharatiya Janshakti Party Janata Party Jammu Praja Parishad

Organisations Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh Vishwa Hindu Parishad Sri Ram Sena Bajrang Dal Hindu Sena

Independent authors

Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay Swapan Dasgupta Dharampal Koenraad Elst David Frawley François Gautier Ram Gopal Sita Ram Goel Girilal Jain Meenakshi Jain Rama Jois Christophe Jaffrelot Bojil Kolarov K. S. Lal Rajiv Malhotra K. R. Malkani Harsh Narain Ramesh Nagaraj Rao Yvette Rosser Ram Swarup K. D. Sethna H. V. Sheshadri Arun Shourie Dattopant Thengadi

Hinduism

v t e

The ideology of the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
has been seen to have a diverse set of thoughts and opinions that has made it difficult to be categorized by the Western stereotypic divisions of ‘Leftists’ and ‘Rightists’.[citation needed] While some of their policies are seen as ‘Conservative’ and ‘Rightist’, on a range of different issues, they have shared similar concerns as Leftists, Liberals and the Green activists.[8] Culture and diversity[edit] Sangh ideologue M. S. Golwalkar articulated the Sangh’s vision on diversity and pluralism, as follows, “Individuals and nations in all parts of the globe have distinctive traits and features, each of them having its own place in the scheme of the universe. The different human groups are marching forward, all towards the same goal, each in its own way and in keeping with its own characteristic genius. The destruction of the special characteristics, whether of an individual, or of a group, will therefore not only destroy the natural beauty of harmony but also its joy of self-expression. Evolution of human life also, which is a multi-faced one, is retarded thereby.”[9] The political opponents of the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
have often termed Sangh Parivar’s concerns about cultural intrusion by the Western commercial interests as ‘Rightist’.[4] David Frawley
David Frawley
argues that the cause is similar to that of native and tribal people all over the world, like Native American and African groups trying to protect their native cultures.[10] Economics[edit] While the BJP
BJP
governments have been progressively seen to be industry friendly,[11] the opinions and the views of the Sangh Parivar constituents like Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh
Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh
(BMS) find consonance with the known leftist stands on labour rights.[12] The Sangh Parivar, as a whole, even the BJP
BJP
in its earlier days, has advocated ‘Swadeshi’ (Self Reliance). Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
leaders have been very vocal in their criticism of globalization especially its impact on the poor and native people. They have been suspicious of the role of international agencies such as the World Bank
World Bank
and the International Monetary Fund.[13] Sangh constituents have advocated and promoted decentralized village centric economic growth with emphasis on ecological protection.[14] Ecology[edit] The constituents of the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
have been known for their demands for steps to “protect the environment, natural-ecology and agro-economy” and for establishment of a “self-reliant village-oriented economy”.[15] They have been vocal in their demand against the use of Chemical fertilizers and have supported preservation and development of Organic farming
Organic farming
in India.[16] Many of these views are seen to mirror the concerns of the Green party.[10] The Bharatiya Janata Party, a constituent of Sangh Parivar, is one of the very few political party at that included the concerns on global warming in its election manifesto for the National Elections of 2009.[17] The manifesto promised prioritising "Combating climate change and global warming", "programmes to arrest the melting of Himalayan glaciers", "afforestation" and emphasis on "protecting India's biodiversity".[17] Reception[edit] The Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
has been described with monikers spanning the spectrum from "patriotic Hindus"[18] and "Hindu nationalist".[3] Some have also labeled them "Hindu chauvinist".[19] While its constituent organisations present themselves as embedded in the traditional ethos of Hinduism, their ideological opponents have characterized them as the representatives of authoritarian, xenophobic and majoritarian religious nationalism in India,[20] furthermore these organization have been also documented for alleged acts of Saffron terror.[21] Flemish Indologist Koenraad Elst
Koenraad Elst
has challenged the critics, in his book The Saffron Swastika, he wrote "So far, the polemical arrows have all been shot from one side, replies from the other side being extremely rare or never more than piecemeal."[22] Social impact[edit] The activities of the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
have had considerable social and religious impact.[23] And considerable influence over country's educational, social and defense policies.[24] Social reform[edit] In 1979, the religious wing of the Sangh Parivar, the Vishwa Hindu Parishad got the Hindu saints and religious leaders to reaffirm that untouchability and caste discrimination had no religious sanction in the Hindu scriptures and texts.[25] The Vishwa Hindu Parishad
Vishwa Hindu Parishad
is also spearheading efforts to ordain Dalits
Dalits
as priests in temples across India, positions that were earlier usually occupied only by people of "upper castes".[26] In 1983, RSS founded a dalit organization called Samajik Samrasta Manch.[27] The leaders of the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
have also been involved in the campaigns against female fetocide and movements for the education.[28] VHP founded a number of educational institutes such as Bharat Sevashram, Hindu Milan Mandir, Ekal Vidalayas and schools in tribal locations.[27] Social and political empowerment[edit] The service programs, over the years, have led to the empowerment of the economically and socially underprivileged sections of the society, mostly the tribal, who have long remained politically under-represented. Babulal Marandi belonging to the tribal community, who was the organizing secretary of Vishwa Hindu Parishad, became the first Chief Minister of the state of Jharkhand.[29] Other such leaders of Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
who belong to the tribal community include Karia Munda, Jual Oram; both ministers in the Union Government led by Atal Bihari Vajpayee. The emergence of the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
in Indian politics also brought many Dalits
Dalits
and representatives of the backward classes, who had been victims of social neglect, to prominent positions in the Government and Administration.[30] Dr Suraj Bhan, a dalit, who had been a member of the RSS, became the Governor of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in India, in 1998.[31] Other leaders of the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
from the backward classes, who rose to prominence include Kalyan Singh, the former Chief Minister of UP, Uma Bharti, the former Chief Minister of MP, Narendra Modi, the incumbent Prime Minister of India, Gopinath Munde, the former Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra,[32] and Shivraj Singh Chouhan, the incumbent Chief Minister of Madhya Pradesh.[33] In many villages across India, Dharma Raksha Samitis (Duty/Religion Protection Committees) promote religious discourse and form an arena for bhajan performance. The Sangh sponsors calendars of Hindu deities and provides instruction on sanctioned methods of conducting Ganesh Chaturthi and Navaratri.[34] This phenomenon has been documented in Tamil Nadu, where workers of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh
and Hindu Munnani share Tamil dalits (untouchables) devotional hymns and persuaded many dalits to begin celebrating Ganesh Chaturthi, a festival not widely marked in Tamil Nadu.[35] Deendayal Research Institute[edit] Main article: Litigation Free Model Veteran RSS leader Nanaji Deshmukh retired from politics at the peak of his political career in 1977 and founded the Deendayal Research Institute, dedicated to building a rural based economic model of development.[36] It was found that rural people were wasting a lot of resources in litigations, which left them both impoverished and exploited.[37] Deshmukh and the Institute developed a method of sorting conflicts and differences based on the ancient Indian principles of consensus making and alternate conflict resolution, which has been called the Litigation-Free Model. Based on this model, villagers would sort all disputes amongst themselves amicably with least dependence on the Government.[38] The initiative has been highly praised, e.g. by Former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.[citation needed] Prominent industrialist, Jehangir Wadia, the grandson of Muhammad Ali Jinnah, is influenced by the work of Sangh organisation, Deen Dayal Research Institute (DRI), and is now a volunteer of the DRI. He says "At 26, I realised that while I was seeking responses to my questions, the answer was always in front of me. That's when I joined Nanaji and got involved in social work at Chitrakoot,"[39] "Nanaji (founder of DRI) envisions self reliance for 600,000 villages in his life time. It is my dream to translate Nanaji's vision of ameliorating the lives of this rural population."[40] Politics[edit] The Bharatiya Janata Party, which represents the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
in national politics, has formed three governments in India, most recently being in power from May 2014 under the leadership of Prime minister Narendra Modi. Political opponents of the BJP
BJP
allege that the party's moderate face merely serves to cover the Sangh Parivar's "hidden agenda" of undiluted Hindutva, detectable by the BJP's efforts to change the content of history textbooks and syllabi as well as other aspects of the education system.[41] Such criticism of the BJP
BJP
arises from the fact that BJP
BJP
had only 2 seats in the parliament in 1984 and after Babri Masjid demolition in 1992 the party gain national recognition, and only then it rose to power in 1998.[42][43][44][45][full citation needed][46][47] Babri Mosque demolition[edit] According to the report of the Liberhan Commission the Sangh Parivar organised the destruction of the Babri Masjid.[48][49] The Commission said- "The blame or the credit for the entire temple construction movement at Ayodhya must necessarily be attributed to the Sangh Parivar".[50] It also noted that the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
is an "extensive and widespread organic body", which encompasses organizations, which address and bring together just about every type of social, professional and other demographic grouping of individuals.

Each time, a new demographic group has emerged, the Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
has hived off some of its RSS inner-core leadership to harness that group and bring it within the fold, enhancing the voter base of the Parivar.[51]

Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
members[edit] The Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
includes the following organisations (with membership figures in brackets). They are also categorized.

Political

All Jammu and Kashmir Praja Parishad, literally, "People's Council", a political party active in Jammu from 1947 to 1963. Bharatiya Jana Sangh, literally, "Indian People's Association" a political party that existed from 1951 to 1977. Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
(BJP), Indian People's Party (100 million, March 2015)[52]

Occupational and Professional

Bharatiya Kisan Sangh, literally, Indian Farmers' Association (8m)[53] Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh, Indian Labourers' Association (10 million as of 2009)[53] Bharatiya Railways Sangh, Indian Railways Workers' Association Fishermen's Co-operative Societies (2.2m)[53] Samskar Bharati, Organisation of Indian Artists[54] Akhil Bharatiya Adhivakta Parishad, All India
India
Lawyers' Council[55] Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad, All India
India
Students' Council (2.8m)[53] Akhil Bharatiya Shaikshik Mahasangh, All India
India
Teachers' Federation (1.8m)[53] National Medicos Organisation, Organisation of Medical Practitioners[56][57] Akhil Bharatiya Poorva Sainik Seva Parishad, (ABPSSP) All India Ex-Military Servicemen Council.[58][59][60]

Economic

Swadeshi
Swadeshi
Jagaran Manch, Nativist Awakening Front[61] Vitta Salahkar Parishad, Financial consultants' association Laghu Udyog Bharati, an extensive network of small industries.[62][63] Sahkar Bharati, Organisation of co-operatives

Social Services

Deen Dayal Shodh Sansthan, for the development of rural areas on the basis of Integral Humanism (1.7m)[53] Bharatiya Vikas Parishad, Organization for the development & growth of India
India
in all fields of human endeavor (1.8m)[53][64] Vivekananda Medical Mission, Sociomedical Services (1.7m)[53] Seva Bharati, Organisation for service of the needy (founded in 1984) Sakshama, an organization working among the blind[58][59][65] Nele (a part of "Hindu Seva Pratishthana"), Home for destitute Children[66] Lok Bharati, National NGO's Front Seema Suraksha Parishad, an organization working among the people of border districts[58][59]

Exclusively Women

Rashtra Sevika Samiti, literally, National Volunteer Association for Women (1.8m)[53] Shiksha Bharati (2.1m), to provide education and training for skill up gradation to underprivileged girls and women.[53][67] Durga Vahini, Women's wing of Vishwa Hindu Parishad.

Religious

Vishwa Hindu Parishad, World Hindu Council(2.8m)[53][68] Bajrang Dal, Army of Hanuman
Hanuman
(2m) Hindu jagarana vedike, literally, National Volunteer Association for men to protect the Hindus Dharm Jagaran Samiti, Organization for conversion of non-Hindus to Hinduism[69] and their coordinating committee "Dharam Jagaran Samanvay Samiti",[68][70] Muslim Rashtriya Manch, National Front of Muslims Rashtriya Hindu Andolan, based in Maharashtra
Maharashtra
calls for the deletion of "secular" from the Indian Constitution[68] Rashtriya Sikh Sangat, a sociocultural organisation with the aim to spread the knowledge of Gurbani
Gurbani
to the Indian society.[54] Hindu Munnani, a religio-cultural organization based in Tamil Nadu.[71] Hindu Rashtra Sena, propagating for the establishment of Hindu Rashtra.[68][72] Hindu Aikya Vedi, Hindu United Front based in Kerala[73]

Educational

Ekal Vidyalaya, Involved in free education and village development in rural areas and tribal villages of India. Saraswati Shishu Mandir, Nursery Vidya Bharati, Educational Institutes Vijnana Bharati, Science Forum[58][59][74]

Socio-Ethnic

Vanavasi Kalyan Ashram, Organisation for the improvement of tribals Youth for seva, Organisation for the improvement of children Friends of Tribals
Tribals
Society Anusuchit Jati-Jamati Arakshan Bachao Parishad, Organisation for the improvement of Dalits[75] Bharat-Tibet Maitri Sangh, India-Tibet Friendship Association

News & Communication

Organiser, Magazine [76][77] Vishwa Samvad Kendra, communication Wing, spread all over India
India
for media related work, having a team of IT professionals (samvada.org) Hindustan Samachar, a multi-lingual news agency.[78][79][80]

Think Tanks

Bharatiya Vichara Kendra, General Think Tank. Hindu Vivek Kendra, a resource center for the promotion of the ideology of Hindutva.[81] Vivekananda Kendra, promotion of Swami Vivekananda's ideas with Vivekananda International Foundation
Vivekananda International Foundation
in New Delhi as a "Public Policy Think Tank" with 6 Centres of study. India
India
Policy Foundation, a not-for-profit Think Tank[82] Bharatiya Shikshan Mandal, a Think Tank on educational reforms.[83] India
India
Foundation, a Think Tank[84] Akhil Bharatiya Itihas Sankalan Yojana (ABISY), All- India
India
history reform project Syama Prasad Mookerjee Research Foundation (SPMRF)[85][86]

Overseas

Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh, literally, Hindu Volunteer Association overseas wing of RSS Hindu Students Council, Overseas Hindu Students' Wing National Hindu Students' Forum, Hindu student group in UK Sewa International,UK based Charity[87] India
India
Development and Relief Fund, USA based charity[88]

Children

Others

Samskrita Bharati, promotion of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
language[54] Central Hindu Military Education Society, to encourage more Hindus to join the Defence Services[89] Kreeda Bharati, Sports Organization.[58][59][90] Samskar Bharati, Cultural unit[91][92]

See also[edit]

Bibliography of the Sangh Parivar

Notes[edit]

^ Jaffrelot 1996, p. 123. ^ Andersen & Damle 1987, p. 115. ^ a b Saha 2004:274 ^ a b Thakurta & Raghuraman, 2004:91 ^ Suresh Ramabhai, Vinoba and his mission, Published by Akhil Bharat Sarv Seva Sangh, 1954 ^ Martha Craven Nussbaum, The Clash Within: Democracy, Religious Violence, and India's Future, Published by Harvard University Press, 2007 ISBN 0-674-02482-6, ISBN 978-0-674-02482-3 ^ Smith, David James, Hinduism
Hinduism
and Modernity P189, Blackwell Publishing ISBN 0-631-20862-3 ^ Hinduism
Hinduism
and the Clash of Civilizations/David Frawley. New Delhi, Voice of India, 2001, xiv, 247 p., ISBN 81-85990-72-7 ^ M S Golwalkar, Bunch of Thoughts, Publishers: Sahitya Sindhu Prakashana ^ a b Hinduism
Hinduism
and the Clash of Civilizations/David Frawley. New Delhi, Voice of India, 2001, xiv, 247 p., ISBN 81-85990-72-7. ^ "New Delhi News : BJP
BJP
assures industrialists of good deal". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2008-07-20. Retrieved 2010-09-04.  ^ "Economics: A Bharatiya View Point". 2002. Archived from the original on 21 February 2003.  ^ Gupta, Sharad (14 November 2000). " BJP
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gears up to take on `ideological ally'". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 23 January 2003.  ^ "Content". Organiser. Archived from the original on 2008-12-30. Retrieved 2010-09-04.  ^ " Hindutva
Hindutva
and Politics: The case of Vishwa Hindu Parishad". Sacw.net. Retrieved 2010-09-04.  ^ http://www.sanghparivar.org/blog/rkm/unique-sangh-experiment-in-rural-development-by-pramod-kumar-in-mohad ^ a b BJP
BJP
promises measures to combat climate change ^ VHP mail: BJP
BJP
is like 'secular' Cong Times of India
India
– July 1, 2004 ^ Breckenridge, Pollock, Bhabha, Chakravarty 2002:56 ^ Bhatt 2001:4 ^ [1] Frontline – Oct. 22-Nov. 04, 2011 ^ Elst, Koenraad (2001). The Saffron Swastika. Voice of India. p. 9.  ^ Human Development and Social Power: Perspectives from South Asia, By Ananya Mukherjee Reed, Routledge, page 71 ^ p. 8, Human Rights Watch, By Fédération internationale des droits de l'homme ^ "VHP website". Archived from the original on 30 May 2009.  ^ "Rediff On The NeT: VHP has dalit ordained as priest in Kerala". Rediff.com. 1999-02-19. Retrieved 2010-09-04.  ^ a b Basu, Amrita (2015). Violent Conjunctures in Democratic India. Cambridge University Press. p. 190.  ^ "Content". Organiser. Retrieved 2010-09-04.  ^ "Special: Profile of Babu Lal Marandi". Rediff.com. 2000-11-14. Retrieved 2010-09-04.  ^ Ilaiah, Kancha (2004). Buffalo Nationalism: A Critique of Spiritual Fascism. p. 14. ISBN 9788185604695.  ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 1 July 2007. Retrieved 24 January 2009.  ^ Prakash Joshi, TNN, Sep 22, 2008, 05.05am IST (2008-09-22). "Cong-NCP casts OBC net to woo Marathas in state – Mumbai – City – The Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 2010-09-04. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ "Other States / Madhya Pradesh News : Shivraj Singh Chouhan sworn in". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 2008-12-13. Retrieved 2010-09-04.  ^ Cadena, Starn 284 ^ Fuller 284 ^ Nanaji Deshmukh ^ Deshmukh said "If people fight amongst each other, they will have no time for development." Nanaji Deshmukh: a social entrepreneur par excellence ^ Litigation Free Villages ^ "Wadia's Go Air to offer lowest airfares". rediff.com.  ^ "High flying chief". The Hindu. 22 January 2006. Archived from the original on 16 November 2006.  ^ Thakurta & Raghuraman, 2004:64 ^ BJP#History ^ "Babri Masjid demolition just an incident, says Supreme Court". Ndtv.com. 2012-01-16. Retrieved 2014-08-09.  ^ Matt. "Harvard Law School Human Rights Journal ". Law.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-09.  ^ Book – Communalism and Secularism in Indian Politics : Study of the BJP ^ " India
India
– The Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
and the Rise of Hindu Nationalism". Countrystudies.us. 1947-10-07. Retrieved 2014-03-31.  ^ "Ayodhya central to BJP's rise & fall at Centre, UP". The Times Of India. 2010-10-01.  ^ "Excerpts from the Liberhan Commission report". Hindustan Times. 25 November 2009. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.  ^ "How the BJP, RSS mobilised kar sevaks". Indianexpress.com. 25 November 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2011.  ^ "Liberhan comes down heavily on Vajpayee, Advani – Rediff.com India
India
News". News.rediff.com. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2011.  ^ "Vajpayee, Advani severely indicted by Liberhan Commission – India – DNA". Dnaindia.com. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 26 January 2011.  ^ Narendra Modi
Narendra Modi
heaps praise on Amit Shah
Amit Shah
as BJP
BJP
membership touches 10 crore, Times of India, 3 April 2015. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Jelen 2002, p. 253. ^ a b c Chitkara 2004, p. 168. ^ Jaffrelot 2011, p. 204. ^ "Nepal earthquake: RSS rolls out relief". intoday.in.  ^ Shoolin Design Pvt. Ltd. "Home". nmoindia.com.  ^ a b c d e "ABPS session begins in Puttur RSS leaders to focus on Corruption". Mangalore Media Company. 12 March 2011. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015.  ^ a b c d e "RSS top 3day Annual meet Akhil Bharatiya Pratinidhi Sabha (ABPS), to be held on March 7–9 at Bangalore". Vishwa Samvada Kendra. 3 March 2014. Archived from the original on 6 March 2014.  ^ "About Us". Akhil Bharatiya Poorva Sainik Seva Parishad. Archived from the original on 2 February 2015.  ^ Chitkara 2004, p. 169. ^ "Laghu Udyog Bharati" "Ministers, not group, to scan scams". The Telegraph. Calcutta, India. 1 October 2004. Archived from the original on 4 June 2015.  ^ "Laghu Udyog Bharati" Jaffrelot. Christophe (1 December 2014). "Parivar's diversity in unity". The Indian Express. Archived from the original on 4 June 2015.  ^ "Working for a Mission – physically, economically and morally strong India". bvpindia.com.  ^ "Bengaluru: SAKSHAMA celebrates Birth Centenary of Pandit Puttaraja Gawayi and Yadavarao Joshi". samvada.org.  ^ "Hindu Seva Pratishthana -". hinduseva.org.  ^ "Shiksha Bharati". shikshabharati.com.  ^ a b c d "Ten most aggressive fringe elements of the Parivar". The Times of India. 26 May 2015. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015.  ^ "धर्म जागरण समिति (Dharm Jagaran Samiti)".  ^ "RSS Body Dharam Jagran Samiti Sets Fixed Rates for Converting Muslims, Christians into Hindus".  ^ Thirumaavalavan (2003), Talisman, Extreme Emotions of Dalit Liberation, Popular Prakashan, pp. 55–, ISBN 978-81-85604-68-8  ^ Thomas, Shibu (29 March 2015). "Hate speech: Bombay high court denies bail to Hindu Sena
Hindu Sena
chief". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 1 June 2015.  ^ RSS to infuse young blood into Kerala BJP, The Hindu, 31 December 2015. ^ "Vijnana Bharati – The Largest Nation-Building Science Movement of India". vijnanabharati.org.  ^ Hindutva
Hindutva
at heart, Ambedkar on sleeve, The Hindu, 1 March 2010 ^ Jaffrelot, Christophe (2011). Religion, Caste, and Politics in India.p 32, C Hurst & Co. ISBN 978-1849041386. ^ RSS mouthpiece article on ‘live-in relationships’ in Kerala sets off social media storm ^ "Best of times for the RSS, it aims for makeover at 90".  ^ "Welcome to Hindusthan Samachar". hindusthansamachar.com.  ^ "Home – Hindustan Samachar". Hindustan Samachar. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014.  ^ "Hindu Vivek Kendra". hvk.org.  ^ "About India
India
Policy Foundation". India
India
Policy Foundation. 5 July 2014. Archived from the original on 14 February 2015.  ^ "Welcome to Bhartiya Shikshan Mandal". bsmbharat.org.  ^ "Right wing groups woo world for their idea of India". hindustantimes.com/.  ^ Peri, Dinakar (31 January 2016). "VIF and SPMRF among top think tanks with political affiliation". The Hindu. Retrieved 13 September 2016.  ^ Sangeeta Barooah Pisharoty, In Search of Syama Prasad Mookerjee, the “True Patriot”, The Wire, 7 July 2016. ^ Davies, Gloria (Editor); Nyland, Chris (2005). Globalization in the Asian region : impacts and consequences. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. p. 207. ISBN 9781845422196. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ Davies, Gloria (Editor); Nyland, Chris (2005). Globalization in the Asian region : impacts and consequences. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. p. 207. ISBN 9781845422196. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) ^ "Central Hindu Military Education Society". Central Hindu Military Education Society.  ^ "'Kreeda Bharati' Karnataka Unit inaugurated at Mangaluru". samvada.org.  ^ Sanskar Bharti activist appointed CBFC member ^ RSS now wants street plays that will teach Indian culture

References[edit]

Andersen, Walter K.; Damle, Shridhar D. (1987) [Originally published by Westview Press], The Brotherhood in Saffron: The Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh and Hindu Revivalism, Delhi: Vistaar Publications  Carol A. Breckenridge, Sheldon Pollock, Homi K. Bhabha, Dipesh Chakrabarty (2002). Cosmopolitanism. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2899-2. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Bhatt, Chetan (2001). Hindu Nationalism. Oxford, UK / New York, NY: Berg Publishers. ISBN 1-85973-348-4.  Chitkara, M. G. (2004). Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh: National Upsurge. APH Publishing. ISBN 9788176484657.  de la Cadena, Marisol; Orin Starn (2007). Indigenous Experience Today. Oxford, UK: Berg Publishers. ISBN 978-1-84520-518-8.  Fuller, Christopher (2004). The Camphor Flame. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-12048-5.  Jaffrelot, Christophe (1996), The Hindu Nationalist Movement and Indian Politics, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, ISBN 978-1850653011  Jaffrelot, Christophe (2007). Hindu Nationalism. Princeton, NJ / Woodstock, UK: Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-13098-1.  Jaffrelot, Christophe (2011), Religion, Caste, and Politics in India, C Hurst & Co, ISBN 978-1849041386  Jelen, Ted Gerard (2002). Religion and Politics in Comparative Perspective: The One, The Few, and The Many. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65031-3. ISBN 052165971X.  Mishra, Pankaj (2006). Temptations of the West: How to be Modern in India, Pakistan, Tibet and Beyond. New York City: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-374-17321-0.  Saha, Santosh (2004). Religious Fundamentalism in the Contemporary World: Critical Social and Political Issues. Lexington, MA: Lexington Press. ISBN 978-0-7391-0760-7.  Sarkar, Sumit (1993). The Fascism of the Sangh Parivar. Economic and Political Weekly.  Thakurta, Paranjoy Guha; Shankar Raghuraman (2004). A Time of Coalitions: Divided We Stand. New Delhi, India/Thousand Oaks, CA/London, UK: SAGE. ISBN 0-7619-3237-2. 

v t e

Sangh Parivar
Sangh Parivar
(RSS Family of Organisations)

Organisations

Akhil Bharatiya Vidyarthi Parishad Akhil Bharatiya Ram Rajya Parishad Banga Sena Bajrang Dal Bharatiya Janata Party Bharatiya Kisan Sangh Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh Durga Vahini Ekal Vidyalaya Hindu Munnani Hindu Swayamsevak Sangh Hindu Vivek Kendra Muslim Rashtriya Manch Ram Janmabhoomi
Ram Janmabhoomi
Nyas Rashtra Sevika Samiti Rashtriya Sikh Sangat Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh Seva Bharati Swadeshi
Swadeshi
Jagaran Manch Vanavasi Kalyan Ashram Vidya Bharati Vishwa Hindu Parishad Vivekananda Kendra

Sarsanghchalak

Keshav Baliram Hedgewar
Keshav Baliram Hedgewar
(1925–1930 and 1931–1940) Laxman Vaman Paranjpe (1930–1931) Madhav Sadashiv Golwalkar (1940–1973) Madhukar Dattatraya Deoras (1973–1994) Rajendra Singh (1994–2000) K. S. Sudarshan (2000–2009) Mohan Bhagwat
Mohan Bhagwat
(2009–present)

Other Major figures

Arun Jaitley Ashok Singhal Atal Bihari Vajpayee Balkrishna Shivram Moonje Babasaheb Apte Bal Thackeray Chinmayananda Saraswati Dattopant Thengadi Deendayal Upadhyaya Eknath Ranade Giriraj Kishore H. V. Sheshadri Jana Krishnamurthi K. N. Govindacharya Kushabhau Thakre Lal Krishna Advani Madhukar Rao Bhagwat Moropant Pingley Murli Manohar Joshi Nanaji Deshmukh Narendra Modi Prabhakar Balwant Dani Praveen Togadia Ram Madhav Rama Jois Ramchandra Das Paramhans S. S. Apte Swami Karpatri Syama Prasad Mukherjee Vinayak Damodar Savarkar

Independent authors

D. P. Agrawal Dilip Kumar Chakrabarti Dharampal David Frawley Michel Danino Rajiv Dixit Koenraad Elst Ram Gopal François Gautier Sita Ram Goel Swaraj Prakash Gupta Girilal Jain Christophe Jaffrelot Subhash Kak Raj Krishna K. S. Lal Harsh Narain Balraj Madhok Rajiv Malhotra N. S. Rajaram Ramesh Nagaraj Rao K. D. Sethna Malati Shendge Arun Shourie Ram Swarup

Philosophy

Akhand Bharat Gandhian socialism Integral humanism

Hindu nationalism

Bangabhumi Bengali Hindu Homeland Movement Hindutva Hindu Rashtra Panun Kashmir

Topics

Anti-Hinduism Caste system in India Exodus of Kashmiri Hindus Ghar Wapsi Indigenous Aryans Persecution of Hindus Ram Janmabhoomi Shuddhi Shah Bano case Uniform civil code Women in Hinduism

v t e

Bharatiya Janata Party

Party Presidents

Atal Bihari Vajpayee
Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(1980–86) Lal Krishna Advani
Lal Krishna Advani
(1986–91) Murli Manohar Joshi
Murli Manohar Joshi
(1991–93) Lal Krishna Advani
Lal Krishna Advani
(1993–98) Kushabhau Thakre
Kushabhau Thakre
(1998–2000) Bangaru Laxman
Bangaru Laxman
(2000–01) Jana Krishnamurthi
Jana Krishnamurthi
(2001–02) Venkaiah Naidu
Venkaiah Naidu
(2002–04) Lal Krishna Advani
Lal Krishna Advani
(2004–06) Rajnath Singh
Rajnath Singh
(2006–09) Nitin Gadkari
Nitin Gadkari
(2009–13) Rajnath Singh
Rajnath Singh
(2013–14) Amit Shah
Amit Shah
(2014–present)

Current vice presidents

Avinash Rai Khanna Prabhat Jha Dr. Vinay Sahasrabuddhe Renu Devi Om Prakash Mathur Shyam Jaju

Other prominent leaders

Sushma Swaraj Arun Jaitley Bhairon Singh Shekhawat Sunderlal Patwa Ravi Shankar Prasad Pramod Mahajan Mukhtar Abbas Naqvi Sushil Kumar Modi Himanta Biswa Sarma Ram Naik

Prime ministers

Atal Bihari Vajpayee Narendra Modi

Current chief ministers

Vijay Rupani Vasundhara Raje Shivraj Singh Chouhan Raman Singh Manohar Parrikar Jai Ram Thakur Manohar Lal Khattar Devendra Fadnavis Raghubar Das Sarbananda Sonowal Pema Khandu N. Biren Singh Trivendra Singh Rawat Yogi Adityanath Biplab Kumar Deb

Spokespersons

Syed Shahnawaz Hussain Dr. Sudhanshu Trivedi M. J. Akbar Meenakshi Lekhi Dr. Bizay Sonkar Shastri Siddharth Nath Singh Nalin Kohli Sambit Patra Anil Baluni G. V. L. Narsimha Rao Gopal Krishna Agarwal Siddhartha Bhattacharya Gaurav Bhatia Shaina NC Nupur Sharma Shazia Ilmi

General secretaries

P. Muralidhar Rao Ram Madhav Saroj Pandey Bhupender Yadav Kailash Vijayvargiya Anil Jain Dr. Arun Singh Ram Lal

Political wings

Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha BJP
BJP
Mahila Morcha BJP
BJP
SC Morcha BJP
BJP
ST Morcha BJP
BJP
OBC Morcha BJP
BJP
Minority Morcha BJP
BJP
Kisan Morcha

Related organisations

Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh Bharatiya Jana Sangh Janata Party Bharatiya Mazdoor Sangh Bharatiya Kisan Sangh

Others

Hindutva

.