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The SAN FRANCISCO BAY AREA (referred to locally as the BAY AREA) is a populous region surrounding the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California . The region encompasses the major cities and metropolitan areas of San Jose , San Francisco , and Oakland , along with smaller urban and rural areas. The Bay Area's nine counties are Alameda , Contra Costa , Marin , Napa , San Francisco , San Mateo , Santa Clara , Solano , and Sonoma . Home to approximately 7.68 million people, the nine-county Bay Area contains many cities, towns, airports, and associated regional, state, and national parks , connected by a network of roads, highways, railroads, bridges, tunnels, and commuter rail . The combined statistical area of the region is the second-largest in California (after the Greater Los Angeles area), the fifth-largest in the United States , and the 43rd-largest urban area in the world with 8.80 million people.

The Bay Area has the second-most Fortune 500 companies in the United States, after the New York metropolitan area , and is known for its natural beauty, liberal politics, entrepreneurship, and diversity . The area ranks second in highest density of college graduates, after the Washington, D.C. metropolitan area and performs above the state median household income in the 2010 census; it includes the five highest California counties by per capita income and two of the top 25 wealthiest counties in the United States . Based on a 2013 population report from the California Department of Finance , the Bay Area is the only region in California where the rate of people migrating in from other areas in the United States is greater than the rate of those leaving the region, led by Alameda and Contra Costa counties.

CONTENTS

* 1 Sub-regions

* 1.1 East Bay * 1.2 North Bay * 1.3 Peninsula * 1.4 South Bay * 1.5 Outer Bay

* 2 History * 3 Economy * 4 Metropolitan area * 5 Demography * 6 Politics * 7 Crime * 8 Climate

* 9 Ecology

* 9.1 Salmonids in the Bay Area * 9.2 Aquatic mammals in the Bay Area * 9.3 Birds of the Bay Area

* 10 Geology and landforms

* 10.1 Multiple terranes * 10.2 Vertical relief * 10.3 Major waterways * 10.4 Earthquake faults

* 11 Natural hazards

* 11.1 Earthquakes * 11.2 Flooding * 11.3 Windstorms and wildfires * 11.4 Mudslides and landslides

* 12 Transportation * 13 Higher education

* 14 Culture

* 14.1 Art

* 14.2 Sports

* 14.2.1 Motorsports

* 14.3 Music

* 14.3.1 Classic rock * 14.3.2 Heavy metal * 14.3.3 Alternative rock * 14.3.4 Punk * 14.3.5 Rap and hip hop

* 14.4 Media

* 15 Regional counties, cities, and suburbs

* 15.1 Counties * 15.2 Cities and towns

* 16 See also * 17 References * 18 External links

SUB-REGIONS

The nine-county Bay Area map, colored by subregion

EAST BAY

Main article: East Bay ( San Francisco Bay Area) South Berkeley , Emeryville , Oakland , Alameda and Bay Bridge

The eastern side of San Francisco Bay, consisting of Alameda and Contra Costa counties, is known locally as the East Bay. The East Bay can be loosely divided into two regions, the inner East Bay, which adjoins the Bay shoreline, and the outer East Bay, consisting of inland valleys separated from the inner East Bay by hills and mountains.

* The inner East Bay includes the western portions of Alameda and Contra Costa Counties, including the cities of Oakland , Hayward , Fremont , Berkeley , and Richmond , as well as many smaller suburbs such as Alameda , Castro Valley , Newark , Union City , Emeryville , Albany , San Leandro , San Pablo , Crockett , El Sobrante , Pinole , San Lorenzo , Hercules , Rodeo , Piedmont , and El Cerrito . The inner East Bay is more densely populated, with generally older buildings, and a more ethnically diverse population. This region contains the Bay Area's largest seaport , the Port of Oakland , the headquarters of Pixar Animation Studios , and hosts the professional sports franchises the Golden State Warriors , Oakland Raiders , and Oakland Athletics . * The outer East Bay consists of the eastern portions of Alameda and Contra Costa counties and is divided into 4 distinct areas: Lamorinda, Central Contra Costa County, East Contra Costa County, and the Tri-Valley . The word Lamorinda was coined by combining the names of the cities it includes: Lafayette , Moraga , and Orinda . Walnut Creek is situated east of Lamorinda and north of the San Ramon Valley and, together with Concord , Martinez , and Pleasant Hill comprises _Central Contra Costa County_. The cities of Antioch , Pittsburg , Brentwood , Oakley and the unincorporated areas surrounding them comprise _East Contra Costa County_. The Tri-Valley consists of the Amador , the Livermore , and the San Ramon Valleys . Dublin and Pleasanton comprise the Amador Valley , Livermore lies in the Livermore Valley , and the San Ramon Valley consists of Alamo , Danville , Diablo and its namesake, San Ramon . The outer East Bay is connected to the inner East Bay (East/West) by BART , Interstate 580 to the south, and State Routes State Route 4 to the north, and State Route 24 via the Caldecott Tunnel in the center. The outer East Bay's infrastructure was mostly built up after World War II. This area remains largely white demographically, although the Hispanic and Filipino populations have grown significantly over the past 2–3 decades.

NORTH BAY

Main article: North Bay ( San Francisco Bay Area) Napa Valley is most famous for its wine.

The region that spans north of the Golden Gate Bridge and San Pablo Bay is known locally as the North Bay. This area encompasses Marin County , Sonoma County , Napa County and extends eastward into Solano County .

With few exceptions (parts of Vallejo , Fairfield , San Rafael , and Marin City ) this region is quite affluent: Marin County is ranked as the wealthiest in the state. The North Bay is relatively rural compared to the remainder of the Bay Area, with many areas of undeveloped open space, farmland and vineyards. Santa Rosa in Sonoma County is the North Bay's largest city, with a population of 167,815 and a Metropolitan Statistical Area population of 466,891, making it the fifth-largest city in the Bay Area.

The North Bay is the only section of the Bay Area that is not currently served by a commuter rail service, however the Sonoma–Marin Area Rail Transit is scheduled to open in 2017. The lack of transportation services is mainly because of the lack of population mass in the North Bay, and the fact that it is separated completely from the rest of the Bay Area by water, the only access points being the Golden Gate Bridge leading to San Francisco, the Richmond-San Rafael and Carquinez Bridges leading to Richmond , and the Benicia-Martinez Bridge leading to Martinez .

PENINSULA

Main article: San Francisco Peninsula View of Colma, California , looking down from San Bruno Mountain

The area from San Francisco to the Silicon Valley , geographically part of the San Francisco Peninsula , is known locally as _The Peninsula_. This area consists of San Francisco and suburban communities in San Mateo County , and the northwestern part of Santa Clara County , as well as various towns along the Pacific coast, such as Pacifica and Half Moon Bay . This area is extremely diverse. Many of the cities and towns had originally been centers of rural life until the post-World War II era when large numbers of middle and upper class Bay Area residents moved in and developed the small villages. Since the 1980s the area has seen a large growth rate of middle and upper-class families who have settled in cities like Palo Alto , Los Altos , Portola Valley , Woodside , and Atherton as part of the technology boom of Silicon Valley. Many of these families are of foreign background and have significantly contributed to the diversity of the area. Peninsula cities include: Atherton , Belmont , Brisbane , Burlingame , Colma , Cupertino , Daly City , East Palo Alto , Foster City , Half Moon Bay , Hillsborough , Los Altos , Los Altos Hills , Menlo Park , Millbrae , Mountain View , Palo Alto , Pacifica , Portola Valley , Redwood City , Redwood Shores , San Bruno , San Carlos , San Francisco , San Mateo , South San Francisco and Woodside .

Whereas the term _peninsula_ technically refers to the entire geographical San Franciscan Peninsula, in local terms, _The Peninsula_ does not include the city of San Francisco itself. San Francisco panorama from Twin Peaks.

San Francisco is surrounded by water on three sides: the north, east, and west. The city houses roughly 870,000 people in under 47 square miles (120 km2), making it the second-most densely populated major city in North America after New York City. On any given day, there can be as many as 1 million people in the city because of the commuting population and tourism. San Francisco also has the largest commuter population of the Bay Area cities. The limitations of land area, however, make continued population growth challenging, and also has resulted in increased real estate prices. Though San Francisco is located at the tip of the peninsula, when _the peninsula_ is discussed, it usually refers to the communities and geographic locations south of the city proper.

SOUTH BAY

See also: Santa Clara Valley and Silicon Valley A panorama over Downtown San Jose

The communities at the southern region of the Bay Area are primarily located in what is known as Silicon Valley , or the Santa Clara Valley . These include the city of San Jose , and surrounding municipalities, including the high-tech hubs of Santa Clara , Milpitas , Cupertino , Mountain View , Sunnyvale as well as many other cities like Saratoga , Campbell , Los Gatos and the exurbs of Morgan Hill and Gilroy . Some Peninsula and East Bay towns are sometimes recognized as being in the Silicon Valley. Generally, the term South Bay refers to Santa Clara County, but the northwest portion of the county ( Palo Alto , Mountain View , Los Altos and Los Altos Hills ) may be considered part of the peninsula as well.

Silicon Valley was primarily an agricultural center from the time of California's founding until World War II. During and after the war, working and middle-class families migrated to the area to settle and work in the burgeoning aerospace and electronics industries. This area then experienced rapid growth as agriculture was gradually replaced by high-technology. During this period, the Santa Clara Valley gradually became an urbanized metropolitan region. Today, the growth continues, fueled primarily by technology jobs, the weather, and immigrant labor. Urbanization is gradually replacing suburbanization as the population density of the valley increases. This trend has resulted in a huge increase in property values, forcing many middle-class families out of the area or into lower income neighborhoods in older sections of the region. The Santa Clara Valley also came to be known as Silicon Valley, as the area became the premier technology center of the United States. Some notable tech companies headquartered in the South Bay are AMD , Adobe , Intel , Netflix , Cisco Systems , Hewlett-Packard , Apple , Google , eBay , Facebook and Yahoo! . Largely a result of the high technology sector, the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area has the most millionaires and the most billionaires in the United States per capita.

The population of the entire valley is part of the San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara metropolitan area, which has about 2 million residents. San Jose, the largest city in the Silicon Valley area, is the tenth most populous city in the United States and the most populous city in the Bay Area. San Jose is the oldest city in California and was its first capital. The city prides itself on being an environmentally conscious city. It recycles a greater percentage of its waste than any other large American city. Over the past several decades, the San Jose Area has experienced rapid growth. To limit the effects of urban sprawl , planned communities were laid out to control growth. Urban growth boundaries have been established to protect remaining open space (primarily in the surrounding hills and southern border) from development. Most new growth has been urban infill in the form of high density housing to increase density rate. The growth rate has slowed, but the area continues to have steady growth.

San Jose is home to many sports teams both amateur and professional, such as the San Jose Sharks of the NHL , and the San Jose Earthquakes of MLS . The San Francisco 49ers moved to a new stadium in Santa Clara in 2014.

The Silicon Valley has a large transportation infrastructure that includes many freeways, VTA bus service and light rail, Amtrak , and commuter rail such as Caltrain . The San Jose International Airport serves air traffic in the San Jose Area and is conveniently located just north of downtown in the center of Silicon Valley. The height of buildings in Downtown is limited (due to FAA regulations and city ordinance) because it is situated directly under the flight path. The South Bay is poised to have a more efficient transportation network with the extension of the BART system to San Jose, which would allow elevated/subway travel into San Francisco. San Jose will also be a major stop on the proposed California High-Speed Rail system.

OUTER BAY

Main articles: Santa Cruz County, California ; San Benito County, California ; and San Joaquin County, California

Whether Santa Cruz , San Benito and San Joaquin counties are considered part of the San Francisco Bay Area depends on the observer. For example, the regional governments in the San Francisco Bay Area, including the Association of Bay Area Governments , the Metropolitan Transportation Commission , the Bay Area Air Quality Management District (BAAQMD), and the San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB) include only the nine counties above in their boundaries or membership. (The BAAQMD includes all of the nine counties except the northern portions of Sonoma and Solano; the RWQCB includes all of San Francisco and the portions of the other eight counties that drain to San Francisco Bay or to the Pacific Ocean.) However, the Office of Management and Budget defines the San Jose-San Francisco- Oakland Consolidated Statistical Area as a twelve-county region, including the nine counties above plus Santa Cruz, San Benito and San Joaquin counties. Although, the San Francisco television market excludes half of Solano , Santa Cruz, San Benito, and San Joaquin counties; but includes Mendocino and Lake counties. Meanwhile, the California State Parks Department defines the Bay Area as including ten counties, including Santa Cruz but excluding San Benito and San Joaquin. On the other hand, Santa Cruz and San Benito along with Monterey County are part of a different regional government organization called the Association of Monterey Bay Area Governments . Local media in the San Francisco Bay Area and travel guides often consider these two counties as part of the South Bay subregion, as they are greatly connected geographically, economically, and historically. Santa Cruz County, along with San Benito County are usually regarded as being part of the California Central Coast and San Joaquin County is usually regarded as part of the California Central Valley , but has seen recent growth as several of its cities and communities have become exurbs of the Bay Area.

HISTORY

Main article: Timeline of the San Francisco Bay Area

ECONOMY

In 2015, the San Jose-San Francisco- Oakland CSA had a GDP of $758.5 billion, which would rank 17th among countries .

Silicon Valley is located within the southern reaches of the Bay Area. The leading high technology region in the world, Silicon Valley covers San Jose and several cities of the South Bay. The Valley is home to many of the industry leaders in technology such as Google , Yahoo! , Facebook , eBay , PayPal , Cisco , Apple , Oracle , Marvell , Intel , Uber and Hewlett-Packard . Major corporations in San Francisco, San Jose, Oakland, and the surrounding cities help make the region second in the nation in concentration of Fortune 500 companies, after New York. The region's northern counties encompass California's famous Wine Country , home to hundreds of vineyards and wineries. The Bay Area is a leader in sustainable agriculture , organic farming , and sustainable energy and a leading producer of high quality food, wine, and innovation in the culinary arts . California Cuisine was developed primarily in the Bay Area, as was the organic farming movement. The area is renowned for its natural beauty. It is also known as being one of the most expensive regions to live in the country.

Oakland, on the east side of the bay, has the fifth-largest container shipping port in the United States. The city is also a major rail terminus .

Changes in house prices for the Bay Area are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index ; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor\'s and is also a component of S">

OMB designated statistical areas for the Bay Area and outlying counties population STATISTICAL AREA 2016 ESTIMATE 2010 CENSUS CHANGE

San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 4,679,166 4,335,391 7000792950393632320♠+7.93%

San Jose-Sunnyvale-Santa Clara, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 1,978,816 1,836,911 7000772519735577830♠+7.73%

Stockton-Lodi, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 733,709 685,306 7000706297624710710♠+7.06%

Santa Rosa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 503,070 483,878 7000396628902326620♠+3.97%

Vallejo-Fairfield, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 440,207 413,344 7000649894518851130♠+6.50%

Santa Cruz-Watsonville, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 274,673 262,382 7000468439145977999♠+4.68%

Napa, CA Metropolitan Statistical Area 142,166 136,484 7000416312534802610♠+4.16%

San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area 8,751,807 8,153,696 7000733545866806910♠+7.34%

The San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA Combined Statistical Area ranks as the fifth most populous metropolitan area of the United States.

The U.S. Census Bureau estimates the population of the less extensive nine-county Bay Area as of July 1, 2016 as follows:

Nine county San Francisco Bay Area population COUNTY 2016 ESTIMATE 2010 CENSUS CHANGE

Santa Clara County 1,919,402 1,781,642 7000773219311174750♠+7.73%

Alameda County 1,647,704 1,510,271 7000909989001973820♠+9.10%

Contra Costa County 1,135,127 1,049,025 7000820781201591949♠+8.21%

San Francisco 870,887 805,235 7000815314783882970♠+8.15%

San Mateo County 764,797 718,451 7000645082267266660♠+6.45%

Sonoma County 503,070 483,878 7000396628902326620♠+3.97%

Solano County 440,207 413,344 7000649894518851130♠+6.50%

Marin County 260,651 252,409 7000326533522972640♠+3.27%

Napa County 142,166 136,484 7000416312534802610♠+4.16%

TOTAL 7,684,011 7,150,739 7000745757886003110♠+7.46%

DEMOGRAPHY

HISTORICAL POPULATION

CENSUS POP.

1860 114,074

1870 265,808

133.0%

1880 422,128

58.8%

1890 547,618

29.7%

1900 658,111

20.2%

1910 925,708

40.7%

1920 1,182,911

27.8%

1930 1,578,009

33.4%

1940 1,734,308

9.9%

1950 2,681,322

54.6%

1960 3,638,939

35.7%

1970 4,628,199

27.2%

1980 5,179,784

11.9%

1990 6,023,577

16.3%

2000 6,783,760

12.6%

2010 7,150,739

5.4%

EST. 2016 7,684,011

7.5%

Note: 9 County Population Totals

Maps of racial distribution according to 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, African, Asian, Hispanic, or Other (yellow) San Francisco and Oakland San Jose

According to the 2010 United States Census, the population was 7.15 million in the nine-county Bay Area, with 49.6% male and 50.4% female. Of these, approximately 2.3 million (32%) are foreign born. In 2010 the racial makeup of the nine-county Bay Area was 52.5% White (both Non-Hispanic whites and Hispanic White Americans ), 23.5% Hispanic or Latino of any race (17.9% Mexican, 1.3% Salvadoran, 0.6% Guatemalan, 0.6% Puerto Rican, 0.5% Nicaraguan, 0.3% Peruvian, 0.2% Cuban), 23.3% Asian (7.9% Chinese, 5.1% Filipino, 3.3% Indian, 2.5% Vietnamese, 1.0% Korean, 0.9% Japanese, 0.2% Pakistani, 0.2% Cambodian, 0.2% Laotian, 0.1% Thai, 0.1% Burmese), 6.7% non-Hispanic African American , 0.7% Native American , 0.6% Pacific Islander (0.1% Tongan, 0.1% Samoan, 0.1% Fijian, >0.1% Guamanian, >0.1% Native Hawaiian), 5.4% from two or more races and 10.8% from other races.

The Bay Area cities of Vallejo , Suisun City , Oakland , San Leandro , Fairfield , and Richmond are among the most ethnically diverse cities in the United States.

Non-Hispanic whites make up the majority in Marin , Napa and Sonoma counties . Whites also make up the majority in the eastern regions of the East Bay towards Stockton in the Alameda and Contra Costa counties centered around Livermore and Walnut Creek areas. San Francisco's North Beach district is considered the Little Italy of the city, and was once home to a significant Italian American community. San Francisco and Marin County both have substantial Jewish communities.

The Latino population is spread throughout the Bay Area, but has the largest populations in San Jose, in The Peninsula cities of Redwood City , East Palo Alto , San Bruno , San Mateo , and East Menlo Park , North Bay cities of Dixon , San Rafael , East Bay cities of Oakland, Richmond, Concord and Antioch , and in Sonoma County . San Francisco's Mission District is home to a thriving Mexican American community, as well as many residents of Salvadoran and Guatemalan descent.

The Chinese population of the Bay Area is concentrated in San Francisco , where 30% of the Bay Area's Chinese American population resides. In Oakland and in the San Jose area are centers of a significant Indian American community. The Bay Area is home to over 382,950 Filipino Americans , one of the largest communities of Filipino people outside of the Philippines with the largest proportion of Filipino Americans concentrating themselves within American Canyon , Daly City , Fairfield , South San Francisco and Vallejo . There are more than one hundred thousand people of Vietnamese ancestry residing within San Jose city limits, the largest Vietnamese population of any city in the world outside of Vietnam . There is a sizable community of Korean Americans in Santa Clara County, and there is a large strip of Korean restaurants and businesses located in Santa Clara . East Bay cities such as Richmond and Oakland, and the North Bay city of Santa Rosa , have plentiful populations of Laotian and Cambodians in certain neighborhoods.

The African American population of the Bay Area has always been significant in Marin City, Oakland , Richmond, and parts of San Francisco but other East and North Bay cities such as Antioch , Fairfield and Vallejo have received an influx of black residents. While mainly concentrated in the East Bay, there are well-established black neighborhoods located in the North Bay and the Peninsula. The South Park neighborhood of Santa Rosa was home to once a primarily black community until the 1980s, when many Latino immigrants settled in the area. In San Francisco, Hunters Point and Fillmore District have significant black populations. The Marin City community in Marin County has a significant black population. In the Peninsula, East Palo Alto has the highest population of African Americans.

Pacific Islanders such as Samoans and Tongans have the largest presence in East Palo Alto , San Mateo , San Bruno , Redwood City and the Bayview-Hunters Point and Visitacion Valley neighborhoods of San Francisco.

In 2007 the population density was 1,057 people per square mile. There were 2,499,702 housing units with an average family size of 3.3. Of the 2,499,702 households, approximately one-third were renter occupied housing units, while two-thirds were owner occupied housing units. 12.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 11.6% of households had someone 65 years of age or older, and 27.4% of households were non-families.

The Bay Area is one of the wealthiest regions in the United States, due, primarily, to the economic power engines of San Jose , San Francisco, and Oakland . Pleasanton has the second-highest household income in the country after New Canaan, CT. However, discretionary income is very comparable with the rest of the country, primarily because the higher cost of living offsets the increased income.

Forty-seven Bay Area residents made the Forbes magazine's 400 richest Americans list, published in 2007. Thirteen lived in San Francisco proper, placing it seventh among cities in the world. Among the forty-seven were several well-known names such as Steve Jobs , George Lucas , and Charles Schwab . The wealthiest resident was Larry Ellison of Oracle , worth $25 billion.

A study by Capgemini indicates that in 2009, 4.5% of all households within the San Francisco- Oakland and San Jose metropolitan areas held $1 million in investable assets, placing the region No. 1 in the United States (Metro New York City placed second at 4.3%).

As of 2007, there were approximately 80 public companies with annual revenues of over $1 billion a year, and 5–10 more private companies. Nearly 2/3 of these are in the Silicon Valley section of the Bay Area. According to the May 2010 Fortune Magazine analysis of the US "Fortune 500" companies, the combined San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland metropolitan region ranks second (after metro New York City and before Chicago) with 30 companies (May 2011, Fortune Magazine).

COUNTIES BY POPULATION AND ETHNICITY

COUNTY TYPE POPULATION WHITE Other ASIAN AFRICAN Native HISPANIC

Alameda County 1,494,876 46.2% 13.8% 26.2% 12.5% 1.3% 22.2%

Contra Costa County 1,037,817 63.2% 12.5% 14.3% 9.1% 0.5% 23.9%

Marin County 250,666 79.9% 11.0% 5.6% 3.0% 0.2% 14.0%

Napa County 135,377 81.3% 8.9% 6.8% 2.0% 0.3% 31.5%

San Francisco City and county 870,887 48.5% 11.3% 33.3% 6.1% 0.9% 15.1%

San Mateo County 711,622 59.6% 11.1% 24.6% 2.9% 1.8% 24.9%

Santa Clara County 1,762,754 50.9% 13.8% 31.8% 2.6% 0.4% 26.6%

Solano County 411,620 52.1% 17.6% 14.4% 14.6% 1.4% 23.6%

Sonoma County 478,551 81.6% 11.3% 4.0% 1.2% 1.5% 24.3%

COUNTIES BY POPULATION AND INCOME

COUNTY TYPE POPULATION PER CAPITA INCOME MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME MEDIAN FAMILY INCOME

Alameda County 1,494,876 $34,937 $70,821 $87,012

Contra Costa County 1,037,817 $38,141 $79,135 $93,437

Marin County 250,666 $54,605 $89,605 $113,826

Napa County 135,377 $35,309 $68,641 $79,884

San Francisco City and county 870,887 $46,777 $72,947 $87,329

San Mateo County 711,622 $45,346 $87,633 104,370

Santa Clara County 1,762,754 $40,698 $89,064 $103,255

Solano County 411,620 $29,367 $69,914 $79,316

Sonoma County 478,551 $33,119 $64,343 $78,227

POLITICS

The Bay Area is widely regarded as one of the most liberal areas in the country. According to the Cook Partisan Voting Index (CPVI), congressional districts the Bay Area tends to favor Democratic candidates by roughly 40 to 50 percentage points, considerably above the mean for California and the nation overall. All congressional districts in the region voted for Democrat Barack Obama over Republican John McCain in the 2008 Presidential Election . Over the last four and a half decades the 9-county Bay Area voted for Republican candidates only twice, once in 1972 for Richard Nixon and again in 1980 for Ronald Reagan and in 1984, both Californians. The last county to vote for a Republican Presidential candidate was Napa county in 1988 for George H. W. Bush .

COUNTY

POPULATION (2010) 2012 ELECTION RESULTS MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME (2011) PER CAPITA INCOME (2011) VOTER REGISTRATION (2013)

DEMOCRATIC INDEPENDENT REPUBLICAN

Alameda 1,510,271 78.9%–18.2% Obama $67,558 $33,888 461,007 158,958 114,802

Contra Costa 1,049,025 66.2%–31.2% Obama $74,353 $36,274 263,258 113,358 131,608

Marin 252,409 74.3%–23.0% Obama $77,168 $49,439 83,853 35,251 28,116

Napa 136,484 63.0%–34.3% Obama $61,460 $32,170 33,182 15,248 19,142

San Francisco 805,235 83.5%–13.0% Obama $69,894 $44,905 276,855 154,691 42,922

San Mateo 718,451 72.1%–25.5% Obama $81,657 $44,331 185,134 92,158 69,925

Santa Clara 1,781,642 70.1%–27.2% Obama $84,895 $39,365 372,979 237,357 177,268

Solano 413,344 63.5%–34.2% Obama $63,795 $27,785 102,177 46,246 52,633

Sonoma 483,878 71.1%–25.3% Obama $61,020 $30,868 134,896 55,666 56,428

MEDIAN — 72.9%–24.1% OBAMA $73,562 $37,851 — — —

TOTAL 7,150,739 — — — 1,913,341 908,933 692,844

Presidential election results YEAR DEMOCRAT REPUBLICAN

2016 74.5% _2,339,480_ 18.9% _594,831_

2012 72.9% _2,105,625_ 24.1% _696,656_

2008 73.8% _2,172,411_ 24.4% _717,989_

2004 69.2% _1,926,726_ 29.3% _815,225_

2000 64.1% _1,607,695_ 30.0% _751,832_

1996 60.5% _1,417,511_ 28.3% _662,263_

1992 56.2% _1,476,971_ 25.0% _658,202_

1988 57.8% _1,338,533_ 40.8% _945,802_

1984 50.8% _1,157,855_ 47.9% _1,090,115_

1980 40.7% _827,309_ 44.4% _904,100_

1976 49.9% _950,055_ 45.8% _872,920_

1972 48.2% _990,560_ 49.1 _1,007,615_

1968 50.8% _890,650_ 41.3% _725,304_

1964 65.7% _1,116,215_ 34.1% _579,528_

1960 52.0% _820,860_ 47.6% _751,719_

DISTRICT LOCATION REPRESENTATIVE COOK PVI 2012 ELECTION RESULTS MEDIAN HOUSEHOLD INCOME (2011)

2nd Marin County and the North Coast Jared Huffman D+20 69.0%–27.0% Obama $56,576

3rd Fairfield , Vacaville , and the Sacramento Valley John Garamendi D+3 54.3%–43.1% Obama $53,602

5th Santa Rosa , Napa County , Vallejo , and Martinez Mike Thompson D+19 69.7%–27.4% Obama $58,942

9th Antioch and most of San Joaquin County Jerry McNerney D+6 57.8%–40.1% Obama $52,209

11th Most of Contra Costa County Mark DeSaulnier D+17 67.5%–29.9% Obama $69,586

12th Most of San Francisco Nancy Pelosi D+34 84.0%–12.5% Obama $69,046

13th Berkeley , Oakland , and San Leandro Barbara Lee D+37 87.5%–9.0% Obama $56,906

14th Most of San Mateo County Jackie Speier D+23 74.2%–23.6% Obama $79,287

15th Hayward , Union City , and the Tri-Valley Eric Swalwell D+16 68.0%–29.8% Obama $82,179

17th Fremont and northern Silicon Valley Ro Khanna D+20 71.9%–25.5% Obama $92,030

18th Menlo Park and western Silicon Valley Anna Eshoo D+18 68.2%–28.9% Obama $97,001

19th San Jose and Morgan Hill Zoe Lofgren D+19 71.2%–26.5% Obama $71,479

MEDIAN — — D+13 67.8%–26.9% OBAMA $63,904

During the Base Realignment and Closures (BRACs) of the 1990s, almost all the military installations in the region were closed. The only remaining major active duty military installations are Travis Air Force Base and Coast Guard Island .

COUNTIES BY POPULATION AND VOTER REGISTRATION

COUNTY POPULATION REGISTERED VOTERS DEMOCRATIC REPUBLICAN D–R SPREAD American Independent GREEN LIBERTARIAN Peace and Freedom Americans Elect OTHER NO PARTY PREFERENCE

Alameda 1,494,876 54.6% 56.4% 14.1% +42.3% 2.0% 1.2% 0.5% 0.4% 0.0% 6.0% 19.5%

Contra Costa 1,037,817 58.5% 50.4% 21.8% +24.8% 2.6% 0.5% 0.6% 0.2% 0.0% 0.2% 23.7%

Marin 250,666 61.5% 54.4% 18.2% +36.2% 2.1% 1.4% 0.5% 0.2% 0.0% 0.3% 12.9%

Napa 135,377 56.2% 46.9% 24.2% +22.7% 3.0% 0.8% 0.8% 0.3% 0.0% 0.5% 23.4%

San Francisco 870,887 62.4% 55.6% 8.6% +47.0% 1.8% 1.7% 0.6% 0.3% 0.0% 0.3% 31.1%

San Mateo 711,622 50.7% 51.3% 19.4% +31.9% 2.1% 0.7% 0.5% 0.2% 0.0% 0.2% 25.5%

Santa Clara 1,762,754 46.5% 45.6% 21.7% +23.9% 2.1% 0.5% 0.6% 0.2% 0.0% 0.2% 29.0%

Solano 411,620 51.1% 48.6% 25.0% +23.6% 2.8% 0.4% 0.5% 0.4% 0.0% 0.4% 22.0%

Sonoma 478,551 54.7% 51.5% 21.6% +29.9% 2.5% 1.8% 0.7% 0.3% 0.0% 0.3% 21.3%

CRIME

The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

COUNTIES BY POPULATION AND CRIME RATES

COUNTY POPULATION VIOLENT CRIMES Violent crime rate per 1,000 persons PROPERTY CRIMES Property crime rate per 1,000 persons

Alameda 1,494,876 11,189 7.48 33,395 22.34

Contra Costa 1,037,817 4,257 4.10 19,843 19.12

Marin 250,666 — — — —

Napa 135,377 580 4.28 1,634 15.45

San Francisco 870,887 5,777 7.04 38,898 47.42

San Mateo 711,622 2,072 2.91 8,677 12.19

Santa Clara 1,762,754 5,013 2.84 23,790 13.50

Solano 411,620 2,064 5.01 8,460 20.55

Sonoma 478,551 1,917 4.01 4,537 9.48

CLIMATE

See also: Climate of California Skyline Boulevard stretches through the Santa Cruz Mountains, here atop Portola Valley, California. During winter and spring, the hills surrounding the San Francisco Bay Area are lush and green. The same location during the summer months. Because rain is rare in the San Francisco Bay Area during this time, the surrounding hills quickly become dry and golden-hued in grassy areas

High and Low Average Temperatures for Various Cities in the San Francisco Bay Area in Fahrenheit and (Celsius) degrees CITY JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC

GILROY 60/39 (16/4) 64/42 (18/6) 68/44 (20/7) 73/46 (23/8) 78/50 (26/10) 84/53 (29/12) 88/55 (31/13) 88/55 (31/13) 85/54 (29/12) 79/49 (26/9) 68/43 (20/6) 60/38 (16/3)

OAKLAND 58/45 (14/7) 62/48 (17/9) 64/49 (18/9) 66/51 (19/11) 69/53 (21/12) 71/56 (22/13) 72/57 (22/14) 73/58 (23/14) 74/58 (23/14) 72/55 (22/13) 64/50 (18/10) 58/45 (14/7)

RICHMOND 58/44 (14/7) 61/46 (16/8) 64/48 (18/9) 67/49 (19/9) 69/52 (21/11) 72/55 (22/13) 72/56 (22/13) 72/56 (22/13) 74/56 (23/13) 72/54 (22/12) 65/49 (18/9) 58/44 (14/7)

SAN FRANCISCO 58/46 (14/8) 61/48 (16/9) 63/49 (17/9) 64/50 (18/10) 66/52 (19/11) 68/53 (20/12) 68/55 (20/13) 69/56 (21/13) 71/56 (22/13) 70/54 (21/12) 64/51 (18/11) 58/47 (14/8)

SAN RAFAEL 55/42 (13/6) 60/44 (16/7) 64/45 (18/7) 67/47 (19/8) 71/50 (22/10) 77/53 (25/12) 80/55 (27/13) 80/55 (27/13) 79/54 (26/12) 73/51 (23/11) 64/46 (18/8) 55/41 (13/5)

SANTA ROSA 58/39 (14/4) 62/42 (17/6) 65/43 (18/6) 69/45 (21/7) 73/49 (23/9) 79/52 (26/11) 81/53 (27/12) 82/53 (28/12) 82/52 (28/11) 76/49 (24/9) 65/43 (18/6) 58/39 (14/4)

ECOLOGY

Main article: Ecology of the San Francisco Estuary San Francisco Bay c. 1770–1820

Despite its urban and industrial character, San Francisco and San Pablo Bays and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta remain perhaps California's most important ecological habitats . California's Dungeness crab , Pacific halibut , and Pacific salmon fisheries rely on the bay as a nursery. The few remaining salt marshes now represent most of California's remaining salt marsh, supporting a number of endangered species and providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers. Most famously, the bay is a key link in the Pacific Flyway . Millions of waterfowl annually use the bay shallows as a refuge. Two endangered species of birds are found here: the California least tern and the California clapper rail . Exposed bay muds provide important feeding areas for shorebirds , but underlying layers of bay mud pose geological hazards for structures near many parts of the bay perimeter. San Francisco Bay provided the nation's first wildlife refuge, Oakland's artificial Lake Merritt (constructed in the 1860s) and America's first urban National Wildlife Refuge, the Don Edwards San Francisco Bay National Wildlife Refuge (SFBNWR) (1972). The Bay is also invaded by non-native species.

The seasonal range of water temperature in the Bay is from about 8 °C (46 °F) to about 23 °C (73 °F).

Industrial, mining, and other uses of mercury have resulted in a widespread distribution of that poisonous metal in the bay, with uptake in the bay's phytoplankton and contamination of its sportfish . In November 2007, a ship named _ Cosco Busan _ collided with the San Francisco– Oakland Bay Bridge and spilled over 58,000 gallons of bunker fuel, creating the largest oil spill in the region since 1996.

SALMONIDS IN THE BAY AREA

Steelhead (_Oncorhynchus mykiss_) populations in California have dramatically declined due to human and natural causes. The Central California Coast distinct population segment (DPS) was listed as threatened under the Federal Endangered Species Act on August 18, 1997; threatened status was reaffirmed on January 5, 2006. This DPS includes all naturally spawned anadromous steelhead populations below natural and manmade impassable barriers in California streams from the Russian River to Aptos Creek , and the drainages of San Francisco, San Pablo, and Suisun Bays. The U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service has a detailed description of threats.

The Central California Coast coho salmon (_Oncorhynchus kisutch_) Evolutionary Significant Unit (ESU) population is the most endangered of the many troubled salmon populations on the West Coast. It was listed as threatened on October 31, 1996 and later changed to endangered status on June 28, 2005. The ESU includes all naturally spawned populations of coho salmon (_Oncorhynchus kisutch_) from Punta Gorda in northern California south to and including the San Lorenzo River in central California, as well as populations in tributaries to San Francisco Bay. The National Park Service has made major recent investments in restoring the tidal wetlands at the mouths of Lagunitas Creek and Redwood Creek including levee removal and placement of large woody debris in the creeks, which provide shelter to salmonids during heavy stream flows and flooding. Lagunitas Creek's coho population is especially important, as 80% of the ESU depends on this stream draining the north slope of Mount Tamalpais . This year's coho count dropped to 64 from an average of 600 in previous years.

Much of the SFBNWR consists of salt evaporation ponds acquired from the Leslie Salt Company and its successor, Cargill Corporation through a series of land sales and donations. Many of these salt ponds remain in operation and produce salt used throughout the Western United States in food, agriculture, industry and medicine. The refuge pond support dense populations of brine shrimp , and therefore serving as feeding areas for waterfowl. In 2003, the US Fish & Wildlife Service and California Department of Fish "> River otter sunning on rocks in the Richmond Marina California golden beaver on Alhambra Creek in Martinez, California

Aquatic mammals recently re-colonizing the Bay Area include the California golden beaver (_Castor canadensis_) which is now established on Alhambra Creek in Martinez , Napa River and Sonoma Creek ; and North American river otter (_Lontra canadensis_) which was first reported in Redwood Creek at Muir Beach in 1996, and recently in Corte Madera Creek , and in the south Bay on Coyote Creek , as well as in 2010 in San Francisco Bay itself at the Richmond Marina . Sea otter (_Enhydra lutris_) were hunted to extinction in San Francisco Bay by about 1817. Historical records reveal that the Russian-American Company snuck Aleuts into San Francisco Bay multiple times, despite the Spanish capturing or shooting them while hunting sea otters in the estuaries of San Jose , San Mateo , San Bruno and around Angel Island . The founder of Fort Ross , Ivan Kuskov , finding otter scarce on his second voyage to Bodega Bay in 1812, sent Russian ships and hired an American ship to hunt otter in the Bay, catching 1,160 sea otter in three months.

Humphrey the Whale , a humpback whale (_Megaptera novaeangliae_), entered San Francisco Bay twice on errant migrations, and was successfully rescued and redirected each time in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This occurred again with Dawn and Delta a mother and calf in 2007.

Bottlenose dolphins and harbor porpoises have recently returned to the bay, having been absent for some 50 years. Historically, this was the northern extent of their warm-water species range. However, human development adversely impacted this habitat and pushed the species south to Monterey Bay. It is thought that laws limiting water pollution have improved the ecosystem health, allowing the return of cetacean marine life.

BIRDS OF THE BAY AREA

Family of owls turned out of their homes in Antioch

Western burrowing owls (_Athene cunicularia_) were listed as a species of special concern (a pre-listing category under the Endangered Species Act) by the California Department of Fish and Game in 1979. California's population declined 60% from the 1980s to the early '90s, and continues to decline at roughly 8% per year. In 1994, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service nominated the western burrowing owl as a Federal Category 2 candidate for listing as endangered or threatened, but loss of habitat continues due to development of the flat, grassy lands used by the owl. A 1992–93 survey reported no breeding burrowing owls in Napa , Marin , and San Francisco counties, and only a few in San Mateo and Sonoma . The Santa Clara County population is declining and restricted to a few breeding locations, leaving only Alameda , Contra Costa , and Solano counties as the remnant breeding range. Despite organized protests at Kiper Homes' Blue Ridge property in Antioch, California by _Friends of East Bay Owls_ , one-way doors were installed in the birds' burrows so that the owl families could not return to their nests in early 2010. In addition, in 2008, Mountain View, California evicted a pair of burrowing owls so that it could sell a parcel of land to Google to build a hotel at Shoreline Boulevard and Charleston Road. Eviction of the owls is controversial because the birds regularly reuse burrows for years, and there is no requirement that suitable new habitat be found for the owls.

In March 2012 a bald eagle (_Haliaeetus leucocephalus_) nest was reported on the northwest arm of Lower Crystal Springs Reservoir and upper San Mateo Creek . This is the first bald eagle breeding pair on the San Francisco Peninsula since 1915, when they nested in La Honda , almost one hundred years ago. The birds were once common in the Bay Area. While visiting Santa Clara County in 1855, physician naturalist James G. Cooper described "a nest of this bird large enough to fill a wagon, built in a large sycamore tree, standing alone in the prairie. Habitat destruction and thinning of eggs from (now banned) DDT poisoning reduced the California state population to 35 nesting pairs at their lowest point. In the 1980s re-introductions began with the Santa Cruz Predatory Bird Research Group and the San Francisco Zoo began importing birds and eggs from Vancouver Island and northeastern California in the late 1980s.

Joseph Grinnell wrote in 1927 that osprey (_Pandion haliaetus_) were only rare visitors to the San Francisco Bay Area, although he noted records of one or two used nests in the broken tops of redwood trees along the Russian River . In 1989, the southern breeding range of the osprey in the Bay Area was Kent Lake , although osprey were noted to be extending their range further south in the Central Valley and the Sierra Nevada. However, in 2014 a Bay Area-wide survey found osprey had extended their breeding range southward with nesting sites as far south as Hunters Point in San Francisco on the west side and Hayward on the east side. Most nests were built on man-made structures close to areas of human disturbance, likely due to lack of mature trees near the Bay. Transfer of these birds to artificial nesting boxes away from human disturbance significantly increased nesting success. The above 2014 survey omitted nesting sites in Santa Clara County in the Los Gatos Creek watershed photographed as early as 2004, indicating that the nesting range now includes the entire length of San Francisco Bay.

The wild turkey population has increased greatly since their introduction during the ’60s and ’70s from other areas by game officials. By 2015 they had become an everyday sight in the East Bay Area.

GEOLOGY AND LANDFORMS

A portion of the Franciscan Assemblage (former seabed), one of the terrane types

MULTIPLE TERRANES

The area is well known worldwide for the complexity of its landforms, the region being composed of at least six terranes (continental , seabed , or island arc fragments with distinct characteristics) pushed together over many millions of years by the forces of plate tectonics . Nine out of eleven distinct _assemblages_ have been identified in a single county (Alameda). Diverse assemblages adjoin in complex arrangements due to offsets along the many faults (both active and stable) in the area. As a consequence, many types of rock and soil are found in the region. Formations include the sedimentary rocks of sandstone , limestone , and shale in uplifted seabeds, metamorphic serpentine rock, coal deposits, and igneous forms such as basalt flows, rhyolite outcroppings, granite associated with the Salinian Block west of the San Andreas Fault, and ash deposits of extinct yet relatively recently active (10 million years) volcanos . Pleistocene -era fossils of mammals are abundantly present in some locations.

VERTICAL RELIEF

The region has considerable vertical relief in its landscapes that are not in the alluvial plains leading to the bay or in inland valleys. In combination with the extensive water regions this has forced the fragmented development of urban and suburban regions and has led to extensive building on poor soils in the limited flatland areas and considerable expense in connecting the various subregions with roads, tunnels, and bridges. USGS satellite photo of the Bay Area taken in 1999. Gray areas are highly urbanized. NASA satellite photo

Several mountains are associated with some of the many ridge and hill structures created by compressive forces between the Pacific Plate and the North American plate. These provide spectacular views (in appropriate weather) of large portions of the Bay Area and include Marin County's Mount Tamalpais at 2,571 feet (784 m). Contra Costa County's Mount Diablo at 3,849 feet (1,173 m), Alameda County's Mission Peak at 2,517 to 2,604 feet (767 to 776 m), and Santa Clara County's Mount Hamilton at 4,213 ft (1,284 m), the latter with significant astronomical studies performed at its crowning Lick Observatory . Though Tamalpais and Mission Peak are quite lower than the others, Tamalpais has no other peaks and few hills nearby. Mission Peak is coast facing and is an interior mountain and therefore has excellent views of both sides.

The three major ridge structures (part of the Pacific Coast Range ) which are all roughly parallel to the major faults :

* The Santa Cruz Mountains along the San Francisco Peninsula and the Marin Hills in Marin County ( San Andreas Fault ) * The Berkeley Hills , San Leandro Hills and their southern ridgeline extension through Mission Peak ( Hayward Fault ) * The Diablo Range , which includes Mount Diablo and Mount Hamilton ( Calaveras Fault )

MAJOR WATERWAYS

Main article: Hydrography of the San Francisco Bay Area

* San Joaquin River * Sacramento River * Napa River * Suisun Marsh * Sonoma Creek * Guadalupe River * Coyote Creek * Petaluma River * San Pablo Creek * Wildcat Creek * Oakland Estuary * Russian River * San Lorenzo River * San Lorenzo Creek * Gulf of the Farallones * Alameda Creek

EARTHQUAKE FAULTS

The region is also traversed by six major slip-strike fault systems with hundreds of related faults, many of which are "sister faults" of the infamous San Andreas Fault , all of which are stressed by the relative motion between the Pacific Plate and the North American Plate or by compressive stresses between these plates. The fault systems include the Hayward Fault Zone , Concord-Green Valley Fault , Calaveras Fault , Clayton-Marsh Creek-Greenville Fault , and the San Gregorio Fault . Significant blind thrust faults (faults with near vertical motion and no surface ruptures) are associated with portions of the Santa Cruz Mountains and the northern reaches of the Diablo Range and Mount Diablo .

NATURAL HAZARDS

EARTHQUAKES

Probabilities for major earthquakes on Bay Area faults

The region is particularly exposed to hazards associated with large earthquakes. Two of the largest earthquakes in the area were the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake . The hazard from earthquakes is high in the Bay Area owing to a combination of factors:

* Numerous major active faults in the region. * A combined thirty-year probability of a major earthquake in excess of seventy percent. * Poorly responding native soil conditions in many places near the bay and in inland valleys, soils which amplify shaking as shown in the map to the right. * Large areas of filled marshlands and bay mud that are significantly urbanized, with most subject to soil liquefaction , becoming unable to support structures. * A large inventory of older buildings, many of which are expected to perform poorly in a major earthquake. * Extensive building in areas subject to landslide , mudslide , and in some locations directly over active fault surface rubble zones. * Most lowrise construction is not fireproof and water systems are likely to be extensively damaged and so large areas are subject to destruction by fire after a large earthquake. * The coastal location makes the region vulnerable to Pacific Ocean tsunamis .

Some of these hazards are being addressed by seismic retrofitting , education in household seismic safety, and even complete replacement of major structures such as the eastern span of the San Francisco– Oakland Bay Bridge .

For an article concerning a typical fault in the region and its associated hazards see Hayward Fault Zone .

FLOODING

Some flooding occurs on local drainages under sustained wet conditions when the ground becomes saturated, more frequently in the North Bay area, which tends to receive substantially more rainfall than the South Bay. In one case, the Napa River drainage, floodplain developments are being purchased and removed and natural wetlands restored in the innovative Napa River Flood Project as the previous channelization of insufficient capacity around such developments was causing flooding problems upstream. Many of the local creeks have been channelized, although modern practice, and some restoration work includes returning the creeks to a natural state with dry stormwater bypasses constructed to handle flooding. While quite expensive, the restoration of a natural environment is of high priority in the intensively urbanized areas of the region.

WINDSTORMS AND WILDFIRES

Typically between late November and early March, a very strong Pacific storm can bring both substantial rainfall (saturating and weakening soil) and strong wind gusts that can cause trees to fall on power lines. Owing to the wide area involved (sometimes hundreds of miles of coast), electrical service can be interrupted for up to several days in some more remote localities, but service is usually restored quickly in urban areas. These storms occasionally bring lightning "> The Bay Area is served by a variety of rail transit systems, primarily by Bay Area Rapid Transit and Caltrain . Main article: Transportation in the San Francisco Bay Area

The Bay Area is served by several transportation systems, including three major international airports (SFO , OAK , SJC ), six major overlapping bus transit agencies ( AC Transit , Muni , SamTrans , VTA , Golden Gate Transit , County Connection ), and additional systems serving smaller areas. There are four rapid transit and regional rail systems including BART and Caltrain and two light rail systems (San Francisco Muni Metro and VTA Light-rail ). There are also several regional rail lines provided by Amtrak , notably the Capitol Corridor . In addition to rail lines, there are multiple public and private ferry services (notably Golden Gate Ferry and Blue and Gold Fleet ), which are being expanded by the San Francisco Bay Water Transit Authority . The regional ferry hub is San Francisco Ferry Building . AC Transit and some other agencies provide an extensive network of express "transbay" commuter buses from the suburbs to the San Francisco Transbay Terminal .

The freeway and highway system is very extensive; however, many freeways are congested particularly during rush hour , especially the two immediately adjacent trans-bay bridges ( Golden Gate and Bay Bridge ). Also, some city streets in San Francisco are the terminus where gaps occur in the system, partly the result of the Freeway Revolt (SF Board of Supervisors decisions made in 1959, 1964 and 1966), which prevented a freeway-only thoroughfare through San Francisco between the San Francisco– Oakland Bay Bridge western terminus of (Interstate 80 ) with the southern terminus of the Golden Gate Bridge, and U.S. 101 . Also, damages to the system in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to several of the freeway structures that sparked the revolt were removed instead of being reinforced or rebuilt.

HIGHER EDUCATION

The region is home to many colleges and seminaries , including University of California, Berkeley , the University of California, San Francisco and Stanford University . The Bay Area is home to two of the twenty-eight Jesuit universities in the U.S.: Santa Clara University (founded in 1851), and University of San Francisco (1855); these are also two of the three oldest California colleges. The third, San Jose State University , is the founding campus of the California State University (CSU) system, and is the oldest public institution of higher education on the West Coast of the United States . Saint Mary\'s College of California was founded in 1863 by the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of San Francisco. In 2008, there were approximately 588,000 students enrolled in college or graduate school. The San Francisco Bay Area population is near the top in the Nation for overall education level with approximately 41 percent of residents aged 25 years and over having a bachelor's degree or higher. The San Francisco and San Jose Primary Metropolitan Statistical Areas rank third and fourth in college graduates, ahead of Boston and behind only Boulder–Longmont, CO PMSA and Stamford–Norwalk, CT PMSA . The Oakland PMSA ranks eleventh.

Public University of California, Berkeley San José State University

* Berkeley City College * California Maritime Academy * California State University, East Bay (Hayward) * Cañada College , Redwood City * Chabot College , Hayward * City College of San Francisco * College of Alameda * College of Marin , Kentfield * College of San Mateo * Contra Costa College , San Pablo * De Anza College , Cupertino * Diablo Valley College , Pleasant Hill * Evergreen Valley College , San Jose * Foothill College , Los Altos Hills * Gavilan College , Gilroy * Laney College , Oakland * Las Positas College , Livermore * Los Medanos College , Pittsburg * Merritt College , Oakland * Mission College , Santa Clara * Napa Valley College , Napa * Ohlone College , Fremont * San Francisco State University * San Jose City College * San Jose State University * Santa Rosa Junior College * Sonoma State University * Skyline College , San Bruno * Solano Community College , Fairfield * West Valley College , Saratoga * University of California, Berkeley * University of California, Hastings College of the Law * University of California, San Francisco * University of California, Santa Cruz

Seminaries

* American Baptist Seminary of the West * The Church Divinity School of the Pacific (Episcopal ) * Dominican School of Philosophy and Theology * Franciscan School of Theology * Fuller Northern California * Golden Gate Baptist Theological Seminary

* Graduate Theological Union

* Institute of Buddhist Studies * Center for Theology and the Natural Sciences

* Jesuit School of Theology at Berkeley * Pacific Lutheran Theological Seminary (ELCA, Berkeley) * Pacific School of Religion (UCC , Disciples ">

Private Stanford University University of San Francisco Santa Clara University Saint Mary's College of California

* Academy of Art University * The Art Institute of California San Francisco * California College of the Arts * California Culinary Academy * California Institute of Integral Studies * Carnegie Mellon Silicon Valley * Cogswell Polytechnical College * Culinary Institute of America at Greystone * DeVry University * Dominican University * Ex\'pression College for Digital Arts * Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising * Five Branches University * Golden Gate University * Holy Names University * Herguan University * Hult International Business School * Institute of Transpersonal Psychology * International Technological University * John F. Kennedy University * Lincoln Law School of San Jose * Lincoln University (California) * Menlo College * Mills College * Minerva Schools at KGI * National Hispanic University * New College of California * Northwestern Polytechnic University * Notre Dame de Namur University * Palo Alto University (formerly known as the Pacific Graduate School of Psychology) * Pacific Union College * Palmer College of Chiropractic West * Patten University * Presidio School of Management * Saint Mary\'s College of California * San Francisco Art Institute * San Francisco Conservatory of Music * San Francisco Law School * Santa Clara University * Saybrook Graduate School and Research Center * Silicon Valley University * Stanford University * Touro University California * University of Northern California * University of Phoenix North Bay Fairfield Campus * University of Phoenix San Jose Campus * University of San Francisco * Silicon Valley Technical Institute * Wharton West—Executive MBA Program (University of Pennsylvania)

CULTURE

The Bay Area is host to numerous cultural events, including annual festivals and fairs . Many prominent writers make their homes there, and have developed a local literary culture, with a supportive network of booksellers, focused on the Northern California Independent Booksellers Association.

ART

Main article: Art in the San Francisco Bay Area

SPORTS

Main article: Sports in the San Francisco Bay Area Oakland Coliseum

TEAM SPORT LEAGUE VENUE

San Jose Earthquakes Soccer Major League Soccer Avaya Stadium

San Francisco 49ers Football National Football League – National Conference Levi\'s Stadium

Oakland Raiders Football National Football League – American Conference O.co Coliseum

San Francisco Giants Baseball Major League Baseball National League AT all three would be closely associated with the 1967 Summer of Love . Jimi Hendrix , although born in Seattle and later a resident of London, England, had strong connections to the movement and the metropolitan Bay area, as he lived in Berkeley for a brief time as a child and played many local venues in that decade. Creedence Clearwater Revival (of El Cerrito ) would gain traction as an associated band of the anti- Vietnam war movement . Rock and Roll Hall of Fame legend Neil Young has lived in the Bay Area in La Honda, CA for more than 40 years. Carlos Santana from San Francisco became famous in the late 1960s and early 1970s with his Santana band which pioneered a blend of rock, salsa, and jazz fusion. Journey formed in 1973 in San Francisco, by former members of Santana. The Doobie Brothers , from San Jose, had a successful career with several albums earning RIAA gold certification. The early 1970s sounds of the Tower of Power from Oakland, Sly and the Family Stone and Pablo Cruise all came from the Bay Area.

Heavy Metal

See also: Bay Area thrash metal and Avant-garde metal

During the 1980s and early 1990s, the Bay Area was home to one of the largest and most influential thrash metal scenes in the world, containing acts like Metallica (although Metallica had initially formed in Los Angeles, it was not until their relocation to El Cerrito in 1983 that Cliff Burton and Kirk Hammett joined as bassist and lead guitarist), Exodus , Laaz Rockit , Death Angel , Vio-lence , Forbidden , and Testament .

Many death metal bands had also formed in the area, including Autopsy , Possessed (considered one of the first in the genre), and in the '90s, Impaled , Exhumed and Vile .

Also, an avant-garde metal scene has emerged in the Bay Area with bands such as Giant Squid , Grayceon , and Ludicra .

Sludge band Neurosis and groove metal /post-thrash bands Machine Head and Skinlab and heavy metal band Y">

The major newspapers are the San Francisco Chronicle and the San Jose Mercury News . Local television channels include KTVU 2 (FOX), KRON-TV 4 (myNetworkTV), KPIX 5 (CBS), KGO-TV 7 (ABC), KQED-TV 9 (PBS), KNTV 11 (NBC), KBCW 44/45 (CW), KQEH 54 (PBS), and KKPX 65 (Ion ). Radio stations serving the area include: KQED-FM , KMVQ , KOSF , and KGO-AM .

REGIONAL COUNTIES, CITIES, AND SUBURBS

A late 19th-century German map

COUNTIES

* Alameda County (737 sq. mi., excluding water) * Contra Costa County (720 sq. mi., excluding water) * Marin County (520 sq. mi., excluding water) * Napa County (754 sq. mi., excluding water) * San Francisco County (47 sq. mi., excluding water) * San Mateo County (449 sq. mi., excluding water) * Santa Clara County (1,291 sq. mi., excluding water) * Solano County (829 sq. mi., excluding water) * Sonoma County (1,576 sq. mi., excluding water)

CITIES AND TOWNS

* List of cities and towns in the San Francisco Bay Area

SEE ALSO

* San Francisco Bay Area portal

* Coastal California * Ecology of the San Francisco Estuary * Islands of San Francisco Bay * List of companies based in the San Francisco Bay Area * List of metropolitan areas of the United States * Lists of San Francisco Bay Area topics * Timeline of the San Francisco Bay Area

REFERENCES

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Counties Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016". _2016 Population Estimates_. United States Census Bureau , Population Division. March 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ "Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Area Population Totals Tables: 2010–2016". _2016 Population Estimates_. United States Census Bureau , Population Division. March 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ " San Francisco Bay Area Vision Project". Bayareavision.org. Archived from the original on October 25, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ "The Association of Bay Area Governments". Abag.ca.gov. April 14, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "US Census Bureau, household and per capita income during the 2000 Census in metro areas". Retrieved June 1, 2007. * ^ "SF Chronicle, most democratic voting bloc in the state, 2003". _The San Francisco Chronicle_. October 8, 2003. Retrieved June 12, 2007. * ^ "Cities with the Most College-Educated Residents". _nytimes.com_. * ^ " San Francisco Tops List Of Cities With Most College Degrees (CHART)". _The Huffington Post_. * ^ Fagan, Kevin (September 22, 2011). "Bay Area income beats state, U.S., census shows". _SFGate_. Retrieved March 10, 2014. * ^ Sulek, Julia Prodis. " California report: Bay Area population gains are strongest in state". _San Jose Mercury News_. Retrieved March 10, 2014. * ^ Crawford, Sabrina (January 31, 2006). _Newcomer\'s Handbook for Moving to And Living in the San Francisco Bay Area: Including San Jose, Oakland, Berkeley, And Palo Alto_. First Books. pp. 130–. ISBN 978-0-912301-63-1 . Retrieved February 9, 2013. * ^ Inc., Active Interest Media, (June 1987). _Old-House Journal_. Active Interest Media, Inc. pp. 18–. Retrieved February 9, 2013. * ^ Cass, Maxine (July 1, 2009). _Northern California Off the Beaten Path: A Guide to Unique Places_. Globe Pequot. pp. 55–. ISBN 978-0-7627-5597-4 . Retrieved February 9, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ Young, T. (2004). "Building San Francisco's parks", 1850–1930, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press * ^ "Office of the Mayor : Mayor Lee Announces U.S. Census Bureau Results for San Francisco Population". Sfmayor.org. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ Eaves, Elisabeth (December 3, 2007). "America\'s Greediest Cities". _Forbes_. * ^ " Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority". Vta.org. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ California High-Speed Trains: Visual Tour on YouTube * ^ Regional Water Quality Control Board, San Francisco Bay Region (2) Boundaries. Retrieved February 20, 2007. Archived December 31, 2006, at the Wayback Machine . * ^ "Find a park – San Francisco Bay Area Region". California State Parks. Retrieved June 20, 2006. * ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2011. Retrieved August 6, 2011. * ^ "Homeless Population Rises In Santa Cruz Co., Decreases In Santa Clara Co. « CBS San Francisco". Sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com. July 27, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ Preuitt, Lori (August 9, 2010). "Earthquake Shakes Aromas". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ "South Bay, San Jose and Silicon Valley Local News abc7news.com". Abclocal.go.com. November 5, 2009. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ "Where In The Bay Can I See Fireworks?". Radioalice.radio.com. June 30, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ " Fortune 500 2010: Annual ranking of America\'s largest corporations from Fortune Magazine". _CNN_. Retrieved August 11, 2010.

* ^ "SF Chronicle, most democratic voting bloc in the state, 2003". _The San Francisco Chronicle_. October 8, 2003. Retrieved June 12, 2007. * ^ "North American Container Traffic, 2009 Port Ranking" (PDF). Retrieved August 11, 2010. * ^ Silvio Marcacci (June 5, 2013). " California and Cleantech". The Energy Collective. Retrieved July 8, 2013. * ^ * ^ "OMB Bulletin No. 13-01: Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of the Delineations of These Areas" (PDF). United States Office of Management and Budget . February 28, 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 19, 2013. Retrieved April 17, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ "Bay Area Census – Bay Area Data". Bayareacensus.ca.gov. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ "U.S. Immigrant Population by State and County". _migrationpolicy.org_. February 4, 2014. Retrieved July 6, 2017. * ^ "Census 2010: Table 3A – Total Population by Race (Hispanic exclusive) and Hispanic or Latino: 2010". California Department of Finance . Archived from the original (Excel) on November 24, 2011. Retrieved June 11, 2010. * ^ Willet, Megan (July 8, 2013). "The Most Diverse Cities in United States". _ Business Insider _. Retrieved September 11, 2014. * ^ "Judaism (estimated) Metro Areas (2000)". The Association of Religion Data Archives. Archived from the original on November 23, 2009. Retrieved December 1, 2009. * ^ "Training and Education /PET". Filipino-American Law Enforcement Officers Association. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved April 28, 2012. * ^ Estrella, Cicero A. (February 2004). "S.F.\'s \'Little Saigon\' / Stretch of Larkin Street named for Vietnamese Americans". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved March 6, 2010. * ^ "South Park, Santa Rosa\'s vibrant, ever-changing corner". _The Press Democrat _. Retrieved July 8, 2011. * ^ "Pleasanton tops county in median household income". Inside Bay Area. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved October 15, 2006. * ^ DeBare, Ilana (March 6, 2008). "47 Bay Area billionaires on Forbes list". _The San Francisco Chronicle_. * ^ "Capgemini Announces 2010 U.S. Metro Wealth Index". Business Wire. August 3, 2010. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ "Fortune". Fortune. Retrieved May 24, 2011. * ^ Other is defined by some other race or two or more races * ^ Native American = Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander + American Indian or Alaska Native * ^ "2010 Census Summary File 1". _2010 United States Census _. United States Census Bureau . Retrieved September 1, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "2012 California Presidential Election Results by County" (PDF). Retrieved September 1, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "2011 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates". _2011 American Community Survey_. United States Census Bureau . Retrieved September 1, 2013. * ^ "Report of Registration" (PDF). California Secretary of State. February 10, 2013. Retrieved January 20, 2014. * ^ "Partisan Voting Index Districts of the 113th Congress" (PDF). Cook Political Report . Retrieved September 1, 2013. * ^ "My Congressional District". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved September 1, 2013. * ^ Kevin Starr (February 27, 2005). "Keep California the \'Gibraltar of the Pacific\'". _ San Diego Union Tribune _. Retrieved May 16, 2011. * ^ Jane Gross (March 14, 1993). "Spared 2 Base Closings, Californians Lobby On". _ New York Times _. Retrieved May 16, 2011. * ^ "Base-closing plan spares Beale, Travis". _Sacramento Business Journal_. May 13, 2005. Retrieved May 16, 2011. * ^ U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B02001. American FactFinder. Retrieved October 26, 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ California Secretary of State. Report of Registration as of February 10, 2017. * ^ Conaway CH; Black FJ; Grieb TM; Roy S; Flegal AR (2008). "Mercury in the San Francisco Estuary". _Rev Environ Contam Toxicol_. Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 194: 29–54. ISBN 978-0-387-74815-3 . PMID 18069645 . doi :10.1007/978-0-387-74816-0_2 . * ^ Eric Bailey (November 9, 2007). "Oil oozes in S.F. Bay after ship hits bridge". _ Los Angeles Times_. Retrieved Feb 15, 2010. * ^ Central California Coast Steelhead DPS (Report). NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Northwest Regional Office. Retrieved February 15, 2010. * ^ "Map showing endangered species status of west coast steelhead". Alameda Creek Alliance. Retrieved February 14, 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ Greg Miller (January 2010). "In Central California, Coho Salmon Are on the Brink". _Science_. 327 (5965): 512–3. PMID 20110475 . doi :10.1126/science.327.5965.512 . Retrieved Feb 15, 2010.

* ^ Central California Coast Coho ESU (Report). NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service Northwest Regional Office. Retrieved February 15, 2010. * ^ Donna Whitmarsh (Jan 2010). " California Coho Salmon In Dire Straits". _Bay Nature_. * ^ "Get Outside!". _ San Francisco Chronicle_. April 1966. Archived from the original on June 30, 2009. Retrieved March 6, 2011. * ^ "Blue Oak Ranch Reserve". University of California. Retrieved March 6, 2011. * ^ Adele Ogden (1975). _The California sea otter trade, 1784–1848_. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. p. 54. ISBN 978-0-520-02806-7 . Retrieved March 6, 2011. * ^ Hubert Howe Bancroft; Alfred Bates; Ivan Petroff; William Nemos (1887). _History of Alaska: 1730–1885_. San Francisco, California: A. L. Bancroft & company. p. 482. Retrieved March 6, 2011. * ^ "Home Page". _GOLDEN GATE CETACEAN RESEARCH_. Retrieved June 13, 2016. * ^ Rendon, JIm (Nov–Dec 1999). "Owl Be Damned:Developers plow into the homes of the burrowing owl". _Metro, Silicon Valley's Weekly Newspaper_. * ^ Joe Eaton (Jan 14, 2010). "Wild Neighbors: Antioch Owls Face Evicition". _Berkeley Daily Planet_. Retrieved January 14, 2010. * ^ Katherine Tam (Jan 3, 2010). "Owl advocates protest birds relocation". _Contra Costa Times_. Retrieved January 3, 2010. * ^ DeBolt, Daniel (January 10, 2008). "Burrowing Owls vs. Google:Pair of birds found on Google\'s hotel site will cost city $150,000". _Mountain View Voice_. * ^ Lisa M. Krieger (March 23, 2012). "Eagles reappear in San Mateo County after nearly century absence". _San Jose Mercury News_. Retrieved March 25, 2012. * ^ Grinnell, J., and Wythe, M. W. (1927). "Directory to the bird-life of the San Francisco Bay region". _Pacific Coast Avifauna_. 18. Retrieved May 22, 2016. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Henny, C. J., and Anthony, R. G. (1989). B. G. Pendleton, ed. "Bald Eagle and Osprey, in Proceedings of the Western Raptor Management Symposium and Workshop". _National Wildlife Federation Scientific and Technical Series_. 12: 66–82. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link ) * ^ Anthony J. Brake; Harvey A. Wilson; Robin Leong ">(PDF). _Western Birds_. 45 (3): 190–198. Retrieved May 22, 2016. * ^ William G. Bousman (January 1, 2007). _Breeding Bird Atlas of Santa Clara County, California_. Santa Clara Valley Audubon Society. ISBN 978-0-9796038-0-8 . * ^ California Department of Fish and Game. Wild Turkey Guide 2005. * ^ Rubio, Tena (November 27, 2015). "Like It or Not, Wild Turkeys Proliferate in East Bay". _kqed.org_. Retrieved November 27, 2015. * ^ Alameda County geologic map USGS publication * ^ Preliminary geologic map emphasizing bedrock formations in Alameda County, California: A digital database USGS Publication (Geologic explanation of map noted above) * ^ Expiration: 11.09.11. "Maps and information about Bay Area threats including earthquakes, landslides, and tsunamis.". Quake.abag.ca.gov. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ "Earthquake Setting of the San Francisco Bay Area". _usgs.gov_.

* ^ Describes Bay Area damage from 1960 tsunami. Archived May 5, 2011, at WebCite * ^ "University Archives – SJSU Special Collections & Archives – SJSU Subject Guides (LibGuides) at San Jose State University Library". Libguides.sjsu.edu. September 22, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2011. * ^ "American Community Survey: 2006–2008 American Community Survey 3-Year Estimates: S1401. School Enrollment: San Jose-San Francisco- Oakland CSA". U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved October 21, 2010. * ^ 2002 American Community Survey, SELECTED POPULATION CHARACTERISTICIS FOR LARGE METROPOLITAN AREAS. Retrieved November 5, 2007. * ^ Smith, Chris (July 2011). "Rehab of a strung-out musical scene". San Francisco Magazine. Retrieved August 7, 2011. ; Smith, Chris (July 6, 2011). "Our avant-garde metal scene". ca-smith.net. Retrieved August 7, 2011. * ^ Essi Berelian (2005), _The Rough Guide to Heavy Metal_, p. 259, " Faith No More must be counted among the pioneers " * ^ Joel McIver (2002), _NU-METAL- The Next Generation Of Rock ;background:none transparent;border:none;-moz-box-shadow:none;-webkit-box-shadow:none;box-shadow:none;">v

* t * e

San Francisco Bay Area

BODIES OF WATER

* Bodega Bay * Carquinez Strait * Clifton Forebay * Golden Gate * Grizzly Bay * Guadalupe River * Half Moon Bay * Lake Berryessa * Napa River * Oakland Estuary * Petaluma River * Richardson Bay * Richmond Inner Harbor * Russian River * Sacramento River * San Francisco Bay * San Leandro Bay * San Pablo Bay * Sonoma Creek * Suisun Bay * Tomales Bay

COUNTIES

* Alameda * Contra Costa * Marin * Napa * San Francisco * San Mateo * Santa Clara * Solano * Sonoma

MAJOR CITIES

* San Jose * San Francisco * Oakland

Cities and towns 100k–250k

* Antioch * Berkeley * Concord * Daly City * Fairfield * Fremont * Hayward * Richmond * Santa Clara * Santa Rosa * Sunnyvale * Vallejo

Cities and towns 50k–99k

* Alameda * Brentwood * Castro Valley * Cupertino * Livermore * Milpitas * Mountain View * Napa * Novato * Palo Alto * Petaluma * Pittsburg * Pleasanton * Redwood City * San Leandro * San Mateo * San Rafael * San Ramon * South San Francisco * Union City * Vacaville * Walnut Creek

Cities and towns 25k-50k

* Belmont * Benicia * Burlingame * Campbell * Danville * Dublin * East Palo Alto * Foster City * Gilroy * Los Altos * Los Gatos * Martinez * Menlo Park * Morgan Hill * Newark * Oakley * Pacifica * Pleasant Hill * Rohnert Park * San Bruno * San Carlos * San Pablo * Saratoga * Suisun City * Windsor

Cities and towns 10k–25k

* Alamo * Albany * Alum Rock * American Canyon * Ashland * Bay Point * Cherryland * Clayton * Discovery Bay * Dixon * El Cerrito * El Sobrante * Emeryville * Fairview * Half Moon Bay * Healdsburg * Hercules * Hillsborough * Lafayette * Larkspur * Millbrae * Mill Valley * Moraga * North Fair Oaks * Orinda * Piedmont * Pinole * San Anselmo * San Lorenzo * Sonoma * Stanford * Tamalpais-Homestead Valley

SUB-REGIONS

* East Bay * North Bay * San Francisco Peninsula * Silicon Valley * South Bay

* Transportation * Sports

* v * t * e

State of California

SACRAMENTO (capital)

TOPICS

* Culture

* Food * Music * "Myth " * Sports

* Demographics * Earthquakes * Economy * Education * Environment

* Geography

* Climate * Ecology * Flora * Fauna

* Government

* Districts * Congressional delegations

* Healthcare * History * Law

* Landmarks

* State Historic Landmarks * National Historic Landmarks * National Natural Landmarks * NRHP listings

* Politics

* Elections

* People

* Protected areas

* State parks

* State symbols * Transportation * Water * Index of articles

REGIONS

* Antelope Valley * Big Sur * California Coast Ranges * Cascade Range * Central California * Central Coast * Central Valley * Channel Islands * Coachella Valley * Coastal California * Conejo Valley * Cucamonga Valley * Death Valley * East Bay (SF Bay Area) * East County (SD) * Eastern California * Emerald Triangle * Gold Country * Great Basin * Greater San Bernardino * Inland Empire * Klamath Basin * Lake Tahoe * Greater Los Angeles * Los Angeles Basin * Lost Coast * Mojave Desert * Mountain Empire * North Bay (SF) * North Coast * North Coast (SD) * Northern California * Owens Valley * Oxnard Plain * Peninsular Ranges * Pomona Valley * Sacramento Valley * Salinas Valley * San Fernando Valley * San Francisco Bay Area * San Francisco Peninsula * San Gabriel Valley * San Joaquin Valley * Santa Clara Valley * Santa Clara River Valley * Santa Clarita Valley * Santa Ynez Valley * Shasta Cascade * Sierra Nevada * Silicon Valley * South Bay (LA) * South Bay (SD) * South Bay (SF) * South Coast * Southern Border Region * Southern California * Tech Coast * Transverse Ranges * Tri-Valley * Victor Valley * Wine Country

METRO REGIONS

* Metropolitan Fresno * Los Angeles metropolitan area * Greater Sacramento * San Bernardino-Riverside metropolitan area * San Francisco metropolitan area * San Diego–Tijuana

COUNTIES

* Alameda * Alpine * Amador * Butte * Calaveras * Colusa * Contra Costa * Del Norte * El Dorado * Fresno * Glenn * Humboldt * Imperial * Inyo * Kern * Kings * Lake * Lassen * Los Angeles * Madera * Marin * Mariposa * Mendocino * Merced * Modoc * Mono * Monterey * Napa * Nevada * Orange * Placer * Plumas * Riverside * Sacramento * San Benito * San Bernardino * San Diego * San Francisco * San Joaquin * San Luis Obispo * San Mateo * Santa Barbara * Santa Clara * Santa Cruz * Shasta * Sierra * Siskiyou * Solano * Sonoma * Stanislaus * Sutter * Tehama * Trinity * Tulare * Tuolumne * Ventura * Yolo * Yuba

Most populous cities

* Los Angeles * San Diego * San Jose * San Francisco * Fresno * Sacramento * Long Beach * Oakland * Bakersfield * Anaheim

Coordinates : 37°45′N 122°17′W / 37.750°N 122.283°W / 37.750; -122.283

AUTHORITY CONTROL

* GND : 4243504-3

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