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San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay is a shallow estuary in the U.S. state of California. It is surrounded by a contiguous region known as the San Francisco Bay Area (often simply "the Bay Area"), and is dominated by the large cities of San Francisco, Oakland, and San Jose. San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay drains water from approximately 40 percent of California. Water from the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, and from the Sierra Nevada mountains, flow into Suisun Bay, which then travels through the Carquinez Strait
Carquinez Strait
to meet with the Napa River
Napa River
at the entrance to San Pablo Bay, which connects at its south end to San Francisco Bay. The Guadalupe River
River
enters the bay at its southernmost point in San Jose. The Guadalupe drains water from the Santa Cruz mountains and Hamilton Mountain
Mountain
ranges in southern most San Jose. It enters the bay at the town of Alviso. It then connects to the Pacific Ocean via the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
strait. However, this entire group of interconnected bays is often called the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay. The bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland
Wetland
of International Importance on February 2, 2012.

Contents

1 Size 2 Geology 3 History 4 Ecology 5 Bay fill and depth profile 6 Transportation 7 Recreation 8 Gallery 9 See also 10 References 11 Literature 12 External links

Size[edit] The bay covers somewhere between 400 and 1,600 square miles (1,000–4,000 km2), depending on which sub-bays (such as San Pablo Bay), estuaries, wetlands, and so on are included in the measurement.[2][3] The main part of the bay measures 3 to 12 miles (5–19 km) wide east-to-west and somewhere between 48 miles (77 km)1 and 60 miles (97 km)2 north-to-south. It is the largest Pacific estuary in the Americas. The bay was navigable as far south as San Jose until the 1850s, when hydraulic mining released massive amounts of sediment from the rivers that settled in those parts of the bay that had little or no current. Later, wetlands and inlets were deliberately filled in, reducing the Bay's size since the mid-19th century by as much as one third. Recently, large areas of wetlands have been restored, further confusing the issue of the Bay's size. Despite its value as a waterway and harbor, many thousands of acres of marshy wetlands at the edges of the bay were, for many years, considered wasted space. As a result, soil excavated for building projects or dredged from channels was often dumped onto the wetlands and other parts of the bay as landfill. From the mid-19th century through the late 20th century, more than a third of the original bay was filled and often built on. The deep, damp soil in these areas is subject to soil liquefaction during earthquakes, and most of the major damage close to the Bay in the Loma Prieta earthquake of 1989 occurred to structures on these areas. The Marina District of San Francisco, hard hit by the 1989 earthquake, was built on fill that had been placed there for the Panama-Pacific International Exposition, although liquefaction did not occur on a large scale. In the 1990s, San Francisco
San Francisco
International Airport proposed filling in hundreds more acres to extend its overcrowded international runways in exchange for purchasing other parts of the bay and converting them back to wetlands. The idea was, and remains, controversial. (For further details, see the "Bay Fill and Depth Profile" section.)

San Francisco, Oakland, and the Bay Bridge, 2014

There are five large islands in San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay. Alameda, the largest island, was created when a shipping lane was cut to form the Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
in 1901. It is now a suburban community. Angel Island was known as " Ellis Island
Ellis Island
West" because it served as the entry point for immigrants from East Asia. It is now a state park accessible by ferry. Mountainous Yerba Buena Island
Yerba Buena Island
is pierced by a tunnel linking the east and west spans of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge. Attached to the north is the artificial and flat Treasure Island, site of the 1939 Golden Gate
Golden Gate
International Exposition. From the Second World War until the 1990s, both islands served as military bases and are now being redeveloped. Isolated in the center of the Bay is Alcatraz, the site of the famous federal penitentiary. The federal prison on Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island no longer functions, but the complex is a popular tourist site. Despite its name, Mare Island
Mare Island
in the northern part of the bay is a peninsula rather than an island.

San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay, and the city skyline seen from Marin County in the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Recreation Area.

Geology[edit] San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay is thought to represent a down-warping of the Earth's crust between the San Andreas Fault
San Andreas Fault
to the west and the Hayward Fault
Hayward Fault
to the east, though the precise nature of this remains under study. During the last ice age, the basin now filled by the bay was a large linear valley with small hills, similar to most of the valleys of the Coast Ranges. The rivers of the Central Valley ran out to sea through a canyon that is now the Golden Gate. As the great ice sheets melted, sea level rose 300 feet (90 m) over 4,000 years, and the valley filled with water from the Pacific, becoming a bay. The small hills became islands. History[edit]

Cañizares Map of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay

Main article: San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Discovery Site The first European to see San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay is likely N. de Morena who was left at New Albion
New Albion
at Drakes Bay
Drakes Bay
in Marin County, California
California
by Sir Francis Drake
Sir Francis Drake
in 1579 and then walked to Mexico.[4][5] The first recorded European discovery of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay was on November 4, 1769 when Spanish explorer Gaspar de Portolà, unable to find the port of Monterey, California, continued north close to what is now Pacifica and reached the summit of the 1,200-foot-high (370 m) Sweeney Ridge, now marked as the place where he first sighted San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay. Portolá and his party did not realize what they had discovered, thinking they had arrived at a large arm of what is now called Drakes Bay.[6] At the time, Drakes Bay
Drakes Bay
went by the name Bahia de San Francisco
San Francisco
and thus both bodies of water became associated with the name. Eventually, the larger, more important body of water fully appropriated the name San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay. The first European to enter the bay is believed to have been the Spanish explorer Juan de Ayala, who passed through the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
on August 5, 1775 in his ship the San Carlos, and moored in a bay of Angel Island now known as Ayala Cove. Ayala continued to explore the Bay area and the expedition's cartographer, José de Cañizares, gathered the information necessary to produce the first map of the San Francisco Bay area. A number of place names survive (anglicized) from that first map, including Point Reyes, Angel Island, Farallon Islands and Alcatraz
Alcatraz
Island. The United States
United States
seized the region from Mexico
Mexico
during the Mexican–American War
Mexican–American War
(1846–1848). On February 2, 1848, the Mexican province of Alta California
California
was annexed to the U.S. with the signing of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. A year and a half later, California
California
requested to join the United States
United States
on December 3, 1849 and was accepted as the 31st State of the Union on September 9, 1850. The bay became the center of American settlement and commerce in the Far West through most of the remainder of the 19th century. During the California
California
Gold Rush (1848–1855), San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay suddenly became one of the world's great seaports, dominating shipping in the American West until the last years of the 19th century. The bay's regional importance increased further when the First Transcontinental Railroad was connected to its western terminus at Alameda on September 6, 1869.[7] The terminus was switched to the Oakland Long Wharf
Oakland Long Wharf
two months later on November 8, 1869.[8]

Duck hunting on the Bay, 1915

During the 20th century, the bay was subject to the Reber Plan, which would have filled in parts of the bay in order to increase industrial activity along the waterfront. In 1959, the United States
United States
Army Corps of Engineers released a report stating that if current infill trends continued, the bay would be as big as a shipping channel by 2020. This news created the Save the Bay
Save the Bay
movement in 1960, which mobilized to stop the infill of wetlands and the bay in general, which had shrunk to two-thirds of its size in the century before 1961.[9] San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay continues to support some of the densest industrial production and urban settlement in the United States. The San Francisco Bay Area is the American West's second-largest urban area with approximately 8 million residents.[citation needed] Ecology[edit] Main article: Ecology of the San Francisco
San Francisco
Estuary Despite its urban and industrial character, San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta remain perhaps California's most important ecological habitats. California's Dungeness crab, California halibut, and Pacific salmon fisheries rely on the bay as a nursery. The few remaining salt marshes now represent most of California's remaining salt marsh, supporting a number of endangered species and providing key ecosystem services such as filtering pollutants and sediments from the rivers. San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay is recognized for protection by the California
California
Bays and Estuaries Policy, with oversight provided by the San Francisco
San Francisco
Estuary
Estuary
Partnership.[10]

San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay c. 1770–1820

Most famously, the bay is a key link in the Pacific Flyway. Millions of waterfowl annually use the bay shallows as a refuge. Two endangered species of birds are found here: the California
California
least tern and the Ridgway's Rail. Exposed bay muds provide important feeding areas for shorebirds, but underlying layers of bay mud pose geological hazards for structures near many parts of the bay perimeter. San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay provided the nation's first wildlife refuge, Oakland's artificial Lake Merritt, constructed in the 1860s, and America's first urban National Wildlife Refuge, the Don Edwards San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay National Wildlife Refuge (SFBNWR) in 1972. The Bay is also plagued by non-native species. Salt produced from San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay is produced in salt evaporation ponds and is shipped throughout the Western United States
United States
to bakeries, canneries, fisheries, cheese makers and other food industries and used to de-ice winter highways, clean kidney dialysis machines, for animal nutrition, and in many industries. Many companies have produced salt in the Bay, with the Leslie Salt Company
Leslie Salt Company
the largest private land owner in the Bay Area in the 1940s.[11][12] Low-salinity salt ponds mirror the ecosystem of the bay, with fish and fish-eating birds in abundance. Mid-salinity ponds support dense populations of brine shrimp, which provide a rich food source for millions of shorebirds. Only salt-tolerant micro-algae survive in the high salinity ponds, and impart a deep red color to these ponds from the pigment within the algae protoplasm. The seasonal range of water temperature in the Bay is from January's 53 °F (12 °C) to September's 60 °F (16 °C) when measured at Fort Point, which is near the southern end of the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge and at the entrance to San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay.[13] Industrial, mining, and other uses of mercury have resulted in a widespread distribution in the bay, with uptake in the bay's phytoplankton and contamination of its sportfish.[14] In January 1971, two Standard Oil
Standard Oil
tankers collided in the bay, creating an 800,000-U.S.-gallon (3,000,000-liter) oil spill disaster, which spurred environmental protection of the bay. In November 2007, a ship named COSCO Busan collided with the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge and spilled over 58,000 U.S. gallons (220,000 liters) of bunker fuel, creating the largest oil spill in the region since 1996.[15] For the first time in 65 years, Pacific Harbor
Harbor
Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) returned to the Bay in 2009.[16] Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Cetacean Research, a non-profit organization focused on research on cetaceans, has developed a photo-identification database enabling the scientists to identify specific porpoise individuals and is trying to ascertain whether a healthier bay has brought their return.[17] Pacific harbor porpoise range from Point Conception, California
California
to Alaska and across to the Kamchatka Peninsula
Kamchatka Peninsula
and Japan. Recent genetic studies show that there is a local stock from San Francisco
San Francisco
to the Russian River
River
and that eastern Pacific coastal populations rarely migrate far, unlike western Atlantic Harbor
Harbor
porpoise.[18]

City skyline through the fog, from the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
National Recreation Area.

Bay fill and depth profile[edit]

Cargo ships in San Francisco
San Francisco
bay in 2012

San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay's profile changed dramatically in the late 19th century and again with the initiation of dredging by the US Army Corps of Engineers in the 20th century. Before about 1860, most bay shores (with the exception of rocky shores, such as those in Carquinez Strait; along Marin shoreline; Point Richmond; Golden Gate
Golden Gate
area) contained extensive wetlands that graded nearly invisibly from freshwater wetlands to salt marsh and then tidal mudflat. A deep channel ran through the center of the bay, following the ancient drowned river valley. In the 1860s and continuing into the early 20th century, miners dumped staggering quantities of mud and gravel from hydraulic mining operations into the upper Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. GK Gilbert's estimates of debris total more than eight times the amount of rock and dirt moved during construction of the Panama Canal. This material flowed down the rivers, progressively eroding into finer and finer sediment, until it reached the bay system. Here some of it settled, eventually filling in Suisun Bay, San Pablo Bay, and San Francisco Bay, in decreasing order of severity. By the end of the 19th century, these "slickens" had filled in much of the shallow bay flats, raising the entire bay profile. New marshes were created in some areas.

(1) Richmond-San Rafael Bridge, (2) Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge, (3) San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge, (4) San Mateo-Hayward Bridge, (5) Dumbarton Bridge, (6) Carquinez Bridge, (7) Benicia-Martinez Bridge, (8) Antioch Bridge

In the decades surrounding 1900, at the behest of local political officials and following Congressional orders, the US Army Corps began dredging the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers and the deep channels of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay. This work has continued without interruption ever since an enormous federal subsidy to San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay shipping.[citation needed] Some of the dredge spoils were initially dumped in the bay shallows (including helping to create Treasure Island on the former shoals to the north of Yerba Buena Island) and used to raise an island in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. The net effect of dredging has been to maintain a narrow deep channel—deeper perhaps than the original bay channel—through a much shallower bay. At the same time, most of the marsh areas have been filled or blocked off from the bay by dikes. Large ships transiting the bay must follow deep underwater channels that are maintained by frequent dredging as the average depth of the bay is only as deep as a swimming pool—approximately 12 to 15 ft (4–5 m). Between Hayward and San Mateo to San Jose it is 12 to 36 in (30–90 cm). The deepest part of the bay is under and out of the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge, at 372 ft (113 m).[19] In the late 1990s, a 12-year harbor-deepening project for the Port
Port
of Oakland began; it was largely completed by September 2009. Previously, the bay waters and harbor facilities only allowed for ships with a draft of 46 ft (14 m), but dredging activities undertaken by the United States
United States
Army Corps of Engineers in partnership with the Port of Oakland succeeded in providing access for vessels with a 50-foot (15 m) draft. Four dredging companies were employed in the US$432 million project, with $244 million paid for with federal funds and $188 million supplied by the Port
Port
of Oakland. Some 6,000,000 cubic yards (4,600,000 m3) of mud from the dredging was deposited at the western edge of Middle Harbor
Harbor
Shoreline Park to become a 188-acre (76 ha) shallow-water wetlands habitat for marine and shore life.[20][21] Further dredging followed in 2011, to maintain the navigation channel.[22][23] This dredging enabled the arrival of the largest container ship ever to enter the San Francisco Bay, the MSC Fabiola. Bay pilots trained for the visit on a simulator at the California
California
Maritime Academy for over a year. The ship arrived drawing less than its full draft of 50 feet 10 inches (15.5 m) because it held only three-quarters of a load after its stop in Long Beach.[24] Transportation[edit]

San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay and the Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge, looking southeast towards the City and East Bay

Main article: Transportation in the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay was traversed by watercraft since long before the coming of Europeans. Indigenous peoples used canoes to fish and clam along the shoreline. The era of sail brought ships that connected the area to the rest of the world—and served as early ferries and freighters within the Bay and between the Bay and inland ports, such as Sacramento and Stockton. These were gradually replaced by steam-powered vessels starting in the late 19th century. Several shipyards were early established around the Bay, augmented during wartime. (e.g., the Kaiser Shipyards
Kaiser Shipyards
(Richmond Shipyards) near Richmond in 1940 for World War II
World War II
for construction of revolutionary mass-produced, assembly line Liberty and Victory cargo ships) San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay is spanned by nine bridges, eight of which carry cars.

The Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge on U.S. Route 101/State Route 1 (US 101/SR 1) was the largest single span suspension bridge ever built at the time of its 1937
1937
construction. It spans the Golden Gate, the strait between San Francisco
San Francisco
and Marin County, and is the only bridge in the area not owned by the State of California. The Richmond–San Rafael Bridge
Richmond–San Rafael Bridge
on Interstate 580 (I-580) connects Marin and Contra Costa counties. The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge
San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge
on I-80 connects Alameda and San Francisco
San Francisco
counties. The San Mateo–Hayward Bridge
San Mateo–Hayward Bridge
on SR 92 connects Alameda and San Mateo counties. The Dumbarton Bridge on SR 84 connects Alameda and San Mateo counties. The Carquinez Bridge
Carquinez Bridge
(including the Alfred Zampa Memorial Bridge) on I-80 connects Contra Costa and Solano counties. The Benicia Bridge
Benicia Bridge
on I-680 also connects Contra Costa and Solano counties. The Antioch Bridge
Antioch Bridge
on SR 160 connects Contra Costa and Sacramento counties. The Dumbarton Rail Bridge
Dumbarton Rail Bridge
is an abandoned bridge that used to carry rail traffic.

The Transbay Tube, an underwater rail tunnel, carries BART services between Oakland and San Francisco. Prior to the bridges and, later, the Transbay Tube, transbay transportation was dominated by fleets of ferryboats operated by the Southern Pacific Railroad
Southern Pacific Railroad
and the Key System
Key System
transit company. However, in recent decades, ferries have returned, primarily serving commuters from Marin County, relieving the traffic bottleneck of the Golden Gate Bridge. (See article Ferries of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay).

Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
California

The bay also continues to serve as a major seaport. The Port
Port
of Oakland is one of the largest cargo ports in the United States, while the Port
Port
of Richmond and the Port
Port
of San Francisco
San Francisco
provide smaller services. Recreation[edit] San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay is a mecca for sailors (boats, as well as windsurfing and kitesurfing), due to consistent strong westerly/northwesterly thermally-generated winds – Beaufort force 6 (15–25 knots, 8–13 m/s) is common on summer afternoons – and protection from large open ocean swells. Yachting
Yachting
and yacht racing are popular pastimes and the San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
is home to many of the world's top sailors. A shoreline bicycle and pedestrian trail known as the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Trail encircles the edge of the bay. The San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
Water Trail, a growing network of launching and landing sites around the Bay for non-motorized small boat users (such as kayakers) is being developed. Parks and protected areas around the bay include Eden Landing Ecological Reserve, Hayward Regional Shoreline, Don Edwards San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Hayward Shoreline Interpretive Center, Crown Memorial State Beach, Eastshore State Park, Point Isabel Regional Shoreline, Brooks Island Regional Shoreline, and César Chávez Park. The San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
Water Trail is a planned system of designated trailheads designed to improve non-motorized small boat access to the bay. The California
California
Coastal Conservancy approved funding in March 2011 to begin implementation of the water trail.

San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay panorama with a view of sailboats, kite boarders, and the Crissy Field
Crissy Field
Beach.

Gallery[edit]

" San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay", painting by Albert Bierstadt, 1871–73

The City of Berkeley, the Bay and Marin County in the background as seen from the Claremont Canyon reserve

Mount Tamalpais
Mount Tamalpais
view across San Pablo Bay
San Pablo Bay
at Point Pinole Regional Shoreline in Richmond

Looking north into San Pablo Bay
San Pablo Bay
at the Richmond-San Rafael Bridge, 2010

Alcatraz
Alcatraz
at dawn on San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay

Aerial view of Golden Gate
Golden Gate
and the northern Bay, looking east from the Pacific

People also swim recreationally, at Kellar Beach in Richmond's Miller/Knox Regional Shoreline.

Oil Spill in the Bay

RMS Queen Mary 2
RMS Queen Mary 2
in San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay

Fort Baker
Fort Baker
on San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay, just east of the Golden Gate

NASA satellite image, showing water flow

Salt ponds at the southern tip of the bay

The bay seen in July 2010

Ships at anchor in the bay

See also[edit]

San Francisco Bay Area
San Francisco Bay Area
portal

Golden Gate Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Bridge Hydrography of the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area Islands of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay J.C. Barthel, who prepared "plans for the docks and other water-front improvements in the San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay district" McLaughlin Eastshore State Park Mount Diablo Mount Tamalpais
Mount Tamalpais
State Park Napa Sonoma Marsh Point Pinole Regional Shoreline, Richmond

References[edit]

^ " San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. January 19, 1981. Retrieved January 2, 2017.  ^ Symphonies in Steel: San Francisco
San Francisco
– Oakland Bay Bridge and the Golden Gate ^ San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Watershed Database and Mapping Project Archived October 30, 2004, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Aker, Raymond (1970). REPORT OF FINDINGS RELATING TO THE IDENTIFICATION OF SIR FRANCIS DRAKE'S ENCAMPMENT AT POINT REYES NATIONAL SEASHORE (PDF). pp. 338–340.  ^ Charles F. Lumis, ed. (1900). "Narrative of the Pilot Morera, who passed through the North Sea to the South Sea through the Strait". The Land of Sunshine, The Magazine of California
California
and the West (February). pp. 184–186.  ^ The representations of San Francisco
San Francisco
(California): a portable harbor in the fragile geography of the North Pacific. ^ Alta California, September 7, 1869 ^ Cprr.org ^ "History". Save the Bay. Retrieved July 14, 2015.  ^ State Water Resources Control Board Water Quality Control Policy for the Enclosed Bays and Estuaries of California
California
(1974) State of California ^ Spatial History Project ^ Hidden Ecologies » Blog Archive » Arden Salt Works ^ Osborn, Liz. "Average Ocean Water Temperatures at San Francisco". Current Results Nexus. Retrieved October 19, 2013.  ^ Conaway CH; Black FJ; Grieb TM; Roy S; Flegal AR (2008). "Mercury in the San Francisco
San Francisco
Estuary". Rev Environ Contam Toxicol. 194: 29–54. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-74816-0_2. PMID 18069645.  ^ Bailey, Eric (November 9, 2007). "Oil oozes in S.F. Bay after ship hits bridge – Los Angeles Times". Los Angeles Times.  ^ David Perlman (November 8, 2010). "Porpoises return to SF Bay – scientists study why". San Francisco
San Francisco
Chronicle. Retrieved July 25, 2011.  ^ " Harbor
Harbor
Porpoise Project". Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Cetacean
Cetacean
Research. Retrieved July 25, 2011.  ^ Harbor
Harbor
Porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): San Francisco-Russian River Stock (PDF) (Report). National Marine Fisheries
Fisheries
Service. October 15, 2009. Retrieved July 25, 2011.  ^ Barnard, P. L.; Hanes, D. M.; Rubin, D. M.; Kvitek, R. G. (July 18, 2006). "Giant Sand Waves at the Mouth of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay" (PDF). Eos. 87 (29): 285, 289. Retrieved January 2, 2017.  ^ Sandifur, Marilyn (September 18, 2009). "50 Feet Delivered!". Port of Oakland. Retrieved January 3, 2017.  ^ United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. San Francisco
San Francisco
District, Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
(1998). Oakland harbor navigation improvement (−50 foot) project: draft environmental impact statement/environmental impact report: executive summary. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, San Francisco District.  ^ "USA: Port of Oakland
Port of Oakland
Secures USD 18 Million in Federal Funding for Dredging
Dredging
Project". Dredging
Dredging
Today. June 1, 2011. Retrieved March 22, 2012.  ^ "USA: Congresswoman Helps Oakland Port
Port
Reach Major Funding Milestone for Deepening Project". Dredging
Dredging
Today. March 21, 2012. Retrieved March 22, 2012.  ^ Matthews, Mark (March 22, 2012). "Huge container ship cruises into Port
Port
of Oakland". ABC7. San Francisco: KGO-TV/DT. Retrieved March 23, 2012. 

Literature[edit]

The Bay of San Francisco: the metropolis of the Pacific Coast and its suburban cities: a history. Volume I. by Lewis Publishing Company, Chicago, Ill. Published 1892 Contains index to biographical sketches Volume II – Biographies

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1879 American Cyclopædia
American Cyclopædia
article San Francisco Bay.

San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay: Portrait of an Estuary, David Sanger and John Hart, University of California
California
Press Barging In – A Short History of Liveaboards on the Bay The Islands of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay, James A. Martin Michael T. Lee, Down Window Press Army Corps of Engineers Bay Model: Working scale model of the Bay SF Bay Kayak, Canoe, and Boat Launch Ramp guide. A collaboratively edited guide to the SF bay. BoatingSF.com: Photos of SF Bay and its boats, plus online cruising guide Save San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay: Protect and Restore San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay sfbaywildlife.info Guide to San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay wildlife Early History of the California
California
Coast, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary Cartography & History The representations of San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay: a portable harbor in the fragile geography of the North Pacific San Francisco
San Francisco
Estuary
Estuary
and Watershed Science: a peer-reviewed online science journal

v t e

San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Area

Bodies of water

Bodega Bay Carquinez Strait Clifton Forebay Golden Gate Grizzly Bay Guadalupe River Half Moon Bay Lake Berryessa Napa River Oakland Estuary Petaluma River Richardson Bay Richmond Inner Harbor Russian River Sacramento River San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay San Leandro Bay San Pablo Bay Sonoma Creek Suisun Bay Tomales Bay

Counties

Alameda Contra Costa Marin Napa San Francisco San Mateo Santa Clara Solano Sonoma

Major cities

San Jose San Francisco Oakland

Cities and towns 100k–250k

Antioch Berkeley Concord Daly City Fairfield Fremont Hayward Richmond Santa Clara Santa Rosa Sunnyvale Vallejo

Cities and towns 50k–99k

Alameda Brentwood Castro Valley Cupertino Livermore Milpitas Mountain
Mountain
View Napa Novato Palo Alto Petaluma Pittsburg Pleasanton Redwood City San Leandro San Mateo San Rafael San Ramon South San Francisco Union City Vacaville Walnut Creek

Cities and towns 25k-50k

Belmont Benicia Burlingame Campbell Danville Dublin East Palo Alto Foster City Gilroy Los Altos Los Gatos Martinez Menlo Park Morgan Hill Newark Oakley Pacifica Pleasant Hill Rohnert Park San Bruno San Carlos San Pablo Saratoga Suisun City Windsor

Cities and towns 10k–25k

Alamo Albany American Canyon Ashland Bay Point Cherryland Clayton Discovery Bay Dixon El Cerrito El Sobrante Emeryville Fairview Half Moon Bay Healdsburg Hercules Hillsborough Lafayette Larkspur Millbrae Mill Valley Moraga North Fair Oaks Orinda Piedmont Pinole San Anselmo San Lorenzo Sonoma Stanford Tamalpais-Homestead Valley

Sub-regions

East Bay North Bay San Francisco
San Francisco
Peninsula Silicon Valley South Bay

Politics Sports Transportation

v t e

San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay watershed

Outline

Hydrography Ecology List of tributaries List of lakes

Subdivisions

Major San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Suisun Bay San Pablo Bay Minor Golden Gate Grizzly Bay Richardson Bay San Rafael Bay Richmond Inner Harbor San Leandro Bay Former Yerba Buena Cove Mission Bay

Waterways

Rivers San Joaquin Sacramento Napa Guadalupe Petaluma Creeks (discharging into the Bay) Alameda Baxter Cerrito Codornices Coyote (Santa Clara) Coyote (Marin) San Leandro San Lorenzo Schoolhouse Temescal Sausal Redwood San Mateo Sonoma Corte Madera Arroyo Corte Madera del Presidio San Rafael Miller Novato Tolay San Francisquito Pacheco Alhambra Adobe Rodeo Refugio Pinole Garrity Rheem Karlson San Pablo Castro Wildcat Fluvius Innominatus Marin (Alameda County) Strawberry Easton Mission Creek Reservoirs Calaveras Reservoir Lafayette Reservoir Straits and estuaries Sacramento– San Joaquin River
San Joaquin River
Delta Carquinez Strait Oakland Estuary Raccoon Strait

Parks and protected areas

Don Edwards National Wildlife Refuge San Pablo Bay
San Pablo Bay
National Wildlife Refuge Eden Landing Ecological Reserve Hayward Regional Shoreline Hayward Shoreline Interpretive Center Crown Memorial State Beach Eastshore State Park Emeryville Crescent State Marine Reserve Point Isabel Regional Shoreline César Chávez Park Brooks Island
Brooks Island
Regional Shoreline Point Pinole Regional Shoreline Antioch Dunes National Wildlife Refuge Coyote Point Park Middle Harbor
Harbor
Shoreline Park National Estuarine Research Reserve China Camp State Park San Francisco
San Francisco
Maritime National Historical Park SF Bay Trail Oyster Bay Regional Shoreline Big Break Regional Shoreline

Islands and peninsulas

Major islands Alameda Alcatraz Angel Treasure Island Yerba Buena Minor Brooks Bair Bay Farm Belvedere Brother Castro Rocks Coast Guard Greco Mare Red Rock The Sisters Marin Islands Roe Ryer Seal Islands Peninsulas/infill Albany Bulb Point Isabel Foster City Fleming Point Hunters Point Steamboat Point Potrero Point

Wetlands

Chelsea Cordelia Crissy Field Hoffman Meeker Mowry Napa Sonoma Point Molate Seal Stege Suisun Westpoint

Bridges and tubes

Bridges San Francisco–Oakland

Eastern span replacement

Richmond–San Rafael San Mateo–Hayward Dumbarton Golden Gate Benicia–Martinez Antioch Carquinez Leimert Park Street Fruitvale High Street Bay Farm Island Tubes Posey/Webster Street Transbay

Ports and marinas

Port
Port
of San Francisco Port
Port
of Oakland Port
Port
of Richmond San Francisco
San Francisco
Naval Shipyard Mare Island
Mare Island
Naval Shipyard Port
Port
of Redwood City Berkeley Marina Oyster Point Marina/Park Clipper Yacht Harbor Westpoint Harbor Foster City Marina
Foster City Marina
(proposed)

Other

Discovery Site Humphrey the Whale Cosco Busan oil spill Delta and Dawn Golden Gate
Golden Gate
Biosphere Reserve California
California
clapper rail Reber Plan San Leandro Oyster Beds Thicktail chub Delta smelt Richmond Shipyards U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Bay Model Guadalupe Watershed Clifton Court Forebay Conservation and Development Commission The Watershed Project Save The Bay Harold Gilliam Marincello Citizens for East Shore Parks Friends of Five Creeks Urban Creeks Council Cargill salt infill Ferry service/SF Bay Ferry 1971 oil spill Greenbelt Alliance The Bay Institute San Francisco
San Francisco
Baykeeper San Francisco
San Francisco
Estuary
Estuary
and Watershed Science Water Trail Estuary
Estuary
Partnership Leslie Salt

Portal Category

v t e

Ramsar sites in the United States

Ramsar Sites

Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge Bitter Lake National Wildlife Refuge Bolinas Lagoon Cache River
River
National Wildlife Refuge Caddo Lake Cape May National Wildlife Refuge Catahoula Lake Chesapeake Bay Cheyenne Bottoms Congaree National Park Connecticut River Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary Delaware Bay Dixon Waterfowl
Waterfowl
Refuge Emiquon National Wildlife Refuge Everglades National Park Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge Francis Beidler Forest Grasslands Wildlife Management Area Heron Pond – Little Black Slough Nature Preserve Horicon Marsh Humbug Marsh Izembek National Wildlife Refuge Kakagon Sloughs Kawai Nui Marsh Laguna de Santa Rosa Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge Olentangy River
River
Wetland
Wetland
Research Park Palmyra Atoll Pelican Island National Wildlife Refuge Quivira National Wildlife Refuge San Francisco
San Francisco
Bay Sand Lake National Wildlife Refuge Tijuana River
River
National Estuarine Research Reserve Tomales Bay Upper Mississippi River
River
National Wildlife and Fish Refuge White River
River
National Wildlife Refuge

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 237746006 GND: 4118327-7 BNF: cb12478088r (d

.