Samuel Anthony Alito Jr. (/əˈliːtoʊ/; born April 1, 1950) is an
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. He was
nominated by President
George W. Bush
George W. Bush and has served on the court
since January 31, 2006.
Raised in Hamilton Township,
New Jersey and educated at Princeton
University and Yale Law School, Alito served as U.S. Attorney for the
New Jersey and a judge on the
United States Court of
Appeals for the Third Circuit before joining the Supreme Court. He is
the 110th Justice, the second Italian American, and the eleventh Roman
Catholic to serve on the court.
Alito is considered "one of the most conservative justices on the
Court". He has described himself as a "practical originalist".
Alito's majority opinions in landmark cases include McDonald v.
Chicago and Burwell v. Hobby Lobby.
1 Early life and education
2 Early legal career
3 Court of Appeals judge
3.1 Nomination and confirmation
3.2 Notable opinions
4 Personal life
5 Other activities
6 Nomination to U.S. Supreme Court and confirmation hearings
7 U.S. Supreme Court career
9 Related documents
10 See also
12 Further sources
13 External links
Early life and education
Alito was born in Trenton, New Jersey, the son of Samuel A. Alito,
Sr., an Italian immigrant, and the former Rose Fradusco, an
Italian-American. Alito's father, now deceased, was a high
school teacher and then became the first Director of the New Jersey
Office of Legislative Services, a state government position he held
from 1952 to 1984. Alito's mother is a retired schoolteacher.
Alito grew up in Hamilton Township, New Jersey, a suburb of
Trenton. He graduated from
Steinert High School
Steinert High School in Hamilton
Township as the class valedictorian, and graduated summa cum laude
from Princeton University's Woodrow Wilson School of Public and
International Affairs in 1972 before attending Yale Law School, where
he served as an editor on the
Yale Law Journal and earned a Juris
Doctor in 1975.
At Princeton, Alito chaired a student conference in 1971 called "The
Boundaries of Privacy in American Society" which, among other things,
supported curbs on domestic intelligence gathering and anticipated the
need for a statute and a court to oversee national security
surveillance. The conference report itself also called for the
decriminalization of sodomy, and urged for an end to discrimination
against gays in hiring by employers. "Though Alito's name is attached
to the chair's report, it remains unclear to what extent the report
represented his personal opinions. Alumni, who served as
'commissioners' for the junior conference Alito chaired, offered
conflicting information on how best to interpret the report." He
also led the American Whig-Cliosophic Society's Debate Panel during
his time at Princeton. Alito avoided the eating clubs at Princeton
University and instead joined Stevenson Hall.
While a sophomore at Princeton, Alito received a low lottery number,
32, in the
Selective Service drawing on December 1, 1969. In 1970,
he became a member of the school's Army
ROTC program, attending a
six-week basic training camp that year at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Alito
was a member of the Concerned Alumni of Princeton, which was formed in
October 1972 at least in part to oppose Princeton's decisions
regarding affirmative action. Apart from Alito's written 1985
statement of membership of CAP on a job application, which Alito says
was truthful, there is no other documentation of Alito's involvement
with or contributions in the group. Alito has cited the banning and
subsequent treatment of
ROTC by the university as his reason for
belonging to CAP.
At Princeton, Alito was "almost alone" in his familiarity with the
John Marshall Harlan II and was much influenced by the
course on constitution interpretation taught by Walter F. Murphy, also
his faculty adviser.
During his senior year at Princeton, Alito moved out of
New Jersey for
the first time to study in Italy, where he wrote his thesis on the
Italian legal system. Graduating in 1972, Alito left a sign of his
lofty aspirations in his yearbook, which said that he hoped to
"eventually warm a seat on the Supreme Court".
He was commissioned as a Second Lieutenant in the U.S. Army Signal
Corps after his graduation from Princeton and assigned to the United
States Army Reserve. At Yale, Alito was a classmate of future-Dean
Anthony T. Kronman and was one year behind future-Justice Clarence
Thomas. Following his graduation from Yale Law School, he served
on active duty from September to December 1975. The remainder of his
time in the Army was served in the inactive Reserves. He was a captain
when he received an honorable discharge in 1980.
Early legal career
After graduating from
Yale Law School
Yale Law School in 1975, where he was an editor
of the Yale Law Journal, Alito clerked for Third Circuit appeals
Leonard I. Garth in Newark,
New Jersey in 1976 and 1977. He
interviewed with Supreme Court Justice
Byron White for a clerkship but
was not hired. Between 1977 and 1981, Alito was Assistant United
States Attorney, District of New Jersey. There, Alito served under
U.S. Attorney Maryanne Trump Barry. While serving as an Assistant
U.S. Attorney for New Jersey, he prosecuted many cases that involved
drug trafficking and organized crime.
From 1981 to 1985, Alito was Assistant to U.S. Solicitor General Rex
E. Lee. There, Alito argued 12 cases before the Supreme Court for the
federal government. In Thornburgh v. American College of
Obstetricians & Gynecologists (1986), the Supreme Court ruled
Charles Fried after he rejected a memo by Alito urging the
Solicitor General to avoid directly attacking the constitutional right
to an abortion. Alito only lost two of the cases he argued before
the Supreme Court.
From 1985 to 1987, Alito was Deputy Assistant Attorney General under
Charles J. Cooper in the
Office of Legal Counsel
Office of Legal Counsel during the tenure of
Attorney General Edwin Meese.
John F. Manning
John F. Manning worked under Alito
there. Between 1986 and 1987, Alito authored nearly 470 pages of
memorandums, in which he argued to expand his client’s law
enforcement and personnel authorities. In his 1985 application for
Deputy Assistant Attorney General, Alito espoused conservative views,
naming William F. Buckley, Jr., the National Review, Alexander Bickel,
and Barry Goldwater's 1964 presidential campaign as major influences.
He also expressed concern about Warren Court decisions in the areas of
criminal procedure, the Establishment Clause, and reapportionment.
From 1987 to 1990, Alito was the
United States Attorney for the
District of New Jersey. When he arrived, the office had begun the
prosecution of twenty defendants accused of being mob affiliates of
Anthony Accetturo. In August 1988, the two-year trial, which was
then the longest federal criminal trial in history, ended in the
acquittal of all the accused after less than two days of jury
deliberations. Alito soon hired
Michael Chertoff as his chief
After an FBI agent was shot in the line of duty in 1988, Alito
personally handled the trial, assigning himself the then-novice Stuart
Rabner as an assistant, and securing a conviction against the
shooter. In March 1988, Alito sought a rehearing of extradition
proceeding against two Indian men, represented by Ron Kuby, who were
accused of being terrorist assassins, after Alito discovered that the
death threats his prosecutor had received had been sent to her by
herself. The prosecutor was later found not guilty of obstruction
of justice by reason of insanity, after psychiatrists found she was a
possible schizophrenic with up to four distinct personalities.
In 1989, Alito prosecuted a member of the
Japanese Red Army
Japanese Red Army for
planning a terrorist bombing in Manhattan.
Court of Appeals judge
Nomination and confirmation
Third Circuit Judges Leonard I. Garth, under whom Alito clerked, and
Maryanne Trump Barry, under whom Alito worked as an assistant U.S.
Attorney, recommended Alito's judicial nomination to the
President. Alito was nominated by President
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush on
February 20, 1990, to the
United States Court of Appeals for the Third
Circuit, to a seat vacated by John Joseph Gibbons. Alito was rated by
American Bar Association
American Bar Association as "Well Qualified" at the time of his
nomination. He was confirmed by unanimous consent in the Senate on
April 27, 1990, and received his commission three days later.
As a Third Circuit judge, his chambers were in Newark, New Jersey.
On a Third Circuit panel, the majority in Planned Parenthood v. Casey
overturned one part of a law regulating abortion, the provision
mandating that married women first inform their husbands if they
sought an abortion. Alito, the third judge on the panel, disagreed,
arguing that he would have upheld the spousal notification requirement
along with the rest of the law.
A dissenting opinion in
United States v. Rybar, 103 F.3d 273 (3d Cir.
1996), arguing that a U.S. law banning private citizens from owning
submachine guns was similar to one struck down by the Supreme Court in
United States v. Lopez and thus outside the authority of Congress
Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution.
A majority opinion in Chittister v. Department of Community &
Economic Development, 226 F.3d 223 (3d Cir. 2000). This case concerned
an employee's claim of wrongful termination under the Family and
Medical Leave Act against the state of Pennsylvania. States are free
to maintain sovereign immunity under the U.S. Constitution. Since
Pennsylvania had maintained its immunity to such suits, Alito affirmed
the lower court's dismissal of the employee’s claims.
A majority opinion in Saxe v. State College Area School District, 240
F.3d 200 (3d Cir. 2001), holding that a public school district's
anti-harassment policy was unconstitutionally overbroad and therefore
violated First Amendment guarantees of free speech.
A majority opinion in ACLU v. Schundler, 168 F.3d 92 (3d Cir. 1999),
holding that a government-sponsored holiday display consisting solely
of religious symbols was impermissible, but that a mixed display
including both secular and religious symbols was permissible if
balanced in a generally secular context.
A dissenting opinion in
C. H. v. Oliva et al.
C. H. v. Oliva et al. (3d Cir. 2000), arguing
that the removal and subsequent replacement in "a less conspicuous
spot" of a kindergartener's religious themed poster was, at least
potentially, a violation of his right to free expression.
The sole dissenting opinion in Snyder v. Phelps, 131 S. Ct. 1207
(2011), involving picketers at a military funeral. Alito states that
"Our profound national commitment to free and open debate is not a
license for the vicious verbal assault that occurred in this
Fourth and Eighth Amendments
A dissenting opinion in Doe v. Groody, arguing that qualified immunity
should have protected police officers from a finding of having
violated constitutional rights when they strip-searched a mother and
her ten-year-old daughter while carrying out a search warrant that
authorized the search of a residence.
A unanimous opinion in Chadwick v. Janecka (3d Cir. 2002), holding
that there was "no federal constitutional bar" to the "indefinite
confinement" of a man imprisoned for civil contempt because he would
not pay his $2.5 million debt to his wife.
A majority opinion in Williams v. Price, 343 F.3d 223 (3d Cir. 2003),
granting a writ of habeas corpus to a black state prisoner after state
courts had refused to consider the testimony of a witness who stated
that a juror had uttered derogatory remarks about blacks during an
encounter in the courthouse after the conclusion of the trial.
A dissenting opinion in Glass v. Philadelphia Electric Company, 34
F.3d 188 (3rd Cir. 1994), arguing that a lower court did not abuse its
discretion in excluding certain evidence of past conduct that
defendant had created a hostile and racist work environment.
A majority opinion in Robinson v. City of Pittsburgh, 120 F.3d 1286
(3rd Cir. 1997), rejecting a female police officer's Equal
Protection-based sexual harassment and retaliation claims against the
city and certain police officials and rejecting her Title VII-based
retaliation claim against the city, but allowing her Title VII-based
sexual harassment claim against the city.
Since 1985, Alito has been married to Martha-Ann Alito (née
Bomgardner), once a law librarian, who met Alito during his many trips
to the library as a law clerk; she has family roots in Oklahoma.
They have two grown children: Philip and Laura. Alito resided with his
family in West Caldwell,
New Jersey before his Supreme Court
nomination. Alito socialized with Judge
Edward Roy Becker
Edward Roy Becker and his
classmate, Senate Judiciary Chairman
Arlen Specter (R-PA). Alito
has since moved to a home in Washington, D.C.
In 2013, as part of the ongoing fallout from the
Edward Snowden case,
it was revealed by former
National Security Agency
National Security Agency analyst Russell
Tice that during 2002 and 2003 Judge Alito's phones, as well as his
staff and his family were targeted for surveillance by the National
Alito is an avid baseball fan and a long-time fan of the Philadelphia
Phillies. He delivered the Supreme Court Historical Society’s
2008 Annual Lecture "The Origin of the Baseball Antitrust Exemption,"
which was also published in two journals.
As adjunct professor at
Seton Hall University School of Law
Seton Hall University School of Law in Newark
from 1999 to 2004, Alito taught courses in constitutional law and an
original course on terrorism and civil liberties. In 1995, Alito was
presented with the school's Saint
Thomas More Medal, "in recognition
of his outstanding contributions to the field of law". On May 25,
2007, he delivered the commencement address at Seton Hall Law's
commencement ceremony and received an honorary law degree from the law
He has been a member of the Federalist Society, a group of
conservatives and libertarian lawyers and legal students interested in
conservative legal theory.
As a visiting professor at Duke University School of Law, Alito taught
Current Issues in Constitutional Interpretation in fall 2011 and a
course in the Master of Laws in Judicial Studies program in summer
Nomination to U.S. Supreme Court and confirmation hearings
George W. Bush
George W. Bush looking on, Alito acknowledges his
Samuel Alito Supreme Court nomination
On July 1, 2005, Associate Justice
Sandra Day O'Connor
Sandra Day O'Connor announced her
retirement from the Supreme Court effective upon the confirmation of a
George W. Bush
George W. Bush first nominated
John Roberts to
the vacancy; however, when
William Rehnquist died on
September 3, Bush withdrew Roberts' nomination to fill O'Connor's seat
and instead nominated Roberts to the Chief Justiceship. On October 3,
President Bush nominated
Harriet Miers to replace O'Connor. Miers
withdrew her acceptance of the nomination on October 27 after
encountering widespread opposition.
On October 31, President Bush announced that he was nominating Alito
to O'Connor's seat, and he submitted the nomination to the Senate on
November 10, 2005. Alito was unanimously rated "well qualified" to
fill the Associate Justice post by the American Bar Association's
Standing Committee on Federal Judiciary, which measures the
professional qualifications of a nominee. The committee rates
judges as "not qualified", "qualified", or "well qualified".
Alito's confirmation hearing was held from January 9 to 13, 2006. Two
active-duty members of the Third Circuit, Judge Maryanne Trump Barry
and Chief Judge Anthony J. Scirica, testified in Alito’s
confirmation hearing, alongside five senior and retired circuit
judges. Alito responded to some 700 questions over 18 hours of
testimony, where he rejected the use of foreign legal materials in the
Constitution, approved of cameras in courtrooms, said Congress could
choose to outlaw LGBT employment discrimination in the United States
if it wished, and told Senator
Joe Biden (D-DE) that he endorsed a
weak version of the unitary executive theory.
On January 24, his nomination was voted out of the Senate Judiciary
Committee on a 10–8 party line vote. Democratic Senators
characterized Alito as a hard right conservative in the mold of a
Clarence Thomas or Robert Bork. Alito professed reluctance to commit
to any type of ideology, stating he would act as an impartial referee.
On the abortion issue, he stated that he would look at that with an
open mind but would not state how he would rule on
Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade if that
issue were to come up before the court. Some pro-life activists,
however, claim Alito's confirmation as a victory for their cause.
Democrats on the committee grilled Alito on his past association with
the conservative group Concerned Alumni of Princeton. Alito stated
that he had listed an affiliation with the group on his application to
Ronald Reagan's Justice Department in order to establish his
conservative credentials: "You have to look at the question that I was
responding to and the form that I was filling out... I was applying
for a position in the Reagan administration. And my answers were
truthful statements, but what I was trying to outline were the things
that were relevant to obtaining a political position." During the
confirmation hearings, Alito disavowed the group, whose views were
criticized as racist and sexist, saying: "I disavow them. I deplore
them. They represent things that I have always stood against and I
can't express too strongly." During Alito's Senate confirmation
hearings, his wife, Martha Ann Alito, broke into tears after
Republicans expressed their disapproval of how Alito was being
characterized by some Democrats on the panel.
American Civil Liberties Union
American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) formally opposed Alito's
nomination. The ACLU has only taken this step two other times in its
entire history, the last time being with the nomination of Robert Bork
who was rejected by a 58–42 vote in the Senate. In releasing its
report on Alito, ACLU Executive Director
Anthony Romero justified
the decision saying that "At a time when our president has claimed
unprecedented authority to spy on Americans and jail terrorism
suspects indefinitely, America needs a Supreme Court justice who will
uphold our precious civil liberties. Alito's record shows a
willingness to support government actions that abridge individual
Debate on the nomination began in the full Senate on January 25. After
a failed filibuster attempt by Senator John Kerry, on January 31, the
Senate confirmed Alito to the Supreme Court by a vote of 58–42,
with four Democratic senators voting for confirmation and one
Republican and an Independent voting against. Alito became the
110th justice, the second Italian-American, and the 11th
Catholic in the history of the Supreme Court, and the fifth Catholic
on the Court at the time he assumed office.
U.S. Supreme Court career
Because Alito joined the court mid-term, he did not participate in the
decisions of most of the early cases in the court term because he had
not heard arguments for many of these early cases which had yet to be
decided. Most of these decisions were released without his
participation (i.e., with an 8-member Court); none were 4–4, so
Alito would not have been the deciding vote in any of them if he had
participated. Only three of these cases – Garcetti v.
Ceballos, Hudson v. Michigan, and Kansas v. Marsh – were
re-argued, since a tie needed to be broken.
Alito delivered his first written opinion on May 1, 2006 in the case
Holmes v. South Carolina, a case involving the right of criminal
defendants to present evidence that a third party committed the crime.
(Since the beginning of the Rehnquist Court, new justices have been
given unanimous opinions to write as their first majority court
opinion, often done as a courtesy "breaking in" of new justices, so
that every justice has at least one unanimous, uncontroversial opinion
under his/her belt). Alito wrote for a unanimous court in ordering a
new trial for Bobby Lee Holmes due to South Carolina's rule that
barred such evidence based on the strength of the prosecution's case,
rather than on the relevance and strength of the defense evidence
itself. His other majority opinions in his first term were in Zedner
v. United States, Woodford v. Ngo, and Arlington Central School
District Board of Education v. Murphy.
Alito ceremonially sworn in by
John Roberts the day
after his confirmation, February 1, 2006.
In his first term, Alito voted fairly conservatively. For example, in
the three reargued cases (Garcetti v. Ceballos,
Hudson v. Michigan
Hudson v. Michigan and
Kansas v. Marsh), Alito created a 5–4 majority by voting with four
other conservative Justices –
Chief Justice Roberts and
Justices Scalia, Kennedy, and Thomas. He further voted with the
conservative wing of the court on Sanchez-Llamas v. Oregon and
Rapanos v. United States. Alito was also a dissenter in Hamdan v.
Rumsfeld, alongside Justices Scalia and Thomas.
Alito is considered "one of the most conservative justices on the
Court". However, while his voting record is conservative, he does
not always join the most conservative Justices on the Court. On
February 1, 2006, in Alito's first decision sitting on the Supreme
Court, he voted with the majority (6–3) to refuse Missouri's request
to vacate the stay of execution issued by the Eighth Circuit for
death-row inmate Michael Taylor;
Chief Justice Roberts and Justices
Scalia and Thomas were in favor of vacating the stay. Missouri had
twice asked the justices to lift the stay and permit the
execution. Alito has also dissented from the Supreme Court's
conservative justices on notable free speech cases, one of which,
Snyder v. Phelps, had to do with
Westboro Baptist Church
Westboro Baptist Church members'
right to protest a military funeral. Alito offered the sole
dissenting opinion, describing his view by saying protesters "were
sued under a very well-established tort that goes back to the 19th
century, the intentional infliction of emotional, of severe emotional
distress. And I thought that this tort constituted a reasonable
exception to the First Amendment, but my colleagues disagreed about
In 2003, Congress passed the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, which led
to a lawsuit in the case of Gonzales v. Carhart. The Court had
previously ruled in
Stenberg v. Carhart
Stenberg v. Carhart that a state's ban on partial
birth abortion was unconstitutional because such a ban did not have an
exception in the case of a threat to the health of the mother. The
membership of the Court changed after Stenberg, with
John Roberts and
Samuel Alito replacing
William Rehnquist (a dissenter in Roe) and
Sandra Day O'Connor
Sandra Day O'Connor (a supporter of Roe) respectively. Further, the
ban at issue in
Gonzales v. Carhart
Gonzales v. Carhart was a federal statute, rather than
a state statute as in the Stenberg case.
On April 18, 2007, the Supreme Court handed down a decision ruling
constitutional the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act. Justice Anthony
Kennedy wrote for the five-justice majority that Congress was within
its power to generally ban the procedure, although the Court left open
the door for as-applied challenges. Kennedy, writing for the court,
implied but did not absolutely reach the question whether the Court's
prior decisions in Roe v. Wade, Planned Parenthood v. Casey, and
Stenberg v. Carhart
Stenberg v. Carhart were valid, and instead the Court said that the
challenged statute is consistent with those prior decisions whether or
not those prior decisions were valid.
Alito joined fully in the majority as did
Chief Justice Roberts.
Justice Thomas filed a concurring opinion, joined by Justice Scalia,
contending that the Court's prior decisions in
Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade and Planned
Parenthood v. Casey should be reversed, and also noting that the
Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act
Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act may exceed the powers of Congress under
the Commerce Clause. Alito, Roberts, and Kennedy did not join that
assertion. Justices Ginsburg, Souter, Breyer, and Stevens dissented,
contending that the ruling ignored Supreme Court abortion precedent.
Moreover, despite having been at one time nicknamed "Scalito," Alito's
views have differed from those of Scalia (and Thomas), as in the
Michael Taylor case cited above and various other cases of the 2005
term. Scalia, a fierce critic of reliance on legislative history in
statutory interpretation, was the only member of the Court in Zedner
United States not to join a section of Alito's opinion that
discussed the legislative history of the statute in question. In two
higher-profile cases, involving the constitutionality of political
gerrymandering and campaign finance reform (
LULAC v. Perry
LULAC v. Perry and Randall
v. Sorrell), Alito adopted narrow positions, declining to join the
bolder positions advanced by either philosophical side of the Court.
According to a scotusblog.com analysis of 2005 term decisions, Alito
and Scalia concurred in the result of 86% of decisions (in which both
participated), and concurred in full in 75%.
In the 2007 landmark free speech case Morse v. Frederick, Alito joined
Roberts' majority decision that speech advocating drug use can be
banned in public schools, but also warned that the ruling must be
circumscribed that it does not interfere with political speech, such
as the discussion of the medical marijuana debate.
Alito's majority opinion in the 2008 worker protection case
Gomez-Perez v. Potter
Gomez-Perez v. Potter cleared the way for federal workers who
experience retaliation after filing age discrimination complaints to
sue for damages. He sided with the liberal bloc of the court,
inferring protection against retaliation in the federal-sector
provision of the
Age Discrimination in Employment Act despite the lack
of an explicit provision concerning retaliation.
Foreword, 1 SETON HALL CIR. REV. 1 (2005).
Panel Speaker at the Federalist Society’s 2000 National Lawyers
Convention: Presidential Oversight and the Administrative State, in 2
ENGAGE (Federalist Soc’y, Wash. D.C.) 11 (2001).
The Role of the Lawyer in the Criminal Justice System, 2 FEDERALIST
SOC’Y CRIM. L. NEWS (Federalist Soc’y, Wash., D.C.) 3 (1998)
Change in Continuity at the Office of Legal Counsel, 15 CARDOZO L.
REV. 507 (1993).
Reviewing the Sentencing Commission’s 1991 Annual Report, 5 FED.
SENT. REP. 166 (1992).
The First Amendment: Information, Publication and the Media, 1 SETON
HALL CONST. L.J. 327 (1991).
What Role Should Individual Sentencing Judges Play in the Guideline
Development Process?, 1 FED SENT. REP. 372 (1989).
Racketeering Made Simple(r), in THE RICO RACKET 1 (Gary L. McDowell
Introduction to After the Independent Counsel Decision: Is Separation
of Powers Dead?, 26 AM. CRIM. L. REV. 1667 (1989).
Shift Won’t Hamper Crime Fight, DAILY J. (Vineland, N.J.), May 5,
The Year Wasn’t So Bad, NAT’L. L.J., Sep. 26, 1998, at 12.
Documents and the Privilege Against Self-Incrimination, 48 U. PITT. L.
REV. 27 (1986).
Equal Protection and Classification Based on Family Membership, 80
DICK. L. REV. 410 (1976).
Note, The “Released Time” Cases Revisited: A Study of Group
Decisionmaking by the Supreme Court, 83 YALE L.J. 1202 (1974).
An Introduction to the Italian Constitutional Court (A.B. Thesis,
Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School Scholar Project, May 31,
Legal Memo written while working in the
United States Solicitor
General's office regarding the Fleeing felon rule. (May 18, 1984)
'Personal Qualifications Statement' when applying to be an Assistant
Attorney General under Pres. Ronald Reagan. (November 15, 1985)
Legal Memo written as Deputy Asst. Attorney General to the OMB’s
General Counsel regarding OMB authority of FDIC funds. (1986) (PDF)
House Committee on the Judiciary testimony regarding unpublished court
opinions. (1990) (PDF)
2003 Financial Disclosure
2004 Financial Disclosure
Response to a Senate Judiciary Committee questionnaire (November 30,
2005) (PDF), (Appendix1 Appendix2 Appendix3 Appendix4)
List of Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States
List of U.S. Supreme Court Justices by time in office
Unitary Executive theory
United States Supreme Court cases during the Roberts Court
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September 7, 2007. "In his opening statement to the Judiciary
Samuel Alito told the senators where he comes from.
First, Hamilton Township, N.J., the modest-income suburb of Trenton,
where he grew up."
^ Samuel A. Alito Jr. biography, FindLaw. Retrieved November 20, 2006.
^ Report of the Chairman − Samuel Alito, Conference on the
Boundaries of Privacy in American Society, Woodrow Wilson Sch. of Pub.
& Int’l Affairs, Princeton Univ. at 5 (January 4, 1972).
^ Daily Princetonian, Nominee chaired conference recommending
protection of privacy, gay rights (October 2005).
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United States Supreme Court.
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civility", Chicago Tribune, October 31, 2005.
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Words – Interview With Associate Justice Samuel Alito".
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Retrieved 2 November 2017.
^ Verhovek, Sam Howe (22 March 1988). "Bogus Threats Suspected in
Indian Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
^ Schwartz, Ethan (11 March 1989). "EX-PROSECUTOR FOUND INSANE IN CASE
OF FAKED THREATS". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2 November
^ Hanley, Robert (4 February 1989). "U.S. Links Man With 3 Bombs To a
Terror Plot". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
^ "Alito Sworn In As High Court Justice". CBS News. February 11, 2009.
Retrieved September 23, 2012.
^ Geidner, Chris (2011-03-02). "Supreme Court Upholds Westboro Baptist
Church Members' Right to Picket Funerals". Metro Weekly. Retrieved
^ Alito's Supreme Court Nomination Confirmed, NPR. Retrieved September
20, 2007. "Alito and his wife, Martha-Ann Bomgardner, live in West
"I held in my hand Judge Alito’s targeting information for his
phones and his staff and his family."
^ youtu.be/d6m1XbWOfVk?t=3m1s NSA Blackmailing Obama? Interview with
Whistleblower Russ Tice, Breaking the Set, Abby Martin, Published July
9, 2013, excerpt: "I held Judge Alito's paperwork in my hand"
^ Alito, Jr., Samuel A. (June 15, 2009). "The Origin of the Baseball
Antitrust Exemption: Federal Baseball Club of Baltimore, Inc. v.
National League of Professional Baseball Clubs". Journal of Supreme
Court History. 34 (2): 183–195.
^ Alito, Jr., Samuel A. (2009). "The Origin of the Baseball Antitrust
Exemption". Baseball Research Journal. 38 (2). Retrieved 10 September
^ "The Justices of the
United States Supreme Court". Supreme Court
Review. Retrieved 2016-05-02.
^ Alito speaks to Seton Hall grads USA Today. May 27, 2007. Retrieved
January 21, 2014.
^ (Hook, 1)
^ "Associate Justice Samuel A. Alito". Duke University School of Law.
Retrieved July 13, 2012.
^ New York Times (October 31, 2005) "Bush Picks Appeals Court Judge to
Succeed O'Connor on Court"
^ "Statement of Stephen L. Tober, Standing Committee on Federal
Judiciary American Bar Association, concerning the Nomination of the
Honorable Samuel A. Alito, Jr. (January 12, 2006)" (PDF). Retrieved 3
^ USA Today ( January 4, 2006)"Alito gets 'well-qualified' rating from
American Bar Association"
^ Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (2006). "7 Federal Appeals Judges to Testify to
Alito's Character". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 November
^ Liptak, Adam (2006). "Few Glimmers of How Conservative Judge Alito
Is". The New York Times. p. A1. Retrieved 2 November 2017.
^ Reaction to Nomination of
Samuel Alito to Supreme Court Archived
September 27, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., Concerned Women of
America. Retrieved March 27, 2007.
^ "Dems Slam Alito's Alumni Group". Fox News Channel. January 12,
^ a b Stefanski, Mark (January 13, 2006). "Alito disavows conservative
alumni group". Daily Princetonian. Retrieved August 18, 2009.
^ Marlantes, Liz (January 11, 2005). "Alito Grilling Gets Too Intense
for Some". ABC News. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
Robert Bork and
John Roberts Archived June 30, 2007, at Archive.is
^ ACLU Opposes Nomination of Judge Alito
^ "Alito Confirmed as Newest Supreme Court Justice". NPR. January 31,
2006. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
^ Kirkpatrick, David D. (1 February 2006). "Alito Sworn In as Justice
After Senate Gives Approval". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 November
^ Hurt, Charles (February 1, 2006). "Alito sworn in as 110th justice".
The Washington Times. Retrieved March 30, 2007.
^ "Alito sworn in as nation's 110th Supreme Court justice (CNN.com)".
Retrieved February 4, 2006.
^ Religious affiliation of Supreme Court justices Note: Justice
Sherman Minton converted to Catholicism after he retired.
^ "Sanchez-Llamas v. Oregon, 04-10566" (PDF). Retrieved October 20,
^ CNN (February 2, 2006)"Justice Alito casts his first vote"
^ SCOTUS Blog (By scotusblog.com's reckoning, this is less agreement
than between Scalia and Kennedy, O'Connor and Souter, or Stevens and
Ginsburg.) On the recent abortion ruling, Alito simply joined Anthony
Kennedy's opinion rather than join Scalia in Thomas's stronger
Bazelon, Emily (October 31, 2005). "Alito v. O'Connor". Slate.
"Bush choice sets up court battle". BBC.
Collins, Ronald K.L. (October 31, 2005). Judge Alito: fairly strong on
Collins, Ronald K.L. (November 3, 2005). Alito as government lawyer:
'84 broadcast-regulation case.
Davis, Elliott M. (Summer 2007). The Newer Textualism: Justice Alito's
Statutory Interpretation. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy
Dickerson, John (October 31, 2005). "Ready To Rumble". Slate.
Federal Judicial Center. Judges of the
United States (official
Hook, Janet (November 1, 2005). "Bush's Supreme Court Nominee: A
Phillies Fan With Blue-Chip Legal Stats." Los Angeles Times. P. A1.
Find more aboutSamuel Alitoat's sister projects
Definitions from Wiktionary
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Quotations from Wikiquote
Texts from Wikisource
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Learning resources from Wikiversity
Samuel A. Alito Jr. at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a
public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center.
Samuel Alito at Ballotpedia
Appearances on C-SPAN
The Nomination of Samuel A. Alito at the Law Library of Congress
Fox, John, Capitalism and Conflict, Biographies of the Robes, Samuel
Anthony Alito, Jr. Public Broadcasting Service.
Washington Post Profile
Daily Princetonian profile
Issue positions and quotes at OnTheIssues
Profile at SourceWatch
"The Record of Samuel Alito: A Preliminary Review". People For the
American Way. 2005.
Read Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding Alito
National Archives Alito links
The White House Judicial Nominations page on Alito
Supreme Court Justice Nomination Hearings on Samuel Anthony Alito, Jr.
in January 2006
United States Government Publishing Office
United States Attorney for the District of New Jersey
Judge of the
United States Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit
Sandra Day O'Connor
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Current U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial)
as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
Order of Precedence of the United States
as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
as Associate Justice of the Supreme Court
United States Attorneys for the District of New Jersey
R. Del Tufo Jr.
R. Del Tufo
Judicial opinions of Samuel Alito
U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit (April 30, 1990 - January
31, 2006); by calendar year
Supreme Court of the
United States (January 31, 2006 - present); by
Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
S. P. Chase
Note: Seats 5 and 7 are defunct
Supreme Court of the United States
The Roberts Court
John Roberts (2005–present)
J. P. Stevens
R. B. Ginsburg
J. P. Stevens
R. B. Ginsburg
R. B. Ginsburg
R. B. Ginsburg
ISNI: 0000 0000 4387 389X