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The SAMARITAN ALPHABET is used by the Samaritans for religious writings, including the Samaritan
Samaritan
Pentateuch , writings in Samaritan Hebrew , and for commentaries and translations in Samaritan
Samaritan
Aramaic and occasionally Arabic .

History of the alphabet
History of the alphabet
-------------------------

_ Egyptian hieroglyphs
Egyptian hieroglyphs
_ 32 c. BCE

* _ Hieratic
Hieratic
_ 32 c. BCE

* _Demotic _ 7 c. BCE

* _Meroitic _ 3 c. BCE

* _Proto-Sinaitic _ 19 c. BCE

* _Ugaritic _ 15 c. BCE

* _Epigraphic South Arabian _ 9 c. BCE

* Ge’ez 5–6 c. BCE

* _Phoenician _ 12 c. BCE

* _Paleo-Hebrew _ 10 c. BCE

* Samaritan
Samaritan
6 c. BCE

* _ Libyco-Berber3 c. BCE_

* Tifinagh
Tifinagh

* _Paleohispanic _ (semi-syllabic) 7 c. BCE

* Aramaic 8 c. BCE

* _ Kharoṣṭhī
Kharoṣṭhī
_ 4 c. BCE

* _Brāhmī _ 4 c. BCE

* Brahmic family_(see)_

* E.g. Tibetan 7 c. CE

* Hangul
Hangul
(core letters only) 1443

* Devanagari
Devanagari
13 c. CE

* Canadian syllabics 1840

* Hebrew 3 c. BCE

* _Pahlavi _ 3 c. BCE

* _Avestan _ 4 c. CE

* _Palmyrene _ 2 c. BCE

* Syriac 2 c. BCE

* _Nabataean _ 2 c. BCE

* Arabic 4 c. CE

* N\'Ko 1949 CE

* _Sogdian _ 2 c. BCE

* _Orkhon (old Turkic)_ 6 c. CE

* _Old Hungarian _ c. 650 CE

* _Old Uyghur _

* Mongolian 1204 CE

* Mandaic 2 c. CE

* Greek 8 c. BCE

* _Etruscan _ 8 c. BCE

* Latin 7 c. BCE

* Cherokee (syllabary; letter forms only) c. 1820 CE

* _Runic _ 2 c. CE * _ Ogham
Ogham
_ (origin uncertain) 4 c. CE

* _Coptic _ 3 c. CE * _Gothic _ 3 c. CE * Armenian 405 CE * Georgian (origin uncertain) c. 430 CE * _Glagolitic _ 862 CE

* Cyrillic c. 940 CE

* _Old Permic _ 1372 CE

Thaana
Thaana
18 c. CE (derived from Brahmi numerals
Brahmi numerals
)

* v * t * e

Samaritan
Samaritan
is a direct descendant of the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
, which was a variety of the Phoenician alphabet
Phoenician alphabet
in which large parts of the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
were originally penned. All these scripts are believed to be descendants of the Proto-Sinaitic script
Proto-Sinaitic script
. That script was used by the ancient Israelites
Israelites
, both Jews
Jews
and Samaritans. The better-known "square script" Hebrew alphabet
Hebrew alphabet
traditionally used by Jews
Jews
is a stylized version of the Aramaic alphabet
Aramaic alphabet
called "Assyrian writing" (כתב אשורי) which they adopted from the Persian Empire (which in turn adopted it from the Arameans
Arameans
). After the fall of the Persian Empire, Judaism used both scripts before settling on the Aramaic form. For a limited time thereafter, the use of paleo-Hebrew (proto-Samaritan) among Jews
Jews
was retained only to write the Tetragrammaton
Tetragrammaton
, but soon that custom was also abandoned.

The Samaritan
Samaritan
alphabet first became known to the Western world with the publication of a manuscript of the Samaritan
Samaritan
Pentateuch in 1631 by Jean Morin . In 1616 the traveler Pietro della Vallehad purchased a copy of the text in Damascus
Damascus
, and this manuscript, now known as Codex B, was deposited in a Parisian library.

CONTENTS

* 1 Development * 2 Letters * 3 Unicode
Unicode
* 4 Notes * 5 Bibliography * 6 External links

DEVELOPMENT

The table below shows the development of the Samaritan
Samaritan
script. On the left are the corresponding Hebrew letters for comparison. Column I is the Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
Paleo-Hebrew alphabet
. Column X shows the modern form of the letters. The development of the Samaritan
Samaritan
script

LETTERS

Ancient inscription in Samaritan Hebrew. From a photo c.1900 by the Palestine Exploration Fund.

Consonants ࠀ ā'lāf ࠁ bīt ࠂ gā'mān ࠃ dā'lāt ࠄ īy ࠅ bâ ࠆ zēn ࠇ īt ࠈ ţīt ࠉ yūt ࠊ kâf ࠋ lā'bāt ࠌ mīm ࠍ nūn ࠎ sin'gât ࠏ īn ࠐ fī ࠑ şâ'dīy ࠒ qūf ࠓ rīš ࠔ šān ࠕ tāf

Vowels ࠖ ࠗ ā'lāf ࠘ _occlusion_ ࠙ dagesh ࠚ epenthetic yūt ࠛ epenthetic yût ࠜ ē ࠝ e ࠞ â ࠟ ā ࠠ a ࠡ æ̂ ࠢ ǣ ࠣ æ ࠤ ă ࠥ ă ࠦ ū ࠧ u ࠨ î ࠩ ī ࠪ i ࠫ o ࠬ sukun

Punctuation ࠭ ࠰ ࠱ ࠲ ࠳ ࠴ ࠵ ࠶ ࠷ ࠸ ࠹ ࠺ ࠻ ࠼ ࠽ ࠾

UNICODE

Main article: Samaritan
Samaritan
( Unicode
Unicode
block)

Samaritan
Samaritan
script was added to the Unicode
Unicode
Standard in October 2009 with the release of version 5.2.

The Unicode
Unicode
block for Samaritan
Samaritan
is U+0800–U+083F:

SAMARITAN Official Unicode
Unicode
Consortium code chart (PDF)