Outline of Bible-related topics
The SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH, also known as the SAMARITAN TORAH (
תורה שומרונית torah shomronit), is a text of the first
five books of the
Bible , written in the
Samaritan alphabet and
used as a scripture by the
Samaritans . It constitutes their entire
biblical canon .
Some six thousand differences exist between the Samaritan and the
Masoretic Text . Most are minor variations in the spelling of words or
grammatical constructions , but others involve significant semantic
changes, such as the uniquely Samaritan commandment to construct an
Mount Gerizim . Nearly two thousand of these textual
variations agree with the
Septuagint and some are shared
with the Latin
Vulgate . Throughout their history,
made use of translations of the Samaritan
Pentateuch into Aramaic ,
Greek and Arabic as well as liturgical and exegetical works based upon
It first became known to the Western world in 1631, proving the first
example of the
Samaritan alphabet and sparking an intense theological
debate regarding its relative age versus the Masoretic text. Some
Pentateuchal manuscripts discovered among the
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls have
been identified as bearing a "pre-Samaritan" text type. Wide
agreement now exists among textual critics that the Samaritan
Pentateuch represents an authentic ancient textual tradition despite
the presence of some unique variants introduced by the Samaritans.
* 1 Origin and canonical significance
* 1.1 Samaritan traditions
* 1.2 Scholarly perspective
* 2 Comparison with other versions
* 2.1 Comparison with the Masoretic
* 2.2 Comparison with the
Septuagint and Latin
* 3 Evaluations of its relevance for textual criticism
* 4 Derivative works
* 4.1 Translations
* 4.2 Exegetical and liturgical texts
* 5 Manuscripts and printed editions
* 5.1 Manuscripts
* 5.1.1 Abisha Scroll
* 5.2 Western scholarship
* 5.3 Modern publications
* 6 See also
* 7 Notes
* 8 References
* 9 Bibliography
* 10 External links
ORIGIN AND CANONICAL SIGNIFICANCE
Samaritan and the Samaritan
Samaritans believe that God authored their
Pentateuch and gave Moses
the first copy along with the two tablets containing the Ten
Commandments . They believe that they preserve this divinely composed
text uncorrupted to the present day.
Samaritans commonly refer to
Pentateuch as קושטה ("The Truth").
Samaritans include only the
Pentateuch in their biblical canon. They
do not recognize divine authorship or inspiration in any other book in
Tanakh . A Samaritan
Joshua partly based upon the
Joshua exists, but
Samaritans regard it as a
non-canonical secular historical chronicle.
According to a view based on the biblical
Book of Ezra (Ezra 4:11),
Samaritans are the people of
Samaria who parted ways with the
people of Judah (the Judahites) in the Persian period . The
Samaritans believe that it was not they, but the Jews, who separated
from the authentic stream of Judaism, around the time of Eli , in the
11th century BCE. Jews have traditionally connected the origin of the
Samaritans with the later events described in 2 Kings 17:24–41
claiming that the
Samaritans are not related to the
Israelites , but
to those brought to
Samaria by the Assyrians.
Modern scholarship connects the formation of the Samaritan community
with events which followed the
Babylonian Captivity . One view is that
Samaritans are the people of the Kingdom of Israel who separated
from the Judaites (people of Judah). Another view is that the event
happened somewhere around 432 BCE, when Manasseh, the son-in-law of
Sanballat, went off to found a community in Samaria, as related in
Nehemiah 13:28 and Josephus. Josephus himself, however, dates this
event and the building of the temple at
Shechem to the time of
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great . Others believe that the real schism between the
peoples did not take place until
Hasmonean times when the Gerizim
temple was destroyed in 128 BCE by
John Hyrcanus . The script of the
Samaritan Pentateuch, its close connections at many points with the
Septuagint, and its even closer agreements with the present Hebrew
text, all suggest a date about 122 BCE.
Excavation work undertaken since 1982 by Yitzhak Magen has firmly
dated the temple structures on Gerizim to the middle of the 5th
century, built by Sanballat the Horonite, a contemporary of Ezra and
Nehemiah, who lived more than one hundred years before the Sanballat
that is mentioned by Josephus.
The adoption of the
Pentateuch as the sacred text of the Samaritans
before their final schism with the Palestinian Jewish community
provides evidence that it was already widely accepted as a canonical
authority in that region.
COMPARISON WITH OTHER VERSIONS
COMPARISON WITH THE MASORETIC
Detail of Samaritan
Manuscripts of the Samaritan
Pentateuch are written in a different
Hebrew script than is used in other
Hebrew Pentateuchs. Samaritans
Samaritan alphabet which is derived from the Paleo-Hebrew
alphabet used by the Israelite community prior to the Babylonian
captivity. Afterwards, Jews adopted a script based on the Aramaic
alphabet that developed into the
Hebrew alphabet . Originally all
manuscripts of the Samaritan
Pentateuch consisted of unvocalized text
written using only the letters of the Samaritan alphabet. Beginning in
the 12th century, some manuscripts show a partial vocalization
resembling the Jewish
Tiberian vocalization used in Masoretic
manuscripts. More recently a few manuscripts have been produced with
full vocalization. However, many extant manuscripts show no tendency
towards vocalization. The Pentateuchal text is divided into 904
paragraphs. Divisions between sections of text are marked with various
combinations of lines, dots or an asterisk; a dot is used to indicate
the separation between words.
The critical apparatus accompanying the London Polyglot 's
publication of the Samaritan
Pentateuch lists six thousand instances
where the Samaritan differs from the Masoretic Text. However, as
different printed editions of the Samaritan
Pentateuch are based upon
different sets of manuscripts, the precise number varies significantly
from one edition to another.
Only a minority are significant; most can be categorized as one of
the following types:
* More matres lectionis in the Samaritan
Pentateuch to indicate
vowels compared with the Masoretic.
* Loss of the gutturals in spoken Samaritan
Hebrew influenced how
Samaritan scribes transcribed words containing these letters.
* Scribal errors caused by the mistaking of one
Hebrew letter for
another with a similar appearance.
* Scribal errors resulting in the transposition of letters in a
word, or words in a sentence.
* Replacement of archaic
Hebrew grammatical constructions with more
* Textual adjustments to resolve grammatical difficulties and
replace rare grammatical forms with more common ones.
* A variety of minor grammatical variations such as the Samaritan's
preference for the
Hebrew preposition 'al where the Masoretic has 'el.
Among the most notable semantic differences are those related to the
Samaritan place of worship on
Mount Gerizim . The Samaritan version of
Ten Commandments commands that an altar be built on Mount Gerizim
on which all sacrifices should be offered. The Samaritan Pentateuch
contains this text at Exodus 20:17:
And when it so happens that LORD God brings you to the land of
Canaan, which you are coming to possess, you shall set up there for
you great stones and plaster them with plaster and you write on the
stones all words of this law. And it becomes for you that across the
Jordan you shall raise these stones, which I command you today, in
mountain Gerizim. And you build there the altar to the LORD God of
you. Altar of stones. Not you shall wave on them iron. With whole
stones you shall build the altar to LORD God of you. And you bring on
it ascend offerings to LORD God of you, and you sacrifice peace
offerings, and you eat there and you rejoice before the face of the
LORD God of you. The mountain this is across the Jordan behind the way
of the rising of the sun, in the land of
Canaan who is dwelling in the
desert before the Galgal, beside Alvin-Mara, before Sechem.
This commandment is absent from the corresponding text of the Ten
Commandments in the Masoretic. The Samaritan Pentateuch's inclusion of
the Gerizim variation within the
Ten Commandments places additional
emphasis on the divine sanction given to that community's place of
worship. This variation has similarities to Deuteronomy 27:2-8 and is
supported by changes to the verbal tense within the Samaritan text of
Deuteronomy indicating that God has already chosen this place. The
future tense ("will choose") is used in the Masoretic. And whereas
Deuteronomy 27:4 in the Masoretic commands an altar to be constructed
Mount Ebal , the Samaritan texts has Mount Gerizim.
In (Exodus 23:19) Samaritan
Pentateuch contains the following passage
after the prohibition: which roughly translates "that one doing this
as sacrifice forgets and enrages God of Jacob".
In (Numbers 4:14) Samaritan
Pentateuch contains the following
passage: which roughly translates "And they will take a purple
covering and cover the laver and his foot, and they cover it in
Tachash skins, and they put it upon a bar."
Several other types of differences are found. The Samaritan
Pentateuch uses less anthropomorphic language in descriptions of God
with intermediaries performing actions the Masoretic version
attributes directly to God. Where the Masoretic describes
Yahweh as a
"man of war" (Exodus 15:3), the Samaritan has "hero of war", a phrase
applied to spiritual beings, and in Numbers 23:4, the Samaritan
reading "The Angel of God found
Balaam " contrasts with the Masoretic
"And God met Balaam." A few differences reflect Samaritan notions of
propriety, such as the alteration in Genesis 50:23 of the Masoretic
"upon the knees of Joseph" to "in the days of Joseph." Samaritan
scribes, who interpreted this verse literally, found it improper that
the mother of Joseph's grandchildren would give birth on his knees.
Distinctive variants in the Samaritan are also found in certain legal
texts where Samaritan practice varies from that prescribed within
rabbinical halachic texts.
In about thirty-four instances, the Samaritan
Pentateuch imports text
from parallel or synoptic passages in other parts of the Pentateuch.
These textual expansions record conversations and events that are
implied or presupposed by other parts of the narrative, but not
explicitly recorded in the Masoretic text. For example, the Samaritan
text in the
Book of Exodus on multiple occasions records Moses
Pharaoh exactly what both the Samaritan and Masoretic
record God instructing
Moses to tell him. The result is repetitious,
but the Samaritan makes it clear that
Moses spoke exactly as God
commanded him. In addition to these substantial textual expansions,
Pentateuch on numerous occasions adds subjects ,
prepositions, particles , appositives , and the repetition of words
and phrases within a single passage to clarify the meaning of the
COMPARISON WITH THE SEPTUAGINT AND LATIN VULGATE
Septuagint (LXX) agrees with the Samaritan in approximately 1900
of the six thousand variations from the Masoretic. Many of these
agreements reflect inconsequential grammatical details, but some are
significant. For example, Exodus 12:40 in the Samaritan and the
Septuagint reads: "Now the sojourning of the children of Israel and
of their fathers which they had dwelt in the land of
Canaan and in
Egypt was four hundred and thirty years."
In the Masoretic text, the passage reads: "Now the sojourning of the
children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was four hundred and thirty
Some passages in the Latin
Vulgate show agreements with the Samaritan
against the Masoretic. For example, Genesis 22:2 in the Samaritan has
Moreh " (Hebrew: מוראה) while the Masoretic has "land of
Moriah " (Hebrew: מריה). "Land of Moreh" is considered to be a
Samaritan variant because "Moreh" describes the region around Shechem
Mount Gerizim is situated. The
Vulgate translates this phrase
as in terram visionis ("in the land of vision") which implies that
Jerome was familiar with the reading "Moreh", a
Hebrew word whose
trilateral root suggests "vision."
EVALUATIONS OF ITS RELEVANCE FOR TEXTUAL CRITICISM
The earliest recorded assessments of the Samaritan
found in rabbinical literature and Christian patristic writings of the
first millennium CE. The
Rabbi Eleazar b. Simeon
condemning the Samaritan scribes: "You have falsified your
Pentateuch...and you have not profited aught by it." Some early
Christian writers found the Samaritan
Pentateuch useful for textual
Cyril of Alexandria ,
Procopius of Gaza and others spoke
of certain words missing from the Jewish Bible, but present in the
Eusebius of Caesarea
Eusebius of Caesarea wrote that the "Greek
translation also differs from the Hebrew, though not so much from the
Samaritan" and noted that the
Septuagint agrees with the Samaritan
Pentateuch in the number of years elapsed from Noah\'s Flood to
Abraham . Christian interest in the Samaritan
Pentateuch fell into
neglect during the
Middle Ages .
The publication of a manuscript of the Samaritan
17th-century Europe reawakened interest in the text and fueled a
Roman Catholics over which Old
Testament textual traditions are authoritative.
Roman Catholics showed
a particular interest in the study of the Samaritan
account of the antiquity of the text and its frequent agreements with
Septuagint and the Latin Vulgate, two
Bible translations to which
Catholics have traditionally ascribed considerable authority. Some
Catholics including Jean Morin , a Jesuit-convert from
Catholicism, argued that the Samaritan Pentateuch's correspondences
with the Latin
Septuagint indicated that it represents a
Hebrew text than the Masoretic. Several Protestants
replied with a defense of the Masoretic text's authority and argued
that the Samaritan text is a late and unreliable derivation from the
The 18th-century Protestant
Benjamin Kennicott 's
analysis of the Samaritan
Pentateuch stands as a notable exception to
the general trend of early Protestant research on the text. He
questioned the underlying assumption that the Masoretic text must be
more authentic simply because it has been more widely accepted as the
Hebrew version of the Pentateuch: "We see then that as
the evidence of one text destroys the evidence of the other and as
there is in fact the authority of versions to oppose to the authority
of versions no certain argument or rather no argument at all can be
drawn from hence to fix the corruption on either side".
Kennicott also states that the reading Gerizim may actually be the
original reading, since that is the mountain for proclaiming
blessings, and that it is very green and rich of vegetation (as
opposed to Mt. Ebal, which is barren and the mountain for proclaiming
curses) amongst other arguments.
Wilhelm Gesenius published a study of the Samaritan
Pentateuch in 1815 which biblical scholars widely embraced for the
next century. He argued that the
Septuagint and the Samaritan
Pentateuch share a common source in a family of
which he named the "Alexandrino-Samaritanus". In contrast to the
proto-Masoretic "Judean" manuscripts carefully preserved and copied in
Jerusalem , he regarded the Alexandrino-Samaritanus as having been
carelessly handled by scribal copyists who popularized, simplified,
and expanded the text. Gesenius concluded that the Masoretic text is
almost invariably superior to the Samaritan.
In 1915 Paul Kahle published a paper which compared passages from
the Samaritan text to Pentateuchal quotations in the
New Testament and
pseudepigraphal texts including the
Book of Jubilees , the First Book
of Enoch and the Assumption of
Moses . He concluded that the Samaritan
Pentateuch preserves "many genuine old readings and an ancient form of
the Pentateuch." Support for Kahle's thesis was bolstered by the
discovery of biblical manuscripts among the Dead Sea Scrolls,
approximately five percent of which contain a text similar to the
Samaritan Pentateuch. Apart from the sectarian variants unique to the
Pentateuch such as the reference to the worship of God on
Mount Gerizim, the Dead Sea Scroll texts have demonstrated that a
Pentateuchal text type resembling the Samaritan
Pentateuch goes back
to the second century BCE and perhaps even earlier. Other Dead Sea
Scroll Pentateuchal manuscripts show a close affinity to the later
Masoretic text. These discoveries have demonstrated that manuscripts
bearing a "pre-Samaritan" text of at least some portions of the
Pentateuch such as Exodus and Numbers circulated alongside other
manuscripts with a "pre-Masoretic" text. One Dead Sea Scroll copy of
Book of Exodus, conventionally named 4QpaleoExodm, shows a
particularly close relation to the Samaritan Pentateuch: The scroll
shares all the major typological features with the SP, including all
the major expansions of that tradition where it is extant (twelve),
with the single exception of the new tenth commandment inserted in
Exodus 20 from Deuteronomy 11 and 27 regarding the altar on Mount
Frank Moore Cross has described the origin of the Samaritan
Pentateuch within the context of his local texts hypothesis. He views
Pentateuch as having emerged from a manuscript tradition
local to Palestine. The
Hebrew texts that form the underlying basis
Septuagint branched from the Palestinian tradition as Jews
Egypt and took copies of the
Pentateuch with them. Cross
states that the Samaritan and the
Septuagint share a nearer common
ancestor than either does with the Masoretic, which he suggested
developed from local texts used by the Babylonian Jewish community.
His explanation accounts for the Samaritan and the
variants not found in the Masoretic and their differences reflecting
the period of their independent development as distinct Egyptian and
Palestinian local text traditions. On the basis of archaizing and
pseudo-archaic forms, Cross dates the emergence of the Samaritan
Pentateuch as a uniquely Samaritan textual tradition to the
Scholars have tended to presuppose that the Samaritan Pentateuch
consists of two "layers", one composed of the sectarian variants
introduced by Samaritan scribes and a second layer reflecting the
text's earlier transmission history as a "pre-Samaritan" Palestinian
local text. In light of recent research "it is now clear that the
Samaritan layer is very thin." Although the majority of scholars
continue to favor the Masoretic as a superior text, many other
scholars have now adopted Kahle's thesis. Scholars now widely agree
though that many textual variants previously classified as "Samaritan"
actually derive from even earlier phases of the Pentateuch's textual
Kennicott's claim that Gerizim is the original reading continues to
be a subject of discussion. Dead Sea Scroll fragment 4Q41(981)
contains a text of Deuteronomy 5:1–25 which makes no reference to
Mount Gerizim, but matches the Masoretic Text. The
New Testament also
agrees with the Masoretic version designating
Jerusalem as the "chosen
place". However, some scholars hold that Deuteronomy 27:4–7
constitutes one occasion where the Samaritan's "Gerizim" may be the
Targum , composed in the Samaritan dialect of Aramaic,
is the earliest translation of the Samaritan Pentateuch. Its creation
was motivated by the same need to translate the
Pentateuch into the
Aramaic language spoken by the community which led to the creation of
Jewish Targums such as
Targum Onkelos .
Samaritans have traditionally
Targum to Nathanael, a Samaritan priest who died circa 20
BCE. The Samaritan
Targum has a complex textual tradition represented
by manuscripts belonging to one of three fundamental text types
exhibiting substantial divergences from one another. Affinities that
the oldest of these textual traditions share with the Dead Sea Scrolls
and Onkelos suggest that the
Targum may originate from the same school
which finalized the Samaritan
Pentateuch itself. Others have placed
the origin of the
Targum around the beginning of the third century or
even later. Extant manuscripts of the
Targum are "extremely difficult
to use" on account of scribal errors caused by a faulty understanding
Hebrew on the part of the Targum's translators and a faulty
understanding of Aramaic on the part of later copyists.
Hexapla and the writings of some church fathers
contain references to "the Samaritikon " (Greek: το
Σαμαρειτικον)., a work that is no longer extant. Despite
earlier suggestions that it was merely a series of Greek scholia
translated from the Samaritan Pentateuch, scholars now concur that it
was a complete Greek translation of the Samaritan
directly translated from it or via the Samaritan Targum. It may have
been composed for the use of a Greek-speaking Samaritan community
residing in Egypt.
With the displacement of Samaritan Aramaic by Arabic as the language
of the Samaritan community in the centuries following the Muslim
conquest of Syria , they employed several Arabic translations of the
Pentateuch. The oldest was an adaptation of
Saadia Gaon 's Arabic
translation of the Jewish Torah. Although the text was modified to
suit the Samaritan community, it still retained many unaltered Jewish
readings. By the 11th or 12th centuries, a new Arabic translation
directly based upon the Samaritan
Pentateuch had appeared in
Manuscripts containing this translation are notable for their
bilingual or trilingual character; the Arabic text is accompanied by
the original Samaritan
Hebrew in a parallel column and sometimes the
Aramaic text of the Samaritan
Targum in a third. Later Arabic
translations also appeared; one featured a further Samaritan revision
of Saadia Gaon's translation to bring it into greater conformity with
Pentateuch and others were based upon Arabic
Pentateuchal translations used by Christians.
In April 2013, a complete English translation of the Samaritan
Pentateuch comparing it to the Masoretic version was published.
EXEGETICAL AND LITURGICAL TEXTS
Several biblical commentaries and other theological texts based upon
Pentateuch have been composed by members of the
Samaritan community from the fourth century CE onwards. Samaritans
also employ liturgical texts containing catenae extracted from their
MANUSCRIPTS AND PRINTED EDITIONS
Samaritans attach special importance to the Abisha Scroll used in the
Samaritan synagogue of Nablus. It consists of a continuous length of
parchment sewn together from the skins of rams that, according to a
Samaritan tradition, were ritually sacrificed. The text is written in
gold letters. Rollers tipped with ornamental knobs are attached to
both ends of the parchment and the whole is kept in a cylindrical
silver case when not in use.
Samaritans claim it was penned by
Abishua , great-grandson of
Aaron (1 Chronicles 6:50), thirteen years
after the entry into the land of Israel under the leadership of Joshua
, son of Nun, although contemporary scholars describe it as a
composite of several fragmentary scrolls each penned between the 12th
and 14th centuries CE. Other manuscripts of the Samaritan Pentateuch
consist of vellum or cotton paper written upon with black ink.
Numerous manuscripts of the text exist, but none written in the
Hebrew or in translation predates the
Middle Ages . The
scroll contains a cryptogram, dubbed the tashqil by scholars, which
Samaritans consider to be Abishua's ancient colophon:
I, Abishua,—the son of Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of
Aaron, unto them be accorded the grace of YHWH and His glory—wrote
the holy book at the entrance of the tabernacle of the congregation,
at Mount Gerizim, in the year thirteen of the possession by the
children of Israel, of the Land of
Canaan according to its boundaries
around; I praise YHWH.
Genesis 5:18-22 as published by Jean Morin in 1631 in the first
publication of the Samaritan
Interest in the Samaritan
Pentateuch was awakened in 1616 when the
Pietro della Valle
Pietro della Valle purchased a copy of the text in
This manuscript, now known as Codex B, was deposited in a Parisian
library. In 1631, an edited copy of Codex B was published in Le Jay's
(Paris) Polyglot by Jean Morin. It was republished in Walton's
Polyglot in 1657. Subsequently,
Archbishop Ussher and others procured
additional copies which were brought to Europe and later, America.
Until the latter half of the 20th century, critical editions of the
Pentateuch were largely based upon Codex B. The most notable
of these is Der Hebräische
Pentateuch der Samaritaner (The Hebrew
Pentateuch of the Samaritans) compiled by August von Gall and
published in 1918. An extensive critical apparatus is included listing
variant readings found in previously published manuscripts of the
Samaritan Pentateuch. His work is still regarded as being generally
accurate despite the presence of some errors, but it neglects
important manuscripts including the Abisha Scroll which had not yet
been published at the time. Textual variants found in the Abisha
scroll were published in 1959 by Federico Pérez Castro and between
1961 and 1965 by A. and R. Sadaqa in Jewish and Samaritan Versions of
Pentateuch – With Particular Stress on the Differences Between
Both Texts. In 1976 L.F. Giron-Blanc published Codex Add. 1846, a
Pentateuch codex dating to 1100 CE in the critical edition
Pentateuco Hebreo-Samaritano: Génesis supplemented with variants
found in fifteen previously unpublished manuscripts. Certain recently
published critical editions of Pentateuchal books take Samaritan
variants into account, including D.L. Phillips' edition of Exodus.
Several publications containing the text of the Samaritan
appeared. In 1875, the German scholar Adolf Brüll published his Das
Pentateuch (The Samaritan
Targum to the
Pentateuch). More recently a two volume set edited by
appeared featuring the first critical edition based upon all extant
manuscripts containing the Targumic text.
* ^ A B Flôrenṭîn 2005 , p. 1: "When the Samaritan version of
Pentateuch was revealed to the Western world early in the 17th
* ^ A B The Canon Debate, McDonald & Sanders editors, 2002, chapter
6: Questions of Canon through the
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls by James C.
VanderKam, page 94, citing private communication with Emanuel Tov on
biblical manuscripts: Qumran scribe type c.25%, proto-Masoretic Text
c. 40%, pre-Samaritan texts c.5%, texts close to the
Hebrew model for
Septuagint c.5% and nonaligned c.25%.
* ^ A B Gaster, T.H. "Samaritans," pp. 190–197 in Interpreter's
Dictionary of the Bible, Volume 4. George Arthur Buttrick, gen. ed.
Nashville: Abingdon, 1962.
* ^ Vanderkam 2002, p. 91.
* ^ Although a paucity of extant source material makes it
impossible to be certain that the earliest
Samaritans also rejected
the other books of the Tanakh, the third-century church father Origen
confirms that the
Samaritans in his day "receive the books of Moses
alone." (Commentary on John 13:26)
* ^ Gaster, M. (1908). "A Samaritan
Book of Joshua". The Living
Age. 258: 166.
* ^ A B Tov 2001, pp. 82–83.
* ^ Tov 2001, p. 82
* ^ Antiquities XI.7.2; 8.2.
* ^ Tov 2001, p. 83.
* ^ A B Buttrick 1952, p. 35.
* ^ Brotzman 1994, pp. 64–65.
* ^ Tov 2001, p. 81. "Only in recent generations have the
Samaritans written a few manuscripts – only for use outside their
community – with full vocalization."
* ^ A B C D E F Fallows, Samuel; Andrew Constantinides Zenos;
Herbert Lockwood Willett (1911). The Popular and Critical Bible
Encyclopædia and Scriptural Dictionary, Volume 3. Howard-Severance.
* ^ A B Hjelm 2000, p. 77.
* ^ A B C D E F G H I J Purvis, J.D. "Samaritan Pentateuch," pp.
772–775 in Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, Supplementary
Volume. Keith Crim, gen. ed. Nashville: Abingdon, 1976. ISBN
* ^ Thomson 1919, pp. 286–289.
* ^ Thomson 1919, pp. 289–296.
* ^ Thomson 1919, pp. 296–301.
* ^ A B C D E F G H Vanderkam 2002, p. 93.
* ^ "Overview of the Differences Between the Jewish and Samaritan
Versions of the Pentateuch". Web.meson.org. Retrieved 2011-12-05.
* ^ A B Soggin, J. Alberto (1989). Introduction to the Old
Testament: From Its Origins to the Closing of the Alexandrian Canon.
Westminster John Knox Press. p. 26. ISBN 9780664221560 . "But there
is at least one case, Deut.27.4–7, in which the reading 'Gerizim' in
the Samaritan Pentateuch, confirmed by Σ and by the Old Latin, seems
to be preferable to that of the Massoretic text, which has Ebal, the
other mountain standing above Nablus."
* ^ "Exodus – Interlinear Pentateuch". Google. Retrieved
* ^ Thomson 1919, p. 312.
* ^ Vanderkam 2002, p. 94.
* ^ Easton, Matthew George (1897). "Samaritan Pentateuch".
Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). T. Nelson and Sons.
* ^ Barton 1903, p. 31.
* ^ Thomson 1919, pp. 312–313.
* ^ Du Pin, Louis Ellies (1699). A compleat history of the canon
and writers of the books of the Old and New Testament, Volume 1. H.
Rhodes. p. 167.
* ^ Pamphili, Eusebius (translator: Robert Bedrosian). "Eusebius\'
Hebrew Chronicle". History Workshop. Retrieved 10 July
* ^ Montgomery 1907, p. 286.
* ^ Montgomery 1907, p. 288.
* ^ Thomson 1919, pp. 275–276.
* ^ Saebo, Magne (2008).
Bible / Old Testament: The History
of Its Interpretation. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 9783525539828 .
* ^ Kennicott 1759, p. 32.
* ^ Kennicott 1759, p. 20.
* ^ Gesenius, Wilhelm (1815). De Pentateuchi Samaritani origine,
indole et auctoritate commentatio philologico-critica. Halae.
* ^ Vanderkam 2002, pp. 92–93.
* ^ Gesenius believed that the Samaritan
Pentateuch contained only
four valid variants as compared to the Masoretic text. (Montgomery
1907, p. 288.)
* ^ Kahle, Paul. Theologische Studien und Kritiken 88 (1915):
* ^ Some examples include the Dead Sea Scroll manuscripts
conventionally designated as 4QpaleoExodm, 4QExod-Levf and 4QNumb. See
Vanderkam 2002, p. 95.
* ^ Tov 2001, p. 80.
* ^ Vanderkam 2002, p. 95.
* ^ Vanderkam 2002, p. 106.
* ^ Vanderkam 2002, p. 110.
* ^ Skehan, Patrick, Eugene Ulrich and Judith Sanderson (1992).
Discoveries in the Judean Desert, Volume IX. Quoted in Hendel, Ronald
S. "Assessing the Text-Critical Theories of the
Qumran," p. 284 in Lim, Timothy and John Collins (2010). The Oxford
Handbook of the Dead Sea Scrolls. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
ISBN 9780199207237 .
Frank Moore Cross
Harvard Theological Review July 1966 "The
language of the Samaritan
Pentateuch also includes archaizing forms
and pseudo-archaic forms which surely point to the post-
for its date"
* ^ Crown 2001, p. 401.
* ^ John 4:21, 22, Luke 9:53
* ^ Charlesworth, James H. "The Discovery of an Unknown Dead Sea
Scroll: The Original Text of Deuteronomy 27?". Ohio Wesleyan Magazine.
Retrieved 29 July 2012. A newly published Dead Sea Scroll fragment of
Deuteronomy has "Gerizim" instead of "Ebal" in Deuteronomy 27:4.
* ^ A B C D Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Samaritan Language
Catholic Encyclopedia . New York: Robert Appleton.
* ^ Crown 2001, p. 18.
* ^ Buttrick 1952, p. 57.
* ^ A B C Brotzman 1994, p. 66.
* ^ Marcos, Natalio (2000). The
Septuagint in Context: Introduction
to the Greek Version of the Bible. Brill. p. 168. ISBN 9789004115743 .
* ^ Crown 2001, p. 23.
* ^ Crown 2001, p. 24.
* ^ Crown 2001, pp. 24–25.
* ^ Tsedaka, Benyamim; Sharon Sullivan (2012). The Israelite
Samaritan Version of the Torah: First English Translation Compared
with the Masoretic Version. Grand Rapids, Michigan, USA: Wm. B.
Eerdmans Publishing Company. ISBN 9780802865199 .
* ^ Montgomery 1907, pp. 293–297.
* ^ Montgomery 1907, pp. 297–298.
* ^ Barton 1903, p. 9.
* ^ Barton 1903, pp. 9–10.
* ^ The Abisha scroll makes this claim for itself in a note
inserted between columns of text at Deuteronomy 5. (Montgomery 1907,
* ^ Eshel 2003, p. 215.
* ^ Exercitationes ecclesiasticae in utrumque Samaritanorum
* ^ Cowper, B. Harris (1863). Journal of Sacred Literature and
Biblical Record. Williams and Norgate. p. 131.
* ^ Brotzman notes that Gall's edition "because of the principles
used to prepare it, must be used with caution." (Brotzman 1994, p.
* ^ Phillips, D.L. Hebrew-English: Paleo Exodus: Scripture at the
End of the Iron II Period. Edwin Mellen, 2004.
* ^ Tal,
Abraham F. (1981). The Samaritan
Targum of the Pentateuch:
a critical edition (2 vols.)(Texts and Studies in the
and Related Subjects, 5.). Tel-Aviv: Tel-Aviv University.
* Barton, William E. (1903). The Samaritan Pentateuch: The Story of
a Survival among the Sects. Oberlin, Ohio: The Bibliotheca Sacra
* Brotzman, Ellis R. (1994).
Old Testament Textual Criticism: A
Practical Introduction. Baker Academic. ISBN 9780801010651 .
* Buttrick, George Arthur and board, eds. (1952). The Interpreter's
Bible, Vol. 1. Nashville, Tennessee: Abingdon Press.
* Crown, Alan David (2001). Samaritan Scribes and Manuscripts. Mohr
Siebeck. ISBN 9783161474903 .
* Eshel, Esther and Hanan Eshel (2003). "Dating the Samaritan
Pentateuch's Compilation in Light of the Qumran Biblical Scrolls." In
Tov, Emmanuel; Eva Ben-David and Weston W. Fields. Emanuel: Studies in
Hebrew Bible, Septuagint, and
Dead Sea Scrolls
Dead Sea Scrolls in Honor of Emanuel
Tov. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9789004126794 .
* Flôrenṭîn, Moše (2005). Late Samaritan Hebrew: A Linguistic
Analysis Of Its Different Types. Brill. ISBN 9789004138414 .
* von Gall, August (1914). Der hebräische
* Hjelm, Ingrid (2000). The
Samaritans and Early Judaism: A Literary
Analysis. Continuum International Publishing Group. ISBN 9781841270722
* Kennicott, Benjamin (1759). The State of the Printed
of the Old Testament. Oxford.
* Metzger, Bruce Manning; Michael David Coogan (1993). The Oxford
Companion to the Bible. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195046458 .
* Montgomery, James Alan (1907). The Samaritans, the earliest Jewish
sect: their history, theology and literature. The J.C. Winston Co.
* Thomson, J.E.H. (1919). The Samaritans: Their Testimony to the
Religion of Israel. Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd.
* Tov, Emanuel (2001). Textual Criticism of the
Uitgeverij Van Gorcum. ISBN 9789023237150 .
* Vanderkam, James; Peter Flint (2002). The Meaning of the Dead Sea
Scrolls. Harper San Francisco. ISBN 9780060684655 .
* Tsedaka, Benyamim, and Sharon Sullivan, eds. The Israelite
Samaritan Version of the Torah: First English Translation Compared
with the Masoretic Version. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2013. ISBN
* Shoulson, Mark E, compiler. The Torah: Jewish and Samaritan
versions compared (
Hebrew Edition, 2008). Evertype. ISBN 1-904808-18-2
/ ISBN 978-1-904808-18-3 .
* Schorch, Stefan. Die Vokale des Gesetzes: Die samaritanische
Lesetradition als Textzeugin der Tora (Beihefte zur Zeitschrift für
die alttestamentliche Wissenschaft) (German Edition). Pub. Walter de
Gruyter (June 3, 2004). ISBN 3-11-018101-0 / ISBN 978-3-11-018101-2
Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia