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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(French pronunciation: ​[sɛ̃t‿etjɛn]; Arpitan: Sant-Etiève; Saint Stephen) is a city in eastern central France, in the Massif Central, 55 km (34 mi) southwest of Lyon
Lyon
in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
region, on the trunk road that connects Toulouse
Toulouse
with Lyon. Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
is the capital of the Loire
Loire
department and has a population of approximately 172,023 (2013) in the city itself and over 508,000 in the metropolitan area (2011).

Contents

1 History 2 Demographics 3 Culture 4 Climate 5 Sport 6 Transport 7 Colleges and universities 8 Notable people 9 International relations 10 See also 11 References 12 Bibliography 13 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Saint-Étienne

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Named after Saint Stephen, the city first appears in the historical record in the Middle Ages as Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
de Furan (after the River Furan, a tributary of the Loire). In the 13th century, it was a small borough around the church dedicated to Saint Etienne. On the upper reaches of the Furan, near the Way of St. James, the Abbey of Valbenoîte had been founded by the cistercians in 1222. In the late 15th century, it was a fortified village defended by walls built around the original nucleus. From the 16th century, Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
developed an arms manufacturing industry and became a market town. It was this which accounted for the town's importance, although, it also became a centre for the manufacture of ribbons and passementerie starting in the 17th century. During the French revolution, Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
was briefly renamed Armeville – 'arms town' – because of this activity. Later, it became a mining centre of the Loire
Loire
coal mining basin, and more recently, has become known for its bicycle industry. In the first half of the 19th century, it was only a chief town of an arrondissement in the département of the Loire, with a population of 33,064 in 1832. The concentration of industry prompted these numbers to rise rapidly to 110,000 by about 1880. It was this growing importance of Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
that led to its being made seat of the prefecture and the departmental administration on 25 July 1855, when it became the chief town in the département and seat of the prefect, replacing Montbrison, which was reduced to the status of chief town of an arrondissement. Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
absorbed the commune of Valbenoîte and several other neighbouring localities on 31 March 1855. Demographics[edit] Population of the city at the 1999 census was 180,210 (177,300 as of February 2004 estimates). Population of the whole metropolitan area at the 1999 census was 321,703. Inhabitants of Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
are called Stéphanois in French. They are named so because "Étienne" derives from the Greek Stephanos. Culture[edit] Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
became a popular stop for automobile travelers in the early 20th century (sometimes referred to as The Golden Age of Travel[1]). In 1990, Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
set up a design biennale – the largest of its kind in France. It lasts around two weeks. The last convention was in March 2013.[2] A landmark in the history of the importance ascribed to design in Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
was the inauguration of La Cité du design on the site of the former arms factory in 2009. The city also launched the Massenet Festivals, (the composer Jules Massenet hailed from the area) devoted mainly to perform Massenet's operas. In 2000, the city was named one of the French Towns and Lands of Art and History. On 22 November 2010, it was nominated as "City of Design" as part of Unesco’s Creative Cities Network.[3] Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
has four museums:

the Musée d'Art Moderne has one of the largest collections of modern and contemporary art in France Musée de la Mine Musée de l'Art et de l'Industrie Musée du vieux Saint-Etienne

Climate[edit] Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
has an anomalic type of the oceanic climate that is heavily influenced by its relative distance to the sea. Summer days are very warm for a marine climate type, but falls into the range due to the cool nights that keeps the mean average temperatures below the subtropical threshold of 22 °C (72 °F). Winters are cool but rarely very cold, although minor frosts are common. Precipitation levels are very low for this type of climate regime during winters, although the wet and humid summers compensate.

Climate data for Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(1981–2010 averages)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 20.0 (68) 23.2 (73.8) 26.4 (79.5) 28.8 (83.8) 33.7 (92.7) 37.8 (100) 41.1 (106) 39.3 (102.7) 36.0 (96.8) 29.2 (84.6) 25.2 (77.4) 20.2 (68.4) 41.1 (106)

Average high °C (°F) 6.8 (44.2) 8.4 (47.1) 12.4 (54.3) 15.3 (59.5) 19.8 (67.6) 23.6 (74.5) 26.7 (80.1) 26.3 (79.3) 22.0 (71.6) 17.1 (62.8) 10.8 (51.4) 7.4 (45.3) 16.4 (61.5)

Average low °C (°F) −0.4 (31.3) 0.1 (32.2) 2.4 (36.3) 4.6 (40.3) 8.8 (47.8) 12.0 (53.6) 14.2 (57.6) 13.8 (56.8) 10.7 (51.3) 8.0 (46.4) 3.3 (37.9) 0.7 (33.3) 6.6 (43.9)

Record low °C (°F) −25.6 (−14.1) −22.5 (−8.5) −13.9 (7) −7.0 (19.4) −3.9 (25) −0.6 (30.9) 2.9 (37.2) 1.1 (34) −2.6 (27.3) −6.2 (20.8) −10.6 (12.9) −18.6 (−1.5) −25.6 (−14.1)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 36.6 (1.441) 28.2 (1.11) 36.7 (1.445) 61.3 (2.413) 91.6 (3.606) 78.3 (3.083) 64.0 (2.52) 70.4 (2.772) 75.7 (2.98) 71.8 (2.827) 63.1 (2.484) 40.5 (1.594) 718.2 (28.276)

Average precipitation days 7.7 6.8 7.2 9.4 11.0 8.8 7.1 7.7 7.5 8.9 8.0 7.3 97.2

Average relative humidity (%) 81 78 73 71 72 72 68 71 75 80 81 83 75.4

Mean monthly sunshine hours 85.6 108.8 159.3 182.4 212.9 239.5 273.1 251.4 187.3 133.5 83.5 67.9 1,985.1

Source #1: Météo France[4][5]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, 1961–1990)[6]

Sport[edit] The city's football club AS Saint-Étienne
AS Saint-Étienne
has won the Ligue 1
Ligue 1
title a record ten times, achieving most of their success in the 1970s. British indie-dance band Saint Etienne named themselves after the club. St. Étienne has many sports stadiums, the largest being Stade Geoffroy-Guichard used for football and Stade Henri-Lux
Stade Henri-Lux
for athletics. St. Étienne was the capital of the French bicycle industry. The bicycle wheel manufacturer Mavic
Mavic
is based in the city and frame manufacturers Motobécane
Motobécane
and Vitus are also based here. The city often hosts a stage of the Tour de France. St. Étienne resident Thierry Gueorgiou
Thierry Gueorgiou
is a world champion in orienteering. The local rugby union team is CA Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
Loire Sud Rugby. Transport[edit]

Cité du design

Street tram in the city

Tramway, bus and bicycles run by STAS (Société de Transports de l'Agglomération Stéphanoise)

Rochetaillée castle

The nearest airport is Saint-Étienne - Bouthéon Airport
Saint-Étienne - Bouthéon Airport
which is located in Andrézieux-Bouthéon, 12 km (7.46 mi) north-northwest of Saint-Étienne. The main railway station is Gare de Saint-Étienne-Châteaucreux, which offers high speed services to Paris, Lyon
Lyon
(Saint-Étienne– Lyon
Lyon
railway), and several regional lines. Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
is also notable for its tramway (Saint-Étienne tramway) – which uniquely with Lille, it kept throughout the 20th century – and its trolleybus system ( Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
trolleybus system) – which is one of only three such systems currently operating in France. Bus and tram transport is regulated and provided by the Société de Transports de l'Agglomération Stéphanoise (STAS), a public transport executive organisation. The bicycle sharing system Vélivert
Vélivert
with 280 short term renting bicycles has been available since June 2010. Colleges and universities[edit]

Jean Monnet University École Nationale Supérieure des Mines de Saint-Étienne (EMSE or ENSMSE) École nationale d'ingénieurs de Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(ENISE) Telecom Saint Etienne (TSE) EMLYON Business School ENSASE (Ecole National Supérieure d'Architecture de Saint-Étienne)

Notable people[edit] Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
was the birthplace of

René Diaz, French journalist and illustrator Augustin Dupré
Augustin Dupré
(1748–1833), engraver of French coins and medals, France's 14th Graveur général des monnaies Claude Fauriel (1772–1844), historian, philologist and critic Saint Marcellin Champagnat
Marcellin Champagnat
(1789–1840), Catholic priest and founding members of the Society of Mary (Marist Fathers) who founded the Marist Brothers and was canonised in 1999 Antonin Moine (1796–1849), sculptor Jules Janin
Jules Janin
(1804–1874), writer and critic Francis Garnier
Francis Garnier
(1839–1873), officer and explorer who explored the Mekong River, much to the surprise of the inhabitants Jules Massenet
Jules Massenet
(1842–1912), composer best known for his operas Paul de Vivie, aka Velocio (1853–1930), publisher of Le Cycliste, early champion of the dérailleur and father of French cycle touring Claudine Chomat (1915–1995), member of the French Resistance
French Resistance
during World War II, feminist, communist activist Jean Bonfils (1921–2007), classical organist and composer André Bourgey (1936), geographer Bernard Lavilliers
Bernard Lavilliers
(b. 1946), (Bernard Ouillon), singer Orlan
Orlan
(1947–), contemporary artist Willy Sagnol
Willy Sagnol
(b. 1977), French International football player Jean Guitton
Jean Guitton
(1901–1999), Catholic philosopher and theologian Thierry Gueorgiou
Thierry Gueorgiou
(b. 1979), Orienteering
Orienteering
world champion Norma Ray, singer Alexis Ajinca, basketball player Sylvain Armand, footballer Sliimy, singer Aravane Rezai, tennis player Loïc Perrin, footballer

It was also the place where Andrei Kivilev
Andrei Kivilev
died. International relations[edit] See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in France Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
is twinned with:

Annaba,  Algeria, since 1982 Ben Arous,  Tunisia, since 1994 Bobo Dioulasso,  Burkina Faso, since 2009 Coventry,  United Kingdom, since 1955[7][8][9] Des Moines, Iowa,  United States, since 1984 Ferrara,  Italy, since 1960 Geltendorf,  Germany, since 1966 Granby, Quebec,  Canada, since 1960 Katowice,  Poland, since 1994

Luhansk,  Ukraine, since 1959 Monastir,  Tunisia, since 2012 Nazareth Illit,  Israel, since 1974 Oeiras,  Portugal, since 1995 Patras,  Greece, since 1990 Toamasina,  Madagascar, since 1967 Windsor, Ontario,  Canada, since 1963 Wuppertal,  Germany, since 1960 Xúzhōu,  China, since 1984

See also[edit]

France
France
portal

Manufacture d'armes de Saint-Étienne Stade Geoffroy-Guichard Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
Cathedral Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
– Gorges de la Loire
Loire
Nature Reserve André César Vermare
André César Vermare
Sculptor of Franco-Prussian war memorial. Creative Cities Network

References[edit]

INSEE commune file

Notes

^ "LAPL Virtual Photo: Far and Wide". Lapl.org. Archived from the original on 1 November 2005. Retrieved 14 June 2010.  ^ "Cité du design Biennale L'Édition 2013". Citedudesign.com. Retrieved 2013-03-12.  ^ St-Etienne and Sydney nominated UNESCO Creative Cities , 22 November 2010. ^ "Données climatiques de la station de Saint-Étienne" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 26, 2015.  ^ "Climat Rhône-Alpes" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 26, 2015.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
- Bouthéon (42) - altitude 400m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 26, 2015.  ^ Griffin, Mary (2011-08-02). "Coventry's twin towns". Coventry Telegraph. Retrieved 2013-08-06.  ^ " Coventry
Coventry
- Twin towns and cities". Coventry
Coventry
City nonoCouncil. Archived from the original on 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2013-08-06.  ^ "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 2013-07-11. 

Bibliography[edit]

See also: Bibliography of the history of Saint-Étienne

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Saint-Étienne.

Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
travel guide from Wikivoyage City council website Tourist board official website Local events website

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Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
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Limoges
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Épinal
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Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

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Communes of the Loire
Loire
department

Aboën Ailleux Ambierle Amions Andrézieux-Bouthéon Apinac Arcinges Arcon Arthun Aveizieux Balbigny Bard Bellegarde-en-Forez Belleroche Belmont-de-la-Loire La Bénisson-Dieu Le Bessat Bessey Boën-sur-Lignon Boisset-lès-Montrond Boisset-Saint-Priest Bonson Bourg-Argental Boyer Briennon Bully Burdignes Bussières Bussy-Albieux Çaloire Cellieu Le Cergne Cervières Cezay Chagnon Chalain-d'Uzore Chalain-le-Comtal Chalmazel La Chamba Chambéon Chambles Chambœuf Le Chambon-Feugerolles La Chambonie Champdieu Champoly Chandon Changy La Chapelle-en-Lafaye La Chapelle-Villars Charlieu Châteauneuf Châtelneuf Châtelus Chausseterre Chavanay Chazelles-sur-Lavieu Chazelles-sur-Lyon Chenereilles Cherier Chevrières Chirassimont Chuyer Civens Cleppé Colombier Combre Commelle-Vernay Cordelle La Côte-en-Couzan Le Coteau Cottance Coutouvre Craintilleux Cremeaux Croizet-sur-Gand Le Crozet Cuinzier Cuzieu Dancé Dargoire Débats-Rivière-d'Orpra Doizieux Écoche Écotay-l'Olme Épercieux-Saint-Paul Essertines-en-Châtelneuf Essertines-en-Donzy Estivareilles L'Étrat Farnay Feurs Firminy Fontanès La Fouillouse Fourneaux Fraisses Genilac La Gimond Graix Grammond La Grand-Croix La Gresle Grézieux-le-Fromental Grézolles Gumières L'Hôpital-le-Grand L'Hôpital-sous-Rochefort L'Horme Jarnosse Jas Jeansagnière Jonzieux Juré Lavieu Lay Leigneux Lentigny Lérigneux Lézigneux Lorette Lupé Luré Luriecq Mably Machézal Maclas Magneux-Haute-Rive Maizilly Malleval Marcenod Marcilly-le-Châtel Marclopt Marcoux Margerie-Chantagret Maringes Marlhes Marols Mars Merle-Leignec Mizérieux Montagny Montarcher Montbrison Montchal Montrond-les-Bains Montverdun Mornand-en-Forez Nandax Neaux Néronde Nervieux Neulise Noailly Les Noës Noirétable Nollieux Notre-Dame-de-Boisset Ouches Palogneux Panissières Parigny Pavezin La Pacaudière Pélussin Périgneux Perreux Pinay Planfoy Pommiers Poncins Pouilly-lès-Feurs Pouilly-les-Nonains Pouilly-sous-Charlieu Pradines Pralong Précieux Régny Renaison La Ricamarie Riorges Rivas Rive-de-Gier Roanne Roche Roche-la-Molière Roisey Rozier-Côtes-d'Aurec Rozier-en-Donzy Sail-les-Bains Sail-sous-Couzan Saint-Alban-les-Eaux Saint-André-d'Apchon Saint-André-le-Puy Saint-Appolinard Saint-Barthélemy-Lestra Saint-Bonnet-des-Quarts Saint-Bonnet-le-Château Saint-Bonnet-le-Courreau Saint-Bonnet-les-Oules Saint-Chamond Saint-Christo-en-Jarez Saint-Cyprien Saint-Cyr-de-Favières Saint-Cyr-de-Valorges Saint-Cyr-les-Vignes Saint-Denis-de-Cabanne Saint-Denis-sur-Coise Saint-Didier-sur-Rochefort Sainte-Agathe-en-Donzy Sainte-Agathe-la-Bouteresse Sainte-Colombe-sur-Gand Sainte-Croix-en-Jarez Sainte-Foy-Saint-Sulpice Saint-Étienne Saint-Étienne-le-Molard Saint-Forgeux-Lespinasse Saint-Galmier Saint-Genest-Lerpt Saint-Genest-Malifaux Saint-Georges-de-Baroille Saint-Georges-en-Couzan Saint-Georges-Haute-Ville Saint-Germain-la-Montagne Saint-Germain-Laval Saint-Germain-Lespinasse Saint-Haon-le-Châtel Saint-Haon-le-Vieux Saint-Héand Saint-Hilaire-Cusson-la-Valmitte Saint-Hilaire-sous-Charlieu Saint-Jean-Bonnefonds Saint-Jean-la-Vêtre Saint-Jean-Saint-Maurice-sur-Loire Saint-Jean-Soleymieux Saint-Jodard Saint-Joseph Saint-Julien-d'Oddes Saint-Julien-la-Vêtre Saint-Julien-Molin-Molette Saint-Just-en-Bas Saint-Just-en-Chevalet Saint-Just-la-Pendue Saint-Just-Saint-Rambert Saint-Laurent-la-Conche Saint-Laurent-Rochefort Saint-Léger-sur-Roanne Saint-Marcel-de-Félines Saint-Marcel-d'Urfé Saint-Marcellin-en-Forez Saint-Martin-d'Estréaux Saint-Martin-la-Plaine Saint-Martin-la-Sauveté Saint-Martin-Lestra Saint-Maurice-en-Gourgois Saint-Médard-en-Forez Saint-Michel-sur-Rhône Saint-Nizier-de-Fornas Saint-Nizier-sous-Charlieu Saint-Paul-de-Vézelin Saint-Paul-d'Uzore Saint-Paul-en-Cornillon Saint-Paul-en-Jarez Saint-Pierre-de-Bœuf Saint-Pierre-la-Noaille Saint-Polgues Saint-Priest-en-Jarez Saint-Priest-la-Prugne Saint-Priest-la-Roche Saint-Priest-la-Vêtre Saint-Régis-du-Coin Saint-Rirand Saint-Romain-d'Urfé Saint-Romain-en-Jarez Saint-Romain-la-Motte Saint-Romain-le-Puy Saint-Romain-les-Atheux Saint-Sauveur-en-Rue Saint-Sixte Saint-Symphorien-de-Lay Saint-Thomas-la-Garde Saint-Thurin Saint-Victor-sur-Rhins Saint-Vincent-de-Boisset Les Salles Salt-en-Donzy Salvizinet Sauvain Savigneux Sevelinges Soleymieux Sorbiers Souternon Sury-le-Comtal La Talaudière Tarentaise Tartaras La Terrasse-sur-Dorlay Thélis-la-Combe La Tour-en-Jarez La Tourette Trelins La Tuilière Unias Unieux Urbise Usson-en-Forez Valeille Valfleury La Valla-en-Gier La Valla-sur-Rochefort Veauche Veauchette Vendranges Véranne Vérin Verrières-en-Forez La Versanne Villars Villemontais Villerest Villers Violay Viricelles Virigneux Vivans Vougy

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 266572463 LCCN: n80089849 GND: 4118220-0 BNF:

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