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The term aṣ-ṣaḥābah (Arabic: الصحابة‎ meaning "the companions", from the verb صَحِبَ meaning "accompany", "keep company with", "associate with") refers to the companions, disciples, scribes and family of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[1][2] This form is definite plural; the indefinite singular is masculine sahabi (ṣaḥābī), feminine sahabia (ṣaḥābīyat). Later scholars accepted their testimony of the words and deeds of Muhammad, the occasions on which the Quran
Quran
was revealed and various important matters of Islamic history and practice. The testimony of the companions, as it was passed down through trusted chains of narrators (isnads), was the basis of the developing Islamic tradition. From the traditions (hadith) of the life of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions are drawn the Muslim
Muslim
way of life (sunnah), the code of conduct (sharia) it requires, and the jurisprudence (fiqh) by which Muslim
Muslim
communities should be regulated. The two largest Islamic denominations, the Sunni and Shia, take different approaches in weighing the value of the companions' testimony, have different hadith collections and, as a result, have different views about the Sahabah.[3]

Contents

1 Definitions 2 In the Quran

2.1 Friendship

2.1.1 As Sabiqoon Al Awaloon (Badriyans) 2.1.2 Major Sahabah
Sahabah
(Kibaar) 2.1.3 Released people (Ashaab at-tulaqa'a)

2.2 Status 2.3 Muhammad's wives

3 Tradition 4 Baha'i Faith 5 See also 6 Notes 7 References 8 Further reading 9 External links

Definitions[edit]

Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas
leads the armies of the Rashidun Caliphate
Rashidun Caliphate
during the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
Battle of al-Qādisiyyah
from a manuscript of the Shahnameh.

The most widespread definition of a companion is someone who met Muhammad, believed in him and died as a Muslim. The Sunni scholar Al-Hâfidh Ibn Hajar (d.852H) said: “The most correct of what I have come across is that a Sahâbî (Companion) is one who met the Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
- sallallâhu ’alayhi wa sallam - whilst believing in him, and died as a Muslim. So, that includes the one who remained with him for a long or a short time, and those who narrated from him and those who did not, and those who saw him but did not sit with him and those who could not see him due to blindness".[4] Anyone who died after rejecting Islam
Islam
and becoming an apostate is not considered as a companion. Those who saw him but held off believing in him until after his passing are not considered Sahaba but Tabi`in. Shia Muslims make no distinction between these as regards their trustworthiness.[5] However, scholars like Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
Javed Ahmad Ghamidi
and Amin Ahsan Islahi
Amin Ahsan Islahi
state that not every individual who met or had accidentally seen Muhammad can be considered as a Companion. In their view, the Quran
Quran
has outlined a high level of faith as one of the distinctive qualities of the Sahabah. Hence, they admit to this list only those individuals who had substantial contact with Muhammad, lived with him, and took part in his campaigns and efforts at proselytizing.[6] This view has implications in Islamic law since narrations of Muhammad
Muhammad
transmitted through the Sahabah
Sahabah
acquire a greater status of authenticity. Lists of prominent companions usually run to 50 or 60 names, being the people most closely associated with Muhammad. However, there were clearly many others who had some contact with Muhammad, and their names and biographies were recorded in religious reference texts such as Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi's (Muḥammad ibn Sa'd) early Kitāb at-Tabāqat al-Kabīr (The Book
Book
of the Major Classes). The book entitled Istî'âb fî ma'rifat-il-Ashâb by Hafidh Yusuf bin Muhammad bin Qurtubi (died 1071) consists of 2,770 biographies of male and 381 biographies of female Sahabah. According to an observation in the book entitled Mawâhib-i-ladunniyya, an untold number of persons had already converted to Islam
Islam
by the time Muhammad
Muhammad
died. There were 10,000 by the time Mecca
Mecca
was conquered and 70,000 during the Battle of Tabouk in 630. Some Muslims assert that they were more than 200,000 in number: it is believed that 124,000 witnessed the Farewell Sermon Muhammad
Muhammad
delivered after making his last pilgrimage (hajj) to Mecca. Two important groups among the companions are called the Muhajirun or "exiles"—those who had faith in Muhammad
Muhammad
when he began to preach in Mecca
Mecca
who fled with him when he was persecuted there—and the Ansar—people of Medina
Medina
who welcomed Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions and stood as their protectors. Chapter (sura) 9 of the Quran
Quran
("Repentance" (At-Tawba)), verse (ayah) 100 says;

The vanguard (of Islam)—the first of those who forsook (their homes) and of those who gave them aid, and (also) those who follow them in (all) good deeds—well-pleased is Allah
Allah
with them, as are they with Him: for them hath He prepared gardens under which rivers flow, to dwell therein for ever: that is the supreme felicity. — Quran, sura 9 (At-Tawba), ayah 100[7]

and continues;

Allah
Allah
has already forgiven the Prophet and the Muhajireen and the Ansar who followed him in the hour of difficulty after the hearts of a party of them had almost inclined [to doubt], and then He forgave them. Indeed, He was to them Kind and Merciful. — Quran, sura 9 (At-Tawba), ayah 117([8]

In the Quran[edit]

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Friendship[edit] In Islam, there are three types of Sahabah: As Sabiqoon Al Awaloon (Badriyans)[edit] The people who were Muslims at the time of Badr. They are further classified into two:

Muhajreen (immigrants from Mecca) Ansar (helpers—inhabitants of Medina
Medina
(previously known as Yathrib)) They are ideals for the other Muslims because "well-pleased is Allah with them" (Arabic: رضي الله عنه‎ raḍiyu l-Lāhu ‘anhu)[7]

Indeed, those who have believed and emigrated and fought with their wealth and lives in the cause of Allah
Allah
and those who gave shelter and aided - they are allies of one another. But those who believed and did not emigrate - for you there is no guardianship of them until they emigrate. And if they seek help of you for the religion, then you must help, except against a people between yourselves and whom is a treaty. And Allah
Allah
is Seeing of what you do.Quran, sura 8 (Al-Anfal), ayah 72[9]

And hold firmly to the rope of Allah
Allah
all together and do not become divided. And remember the favor of Allah
Allah
upon you - when you were enemies and He brought your hearts together and you became, by His favor, brothers. And you were on the edge of a pit of the Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus does Allah
Allah
make clear to you His verses that you may be guided. — Quran, sura 3 (Al Imran), ayah 103[10]

Muhammad
Muhammad
is the Messenger of Allah ; and those with him are forceful against the disbelievers, merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and prostrating [in prayer], seeking bounty from Allah
Allah
and [His] pleasure. Their mark is on their faces from the trace of prostration. That is their description in the Torah. And their description in the Gospel is as a plant which produces its offshoots and strengthens them so they grow firm and stand upon their stalks, delighting the sowers—so that Allah
Allah
may enrage by them the disbelievers. Allah
Allah
has promised those who believe and do righteous deeds among them forgiveness and a great reward. — Quran, sura 48 (Al-Fath), ayah 29[11]

Major Sahabah
Sahabah
(Kibaar)[edit] The people who were Muslims before victory at Mecca
Mecca
and went into exile and fought for God's cause in most of the wars. They are also high in degree, especially those who were present at Hudabiyah. They are also people that God
God
is pleased with (Arabic: رضي الله عنه‎ raḍiyu l-Lāhu ‘anhu)[12] Released people (Ashaab at-tulaqa'a)[edit] They were non- Muslim
Muslim
at the time of victory of Mecca; after that, they were forgiven by Muhammad, then they became Muslims. Status[edit] According to Sunni scholars, Muslims of the past should be considered companions if they had any contact with Muhammad, and they were not liars or opposed to him and his teachings. If they saw him, heard him, or were in his presence even briefly, they are companions. All companions are assumed to be just (udul) unless they are proven otherwise; that is, Sunni scholars do not believe that companions would lie or fabricate hadith unless they are proven liars, untrustworthy or opposed to Islam.[13] "Whom God
God
is pleased with" (Arabic: رضي الله عنه‎ raḍiyu l-Lāhu ‘anhu) is usually mentioned by Sunnis after the names of the Sahaba. Some Quranic references are important to Sunni Muslim
Muslim
views of the reverence due to all companions;[14][15][16][17][18][19]

Allah
Allah
has promised you much booty that you will take [in the future] and has hastened for you this [victory] and withheld the hands of people from you - that it may be a sign for the believers and [that] He may guide you to a straight path. — Quran, sura 48 (Al-Fath), ayah 20[20]

While sura 8 ("The Spoils" (Al-Anfal)), ayat 74–75 reads:

But those who have believed and emigrated and fought in the cause of Allah
Allah
and those who gave shelter and aided - it is they who are the believers, truly. For them is forgiveness and noble provision.And those who believed after [the initial emigration] and emigrated and fought with you - they are of you. But those of [blood] relationship are more entitled [to inheritance] in the decree of Allah
Allah
. Indeed, Allah
Allah
is Knowing of all things. — Quran, sura 8 (Al-Anfal), ayat 74–75[21]

In another place the Quran
Quran
distinguishes between the community in honour:

And why do you not spend in the cause of Allah
Allah
while to Allah
Allah
belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth? Not equal among you are those who spent before the conquest [of Makkah] and fought [and those who did so after it]. Those are greater in degree than they who spent afterwards and fought. But to all Allah
Allah
has promised the best [reward]. And Allah
Allah
, with what you do, is Acquainted. — Quran, sura 57 (Al-Hadid), ayah 10[22]

It sometimes admonishes them, as when Aisha, daughter of the first Sunni caliph Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
and the wife of Muhammad, was accused of infidelity:

Indeed, those who came with falsehood are a group among you. Do not think it bad for you; rather it is good for you. For every person among them is what [punishment] he has earned from the sin, and he who took upon himself the greater portion thereof - for him is a great punishment. Why, when you heard it, did not the believing men and believing women think good of one another and say, "This is an obvious falsehood"?Why did they [who slandered] not produce for it four witnesses? And when they do not produce the witnesses, then it is they, in the sight of Allah
Allah
, who are the liars.And if it had not been for the favor of Allah
Allah
upon you and His mercy in this world and the Hereafter, you would have been touched for that [lie] in which you were involved by a great punishmentWhen you received it with your tongues and said with your mouths that of which you had no knowledge and thought it was insignificant while it was, in the sight of Allah
Allah
, tremendous. And why, when you heard it, did you not say, "It is not for us to speak of this. Exalted are You, [O Allah
Allah
]; this is a great slander"? — Quran, sura 24 (An-Nur), ayat 11–16)[23]

And among those around you of the bedouins are hypocrites, and [also] from the people of Madinah. They have become accustomed to hypocrisy. You, [O Muhammad], do not know them, [but] We know them. We will punish them twice [in this world]; then they will be returned to a great punishment. — Quran, sura 9, (At-Tawba), ayah 101[24]

In view of such admonitions Shias have different views on each Sahabi, depending on what he or she accomplished. They do not accept that the testimony of nearly all Sahabah
Sahabah
is an authenticated part of the chain of narrators in a hadith and that not all the Sahaba were righteous just because they saw or were with Muhammad. Shias further argue that the righteousness of Sahabah
Sahabah
can be assessed by their loyalty towards Muhammad's family after his death and they accept hadith from the Imams of the Ahl al-Bayt, believing them to be cleansed from sin through their interpretation of the Quran, surah 33 (Al-Ahzab), verse 33[25] and the hadith of the Cloak. Muhammad's wives[edit]

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All of Muhammad's wives
Muhammad's wives
are called the "mothers of the believers":

The Prophet is closer to the Believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers. Blood-relations among each other have closer personal ties, in the Decree of Allah. Than (the Brotherhood of) Believers and Muhajirs: nevertheless do ye what is just to your closest friends: such is the writing in the Decree (of Allah). — Quran, sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayah 6[26]

Another verse states:

O Consorts of the Prophet!... God
God
only wishes to remove all abomination from you, you members of the Family, and to make you pure and spotless.(*It's not complete verse from shi'as) O wives of the Prophet, you are not like anyone among women. If you fear Allah
Allah
, then do not be soft in speech [to men], lest he in whose heart is disease should covet, but speak with appropriate speech. And abide in your houses and do not display yourselves as [was] the display of the former times of ignorance. And establish prayer and give zakah and obey Allah
Allah
and His Messenger. Allah
Allah
intends only to remove from you the impurity [of sin], O people of the [Prophet's] household, and to purify you with [extensive] purification. (*This one is the complete verse) — Quran, sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayat 32–33[27]

Shias support their argument that one must discriminate between the virtues of the companions by verses relating to Muhammad's wives:

O Consorts of the Prophet! If any of you were guilty of evident unseemly conduct, the Punishment would be doubled to her, and that is easy for Allah. But any of you that is devout in the service of Allah
Allah
and His Messenger, and works righteousness—to her shall We grant her reward twice: and We have prepared for her a generous Sustenance. — Quran, sura 33 (Al-Ahzab), ayat 30–31[28]

The injunction to regard them as mothers overrules this in Sunni thought, particularly as regards Aisha, who was the daughter of Abu Bakr. Tradition[edit]

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Because the hadith were not properly written down until many years after the death of Muhammad, although there were many individual written copies, the isnads, or chains of transmission, always have several links. The first link is preferably a companion, who had direct contact with Muhammad. The companion then related the tradition to a Tabi‘un, the companion of the companion. Tabi‘un
Tabi‘un
had no direct contact with Muhammad, but did have direct contact with the Sahabah. The tradition then would have been passed from the Tabi‘un to the Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in, the third link. The second and third links in the chain of transmission were also of great interest to Muslim
Muslim
scholars, who treated of them in biographical dictionaries and evaluated them for bias and reliability. Sunni and Shia apply different metrics. Regard for the companions is evident from the hadith:

Narrated Abdullah: The Prophet said, "The people of my generation are the best, then those who follow them, and then whose who follow the latter. —  Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari, Sahih al-Bukhari[29]

Abdullah reported Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) as saying: The best of my Umma would be those of the generation nearest to mine. Then those nearest to them, then those nearest to them,... —  Muslim
Muslim
ibn al-Hajjaj, Sahih Muslim[30]

Sunni Muslim
Muslim
scholars classified companions into many categories, based on a number of criteria. The hadith quoted above shows the rank of ṣaḥābah, tābi‘īn, and tābi‘ at-tābi‘īn. Al-Suyuti recognized eleven levels of companionship. Shia do not have a ranking system dependent on when the Sahabi embraced Islam
Islam
but according to what they did during their life. If a Sahabi made Muhammad
Muhammad
angry or questioned his decision several times then he is viewed as unreliable. Shias consider that any hadith where Muhammad
Muhammad
is claimed to have absolved all Sahabah
Sahabah
from sin is a false report by those who opposed the Ahl al-Bayt. The Shia claim that after the death of Muhammad, the majority of the sahabah turned aside from true Islam
Islam
and deviated from Muhammad's family, instead electing the caliph by themselves at a place called Bani Saqeefa, they did this by a majority vote and elected Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as the first caliph. Shias allege that although some of the sahabah repented later, only a few of the early Muslims held fast to Ali, whom Shia Muslims claim as the rightful successor to Muhammad. Shia scholars therefore deprecate hadith believed to have been transmitted from alleged unjust companions, and place much more reliance on hadith believed to have been related by Muhammad's family members and companions who supported Ali. The Shia claim that Muhammad
Muhammad
announced his succession during his lifetime at Dawat Zul Asheera then many times during his prophethood and finally at Ghadeer e Khum. Baha'i Faith[edit] The Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
recognises the companions of Muhammad. They are mentioned in the Kitáb-i-Íqán, the primary theological work of the Baha'i religion.[31] See also[edit]

Book: Sahabah

List of non-Arab Sahabah Abu Tha'alba Muadh ibn Jabal Munzir ibn Sawa Al Tamimi, who became a Muslim, but not a Sahabah. Hadith
Hadith
of the ten promised paradise Abu Umamah al Bahili Apostle (Christian) Apostles of Bahá'u'lláh The ten principal disciples

Notes[edit]

^ Inc, Encyclopaedia Britannica (1 May 2008). "Britannica Concise Encyclopedia". Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. – via Google Books.  ^ Ph.D, Coeli Fitzpatrick; Walker, Adam Hani (25 April 2014). " Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God
God
[2 volumes]". ABC-CLIO – via Google Books.  ^ "Companions of the Prophet - Islamic history".  ^ [Source: Al-Isâbah (1/4-5) of al-Hâfidh lbn Hajar] ^ "Sahaba". livingislam.org. Archived from the original on 2014-10-08.  ^ Fundamentals of Hadith
Hadith
Intrepretation by Amin Ahsan Islahi ^ a b Quran 9:100 ^ Quran 9:117 ^ Quran 8:72 ^ Quran 3:103 ^ Quran 48:29 ^ Quran 48:18–29 ^ Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Ahmad (died 1622), also known as "Nişancızâde", Mir’ât-i-kâinât (in Turkish):

"Once a male or female Muslim
Muslim
has seen Muhammad
Muhammad
only for a short time, no matter whether he/she is a child or an adult, he/she is called a Sahaba with the proviso of dying with as a believer; the same rule applies to blind Muslims who have talked with the Prophet at least once. If a disbeliever sees Muhammad
Muhammad
and then joins the Believers after the demise of Muhammad, he is not a Sahaba; nor is a person called a Sahaba if he converted to Islam
Islam
afterwards although he had seen Muhammad
Muhammad
as a Muslim. A person who converts to Islam
Islam
after being a Sahaba and then becomes a Believer again after the demise of Muhammad, is a Sahaba.

^ "Sharh al-`Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah", by Ahmad ibn Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Tahawi, p.526-528 ^ "Al-I`tiqad `ala Madhhab al-Salaf Ahl al-Sunna wa al-Jama`a", by Al-Bayhaqi, pg.109–113 ^ "Al-Tajrid fi Asma' al-Sahaba", by Al-Dhahabi, pg.57 ^ Word Games With Verse 33:33, By: Ibn al-Hashimi ^ Mothers of the Believers, By: Ibn al-Hashimi ^ Al-Ifk: Quran
Quran
Defends Aisha, By: Ibn al-Hashimi ^ Quran 48:10 ^ Quran 8:74–75 ^ Quran 57:10 ^ Quran 24:12–15 ^ Quran 9:101 ^ Quran 33:33 ^ Quran 33:6 ^ Quran 33:32–33 ^ Quran 33:30–31 ^ Sahih al-Bukhari, 3:48:820 ^ Sahih Muslim, 31:6150 ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-01-08. Retrieved 2014-12-29.  "The Kitáb-i-Íqán
Kitáb-i-Íqán
PART ONE". BAHA'I REFERENCE LIBRARY. Retrieved 2014-09-10.

References[edit]

Ibn Sa'd al-Baghdadi, Muhammad
Muhammad
– The book of The Major Classes, only partially translated into English; see Men of Medina
Medina
and Women of Medina
Medina
published by Ta-Ha Publishers, and first two volumes as published by Kitab Bhavan, New Delhi. Wilferd Madelung
Wilferd Madelung
– The Succession to Muhammad, Cambridge University Press, 1997. Maxime Rodinson
Maxime Rodinson
– Muhammad, 1961, as translated into English and published in 1980 by Pantheon Books. William Montgomery Watt
William Montgomery Watt
Muhammad
Muhammad
at Medina, Oxford University Press 1956.

Further reading[edit]

Osman, Amr, Companions, in Muhammad
Muhammad
in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God
God
(2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014.

External links[edit]

Sahaba: Companions of the Prophet Male Companions of the Prophet The Companions of the Prophet as seen by the Shi’a and the Sunnis Sermons of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali
Ali
b. Abi Talib, from Nahj al-Balaghah

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