HOME
The Info List - Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic


--- Advertisement ---



"The Internationale" (1918–1944)

"National Anthem of the Soviet Union" (1944–1990)

"The Patriotic Song" (1990–1991)

Extent of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
(red) within the Soviet Union (red and white) following World War II
World War II
and territorial changes (1956).

Capital Petrograd (1917–1918) Moscow
Moscow
(March 1918–1991)[2]

Languages Russianb

Government Leninist one-party state (1917–1924) Stalinist one-party state (1924–1953) Federalist Marxist-Leninist one-party Soviet-style socialist republic (1953–1990) Federal multi-party Soviet-type parliamentary republic proclaimed democracy and separation of powers (1990–1991)

Head of state

 •  1917 (first) Lev Kamenevc

 •  1990–1991 (last) Boris Yeltsind

Head of government

 •  1917–1924 (first) Vladimir Lenine

 •  1990–1991 Ivan Silayevf

 •  1991–1991 (last) Boris Yeltsing

Legislature VTsIK / All-Russian Congress (1917–38) Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
(RSFSR) (1938–90) Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
(RSFSR) / Congress of People's Deputies (1990–91)

Historical era 20th century

 •  October Revolution 7 November 1917

 •  Soviet Republic
Republic
proclaimed 9 November 1917

 •  Admitted to the USSR 30 December 1922

 •  Priority of Russian laws declared, partial cancellation of the Soviet form of government 12 June 1990

 •  Agreement to dissolve the USSR was ratified (de-facto Russia's independence declared) 12 December 1991

 •  Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
renamed into the Russian Federation 25 December 1991

 •  Self-dissolution of the USSR (de-facto Russia's independence recognized) 26 December 1991

Currency Soviet ruble
Soviet ruble
(руб) (SUR)

Preceded by Succeeded by

Russian Republic

Far Eastern Republic

Taganrog

Tuvan People's Republic

Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic

Viipuri Province

East Prussia

Kuril Islands

Karafuto Prefecture

Soviet Union

Russian Democratic Federative Republic

Russian Federation

Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic

Chechen Republic
Republic
of Ichkeria

Today part of  Russia  Belarus  China  Kazakhstan  Kyrgyzstan  Mongolia  Tajikistan  Turkmenistan  Ukraine  Uzbekistan

a. Remained the national anthem of Russia
Russia
until 2000.

b. Official language in the courts from 1937.[3]

c. As Chairman of the VTsIK (All-Russian Central Executive Committee).

d. As Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the RSFSR, from 29 May 1990 to 10 July 1991, then as President of Russia.

e. As Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR

f. As Chairmen of the Council of Ministers – Government of the Russian SFSR

g. Served as acting head of government while President of Russia

Seven Hero City
Hero City
awards

The Russian Democratic Federative Republic
Republic
existed briefly on 19 January 1918, but actual sovereignty was still in the hands of the Soviets even after the Russian Constituent Assembly
Russian Constituent Assembly
opened its first and last session.[4]

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Republic
( Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
or RSFSR; Russian: Росси́йская Сове́тская Федерати́вная Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, tr. Rossiyskaya Sovetskaya Federativnaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə sɐˈvʲetskəjə fʲɪdʲɪrɐˈtʲivnəjə sətsɨəlʲɪˈsʲtʲitɕɪskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə] ( listen)), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation,[5] Soviet Russia[6] or Russia ( listen (help·info); Russian: Росси́я, tr. Rossiya, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijə]; from the Greek: Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.[7] The Republic
Republic
comprised sixteen autonomous republics, five autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, six krais, and forty oblasts.[7] Russians
Russians
formed the largest ethnic group. The capital of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
was Moscow
Moscow
and the other major urban centers included Leningrad, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg, Nizhny Novgorod and Samara. The economy of Russia
Russia
became heavily industrialized, accounting for about two-thirds of the electricity produced in the USSR. It was, by 1961, the third largest producer of petroleum due to new discoveries in the Volga-Urals region[8] and Siberia, trailing only the United States and Saudi Arabia.[9] In 1974, there were 475 institutes of higher education in the republic providing education in 47 languages to some 23,941,000 students. A network of territorially organized public-health services provided health care.[7] After 1985, the restructuring policies of the Gorbachev administration relatively liberalised the economy, which had become stagnant since the late 1970s, with the introduction of non-state owned enterprises such as cooperatives. The Russian Soviet Republic
Republic
was proclaimed on 7 November 1917 (October Revolution) as a sovereign state and the world's first constitutionally socialist state with the ideology of Communism. The first Constitution was adopted in 1918. In 1922 the Russian SFSR signed the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR. The 1977 Soviet Constitution stated "Union Republic
Republic
is a sovereign ... state that has united ... in the Union"[10] and "each Union Republic
Republic
shall retain the right freely to secede from the USSR".[11] On 12 June 1990, the Congress of People's Deputies adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty, established separation of powers (instead of Soviet form of government), established citizenship of Russia
Russia
and stated that the RSFSR shall retain the right of free secession from the USSR. On 12 June 1991, Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was elected the first President supported by the Democratic Russia
Russia
pro-reform movement. The 1991 August Soviet coup d'état attempt destabilised the Soviet Union. On 8 December 1991, heads of Russia, Ukraine
Ukraine
and Belarus
Belarus
signed the Belavezha Accords. The agreement declared dissolution of the USSR by its founder states (i.e. denunciation of 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR) and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). On 12 December the agreement was ratified by the Russian Parliament, therefore Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and de facto declared Russia's independence from the USSR. On 25 December 1991, following the resignation of Mikhail Gorbachev
Mikhail Gorbachev
as president of the Soviet Union, the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
was renamed the Russian Federation[12] re-establishing the sovereign and independent state[13] (see History of Russia
Russia
(1991–present)). On 26 December 1991, the USSR was self-dissolved by the Soviet of Nationalities, which by that time was the only functioning house of the Supreme Soviet (the other house, Soviet of the Union, had already lost the quorum after recall of its members by the union republics). After dissolution of the USSR, Russia
Russia
declared that it assumed the rights and obligations of the dissolved central Soviet government, including UN membership and permanent membership on the Security Council but originally excluding foreign debt and foreign assets of the USSR (also parts of the former Soviet Army and nuclear weapons remained under overall CIS command as CIS United Armed Forces (Wikidata)). The 1978 RSFSR Constitution was amended several times to reflect the transition to democracy, private property and market economy. The new Russian constitution, came into force on 25 December 1993 after a constitutional crisis, completely abolished the Soviet form of government and replaced it by semi-presidential republic.

Contents

1 Nomenclature 2 Geography 3 History

3.1 Early years (1917–1920) 3.2 1920s 3.3 1930s 3.4 1945 3.5 1950s 3.6 1960s–1980s 3.7 Early 1990s 3.8 Post-Soviet transition (1991–1993)

4 Government

4.1 Autonomous Republics within the Russian SFSR

5 Culture

5.1 National holidays and symbols 5.2 Flag history

6 References 7 External links

Nomenclature[edit] Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, the Bolsheviks established the Soviet state on 7 November [O.S. 25 October] 1917, immediately after the Russian Provisional Government, which governed the Russian Republic, was overthrown during the October Revolution. Initially, the state did not have an official name and wasn't recognized by neighboring countries for five months. Meanwhile, anti-Bolsheviks coined the mocking label "Sovdepia" for the nascent state of the "Soviets of Workers' and Peasants' Deputies".[14] On 25 January 1918 the third meeting of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets renamed the unrecognised state the Soviet Russian Republic.[15] The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
was signed on 3 March 1918, giving away much of the land of the former Russian Empire
Russian Empire
to Germany in exchange for peace during the rest of World War I. On 10 July 1918, the Russian Constitution of 1918
Russian Constitution of 1918
renamed the country the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.[16] By 1918, during the Russian Civil War, several states within the former Russian Empire
Russian Empire
seceded, reducing the size of the country even more. Internationally, in 1920, the RSFSR was recognized as an independent state only by Estonia, Finland, Latvia
Latvia
and Lithuania
Lithuania
in the Treaty of Tartu and by the short-lived Irish Republic.[17] On 30 December 1922, with the creation of the Soviet Union, Russia became one of sixteen republics within the federation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The final Soviet name for the republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was adopted in the Soviet Constitution of 1936. By that time, Soviet Russia
Russia
had gained roughly the same borders of the old Tsardom of Russia
Russia
before the Great Northern War of 1700. For most of the Soviet Union's existence, it was commonly referred to as "Russia," even though technically "Russia" was only one republic within the larger union—albeit by far the largest, most powerful and most highly developed. On 25 December 1991, following the collapse of the Soviet Union (officially on 26 December), the republic was renamed the Russian Federation, which it remains to this day.[18] This name and "Russia" was specified as the official state names on 21 April 1992, an amendment to the existing constitution and were retained as such in the 1993 Constitution of Russia. Geography[edit] At a total of about 17,125,200 km (6,612,100 sq mi), the Russian SFSR was the largest of its fifteen republics, with its southerly neighbor, the Kazakh SSR, being second. The international borders of the RSFSR touched Poland
Poland
on the west; Norway
Norway
and Finland
Finland
on the northwest; and to its southeast were the Democratic People's Republic
Republic
of Korea, Mongolian People's Republic, and the People's Republic
Republic
of China. Within the Soviet Union, the RSFSR bordered the Ukrainian, Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian SSRs to its west and Azerbaijan, Georgian and Kazakh SSRs to the south.[7] Roughly 70% of the area in the RSFSR consisted of broad plains, with mountainous tundra regions mainly concentrated in the east. The area is rich in mineral resources, including petroleum, natural gas, and iron ore.[19] History[edit]

Eastern Bloc

Soviet Socialist Republics

Armenia Azerbaijan Byelorussia Estonia Georgia Kazakhstan Kirghizia Latvia Lithuania Moldavia Russian SFSR Tajikistan Turkmenia Ukraine Uzbekistan

Allied states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic

Socialist Republic
Republic
of Romania

German Democratic Republic People's Republic
Republic
of Bulgaria

Socialist Federal Republic
Republic
of Yugoslavia (to 1948)

People's Socialist Republic
Republic
of Albania (to 1961)

Republic
Republic
of Cuba People's Revolutionary Government of Grenada People's Republic
Republic
of Benin People's Republic
Republic
of the Congo People's Republic
Republic
of Angola People's Republic
Republic
of Mozambique People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Ethiopia

Somali Democratic Republic (to 1977)

People's Democratic Republic
Republic
of Yemen Democratic Republic
Republic
of Afghanistan Mongolian People's Republic

People's Republic
Republic
of China (to 1961)

Democratic People's Republic
Republic
of Korea Socialist Republic
Republic
of Vietnam Lao People's Democratic Republic People's Republic
Republic
of Kampuchea

Related organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw Pact

World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) World Federation of Democratic Youth (WFDY)

Dissent and opposition

Forest Brothers

in Lithuania in Latvia in Estonia

Operation "Jungle"

Ukrainian Insurgent Army Goryani
Goryani
movement (Bulgaria) Romanian anti-communism Polish Cursed Soldiers

1953 uprisings

in Plzeň in East Germany

1956 protests

in Georgia in Poznań

Hungarian Revolution of 1956 Novocherkassk massacre
Novocherkassk massacre
(Russia)

1968 events

Prague Spring Invasion of Czechoslovakia Red Square
Red Square
demonstration

Charter 77
Charter 77
(Czechoslovakia)

Solidarity (Poland)

Jeltoqsan
Jeltoqsan
(Kazakhstan)

Braşov Rebellion (Romania)

January Events (Lithuania)

The Barricades
The Barricades
(Latvia)

April 9 tragedy
April 9 tragedy
(Georgia)

Black January
Black January
(Azerbaijan)

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan

1948 Czechoslovak coup

Tito–Stalin split

Berlin Blockade

1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Cuban Missile Crisis

1980 Moscow
Moscow
Olympics

Decline

Singing Revolution

Polish Round Table Agreement

Revolutions of 1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall

January 1991

in Lithuania in Latvia

Breakup of Yugoslavia

Yugoslav Wars

End of the Soviet Union

Fall of communism in Albania

v t e

Part of a series on the

History of Russia

Cimmerians 12th–7th century BCE

Scythians 8th–4th century BCE

Sarmatians 5th century BCE–4th century CE

Early Slavs / Rus' pre-9th century

Khazar Khaganate 7th–10th century

Rus' Khaganate 9th century

Volga Bulgaria 9th–13th century

Kievan Rus' 882–1240

Vladimir-Suzdal 1157–1331

Novgorod Republic 1136–1478

Mongol Yoke 1240s–1480

Grand Duchy of Moscow 1283–1547

Tsardom of Russia 1547–1721

Russian Empire 1721–1917

Russian Republic 1917

Russian SFSR 1917–1922

Soviet Union 1922–1991

Russian Federation 1991–present

Timeline

Russia
Russia
portal

v t e

Early years (1917–1920)[edit] The Soviet government first came to power on 7 November 1917, immediately after the Russian Provisional Government, which governed the Russian Republic, was overthrown in the October Revolution. The state it governed, which did not have an official name, would be unrecognized by neighboring countries for another five months. On 25 January 1918, at the third meeting of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the unrecognized state was renamed the Soviet Russian Republic.[15] On 3 March 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
was signed, giving away much of the land of the former Russian Empire
Russian Empire
to Germany, in exchange for peace in World War I. On 10 July 1918, the Russian Constitution of 1918 renamed the country the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.[16] By 1918, during the Russian Civil War, several states within the former Russian Empire
Russian Empire
had seceded, reducing the size of the country even more. The RSFSR was recognized as an independent state internationally by only Estonia, Finland, Latvia, and Lithuania, in the Treaty of Tartu in 1920. 1920s[edit]

The Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
in 1922.

The Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
in 1924.

The Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
in 1929.

On 30 December 1922, the First Congress of the Soviets of the USSR approved the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR, by which Russia
Russia
was united with the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, and Transcaucasian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic
Republic
into a single federal state, the Soviet Union. Later treaty was included in the 1924 Soviet Constitution,[clarification needed] adopted on 31 January 1924 by the Second Congress of Soviets of the USSR. Paragraph 3 of Chapter 1 of the 1925 Constitution of the RSFSR stated the following:[20]

By the will of the peoples of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, who decided on the formation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics during the Tenth All-Russian Congress of Soviets, the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, being a part of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, devolves to the Union the powers which according to Article 1 of the Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics are included within the scope of responsibilities of the government bodies of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

1930s[edit]

The Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
in 1936.

Many regions in Russia
Russia
were affected by the Soviet famine of 1932–1933: Volga; Central Black Soil Region; North Caucasus; the Urals; the Crimea; part of Western Siberia; and the Kazak ASSR. With the adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution on 5 December 1936, the size of the RSFSR was significantly reduced. The Kazakh ASSR and Kirghiz ASSR were transformed into the Kazakh and Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republics. The Karakalpak Autonomous Socialist Soviet Republic
Republic
was transferred to the Uzbek SSR. The final name for the republic during the Soviet era was adopted by the Russian Constitution of 1937, which renamed it the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. 1945[edit]

The Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
in 1940.

See also: Eastern Front (World War II) In 1943, Karachay Autonomous Oblast was dissolved by Joseph Stalin, when the Karachays
Karachays
were exiled to Central Asia
Central Asia
for their alleged collaboration with the Germans and territory was incorporated into the Georgian SSR. On 3 March 1944, on the orders of Stalin, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was disbanded and its population forcibly deported upon the accusations of collaboration with the invaders and separatism. The territory of the ASSR was divided between other administrative units of Russian SFSR and the Georgian SSR. On 11 October 1944, the Tuvan People's Republic
Republic
joined the Russian SFSR as the Tuvan Autonomous Oblast, in 1961 becoming an Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. After reconquering Estonia
Estonia
and Latvia
Latvia
in 1944, the Russian SFSR annexed their easternmost territories around Ivangorod
Ivangorod
and within the modern Pechorsky and Pytalovsky Districts in 1944–1945. At the end of World War II
World War II
Soviet troops occupied southern Sakhalin Island and the Kuril Islands, making them part of the RSFSR. The status of the southernmost Kurils remains in dispute with Japan. On 17 April 1946, the Kaliningrad Oblast — the northern portion of the former German province of East Prussia—was annexed by the Soviet Union and made part of the Russian USSR. 1950s[edit] After the death of Joseph Stalin, 5 March 1953, Georgy Malenkov
Georgy Malenkov
became the new leader of the USSR. In January 1954, Malenkov transferred Crimea from the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
to the Ukrainian SSR. On 8 February 1955, Malenkov was officially demoted to deputy Prime Minister. As First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, Nikita Khrushchev's authority was significantly enhanced by Malenkov's demotion. On 9 January 1957, Karachay Autonomous Oblast and Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Republic
were restored by Khrushchev and they were transferred from the Georgian SSR
Georgian SSR
back to the Russian SFSR. The Karelo-Finnish SSR
Karelo-Finnish SSR
was transferred back to the RSFSR as the Karelian ASSR
Karelian ASSR
in 1956. 1960s–1980s[edit] In 1964, Nikita Khrushchev was removed from his position of power and replaced with Leonid Brezhnev. Under his rule, the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
and the rest of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
went through an era of stagnation. Even after he died in 1982, the era didn’t end until Mikhail Gorbachev took power in March 1985 and introduced liberal reforms in Soviet society. Early 1990s[edit] Main articles: Declaration of State Sovereignty
Sovereignty
of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, 1991 Soviet coup d'etat attempt, Belavezha Accords, and 1993 Russian constitutional crisis

Flag adopted by the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
national parliament in 1991.

On 29 May 1990, at his third attempt, Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was elected the chairman of the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the Russian SFSR. The Congress of People's Deputies of the Republic
Republic
adopted the Declaration of State Sovereignty
Sovereignty
of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
on 12 June 1990, which was the beginning of the "War of Laws", pitting the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
against the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
and other constituent republics. On 17 March 1991, an all-Russian referendum created the post of President of the RSFSR. On 12 June, Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
was elected President of Russia
Russia
by popular vote. During an unsuccessful coup attempt on 19–21 August 1991 in Moscow, the capital of the Soviet Union and Russia, President of Russia
Russia
Yeltsin strongly supported the President of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev. After the failure of GKChP, in the presence of Gorbachev, on 23 August 1991, Yeltsin signed a decree suspending all activity by the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
in the territory of Russia.[21] On 6 November, he went further, banning the Communist Parties of the USSR and the RSFSR from the territory of the RSFSR.[22] On 8 December 1991, at Viskuli
Viskuli
near Brest (Belarus), the President of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
and the heads of Byelorussian SSR
Byelorussian SSR
and Ukrainian SSR signed the "Agreement on the Establishment of the Commonwealth of Independent States" (known in media as Belavezha Accords). The document, consisting of a preamble and fourteen articles, stated that the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
ceased to exist as a subject of international law and geopolitical reality. However, based on the historical community of peoples, relations between them, given the bilateral treaties, the desire for a democratic rule of law, the intention to develop their relations based on mutual recognition and respect for state sovereignty, the parties agreed to the formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States. On 12 December, the agreement was ratified by the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
by an overwhelming majority: 188 votes for, 6 against, 7 abstentions. On the same day, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
denounced the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and recalled all Russian deputies from the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the Soviet Union. The legality of this act is the subject of discussions because, according to the 1978 Constitution (Basic Law) of the Russian SFSR, the Russian Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
had no right to do so.[23] However, by this time the Soviet government had been rendered more or less impotent and was in no position to object. Although 12 December vote is sometimes reckoned as the moment that the RSFSR seceded from the collapsing Soviet Union, this is not the case. It appears that the RSFSR took the line that it was not possible to secede from an entity that no longer existed. On 24 December, Yeltsin informed the Secretary-General of the United Nations that by agreement of the member states of the CIS Russian Federation would assume the membership of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
in all UN organs (including permanent membership in the UN Security Council). Thus, Russia
Russia
is considered to be an original member of the UN (since 24 October 1945) along with Ukraine
Ukraine
(Ukrainian SSR) and Belarus (Byelorussian SSR). On 25 December—just hours after Gorbachev resigned as president of the Soviet Union—the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
was renamed the Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russia), reflecting that it was now a sovereign state with Yeltsin assuming the Presidency.[13] That same night, the Soviet flag was lowered and replaced with the tricolor. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
officially ceased to exist the next day. The change was originally published on 6 January 1992 (Rossiyskaya Gazeta). According to law, during 1992, it was allowed to use the old name of the RSFSR for official business (forms, seals and stamps). Post-Soviet transition (1991–1993)[edit] See also: History of Russia
Russia
(1991–present) and 1993 Russian constitutional crisis Russia
Russia
made a significant turn toward developing a market economy by implanting basic tenets such as market-determined prices. Two fundamental and interdependent goals—macroeconomic stabilization and economic restructuring—the transition from central planning to a market-based economy. The former entailed implementing fiscal and monetary policies that promote economic growth in an environment of stable prices and exchange rates. The latter required establishing the commercial, and institutional entities—banks, private property, and commercial legal codes—that permit the economy to operate efficiently. Opening domestic markets to foreign trade and investment, thus linking the economy with the rest of the world, was an important aid in reaching these goals. The Gorbachev regime failed to address these fundamental goals. At the time of the Soviet Union's demise, the Yeltsin government of the Russian Republic
Republic
had begun to attack the problems of macroeconomic stabilization and economic restructuring. By mid-1996, the results were mixed.[citation needed] The struggle for the center of power in post-Soviet Russia
Russia
and for the nature of the economic reforms culminated in a political crisis and bloodshed in the fall of 1993. Yeltsin, who represented a course of radical privatization, was opposed by the parliament. Confronted with opposition to the presidential power of decree and threatened with impeachment, he "dissolved" the parliament on 21 September, in contravention of the existing constitution, and ordered new elections and a referendum on a new constitution. The parliament then declared Yeltsin deposed and appointed Aleksandr Rutskoy
Aleksandr Rutskoy
acting president on 22 September. Tensions built quickly, and matters came to a head after street riots on 2–3 October. On 4 October, Yeltsin ordered Special Forces and elite army units to storm the parliament building, the "White House" as it is called. With tanks thrown against the small-arms fire of the parliamentary defenders, the outcome was not in doubt. Rutskoy, Ruslan Khasbulatov, and the other parliamentary supporters surrendered and were immediately arrested and jailed. The official count was 187 dead, 437 wounded (with several men killed and wounded on the presidential side).[24][citation needed] Government[edit] Main article: Government of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic See also: List of leaders of the Russian SFSR

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2011)

The Government was known officially as the Council of People's Commissars (1917–1946), Council of Ministers (1946–1978) and Council of Ministers–Government (1978–1991). The first government was headed by Vladimir Lenin
Vladimir Lenin
as "Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Russian SFSR" and the last by Boris Yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
as both head of government and head of state under the title "President". The Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
was controlled by the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, until the abortive 1991 August coup, which prompted President Yeltsin to suspend the recently created Communist Party of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Autonomous Republics within the Russian SFSR[edit]

Turkestan ASSR
Turkestan ASSR
– Formed on 30 April 1918, on the territory of the former Turkestan General-Governorate. As part of the delimitation programme of Soviet Central Asia, the Turkestan ASSR
Turkestan ASSR
along with the Khorezm SSR and the Bukharan PSR were disbanded on 27 October 1924, and in their place came the Union republics of Turkmen SSR
Turkmen SSR
and Uzbek SSR. The latter contained the Tajik ASSR
Tajik ASSR
until December 1929 when it too became a full Union republic, the Tajik SSR. The RSFSR retained the newly formed Kara-Kirghiz and the Kara-Kalpak autonomous oblasts. The latter was part of the Kirgiz, then the Kazak ASSR
Kazak ASSR
until 1930, when it was directly subordinated to Moscow. Bashkir ASSR – Formed on 23 March 1919 from several northern districts of the Orenburg Governorate populated by Bashkirs. On 11 October 1990, it declared its sovereignty, as the Bashkir SSR, which was renamed in 1992 the Republic
Republic
of Bashkortostan. Tatar ASSR – Formed on 27 May 1920 on the territory of the western two-thirds of the Kazan Governorate
Kazan Governorate
populated by Tatars. On 30 October 1990, declared sovereignty as the Republic
Republic
of Tatarstan and on 18 October 1991 it declared its independence. The Russian constitutional court overturned the declaration on 13 March 1992. In February 1994, a separate agreement was reached with Moscow
Moscow
on the status of Tatarstan as an associate state in Russia
Russia
with confederate status. Kirgiz ASSR – Formed on 26 August 1920, from the Ural, Turgay, Semipalatinsk oblasts, and parts of Transcaspia, Bukey Horde and Orenburg Governorate populated by Kirgiz-Kaysaks (former name of Kazakh people). Further enlarged in 1921 upon gaining land from Omsk Governorate and again in 1924 from parts of Jetysui Governorate and Syr Darya and Samarkand oblasts. On 19 April 1925 renamed as the Kazak ASSR. (see below) Mountain ASSR
Mountain ASSR
– Formed on 20 January 1921, after the Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Red Army evicted the short-lived Mountainous Republic
Republic
of the Northern Caucasus. Initially composed of several national districts; one-by-one these left the republic until 7 November 1924, when the remains of the republic was partitioned into the Ingush Autonomous Oblast, the North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast and the Sunzha Cossack District (all subordinates to the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
Krai). Dagestan ASSR – Formed on 20 January 1921, from the former Dagestan Oblast. On 17 September 1991, it declared sovereignty as the Dagestan SSR. Crimean ASSR – Formed on 18 October 1921, on the territory of Crimean peninsula, following the Red Army's eviction of Baron Wrangel's army, ending the Russian Civil War
Russian Civil War
in Europe. On 18 May 1944, it was reduced to the status of Oblast, alongside the deportation of the Crimean Tatars, as collective punishment for alleged collaboration with the Nazi occupation regime in Taurida Subdistrict. On 19 February 1954, it was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR. Re-established on 12 February 1991, it declared sovereignty on 4 September of that year. On 5 May 1992, it declared independence as the Republic
Republic
of Crimea, on 13 May; the Verkhovna Rada
Verkhovna Rada
of Ukraine overturned the declaration but compromised on an Autonomous Republic of Crimea within Ukraine. After the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, a Russian military intervention and a disputed referendum, Crimea was annexed by Russia
Russia
in March 2014. Yakut ASSR – Formed on 16 February 1922 upon the elevation of the Yakut Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. On 27 September 1990, it declared sovereignty as the Yakut-Sakha Soviet Socialist Republic. From 21 December 1991, it has been known as the Republic
Republic
of Sakha (Yakutia). Buryat ASSR – Formed on 30 March 1923 as due to the merger of the Mongol-Buryat Autonomous Oblast of the RSFSR and the Buryat-Mongol Autonomous Oblast of the Far Eastern Republic. Until 7 July 1958 – Mongol-Buryat ASSR. On 27 March 1991 it became the Republic
Republic
of Buryatia. Karelian ASSR
Karelian ASSR
– Formed on 23 July 1923 when the Karelian Labor Commune was integrated into the RSFSR's administrative structure. On 31 March 1940, it was elevated into a full Union republic as the Karelo-Finnish SSR. On 16 July 1956, it was downgraded in status to that of an ASSR and re-subordinated to RSFSR. It declared sovereignty on 13 October 1991 as the Republic
Republic
of Karelia. Volga German ASSR
Volga German ASSR
– Formed on 19 December 1924, upon elevation of the Volga German Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. On 28 August 1941, upon the deportation of Volga Germans
Volga Germans
to Central Asia, the ASSR was disbanded. The territory was partitioned between the Saratov and Stalingrad Oblasts. Kazak ASSR
Kazak ASSR
was formed on 19 April 1925, when the first Kirghiz ASSR was renamed and partitioned. Upon the ratification of the new Soviet constitution, the ASSR was elevated into a full Union Republic
Republic
on 3 December 1936. On 25 October 1990, it declared sovereignty and on 16 December 1991 its independence as the Republic
Republic
of Kazakhstan. Chuvash ASSR – Formed on 21 April 1925 upon the elevation of the Chuvash Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. It declared sovereignty on 26 October 1990 as the Chuvash SSR. Kirghiz ASSR was formed on 1 February 1926 upon elevation of the Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast. Upon the ratification of the new Soviet constitution, the ASSR was elevated into a full Union Republic
Republic
on 3 December 1936. On 12 December 1990, it declared sovereignty as the Republic
Republic
of Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and on 31 August 1991 its independence. Kara-Kalpak ASSR – Formed on 20 March 1932 upon elevation of the Kara-Kalpak Autonomous Oblast into the Kara-Kalpak ASSR; from 5 December 1936 a part of the Uzbek SSR. In 1964, it was renamed the Karakalpak ASSR. It declared sovereignty on 14 December 1990. Mordovian ASSR
Mordovian ASSR
– Formed on 20 December 1934 upon the elevation of Mordovian Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. It declared sovereignty on 13 December 1990 as the Mordovian SSR. Since 25 January 1991 it has been known as the Republic
Republic
of Mordovia. Udmurt ASSR
Udmurt ASSR
was formed on 28 December 1934 upon the elevation of Udmurt Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. It declared sovereignty on 20 September 1990. Since 11 October 1991 it has been known as the Udmurt Republic. Kalmyk ASSR
Kalmyk ASSR
was formed on 20 October 1935 upon the elevation of Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. On 27 December 1943, upon the deportation of the Kalmyks, the ASSR was disbanded and split between the newly established Astrakhan Oblast and parts adjoined to Rostov Oblast, Krasnodar Krai, and Stavropol Krai. On 9 January 1957, Kalmyk Autonomous Oblast was re-established in its present borders, first as a part of Stavropol Krai and from 19 July 1958 as a part of the Kalmyk ASSR. On 18 October 1990, it declared sovereignty as the Kalmyk SSR. Kabardino-Balkar ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936, upon the departure of the Kabardino-Balkar Autonomous Oblast from the North Caucasus Kray. After the deportation of the Balkars
Balkars
on 8 April 1944, the republic is renamed as Kabardin ASSR and parts of its territory transferred to Georgian SSR, upon the return of the Balkars, the KBASSR is re-instated on 9 January 1957. On 31 January 1991, the republic declared sovereignty as the Kabardino-Balkar SSR, and from 10 March 1992 – Kabardino-Balkarian Republic. Northern Ossetian ASSR
Northern Ossetian ASSR
– Formed on 5 December 1936, upon the disbandment of the North Caucasus
North Caucasus
Kray, and its constituent North Ossetian Autonomous Oblast was raised into an ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 26 December 1990 as the North Ossetian SSR. Chechen-Ingush ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936, when the North Caucasus Krai was disestablished and its constituent Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Oblast was elevated into an ASSR and subordinated to Moscow. Following the en masse deportation of the Chechens
Chechens
and Ingush, on 7 March 1944, the ChIASSR was disbanded, and the Grozny Okrug was temporarily administered by Stavropol Kray
Stavropol Kray
until 22 March, when the territory was portioned between North Ossetian and Dagestan ASSRs, and the Georgian SSR. The remaining land was merged with Stavropol Krays Kizlyar district and organised as Grozny Oblast, which existed until 9 January 1957 when the ChIASSR was re-established though only the southern border's original shape was retained. Declared sovereignty on 27 November 1990 as the Chechen-Ingush Republic. On 8 June 1991, the 2nd Chechen National Congress proclaimed a separate Chechen-Republic (Noxchi-Cho), and on 6 September, began a coup which overthrew the Soviet local government. De facto, all authority passed to the self-proclaimed government which was renamed as the Chechen Republic of Ichkeria in early 1993. In response, the western Ingush districts after a referendum on 28 November 1991, were organised into an Ingush Republic
Republic
which was officially established on 4 June 1992, by decree of Russian President as the Republic
Republic
of Ingushetia. The same decree de jure created a Chechen republic, although it would be established only on 3 June 1994 and carry out partial governance during the First Chechen War. The Khasavyurt Accord would again suspend the government on 15 November 1996. The present Chechen Republic
Republic
government was re-established on 15 October 1999. Komi ASSR
Komi ASSR
– Formed on 5 December 1936 upon the elevation of the Komi (Zyryan) Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. Declared sovereignty on 23 November 1990 as the Komi SSR. From 26 May 1992 – the Republic
Republic
of Komi. Mari ASSR – Formed on 5 December 1936 upon the elevation of the Mari Autonomous Oblast into an ASSR. Declared Sovereignty
Sovereignty
on 22 December 1990 as the Mari Soviet Socialist Republic
Republic
(Mari El). Tuva ASSR – Formed on 10 October 1961 when the Tuva Autonomous Oblast was elevated[by whom?] into an ASSR. On 12 December 1990 declared sovereignty as the Soviet Republic
Republic
of Tyva. Gorno-Altai ASSR was formed on 25 October 1990, when Gorno-Altai Autonomous Oblast declared sovereignty; since 3 July 1991 it has been known as the Gorno-Altai SSR. Karachayevo-Cherkessian ASSR was formed on 17 November 1990, when Karachay-Cherkess Autonomous Oblast was elevated into an ASSR and, instead of Stavropol Krai, subordinated directly to the RSFSR. It declared sovereignty on 3 July 1991 as the Karachay-Cherkess SSR.

Culture[edit] See also: Culture of Russia National holidays and symbols[edit] Main articles: Public holidays in Russia, Public holidays in the Soviet Union, and Cultural icons of Russia The public holidays for the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
included Defender of the Fatherland Day (23 February), which honors Russian men, especially those serving in the army; International Women's Day
International Women's Day
(8 March), which combines the traditions of Mother's Day
Mother's Day
and Valentine's Day; Spring and Labor Day (1 May); Victory Day; and like all other Soviet republics, the Great October Socialist Revolution (7 November). Victory Day is the second most popular holiday in Russia; it commemorates the victory over Nazism
Nazism
in the Great Patriotic War. A huge military parade, hosted by the President of Russia, is annually organised in Moscow
Moscow
on Red Square. Similar parades take place in all major Russian cities and cities with the status Hero city
Hero city
or City of Military Glory.

Matryoshka doll
Matryoshka doll
taken apart

During its 76-year existence, the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
anthem was Patrioticheskaya Pesnya, but before 1990, the previous anthem shared its music with the Soviet Anthem, though not the lyrics and The Internationale was its anthem before 1944. The motto Proletarians of all countries, unite! was commonly used and shared with other Soviet republics. The hammer and sickle and the full Soviet coat of arms
Soviet coat of arms
were still widely seen in Russian cities as a part of old architectural decorations until its slow gradual removal in 1991. The Soviet Red Stars are also encountered, often on military equipment and war memorials. The Red Banner continues to be honored, especially the Banner of Victory
Banner of Victory
of 1945. The Matryoshka doll
Matryoshka doll
is a recognizable symbol of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
(and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
as a whole), and the towers of Moscow
Moscow
Kremlin and Saint Basil's Cathedral
Saint Basil's Cathedral
in Moscow
Moscow
are Russian SFSR's main architectural icons. The Chamomile
Chamomile
is the national flower, while birch is the national tree. The Russian bear
Russian bear
is an animal symbol and a national personification of Russia. Though this image has a Western origin, Russians
Russians
themselves have accepted it. The native Soviet Russian national personification is Mother Russia. Flag history[edit] Main article: Flag of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic The flag of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
changed numerous times, with the original being a field of red with the Russian name of the republic written on the flag's centre in white. This flag had always been intended to be temporary, as it was changed less than a year after its adoption. The second flag had the letters "РСФСР" (RSFSR) written in yellow within the canton, and encased within two yellow lines forming a right angle. The next flag was used from 1937, notably during World War II. It was used until Joseph Stalin's death when a major vexillological reform was undertaken within the Soviet Union. This change incorporated an update for all the flags of the Soviet Republics, as well as for the flag of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
itself. Now, the flag of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
was a defaced version of the flag of the Soviet Union, with the main difference being a minor repositioning of the hammer and sickle, and most notably adding a blue vertical stripe to the hoist. This version of the flag was used from 1954 all the way to 1991, where it was changed due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. The flag was somewhat reverted back to the original imperial civil ensign of Russia, with a notable difference being the proportions. After 1993 when the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
was officially dissolved into the Russian Federation, the final flag of Soviet Russia
Russia
was used with its original 2:3 proportions.

1917-1918 

1918–1937 

1937–1954 

1954–1991 

1991–1993[25][26] 

References[edit]

^ Historical names:

1918: Soviet Russian Republic
Republic
(Russian: Советская Российская Республика; Sovetskaya Rossiyskaya Respublika) 1918–1936: Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
Republic
(Russian: Российская Социалистическая Федеративная Советская Республика; Rossiyskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Federativnaya Sovetskaya Respublika) 1936–1991: Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic
Republic
(Russian: Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика; Rossiyskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Federativnaya Sovetskaya Respublika) 1991–present: Russian Federation
Russian Federation
(Russian: Российская Федерация; Rossiyskaya Federatsiya)

^ LENINE'S MIGRATION A QUEER SCENE, Arthur Ransome
Arthur Ransome
for The New York Times, 16 March 1918. ^ article 114 of the 1937 Constitution, article 171 of the 1978 Constitution ^ Riasanovsky, Nicholas (2000). A History of Russia
Russia
(sixth edition). Oxford University Press. p. 458. ISBN 0-19-512179-1.  ^ colloquially referred for short in intra-Soviet politics (along with the "Transcaucasian Federation" until 1936). See for example, the log of the meeting of the Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
of the USSR on February 19, 1954. The Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
officially renamed into the Russian Federation on 25 December 1991. ^ Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people (original VTsIK variant, III Congress revision[permanent dead link]), article I ^ a b c d The Free Dictionary Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic. Encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com. Retrieved on 22 June 2011. ^ Peterson, James A.; Clarke, James W. " Petroleum
Petroleum
Geology and Resources of the Volga-Ural Province, U.S.S.R." (PDF). Pubs.USGS.gov. 1983, U.S. Department of the Interior - U.S. Geological Survey. Retrieved 11 March 2015.  ^ Sokolov, Vasily Andreevich (2002). Petroleum. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. p. 183. ISBN 0898757258. Retrieved 11 March 2015.  ^ Article 76 ^ Article 72 ^ The names Russian Federation
Russian Federation
and Russia
Russia
are equal since 25 December 1993 ^ a b Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
approved the Law of the RSFSR #2094-I of 25 December 1991 "On renaming of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic" Archived 20 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine. // Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
and Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
Daily. – 1992. – № 2. – Article 62 ^ Mawdsley, Evan (2007). "Sovdepia: The Soviet Zone, October 1917 – November 1918". The Russian Civil War. Pegasus Books. p. 70. ISBN 9781933648156. Retrieved 25 January 2014. The Bolsheviks' enemies gave the name 'Sovdepia' to the area under the authority of the Soviets of Workers' and Peasants' Deputies. The comic-opera term was intended to mock [...].  ^ a b Declaration on the rights of working and exploited people. Hist.msu.ru. Retrieved on 22 June 2011. ^ a b Soviet Russia
Russia
information. Russians.net (23 August 1943). Retrieved on 22 June 2011. ^ Carr, EH The Bolshevik
Bolshevik
Revolution 1917–23, vol 3 Penguin Books, London, 4th reprint (1983), pp. 257–258. The draft treaty was published for propaganda purposes in the 1921 British document Intercourse between Bolshevism and Sinn Féin (Cmd 1326). ^ Chronicle of Events. Marxistsfr.org. Retrieved on 22 June 2011. ^ " Russia
Russia
the Great: Mineral resources". Russian Information Network. Retrieved 22 November 2010.  ^ Constitution (Basic Law) of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic
Republic
(approved by Twelfth All-Russian Congress of Soviets
All-Russian Congress of Soviets
on 11 May 1925). ^ Decree of the President of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
of 23 August 1991 No. 79 ^ Decree of the President of the Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
06.11. 1991 N169 "On activity of the CPSU and the Communist Party of the Russian SFSR" ^ The Russian SFSR
Russian SFSR
has constitutional right to "freely secede from the Soviet Union" (art. 69 of the RSFSR Constitution, Article 72 of the USSR Constitution), but according to USSR laws 1409-I (enacted on 3 April 1990) and 1457-I[permanent dead link] (enacted on 26 April 1990) this can be done only by a referendum and only if two-thirds of all registered voters of the republic has supported that motion. No special referendum on the secession from the USSR was held in the RSFSR ^ Braithwaite, Rodric (2011). Afgantsy: the Russians
Russians
in Afghanistan 1979–89. Profile Books. p. 312. ISBN 978-1-84668-054-0.  ^ Resolution of the Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
from 22 August 1991 "On the national flag of the Russian SFSR" ^ Law "On Amendments and Additions to the Constitution (Basic Law) of the Russian SFSR" from 1 November 1991

External links[edit]

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
portal Russia
Russia
portal

(in Russian) Full Texts and All Laws Amending Constitutions of the Russian SFSR Russian Federation; The Whole Republic
Republic
a Construction Site by D. S. Polyanski. Full 1918 RSFSR Constitution

v t e

Republics of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (1922–1991)

Principal

Armenia Azerbaijan Byelorussia Estonia1 Georgia Kazakhstan Kirghizia Latvia1 Lithuania1 Moldavia Russian SFSR Tajikistan Turkmenia Ukraine Uzbekistan

Short-lived

Karelo-Finnish SSR
Karelo-Finnish SSR
(1940–1956) Transcaucasian SFSR (1922–1936)

Non-union republics

SSR Abkhazia (1921–1931) Bukharan SSR (1920–1925) Khorezm SSR (1920–1925) Nakhichevan ASSR (1920–1923) Pridnestrovian Moldavian SSR (1990–1991) South Ossetian SR (1990–1991)

1The annexation of the Baltic republics in 1940 was considered as an illegal occupation and was not recognized by the majority of the international community such as the United States, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
and the European Community. The Soviet Union
Soviet Union
officially recognized their independence on September 6, 1991, prior to its final dissolution three months later.

v t e

Russia articles

History

Timeline

Proto-Indo-Europeans Scythians East Slavs Rus' Khaganate Kievan Rus' Novgorod Republic Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy of Moscow Tsardom of Russia Russian Empire Russian Republic Russian SFSR Soviet Union Russian Federation

By topic

Economy Military Journalism ‎ Postal

Geography

Subdivisions Borders Earthquakes Geology European Russia Caucasus Mountains North Caucasus Caspian Sea Ural Mountains West Siberian Plain Siberia Russian Far East North Asia Extreme points Cities and towns Islands Lakes Rivers Volcanoes Climate Mountains

Politics

Conscription Constitution Elections

Presidential elections

Federal budget Foreign relations Freedom of assembly Freedom of press

Media

Government Human rights Judiciary Law

Citizenship

Civil Service Law enforcement (Prisons) Liberalism Military Opposition Political parties President of Russia

Economy

Agriculture Aircraft industry Car industry Banking Central Bank Corruption Defence industry Economic regions Energy Fishing industry Forestry Gambling Mining Petroleum
Petroleum
industry Russian ruble Russian oligarchs Space industry Shipbuilding Trade unions Taxation Tourism Transport Telecommunications Waste

Society

Demographics Citizens Abortion Alcoholism Crime Education Healthcare Ethnic groups Languages LGBT Immigration

Illegal

Prostitution Racism Religion Suicide Water supply and sanitation Women

Culture

Architecture Art Literature Ballet Cinema Graffiti Inventions Media Music Public holidays Opera Language Cuisine Martial arts Folklore Television Internet National anthem Coat of arms National flag Sports

Outline

Book Category Portal

v t e

Soviet Union
Soviet Union
topics

History

Index of Soviet Union-related articles Russian Revolution

February October

Russian Civil War Russian SFSR USSR creation treaty New Economic Policy Stalinism Great Purge Great Patriotic War
Great Patriotic War
(World War II) Cold War Khrushchev Thaw 1965 reform Stagnation Perestroika Glasnost Revolutions of 1989 Dissolution Nostalgia Post-Soviet states

Geography

Subdivisions

Republics

autonomous

Oblasts

autonomous

Autonomous okrugs Closed cities

list

Regions

Caspian Sea Caucasus Mountains European Russia North Caucasus Siberia Ural Mountains West Siberian Plain

Politics

General

Constitution Elections Foreign relations

Brezhnev Doctrine

Government

list

Human rights

LGBT

Law Leaders

Collective leadership

Passport system State ideology

Marxism–Leninism Leninism Stalinism

Bodies

Communist Party

organisation Central Committee

Politburo Secretariat

Congress General Secretary

Congress of Soviets (1922–1936) Supreme Soviet
Supreme Soviet
(1938–1991) Congress of People's Deputies (1989–1991) Supreme Court

Offices

Premier President Deputy Premier First Deputy Premier

Security services

Cheka GPU NKVD MVD MGB KGB

Political repression

Red Terror Collectivization Great Purge Population transfer Gulag

list

Holodomor Political abuse of psychiatry

Ideological repression

Religion Suppressed research Censorship Censorship of images

Economy

Agriculture Central Bank Energy policy Five-Year Plans Net material product Inventions Ruble (currency) Internet domain Transport

Science

Communist Academy Academy of Sciences Academy of Medical Sciences Lenin All-Union Academy of Agricultural Sciences Sharashkas Naukograds

list

Society

Crime Demographics

Soviet people working class 1989 census

Languages

Linguistics

LGBT

Culture

Ballet Cinema Fashion Literature Music

opera

Propaganda Sports Stalinist architecture

Opposition

Soviet dissidents
Soviet dissidents
and their groups

list

Anthem

republics

Emblem

republics

Flag

republics

Templates

Departments Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
1917 Joseph Stalin Stagnation Era Fall of Communism

Book Category Commons Portal WikiProject

v t e

Eastern Bloc

Soviet Union Communism

Formation

Secret Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact protocol Soviet invasion of Poland Soviet occupations

Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina Baltic states Hungary Romania

Yalta Conference

Annexed as, or into, SSRs

Eastern Finland Estonia Latvia Lithuania Memel East Prussia West Belarus Western Ukraine Moldavia

Satellite states

Hungarian People's Republic Polish People's Republic Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Socialist Republic
Republic
of Romania German Democratic Republic People's Republic
Republic
of Albania (to 1961) People's Republic
Republic
of Bulgaria Federal People's Republic
Republic
of Yugoslavia (to 1948)

Annexing SSRs

Russian SFSR Ukrainian SSR Byelorussian SSR

Organizations

Cominform COMECON Warsaw Pact World Federation of Trade Unions
World Federation of Trade Unions
(WFTU) World Federation of Democratic Youth
World Federation of Democratic Youth
(WFDY)

Revolts and opposition

Welles Declaration Goryani
Goryani
Movement Forest Brothers Ukrainian Insurgent Army Operation Jungle Baltic state continuity Baltic Legations (1940–1991) Cursed soldiers Rebellion of Cazin 1950 1953 uprising in Plzeň 1953 East German uprising 1956 Georgian demonstrations 1956 Poznań protests 1956 Hungarian Revolution Novocherkassk massacre 1965 Yerevan demonstrations Prague Spring
Prague Spring
/ Warsaw Pact
Warsaw Pact
invasion of Czechoslovakia Brezhnev Doctrine 1968 Red Square
Red Square
demonstration 1968 student demonstrations in Belgrade 1968 protests in Kosovo 1970 Polish protests Croatian Spring 1972 unrest in Lithuania
Lithuania
SSR June 1976 protests Solidarity / Soviet reaction / Martial law 1981 protests in Kosovo Reagan Doctrine Jeltoqsan Karabakh movement April 9 tragedy Romanian Revolution Black January

Cold War
Cold War
events

Marshall Plan Berlin Blockade Tito–Stalin split 1948 Czechoslovak coup d'état 1961 Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
crisis

Conditions

Emigration and defection (list of defectors) Sovietization of the Baltic states Information dissemination Politics Economies Telephone tapping

Decline

Revolutions of 1989 Fall of the Berlin Wall Romanian Revolution Fall of communism in Albania Singing Revolution Collapse of the Soviet Union Dissolution of Czechoslovakia January 1991 events in Lithuania January 1991 events in Latvia

Post- Cold War
Cold War
topics

Baltic Assembly Collective Security Treaty Organization Commonwealth of Independent States Craiova Group European Union European migrant crisis Eurasian Economic Union NATO Post-Soviet states Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Visegrad Group

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 140306806 LCCN: n80160431 GND: 4395034-6 SUDOC: 030734835 BNF:

.