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RUMPELSTILTSKIN is a fairytale popularly associated with Germany (where he is known as RUMPELSTILZCHEN). The tale was one collected by the Brothers Grimm in the 1812 edition of Children\'s and Household Tales . According to researchers at Durham University
Durham University
and the Universidade Nova de Lisboa
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
, the story originated around 4,000 years ago.

CONTENTS

* 1 Plot * 2 Variants * 3 Name origins * 4 Names used in translations

* 5 Appearances in media

* 5.1 Literature * 5.2 Comics * 5.3 Music * 5.4 Television * 5.5 Film * 5.6 Games * 5.7 Psychology

* 6 References * 7 External links

PLOT

In order to make himself appear superior, a miller lies to the king, telling him that his daughter can spin straw into gold . (Some versions make the miller's daughter blonde and describe the "straw-into-gold" claim as a careless boast the miller makes about the way his daughter's straw-like blond hair takes on a gold-like lustre when sunshine strikes it.) The king calls for the girl, shuts her in a tower room filled with straw and a spinning wheel , and demands she spin the straw into gold by morning or he will cut off her head (other versions have the king threatening to lock her up in a dungeon forever). When she has given up all hope, an imp -like creature appears in the room and spins the straw into gold in return for her necklace (since he only comes to people seeking a deal/trade). When next morning the king takes the girl to a larger room filled with straw to repeat the feat, the imp once again spins, in return for the girl's ring. On the third day, when the girl has been taken to an even larger room filled with straw and told by the king that he will marry her if she can fill this room with gold or execute her if she cannot, the girl has nothing left with which to pay the strange creature. He extracts from her a promise that she will give him her firstborn child and so he spins the straw into gold a final time. (In some versions, the imp appears and begins to turn the straw into gold, paying no heed to the girl's protests that she has nothing to pay him with; when he finishes the task, he states that the price is her first child, and the horrified girl objects because she never agreed to this arrangement.) Two illustrations by Anne Anderson from Grimm's Fairy Tales
Grimm's Fairy Tales
(London and Glasgow 1922)

The king keeps his promise to marry the miller's daughter. But when their first child is born, the imp returns to claim his payment: "Now give me what you promised." She offers him all the wealth she has to keep the child but the imp has no interest in her riches. He finally consents to give up his claim to the child if she can guess his name within three days. Her many guesses fail, but before the final night, she wanders into the woods (some versions she sent a servant in the woods instead of going herself to keep the king's suspicions at bay) searching for him and comes across his remote mountain cottage and watches, unseen, as he hops about his fire and sings. In his song's lyrics, "tonight tonight, my plans I make, tomorrow tomorrow, the baby I take. The queen will never win the game, for Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
is my name'", he reveals his name. Some versions have the imp limiting the number of daily guesses to three and hence the total number of guesses allowed to a maximum of nine.

When the imp comes to the queen on the third day, after first feigning ignorance, she reveals his name, Rumpelstiltskin, and he loses his temper and their bargain. (Versions vary about whether he accuses the devil or witches of having revealed his name to the queen.) In the 1812 edition of the Brothers Grimm tales, Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
then "ran away angrily, and never came back". The ending was revised in an 1857 edition to a more gruesome ending wherein Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
"in his rage drove his right foot so far into the ground that it sank in up to his waist; then in a passion he seized the left foot with both hands and tore himself in two". Other versions have Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
driving his right foot so far into the ground that he creates a chasm and falls into it, never to be seen again. In the oral version originally collected by the Brothers Grimm, Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
flies out of the window on a cooking ladle.

VARIANTS

Stamp series on Rumpelstilzchen from the Deutsche Post of the GDR , 1976

The same story pattern appears in numerous other cultures: Tom Tit Tot in England (from English Fairy Tales, 1890, by Joseph Jacobs ); Whuppity Stoorie in Scotland (from Robert Chambers 's Popular Rhymes of Scotland, 1826); Gilitrutt in Iceland; جعيدان (Joaidane "He who talks too much") in Arabic; Хламушка (Khlamushka "Junker") in Russia; Rumplcimprcampr, Rampelník or Martin Zvonek in the Czech Republic; Martinko Klingáč in Slovakia; Ruidoquedito ("Little noise") in South America; Pancimanci in Hungary (from A Csodafurulya by Kolozsvari Grandpierre Emil); Daiku to Oniroku (大工と鬼六 "A carpenter and the ogre") in Japan and Myrmidon in France. All these tales are Aarne–Thompson type 500, "The Name of the Helper".

Another of the Grimms' tales revolves about a girl trapped by false claims about her spinning abilities, The Three Spinners . However, the three women who assist that girl do not demand her firstborn, but instead ask that she invite them to her wedding and say that they are relatives of hers. She complies, and when the three appear at the wedding, amazing the king with their ugliness, they tell the king that their various deformities (an overgrown thumb in one, a pendulous lip in the second, an enormous foot in the third) are the result of their years of spinning. The horrified king decrees that the bride will spin no more. In contrast to Rumpelstiltskin's self-seeking, therefore, these helpers ask only the "payment" of extending their benevolence to the heroine, and ensure that she will not need their help again. In one Italian variant, the girl must discover their names, as with Rumpelstiltskin, but not for the same reason: she must use their names to invite them, and she has forgotten them.

NAME ORIGINS

Illustration by Walter Crane from Household Stories by the Brothers Grimm (1886)

The name Rumpelstilzchen in German means literally "little rattle stilt", a stilt being a post or pole that provides support for a structure. A rumpelstilt or rumpelstilz was consequently the name of a type of goblin, also called a pophart or poppart, that makes noises by rattling posts and rapping on planks. The meaning is similar to rumpelgeist ("rattle ghost") or poltergeist , a mischievous spirit that clatters and moves household objects. (Other related concepts are mummarts or boggarts and hobs , which are mischievous household spirits that disguise themselves.) The ending -chen is a German diminutive cognate to English -kin.

The earliest known mention of Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
occurs in Johann Fischart 's Geschichtklitterung, or Gargantua of 1577 (a loose adaptation of Rabelais\' Gargantua and Pantagruel ) which refers to an "amusement" for children, i. e. a children's game named "Rumpele stilt oder der Poppart".

NAMES USED IN TRANSLATIONS

Illustration for the tale of "Rumpel-stilt-skin" from The heart of oak books (Boston 1910)

Translations of the original Grimm fairy tale (KHM 55) into various languages have generally substituted different names for the dwarf whose name is Rumpelstilzchen. For some languages, a name was chosen that comes close in sound to the German name: Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
or Rumplestiltskin in English, Repelsteeltje in Dutch , Rumpelstichen in Portuguese , Rumpelstinski or Rumpelestíjeles in Spanish , Rumplcimprcampr or Rampelník in Czech . In Japanese it is called ルンペルシュティルツキン (Runperushutirutsukin). Russian might have the most accomplished imitation of the German name with Румпельшти́льцхен (Rumpelʹštílʹcxen).

In other languages the name was translated in a poetic and approximate way. Thus Rumpelstilzchen is known as Päronskaft (literally "Pear-stalk") in Swedish , where the sense of stilt or stalk of the second part is retained. Likewise, in Danish and Norwegian , he is known as Rumleskaft (literally "Rumble-shank"). Italian has Tremotino (which loosely means "Little Earthquake"). French has – besides other names – Tracassin (like tracasser "to pester"). In other translations an entirely different and generally meaningless name was selected, such as Barbichu, Broumpristoche, Grigrigredinmenufretin, Outroupistache or Perlimpinpin in various translations to French . Turkish translations use "Hariparibuşki Baripinpon" which doesn't mean anything and was chosen just because the name was complicated.

Slovak translations use Martinko Klingáč. Polish translations use Titelitury (or Rumpelsztyk) and Finnish ones Tittelintuure, Rompanruoja or Hopskukkeli. Serbian , Bosnian and Croatian Cvilidreta ("Whine-screamer"). For Hebrew
Hebrew
the poet Avraham Shlonsky
Avraham Shlonsky
composed the name עוץ לי גוץ לי (Ootz-li Gootz-li, a compact and rhymy touch to the original sentence and meaning of the story, "My adviser my midget"), when using the fairy tale as the basis of a children's musical , now a classic among Hebrew
Hebrew
children's plays. Greek translations have used Ρουμπελστίλτσκιν (from the English) or Κουτσοκαλιγέρης (Koutsokaliyéris) which could figure as a Greek surname, formed with the particle κούτσο- (koútso- "limping"), and is perhaps derived from the Hebrew
Hebrew
name. Urdu
Urdu
versions of the tale used the name Tees Mar Khan for the imp.

APPEARANCES IN MEDIA

LITERATURE

* In George Orwell
George Orwell
's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four
Nineteen Eighty-Four
(1949), a character of the Ingsoc
Ingsoc
party is described as being a " Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
figure" (ch. IX). * In Walter Tevis 's science fiction novel The Man Who Fell To Earth (1963), Thomas Newton tells Nathan Bryce "My name is Rumplestiltskin" . * Anne Sexton
Anne Sexton
wrote an adaptation of the Grimm fairy tale as a poem called "Rumpelstiltskin" in her collection Transformations (1971), a book in which she re-envisions sixteen of the Grimm's Fairy tales. * Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
appears in three 1976 fairy tales, Rumpelstilzchen (English version as "Rumpelstiltskin") by Rosemarie Künzler-Behncke , Neues vom Rumpelstilzchen (English version as "Update on Rumpelstiltskin") by Richard Bletschacher , and Das Rumpelstilzchen hat mir immer leid getan (English version as "I Always Felt Sorry for Rumpelstiltskin") by Irmela Brender , which are part of the children's book Update on Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
and other Fairy Tales by 43 Authors , which was compiled by Hans-Joachim Gelberg , illustrated by Willi Glasauer , and published by Beltz he is captured by the three heroines, but is subsequently killed by Roudette, the adult Little Red Riding Hood , now an efficient and deadly assassin, while being sent to Fairytown to answer for his crimes. * The Croning (2012) by Laird Barron . * Rumpel Stiltskin is the main character in J. A. Kazimer's book Curses! (2012). * In Shelley Chappell's short fiction, Ranpasatusan. A Retelling of Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(2014) the miller's daughter is a minstrel's daughter who travels to Japan. * Breeana Puttroff , author of the Dusk Gate Chronicles series, was scheduled in 2014 to publish a book Rumpelstiltskin's Daughter, in which Rumpelstiltskin's story is told from another point of view, where the king makes the queen spin gold and Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
is not the villain. * In Tom Holt 's novel, The Good, the Bad and the Smug (2015), a former commodities trader escapes to a fantasy world and becomes Rumpelstiltskin. * Michael Cunningham 's short story "Little Man" (in A Wild Swan and Other Tales, 2015) is a retelling of the Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
story told from Rumpelstiltskin's point of view.

COMICS

* Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
appears in issue 4 of The Muppet Show that was a part of "The Treasure of Peg-Leg Wilson" arc. * The tale is adapted in the fourth issue of Zenescope 's series Grimm Fairy Tales , but it is given an alternative, more tragic ending. * The Priest from the Dark Horse series The Goon is actually Rumpelstiltskin, having escaped from the hell he was cast into he attempts the wrestle control of the town away from The Goon.

MUSIC

* The song "Split Myself in Two" by the Meat Puppets
Meat Puppets
is inspired and loosely based on the tale. * "Rumplestiltskin" is a song by the Columbus, Ohio underground band Earwig from their album Gibson Under Mountain. * Rumplestiltskin's Resolve is an album by folk-rock musician Shawn Phillips . * The third movement of Robert Schumann
Robert Schumann
's Märchenbilder is inspired by the story. * Rumpelstiltskin Grinder is a thrash band from Pennsylvania signed to Relapse Records
Relapse Records
. * Stiltskin is a Scottish rock band , notable for the fact that one of its band members, Ray Wilson , was temporarily a lead vocalist of progressive rock band Genesis . * The industrial metal band Megaherz
Megaherz
released a song named "I.M. Rumpelstilzchen " on their album Herzwerk II , which quotes the original German fairy tale. * "Rumpofsteelskin" is a song by funk band Parliament from the album Motor Booty Affair . The song title is reminiscent of the fairy tale's title. * Sir Mix-a-Lot
Sir Mix-a-Lot
sings of a "rump-o-smooth-skin" in the song "Baby Got Back" from the album " Mack Daddy ". * "Rumplestiltskin" is a punk retelling of the fairy tale by John Otway . * The ballet "Rumpelstiltskin" by the British composer David Sawer is based on the tale. * Eminem
Eminem
mentions Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
in "The Monster" stating "Turn nothing into something, still can make that, straw into gold, chump. I will spin Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
in a haystack." * "Rumplestiltskin," a retelling of the tale in song by Brian Dewan from his album The Operating Theatre. * A musical adaptation of the same name opened Off-Broadway in 2012.

TELEVISION

* In the ABC television series Once Upon a Time , Rumplestiltskin (also known as Mr. Gold
Gold
) is played by Robert Carlyle and is one of the central characters and is shown as a malevolent trickster who can spin straw into gold and enjoys making deals with those he comes across. Throughout the first seasons he concentrates on searching for his son, Bae. An expert on black magic and the dark arts (known as the Dark One ) this man has wizardly powers to make him a fair match for anyone in the land - even the Evil Queen . The miller's daughter (the Evil Queen's mother) Cora eventually becomes the Queen of Hearts . In the course of the series, he is also revealed to have taken on the role of Cinderella's fairy 'godmother', and is also essentially the Beast , falling in love with Belle after he demanded her as a price for saving her kingdom from a war. In the season three episode Think Lovely Thoughts , he is revealed to be the son of a man named Malcolm, who became Peter Pan
Peter Pan
. After marrying Belle, Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
doubles as 'the Beast.' After Belle banishes him from Storybrooke, his own nature turns against him, prompting him to ally with various other villains to try and ensure their own happy endings. He is briefly purified of his darkness when it is revealed that he is dying of the dark magic in his heart, but despite Emma attempting to help him become a hero while she takes on the Dark One role, he eventually reclaims his powers, and he goes way too far from being a beast. In the sixth season, Rumplestiltskin's mother is revealed to be the Black Fairy, who had abandoned him and Malcolm after choosing power over love. In the same season, he has a son with Belle named Gideon. * Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
appears in Happily Ever After: Fairy Tales for Every Child voiced by Robert Townsend . * Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
was featured in NBC's Grimm , where the tale is the inspiration for the Season 2 episode "Nameless". He is a type of creature ('Wesen') called a 'Fuchsteufelwild'. The episode featured a Fuchsteufelwild named "Trinket Lipslums" (an anagram of "Rumpelstiltskin"), who is revealed to have helped a team of video game programmers finish an enormously popular MMORPG . The programmers omitted him from the game's credits since they could not recall his name, so Lipslums starts hunting them down one by one; as in the original tale, much of the story centers around determining the character's name. * In an episode of the TV show Star Trek: Deep Space Nine titled "If Wishes Were Horses ", Miles O\'Brien reads his daughter the story of Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
at bedtime and then leaves her room. She comes out shortly afterward to inform her father that Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
is in the room with her. O'Brien assumes that it is just her imagination and goes into the room with her only to discover that Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
is indeed in her room. At the end of the episode it is revealed that Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(along with various other manifestations) are in fact aliens that were studying imagination. * In the TV show Shelley Duvall
Shelley Duvall
's Faerie Tale Theatre
Faerie Tale Theatre
, the second episode, aired originally in 1982, titled " Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
", stars Hervé Villechaize as Rumpelstiltskin, Ned Beatty
Ned Beatty
as the king, and Shelley Duvall
Shelley Duvall
as the miller's daughter. * The fairy tale was spoofed in the Fractured Fairy Tales
Fractured Fairy Tales
segment of the Rocky and Bullwinkle
Rocky and Bullwinkle
show. * In the German TV series Spuk unterm Riesenrad, Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
is the only one of the three evil, living dummies (witch, giant, and Rumpelstiltskin) who doesn't turn good at the end and is frozen by a policeman with a fire extinguisher. He also tries to take over Burg Falkenstein by blackmailing the owner with a fire. * The German TV aired in 2009 an adaptation of the original story of the Grimm Brothers. Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
was played by Robert Stadlober . According to the film makers: "We did not want overgrown dwarf, but a prince of the forest, and Stadlober is exactly the right thing." In this adaptation the title character was not created as the usual evil man "who comes out of the woods to do evil", but also shows the human side ". Their Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
has a desire, namely, to have a man around. The filming location was the same Schloss Bürresheim, which appears as Castle Grunewald in 'Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade'. * The character "Rumpledkiltskin" appears in the animated series Courage The Cowardly Dog as the title character. Rumpledkiltskin tricks Muriel and Courage into traveling to Scotland, where he reveals himself and forces Muriel to weave 5,000 quilts. At the end of the episode, his real name is revealed and he gains a change of heart. * Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
appears in the animated television series Winx Club , in Season 6 episodes "The Music Café", "The Anthem" and "Acheron". Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
is, according to both Selina and Daphne, the most cunning, most stubborn, and most brilliant dwarf. He lives in the Legendarium World. He is also very tricky but follows the agreements he makes with others. Due to being exposed in Alfea, he had learnt powerful enchantments when he lived there. * In season 3 of the U.S. television series, The Closer
The Closer
, in the episode entitled "The Round File", the case involves an old man who confesses to the murder of seven people but who will not give the detectives his name and forces them to discover it on their own. As a result, the squad refers to him as Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
throughout the episode. The story of the fairy tale itself is referenced several times. * In the Happy Tree Friends episode, entitled "Dunce Upon a Time", Petunia was spinning straw into gold within a castle, bearing a strong resemblance, while the rest of the episode bore a strong resemblance to the fairytale, Jack and the Beanstalk
Jack and the Beanstalk
.

FILM

Colorized still from the American film Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(1915)

* Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(1915), an American film, starring J. Barney Sherry and Elizabeth "Betty" Burbridge * A 1940 live action film produced in Nazi Germany, directed by Alf Zengerling starring Paul Walker as the title character. * A 1955 live action film produced in West-Germany, but also released in the U.S. by K. Gordon Murray in 1965 and re-released by Paramount Pictures
Paramount Pictures
in 1974, directed by Herbert B. Fredersdorf starring Werner Krüger as the title character. The film is still aired on German Television. * In 1962's The Wonderful World of the Brothers Grimm , a dream sequence featured Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(played by Arnold Stang
Arnold Stang
) alongside other Grimm characters such as Hansel during his segment, the Brothers Grimm help the miller's daughter guess his name, and when she succeeds at the last possible moment he angrily shouts "A plague on all your houses!" before disappearing.

GAMES

* Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
appears briefly in the Dark Parables sixth installment, Jack and the Sky Kingdom, as a stone imp, (having once been a stone idol animated by a sorcerer, and having since its captivity reverted to stone). He also appears in the bonus chapter, " Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
and the Queen", where having claimed the Sky Kingdom's new queen newborn daughter, the queen quests to reclaim her child. After the queen has subdued the imp, the Sky King, corrupted by the imp's magic, keeps the imp hostage to spin him more gold. * Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
makes an appearance in the first game of the series King\'s Quest , by Roberta Williams . While there are variants to his name (in some versions, the name is spelled with a backwards alphabet, a = z, b = y, etc.; in others it is spelled backwards as Nikstlitslepmur), Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
offers the knight Graham (hero of the story) a reward for guessing his name. When the task is complete, Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
gives magic beans to Graham, allowing entrance to the land of the giants to acquire the treasure chest of gold, a main quest item in the game. * In the DLC of The Witcher 3 Hearth of Stone, the Rumpelstiltskin is represented by Master Mirror

PSYCHOLOGY

* The value and power of using personal names and titles is well established in psychology, management, teaching and trial law. It is often referred to as the " Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
Principle". * Brodsky, Stanley (2013). "The Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
Principle". APA PsycNET. American Psychological Association. * Winston, Patrick (2009-08-16). "The Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
Principle". M.I.T. Edu. * van Tilburg, Willem (1972). "Rumpelstiltskin: The magic of the right word". Academia.

REFERENCES

* ^ BBC. " Fairy tale
Fairy tale
origins thousands of years old, researchers say". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 20 January 2016. * ^ Sara Graça da Silva, Jamshid J. Tehrani (January 2016). "Comparative phylogenetic analyses uncover the ancient roots of Indo-European folktales". Royal Society Open Science. doi :10.1098/rsos.150645 . * ^ "Name of the Helper". D. L. Ashliman. Retrieved 2015-11-29. * ^ Wiktionary article on Rumpelstilzchen. * ^ Grimm, Jacob; Grimm, Wilhelm (2008). Bröderna Grimms sagovärld (in Swedish). Bonnier Carlsen. p. 72. ISBN 91-638-2435-3 . * ^ "Transformations - Anne Sexton
Anne Sexton
- Google Books". Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-09-26. * ^ http://www.koffer-lahr.de/7.html * ^ Elavsky, Cindy (18 September 2014). "Q and A: Week of Sept. 18". Retrieved 18 September 2014. * ^ This comes from a section of Schumann's journals that is difficult to find and has not been translated into English. See " Rapunzel
Rapunzel
in Music" and " Sleeping Beauty
Sleeping Beauty
in Music" for more corroboration. * ^ Roots, Kimberly (2013-03-26). "Grimm Season 2 Spoilers — Rumplestiltskin Pages from Nick’s Books". TVLine. Retrieved 2014-06-28. * ^ "Rumpelstiltskin". YouTube. 2009-03-13. Retrieved 2015-09-26. * ^ "Rumpelstilzchen rbb Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg". Rbb-online.de. Retrieved 2014-06-28. * ^ " Rumpelstiltskin
Rumpelstiltskin
(1955)". IMDb.com. Retrieved 2014-06-28. * ^ "Rumpelstilzchen rbb Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg". Rbb-online.de. Retrieved 2014-06-28.

EXTERNAL LINKS

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: RUMPELSTILTSKIN

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this