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Ruins
Ruins
(from the Latin "Ruina") are the remains of human-made architecture: structures that were once intact have fallen, as time went by, into a state of partial or total disrepair, due to lack of maintenance or deliberate acts of destruction. Natural disaster, war and depopulation are the most common root causes, with many structures becoming progressively derelict over time due to long-term weathering and scavenging. There are famous ruins all over the world, from ancient sites in China, the Indus valley
Indus valley
and Judea
Judea
to Zimbabwe
Zimbabwe
in Africa, ancient Greek, Egyptian and Roman sites in the Mediterranean basin, and Incan and Mayan sites in the Americas. Ruins
Ruins
are of great importance to historians, archaeologists and anthropologists, whether they were once individual fortifications, places of worship, ancient university,[1] houses and utility buildings, or entire villages, towns and cities. Many ruins have become UNESCO World Heritage Sites in recent years, to identify and preserve them as areas of outstanding value to humanity.[2]

Contents

1 Cities 2 Deliberate destruction 3 Relics of steel and wooden towers 4 Aesthetics 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Cities[edit]

San Francisco earthquake of 1906: Ruins
Ruins
in vicinity of Post and Grant Avenue.

Ancient cities were often highly militarized and fortified defensive settlements. In times of war they were the central focus of armed conflict and would be sacked and ruined in defeat.[3] Although less central to modern conflict, vast areas of 20th-century cities such as Warsaw, Dresden, Coventry, London and Berlin were left in ruins following World War II, and a number of major cities around the world – such as Beirut, Kabul, Sarajevo, Grozny
Grozny
and Baghdad
Baghdad
– have been partially or completely ruined in recent years as a result of more localised warfare.[4] Entire cities have also been ruined, and some occasionally lost completely, to natural disasters. The ancient city of Pompeii
Pompeii
was completely lost during a volcanic eruption in the 1st century AD, its uncovered ruins now preserved as a World Heritage Site. The city of Lisbon
Lisbon
was totally destroyed in 1755 by a massive earthquake and tsunami, and the 1906 San Francisco earthquake
1906 San Francisco earthquake
left the city in almost complete ruin. Deliberate destruction[edit]

Ruins
Ruins
of Whitby Abbey, England

Ury House, Aberdeenshire
Aberdeenshire
ruined by removal of the roof after the Second World War to avoid taxation.

Mesen Castle, former Residence of the Marquess of Lede, designed by Giovanni Niccolò Servandoni

Apart from acts of war, some important historic buildings have fallen victim to deliberate acts of destruction as a consequence of social, political and economic factors. The spoliation of public monuments in Rome
Rome
was under way during the fourth century, when it was covered in protective legislation in the Theodosian Code[5] and in new legislation of Majorian.[6] and the dismantling increased once popes were free of imperial restrictions.[7] Marble
Marble
was still being burned for agricultural lime in the Roman Camapgna into the nineteenth century.

Winston Churchill
Winston Churchill
visiting the ruins of Coventry
Coventry
Cathedral after the Coventry
Coventry
Blitz of World War II

In Europe, many religious buildings suffered as a result of the politics of the day. In the 16th century, the English monarch Henry VIII set about confiscating the property of monastic institutions in a campaign which became known as the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Many abbeys and monasteries fell into ruin when their assets, including lead roofs, were stripped. In the 20th century, a number of European historic buildings fell into ruin as a result of taxation policies, which required all structures with roofs to pay substantial property tax. The owners of these buildings, like Fetteresso Castle
Fetteresso Castle
(now restored) and Slains Castle in Scotland, deliberately destroyed their roofs in protest at, and defiance of, the new taxes. Other decrees of government have had a more direct result, such as the case of Beverston Castle, in which the English parliament ordered significant destruction of the castle to prevent it being used by opposition Royalists. Post-colonial Ireland has encouraged the ruin of grand Georgian houses, symbols of British imperialism.[8] Relics of steel and wooden towers[edit]

Ruins
Ruins
made-to-measure: the "Roman Ruin" in the park at Schönbrunn, c 1800

Rust-Belt ruins of former factory, Detroit, Michigan

As a rule, towers built of steel are dismantled, when not used any more, because their construction can be either rebuilt on a new site or if the state of construction does not allow a direct reuse, the metal can be recycled economically. However, sometimes tower basements remain, because their removal can sometimes be expensive. One example of such a basement is the basement of the former radio mast of Deutschlandsender Herzberg/Elster. The basements of large wooden towers such as Transmitter Ismaning
Transmitter Ismaning
may also be left behind, because removing them would be difficult. The contemplation of "rust belt" post-industrial ruins is in its infancy.[9] Aesthetics[edit]

Procession to Hambach Castle
Hambach Castle
during Hambach Festival, lithograph about 1832

The ruins of the Parthenon
Parthenon
in Athens, Greece. Much of the original marble which formed the roof and frieze now forms a pile of rubble at its base.

In the Middle Ages Roman ruins were inconvenient impediments to modern life, quarries for pre-shaped blocks for building projects, or marble to be burnt for agricultural lime, and subjects for satisfying commentaries on the triumph of Christianity and the general sense of the world's decay, in what was assumed to be its last age, before the Second Coming. With the Renaissance, ruins took on new roles among a cultural elite, as examples for a consciously revived and purified architecture all' antica, and for a new aesthetic appreciation of their innate beauty as objects of venerable decay.[10] The chance discovery of Nero's Domus Aurea
Domus Aurea
at the turn of the sixteenth century, and the early excavations at Herculaneum
Herculaneum
and Pompeii
Pompeii
had marked effects on current architectural styles, in Raphael's Rooms
Raphael's Rooms
at the Vatican and in neoclassical interiors, respectively. The new sense of historicism that accompanied neoclassicism led some artists and designers to conceive of the modern classicising monuments of their own day as they would one day appear as ruins. In the period of Romanticism
Romanticism
ruins (mostly of castles) were frequent object for painters, place of meetings of romantic poets, nationalist students etc. (e.g. Bezděz Castle
Bezděz Castle
in Bohemia, Hambach Castle
Hambach Castle
in Germany, Devin Castle
Devin Castle
in Slovakia). Ruin value
Ruin value
(German: Ruinenwert) is the concept that a building be designed such that if it eventually collapsed, it would leave behind aesthetically pleasing ruins that would last far longer without any maintenance at all. Joseph Michael Gandy
Joseph Michael Gandy
completed for Sir John Soane in 1832 an atmospheric watercolor of the architect's vast Bank of England rotunda as a picturesquely overgrown ruin, that is an icon of Romanticism.[11][12] Ruinenwert was popularized in the 20th century by Albert Speer while planning for the 1936 Summer Olympics
1936 Summer Olympics
and published as Die Ruinenwerttheorie ("The Theory of Ruin Value"). Ruins
Ruins
remain a popular subject for painting and creative photography[13] and are often romanticized in film and literature, providing scenic backdrops or used as metaphors for other forms of decline or decay. For example, the ruins of Dunstanburgh Castle
Dunstanburgh Castle
in England inspired Turner to create several paintings; in 1989 the ruined Dunnottar Castle
Dunnottar Castle
in Scotland
Scotland
was used for filming of Hamlet. See also[edit]

Dissolution of the Monasteries Folly, for garden ruins Ghost town Ozymandias Romanticism Shipwreck

References[edit]

^ "Nalanda University Ruins
Ruins
Nalanda Travel Guide Ancient Nalanda Site". Travel News India. 2016-10-05. Retrieved 2017-02-18.  ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "World Heritage". whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 19 March 2018.  ^ Max weber, The city, 1958 ^ http://urban.cccb.org/urbanLibrary/htmlDbDocs/A036-C.html Stephen Graham, Postmortem City: Towards an Urban Geopolitics ^ Codex Theodosianus, xv.1.14, 1.19, 1.43. ^ Novellae maioriani, iv.1. ^ See Dale Kinney, "Spolia from the Baths of Caracalla in Sta. Maria in Trastevere", The Art Bulletin 68.3 (September 1986):379-397) especially "The status of Roman architectural marbles in the Middle Ages", pp 387-90. ^ A selection chosen for their picturesque value, appear in Simon Marsden (photos), Duncan McLaren (text), In Ruins: The Once Great Houses of Ireland, 1980, expanded ed. 1997. ^ But see Tim Edensor, Industrial ruins: spaces, aesthetics and materiality, 2005. ^ The European career of the pleasure and pathos absorbed from the European contemplation of ruins has been explored by Christopher Woodward, In Ruins
Ruins
(Chatto & Windus), 2001. ^ Widely illustrated in this context, including in David Watkin, The English Vision: the picturesque in architecture, landscape, and garden design, 1982:62 ^ PERPINYA, Núria. Ruins, Nostalgia and Ugliness. Five Romantic perceptions of Middle Ages and a spoon of Game of Thrones and Avant-garde oddity. Berlin: Logos Verlag. 2014 ^ Simon O'Corra: France in Ruins, Buildings in Decay, London 2011 ISBN 978-1-906137-23-6

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Ruins

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ruins.

Robert Ginsberg, The Aesthetics of Ruins
Ruins
(New York/Amsterdam: Rodopi, 2004) Bibliography: Loss, Decay, Ending of Place Macaulay, Rose, The Pleasure of Ruins Ruin Memories Project

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