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The Rugii, also Rugians, Rygir, Ulmerugi, or Holmrygir (Norwegian: Rugiere, German: Rugier) were an East Germanic
East Germanic
tribe who migrated from southwest Norway
Norway
to Pomerania
Pomerania
around 100 AD, and from there to the Danube River
Danube River
valley. They were allies of Attila
Attila
until his death in 453, and settled in what is now Austria
Austria
after the defeat of the Huns at Nedao in 453.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Origins 2.2 In Pomerania 2.3 In Pannonia, Rugiland
Rugiland
and Italy

3 See also 4 References

Etymology[edit] The tribal name "Rugii" or "Rygir" is a derivate of the Old Norse
Old Norse
term for rye, rugr, and is thus translated "rye eaters" or "rye farmers".[1] Holmrygir and Ulmerugi are both translated as "island Rugii".[1] Uncertain and disputed is the association of the Rugii
Rugii
with the name of the isle of Rügen
Rügen
and the tribe of the Rugini. Though some scholars suggested that the Rugii
Rugii
passed their name to the isle of Rügen
Rügen
in modern Northeast Germany, other scholars presented alternative hypotheses of Rügen's etymology associating the name to the mediaeval Rani (Rujani) tribe.[1][2] The Rugini were only mentioned once, in a list of Germanic tribes still to be Christianised drawn up by the English monk Bede
Bede
(Beda venerabilis) in his Historia ecclesiastica of the early 8th century,[1][3] but James Campbell has argued that, regarding the list, "the sense of the Latin is that these are the peoples from whom the Anglo-Saxons
Anglo-Saxons
living in Britain were derived,"[4]:53, and thus the Rugini would be among the ancestors of the Anglo-Saxons.[4]:123-124 Whether the Rugini were remnants of the Rugii
Rugii
is speculative.[1] Despite the identification by Bede
Bede
as Germanic, some scholars have attempted to link the Rugini with the Rani.[3][5] History[edit] Origins[edit] The Rugii
Rugii
had possibly migrated from southwest Norway
Norway
to Pomerania
Pomerania
in the 1st century AD.[6] Rogaland
Rogaland
or Rygjafylke is a region (fylke) in south west Norway. Rogaland
Rogaland
translates "Land of the Rygir" (Rugii), the transition of rygir to roga is sufficiently explained with the general linguistic transitions of the Norse language.[1] Scholars suggest a migration either of Rogaland
Rogaland
Rugii
Rugii
to the southern Baltic coast, the other way around, or an original homeland on the islands of Denmark in between these two regions.[1] None of these theories is so far backed by archaeological evidence.[1] Another theory suggests that the name of one of the two groups was adapted by the other one later without any significant migration taking place.[1] Scholars regard it as very unlikely that the name was invented twice.[1] In Pomerania[edit] Further information: Early history of Pomerania

The Roman empire
Roman empire
under Hadrian
Hadrian
(ruled 117-38): the Rugii
Rugii
inhabit a region corresponding to modern Pomerania
Pomerania
(northern Germany and Poland)

The Rugii
Rugii
were first mentioned by Tacitus[7] in the late 1st century.[1][8][2] Tacitus' description of their contemporary settlement area, adjacent to the Goths
Goths
at the "ocean", is generally seen as the southern coast of the Baltic Sea, the later Pomerania.[1][8][2] Tacitus
Tacitus
characterized the Rugii
Rugii
as well as the neighboring Goths
Goths
and Lemovii
Lemovii
saying they carried round shields and short swords, and obeyed their regular authority.[1][8][2] Ptolemaeus[9] in 150 AD mentions a place named Rhougion (also transliterated from Greek as Rougion, Rugion, Latinized Rugium or Rugia) and a tribe named Routikleioi in the same area, both names have been associated with the Rugii.[1][2] Jordanes[10] says the Goths
Goths
upon their arrival in this area expelled the Ulmerugi.[1][2] and makes other, retrospect references to the Rugii
Rugii
in his Getica[11] of the 6th century.[1] The 9th-century Old English
Old English
Widsith, a compilation of earlier oral traditions, mentions the tribe of the Holmrycum without localizing it.[1] Holmrygir are mentioned in an Old Norse
Old Norse
Skaldic poem, Hákonarmál,[12] and probably also in the Haraldskvæði.[1] Around the mid 2nd century AD, there was a significant migration by Germanic tribes of Scandinavian origin (Rugii, Goths, Gepidae, Vandals, Burgundians, and others)[13] towards the south-east, creating turmoil along the entire Roman frontier.[14][13][15][16] These migrations culminated in the Marcomannic Wars, which resulted in widespread destruction and the first invasion of Italy
Italy
in the Roman Empire period.[16] Many Rugii
Rugii
had left the Baltic coast during the migration period. It is assumed that Burgundians, Goths
Goths
and Gepids with parts of the Rugians
Rugians
left Pomerania
Pomerania
during the late Roman Age, and that during the migration period, remnants of Rugians, Vistula Veneti, Vidivarii and other, Germanic tribes remained and formed units that were later Slavicized.[17] The Vidivarii themselves are described by Jordanes
Jordanes
in his Getica
Getica
as a melting pot of tribes who in the mid-6th century lived at the lower Vistula.[18][19] Though differing from the earlier Willenberg culture, some traditions were continued.[19] One hypothesis, based on the sudden appearance of large amounts of Roman solidi and migrations of other groups after the breakdown of the Hun
Hun
empire in 453, suggest a partial re-migration of earlier emigrants to their former northern homelands.[19] The Oxhöft culture
Oxhöft culture
is associated with parts of the Rugii
Rugii
and Lemovii.[2] The archaeological Gustow group of Western Pomerania
Pomerania
is also associated with the Rugii.[20][21] The remains of the Rugii
Rugii
west of the Vidivarii, together with other Gothic, Veneti, and Gepid groups, are believed to be identical with the archaeological Debczyn group.[17] In Pannonia, Rugiland
Rugiland
and Italy[edit] In the beginning of the 4th century, large parts of the Rugii
Rugii
moved southwards and settled at the upper Tisza
Tisza
in ancient Pannonia, in what is now modern Hungary. They were later attacked by the Huns
Huns
but took part in Attila's campaigns in 451, but at his death they rebelled and created under Flaccitheus a kingdom of their own in Rugiland, a region presently part of lower Austria
Austria
(ancient Noricum), north of the Danube.[22] After Flaccitheus's death, the Rugii
Rugii
of Rugiland
Rugiland
were led by king Feletheus, also called Feva, and his wife Gisa.[22] Yet other Rugii
Rugii
had already become foederati of Odoacer, who was to become the first Germanic king of Italy.[22] By 482 the Rugii
Rugii
had converted to Arianism.[6] Feletheus' Rugii
Rugii
were utterly defeated by Odoacar in 487; many came into captivity and were carried to Italy, and subsequently, Rugiland
Rugiland
was settled by the Lombards.[22] Records of this era are made by Procopius,[23] Jordanes
Jordanes
and others.[1] Two years later, Rugii
Rugii
joined the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great when he invaded Italy
Italy
in 489. Within the Ostrogothic Kingdom
Ostrogothic Kingdom
in Italy, they kept their own administrators and avoided intermarriage with the Goths.[24][6] They disappeared after Totila's defeat in the Gothic War (535-554).[6] See also[edit]

Ancient Germanic culture portal

List of Germanic peoples

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s Johannes Hoops, Herbert Jankuhn, Heinrich Beck, Dieter Geuenich, Heiko Steuer, Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, 2nd edition, Walter de Gruyter, 2004, pp.452ff, ISBN 3-11-017733-1 ^ a b c d e f g J. B. Rives on Tacitus, Germania, Oxford University Press, 1999, p.311, ISBN 0-19-815050-4 ^ a b David Fraesdorff, Der barbarische Norden: Vorstellungen und Fremdheitskategorien bei Rimbert, Thietmar von Merseburg, Adam von Bremen und Helmold von Bosau, Akademie Verlag, 2005, p.55, ISBN 3-05-004114-5 ^ a b 1935–2016, Campbell, James, (1986). Essays in Anglo-Saxon history. London: Hambledon Press. ISBN 090762832X. OCLC 458534293.  ^ Joachim Herrmann, Welt der Slawen: Geschichte, Gesellschaft, Kultur, C.H. Beck, 1986, p.265, ISBN 3-406-31162-8 ^ a b c d "Rugi (people)". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved 8 September 2012.  ^ Tacitus, Germania, Germania.XLIV ^ a b c The Works of Tacitus: The Oxford Translation, Revised, With Notes, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2008, p.836, ISBN 0-559-47335-4 ^ Ptolemaeus
Ptolemaeus
II,11,12 ^ Jordanes, Getica, IV,26 ^ Jordanes, Getica, L,261.266; LIV,277 ^ Skj, B I,57 ^ a b "History of Europe: The Germans and Huns". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ "Ancient Rome: The barbarian invasions". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ "Germanic peoples". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ a b "Germany: Ancient History". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
Retrieved January 16, 2015.  ^ a b Johannes Hoops, Hans-Peter Naumann, Franziska Lanter, Oliver Szokody, Heinrich Beck, Rudolf Simek, Sebastian Brather, Detlev Ellmers, Kurt Schier, Ulrike Sprenger, Else Ebel, Klaus Düwel, Wilhelm Heizmann, Heiko Uecker, Jürgen Udolph, Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde, Walter de Gruyter, p.282, ISBN 3-11-017535-5 ^ Andrew H. Merrills, History and Geography in Late Antiquity, Cambridge University Press, 2005, p.325, ISBN 0-521-84601-3 ^ a b c Mayke De Jong, Frans Theuws, Carine van Rhijn, Topographies of Power in the Early Middle Ages, BRILL, 2001, p.524, ISBN 90-04-11734-2 ^ Magdalena Ma̜czyńska, Tadeusz Grabarczyk, Die spätrömische Kaiserzeit und die frühe Völkerwanderungszeit in Mittel- und Osteuropa, Wydawn. Uniwersytetu Łódź, 2000, p.127, ISBN 83-7171-392-4 ^ Horst Keiling, Archäologische Funde von der frührömischen Kaiserzeit bis zum Mittelalter aus den mecklenburgischen Bezirken, Museum für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Schwerin, 1984, pp.8:12 ^ a b c d William Dudley Foulke, Edward Peters, History of the Lombards, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1974, pp.31ff, ISBN 0-8122-1079-4 ^ Procopius, Bellum Gothicum VI,14,24; VII,2,1.4 ^ "At the behest of Eastern Roman Emperor Zeno, Theodoric of the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
invades Italy
Italy
and founds a kingdom based in Rome. Many of the remaining Rugii
Rugii
join Theodoric in his invasion and settle in self-contained communities, refusing intermarriage with the Ostrogoths and other Germanic peoples
Germanic peoples
there. They retain their identity until the fall of the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy. The Langobards migrate into the former Rugii
Rugii
territory to fill this vacuum."Germanic Tribes: Rugii

This article contains content from the Owl Edition of Nordisk familjebok, a Swedish encyclopedia published between 1904 and 1926, now in the public domain.

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