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Ronald Ernest Paul (born August 20, 1935) is an American author, physician and retired politician who served as the U.S. Representative for Texas's 22nd congressional district
Texas's 22nd congressional district
from 1976 to 1977 and again from 1979 to 1985, and for Texas's 14th congressional district
Texas's 14th congressional district
from 1997 to 2013. On three occasions, he sought the presidency of the United States: as the Libertarian Party nominee in 1988 and as a candidate in the Republican primaries of 2008 and 2012. Paul is a critic of the federal government's fiscal policies, especially the existence of the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
and the tax policy, as well as the military–industrial complex, and the War on Drugs. He has also been a vocal critic of mass surveillance policies such as the USA PATRIOT Act and the NSA surveillance programs. He was the first chairman of the conservative PAC Citizens for a Sound Economy[2] and has been characterized as the "intellectual godfather" of the Tea Party movement.[3][4] A native of the Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh
suburb of Green Tree, Pennsylvania, Paul is a graduate of Gettysburg College
Gettysburg College
and the Duke University
Duke University
School of Medicine, where he earned his medical degree. He served as a flight surgeon in the U.S. Air Force from 1963 to 1968. He worked as an obstetrician-gynecologist from the 1960s to the 1980s.[5] He became the first Representative in history to serve concurrently with a son or daughter in the Senate when his son, Rand Paul, was elected to the U.S. Senate from Kentucky
Kentucky
in 2010.[6] Paul is a Senior Fellow of the Mises Institute,[7] and has been an active writer, publishing on the topics of political and economic theory, as well as publicizing the ideas of economists of the Austrian School such as Murray Rothbard
Murray Rothbard
and Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
during his political campaigns. Paul has written many books on Austrian economics and classical liberal philosophy, beginning with The Case for Gold (1982) and including A Foreign Policy of Freedom (2007), Pillars of Prosperity (2008), The Revolution: A Manifesto (2008), End the Fed (2009) and Liberty
Liberty
Defined (2011). On July 12, 2011, Paul announced that he would forgo seeking another term in Congress in order to focus on his presidential bid.[8] On May 14, 2012, Paul announced that he would not be competing in any other presidential primaries but that he would still compete for delegates in states where the primary elections have already been held.[9] At the 2012 Republican National Convention, Paul received 190 delegate votes. In January 2013, Paul retired from Congress but still remains active on college campuses, giving speeches promoting his libertarian vision.[10][11] Paul received one electoral vote from a Texas faithless elector in the 2016 presidential election, making him the oldest person to receive an electoral vote, as well as the second registered Libertarian Presidential candidate in history to receive an Electoral College vote after John Hospers.

Contents

1 Early life, education, and medical career 2 Early congressional career (1976–1985)

2.1 Elections 2.2 Tenure

3 Libertarian Party and ventures

3.1 1985–1997 3.2 1988 presidential campaign

4 Later congressional career (1997–2013)

4.1 Elections 4.2 Tenure 4.3 Committee assignments

5 2008 presidential campaign

5.1 2008 Republican primary campaign 5.2 Refusal to endorse the Republican nominee

6 2012 presidential campaign

6.1 2012 Republican primary campaign

6.1.1 Iowa Campaign 6.1.2 South Carolina, Florida, Nevada 6.1.3 Irregularities

6.2 Republican National convention 6.3 Refusal to endorse the Republican nominee

7 Political party identification 8 Political positions

8.1 Defense 8.2 Domestic 8.3 Economic 8.4 Environmental 8.5 Healthcare 8.6 Immigration 8.7 Ballots and voting 8.8 Secession 8.9 Social issues

9 Newsletters controversy 10 Post-congressional career

10.1 Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Channel 10.2 Spokesman for Stansberry Research 10.3 2016 presidential election

11 Personal life 12 Publications relating to Ron Paul

12.1 Books 12.2 Films

13 Bibliography 14 Other contributions 15 See also 16 References 17 External links

Early life, education, and medical career[edit] Ronald Ernest Paul was born on August 20, 1935, in Pittsburgh,[12] the son of Howard Caspar Paul (1904–1997), who ran a small dairy company, and Margaret Paul (née Dumont; 1908–2001). His paternal grandfather emigrated from Germany,[13] and his paternal grandmother, a devout Christian, was a first-generation German American.[14] As a junior at suburban Dormont High School, he was the 200 meter dash state champion.[15] Paul went to Gettysburg College, where he was a member of the Lambda Chi Alpha
Lambda Chi Alpha
fraternity.[16] He graduated with a B.S. degree in Biology in 1957.[15] Paul earned a Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine
degree from Duke University's School of Medicine in 1961, and completed his medical internship at the Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit and his residency in obstetrics and gynecology at Magee-Womens Hospital in Pittsburgh.[17][18] Paul served as a flight surgeon in the United States Air Force
United States Air Force
from 1963 to 1965 and then in the United States Air National Guard
Air National Guard
from 1965 to 1968. Paul and his wife then relocated to Texas, where he began a private practice in obstetrics and gynecology.[18] Early congressional career (1976–1985)[edit] While a medical resident in the 1960s, Paul was influenced by Friedrich Hayek's The Road to Serfdom, which caused him to read other publications by Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
and Ayn Rand. He came to know economists Hans Sennholz and Murray Rothbard
Murray Rothbard
well, and credits to them his interest in the study of economics.[19] When President Richard Nixon
Richard Nixon
"closed the gold window" by ending American participation in the Bretton Woods System, thus ending the U.S. dollar's loose association with gold[19] on August 15, 1971, Paul decided to enter politics[20] and became a Republican candidate for the United States Congress.[21] Elections[edit] In 1974, incumbent Robert R. Casey
Robert R. Casey
defeated him for the 22nd district.[18] President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
later appointed Casey to direct the Federal Maritime Commission, and Paul won an April 1976 special election to the vacant office after a runoff.[22][23][24] Paul lost the next regular election to Democrat Robert Gammage by fewer than 300 votes (0.2%), but defeated Gammage in a 1978 rematch, and was reelected in 1980 and 1982.[25][26][27] Gammage underestimated Paul's popularity among local mothers: "I had real difficulty down in Brazoria County, where he practiced, because he'd delivered half the babies in the county. There were only two obstetricians in the county, and the other one was his partner."[28] Tenure[edit]

Paul in 1979

Paul served in Congress three different periods: first from 1976 to 1977, after he won a special election, then from 1979 to 1985, and finally from 1997 to 2013.[29] In his early years, Paul served on the House Banking Committee, where he blamed the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
for inflation and spoke against the banking mismanagement that resulted in the savings and loan crisis.[13][30] Paul argued for a return to the gold standard maintained by the US from 1873–1933, and with Senator Jesse Helms convinced the Congress to study the issue.[19] He spoke against the reinstatement of registration for the military draft in 1980, in opposition to President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
and the majority of his fellow Republican members of Congress.[31] During his first term, Paul founded the Foundation for Rational Economics and Education (FREE), a non-profit think tank dedicated to promoting principles of limited government and free-market economics.[32][33] In 1984, Paul became the first chairman of the Citizens for a Sound Economy
Citizens for a Sound Economy
(CSE),[2] a conservative political group founded by Charles and David Koch
David Koch
"to fight for less government, lower taxes, and less regulation." CSE started a Tea Party protest
Tea Party protest
against high taxes in 2002.[34] In 2004, Citizens for a Sound Economy
Citizens for a Sound Economy
split into two new organizations, with Citizens for a Sound Economy
Citizens for a Sound Economy
being renamed as FreedomWorks, and Citizens for a Sound Economy
Citizens for a Sound Economy
Foundation becoming Americans for Prosperity. The two organizations would become key players in the Tea Party movement
Tea Party movement
from 2009 onward. Paul proposed term-limit legislation multiple times, while himself serving four terms in the House of Representatives.[31] In 1984, he decided to retire from the House in order to run for the U.S. Senate, complaining in his House farewell address that " Special
Special
interests have replaced the concern that the Founders had for general welfare... It's difficult for one who loves true liberty and utterly detests the power of the state to come to Washington for a period of time and not leave a true cynic."[35][36] Paul lost the Republican primary to Phil Gramm, who had switched parties the previous year from Democrat to Republican. Another candidate of the senatorial primary was Henry Grover, a conservative former state legislator who had lost the 1972 gubernatorial general election to the Democrat Dolph Briscoe, Jr.[37][38] On Paul's departure from the House, his seat was assumed by former state representative Tom DeLay, who would later become House Majority Leader.[39] Libertarian Party and ventures[edit] 1985–1997[edit] Following the loss of the 1984 senate race, Paul returned to his obstetrics practice and took part in a number of other business ventures.[13][40] Along with his former congressional chief of staff, Lew Rockwell, Paul founded a for-profit enterprise, Ron Paul
Ron Paul
& Associates, Inc. (RP&A) in 1984, with Paul serving as president, Rockwell as vice president, Paul's wife Carol as secretary, and daughter Lori Pyeatt as treasurer. The company published a variety of political and investment-oriented newsletters, including Ron Paul Freedom Report and Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Survival Report, and by 1993 was generating revenues in excess of $900,000.[41][42] Paul also co-owned a mail-order coin dealership, Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Coins, for twelve years with Burt Blumert, who continued to operate the dealership after Paul resumed office in 1996.[43][44] Paul spoke multiple times at the American Numismatic Association's 1988 convention.[43] He worked with his Foundation for Rational Economics and Education on such projects as establishing the National Endowment for Liberty, producing the At Issue public policy series that was broadcast on the Discovery Channel
Discovery Channel
and CNBC,[32] and continuing publication of newsletters. 1988 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Ron Paul
Ron Paul
presidential campaign, 1988 Paul left the Republican Party in 1987 and launched a bid for the presidency running on the Libertarian Party ticket. His candidacy was seen as problematic because of the party's long support for freedom of choice on abortions. Native American activist Russell Means, Paul's rival for the nomination, emphasized that he was pro-choice on the abortion issue.[45] In a forum held prior to the nomination, Means dismissed the greater funds raised by Paul's campaign, commenting that Means was receiving "10 times more press" than the former Congressman and was therefore "100 times more effective".[46] In the 1988 presidential election, Paul was on the ballot in 46 states,[47] scoring third in the popular vote with 432,179 votes (0.5%).[48] Paul was kept off the ballot in Missouri, due to what the St. Louis Post-Dispatch
St. Louis Post-Dispatch
termed a "technicality," and received votes there only when written in,[49] just as he did in North Carolina.[50] According to Paul, his presidential campaign was about more than obtaining office; he sought to promote his libertarian ideas, often to school and university groups regardless of vote eligibility. He said, "We're just as interested in the future generation as this election. These kids will vote eventually, and maybe, just maybe, they'll go home and talk to their parents."[47] Paul considered campaigning for President in 1992,[51] but instead chose to endorse Pat Buchanan
Pat Buchanan
that year, and served as an adviser to Buchanan's Republican presidential primary campaign against incumbent President George H. W. Bush.[52] Later congressional career (1997–2013)[edit]

An earlier congressional portrait of Paul

Elections[edit] Further information: Texas's 14th congressional district

1996 campaign

During 1996, Paul was re-elected to Congress after a difficult campaign. The Republican National Committee
Republican National Committee
endorsed incumbent Greg Laughlin in the primary; Paul won with assistance from baseball pitcher, constituent, and friend Nolan Ryan, tax activist and publisher Steve Forbes[13] and conservative commentator Pat Buchanan (the latter two of whom had had presidential campaigns that year). Paul narrowly defeated Democratic attorney Charles "Lefty" Morris in the fall election, despite Morris' criticism over controversial statements in several newsletters that Paul published.

1998–2013

In 1998 and 2000, Paul defeated Loy Sneary, a Democratic Bay City, Texas, rice farmer and former Matagorda County
Matagorda County
judge.[20] In the 2008 Republican primary,[53] he defeated Friendswood
Friendswood
city councilman Chris Peden,[54] with over 70 percent of the vote[55] and ran unopposed in the general election.[56] In the 2010 Republican primary, Paul defeated three opponents with 80 percent of the vote.[57] On July 12, 2011, Paul announced that he would not seek re-election to the House in order to pursue the 2012 presidential election.[58][59] Tenure[edit]

Legislation

Main article: List of legislation sponsored by Ron Paul Of the 620 bills that Paul had sponsored through December 2011, over a period of more than 22 years in Congress, only one had been signed into law – a lifetime success rate of less than 0.3%.[60] The sole measure authored by Paul that was ultimately enacted allowed for a federal customhouse to be sold to a local historic preservation society (H.R. 2121 in 2009).[60] By amending other legislation, he has helped prohibit funding for national identification numbers, funding for federal teacher certification,[20] International Criminal Court
International Criminal Court
jurisdiction over the U.S. military, American participation with any U.N. global tax, and surveillance of peaceful First Amendment activities by citizens.[61]

Affiliations

Paul was honorary chairman of, and is a member of the Republican Liberty
Liberty
Caucus, a political action committee that describes its goal as electing "liberty-minded, limited-government individuals".[62] He is an initiating member of the Congressional Rural Caucus, which deals with agricultural and rural issues, and the 140-member Congressional Wildlife Refuge Caucus.[63] Committee assignments[edit] Paul served on the following committees and subcommittees.[64]

Committee on Financial Services

Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy and Technology (Chairman) Subcommittee on International Monetary Policy and Trade

Committee on Foreign Affairs

Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations

With the election of the 112th Congress, and a resulting GOP majority in the House, Paul became the chairman of the Subcommittee on Domestic Monetary Policy and Technology starting in January 2011.[65] Paul's congressional career ended on January 3, 2013 with the swearing in of the 113th Congress. 2008 presidential campaign[edit]

Paul being interviewed the day of the New Hampshire primary
New Hampshire primary
in Manchester

Main article: Ron Paul
Ron Paul
presidential campaign, 2008 See also: Republican Party presidential primaries, 2008 2008 Republican primary campaign[edit] Paul formally declared his candidacy for the 2008 Republican nomination on March 12, 2007, on C-SPAN.[66] Few major politicians endorsed him, and his campaign was largely ignored by traditional media.[67] However, he attracted an intensely loyal grassroots following, in large part energized by "iconoclastic white men"[68] interacting through internet social media.[69][70][71] In May 2007, shortly after the first televised primary debates, the blogs search engine site Technorati.com listed Paul's name as the term most frequently searched for;[69] and Paul's campaign claimed that Paul had more YouTube
YouTube
channel subscribers than Barack Obama
Barack Obama
or any other candidate for president.[72] For a candidate who had had relatively low national name recognition prior to entering the race, Paul did surprisingly well in fundraising, taking in more money than any other Republican candidate in the fourth quarter of 2007, as the primary season headed into the Iowa caucuses.[73][74] Despite benefiting from large numbers of campaign contributions from individual donors,[75] and the efforts of tech-savvy supporters determined to keep his name a frequent topic of discussion on the internet,[69] over the course of the campaign Paul was unable to translate the enthusiasm of his core supporters into large enough numbers of actual primary votes to unseat his rivals. Paul came in 5th place in both the January 4 Iowa caucuses
Iowa caucuses
(10% of votes cast)[76] and the January 8 New Hampshire primary
New Hampshire primary
(8%).[77] With the exception of the Nevada caucuses January 19, where he came in 2nd (14%) behind Romney (51%), he did little better through the rest of January: Michigan 4th (6%), South Carolina 5th (4%), Florida 5th (3%). On SuperTuesday, February 5, he placed 4th in almost every state, generally taking in a mere 3–6% of the votes although he did better in the northern states of North Dakota (21%, 3rd place) and Montana (25%, 2nd place).[78][79] By March, front-runner John McCain
John McCain
had secured enough pledged delegates to guarantee that he would win the nomination, and Romney and Huckabee had both formally withdrawn from the race. Paul, who had won no state primaries, knew that it was now mathematically impossible for him to win the nomination, as he had captured only 20[80] – 40 pledged delegates compared to more than 1,191 for McCain, yet he refused to concede the race and said that it was unlikely that he would ultimately endorse McCain.[81][82][83] Over the next few weeks, Paul's supporters clashed with establishment Republicans at several county and state party conventions over state party rules, the party platforms, and selection of delegates for the national convention.[84][85][86] In one of the more dramatic moments, Nevada's state party leaders, outmaneuvered by Paul supporters at the state nominating convention, resorted to the highly unusual measure of prematurely and abruptly shutting down the convention before selecting national delegates, with a plan to reconvene at a later date.[87][88] On June 12, 2008, Paul finally withdrew his bid for the Republican nomination. He later said that one of the reasons he did not run in the general election as a third-party candidate, after losing the primaries, was that, as a concession to gain ballot access in certain states, he had signed legally binding agreements to not run a third-party campaign if he lost the primary.[89] Some of the $4 million remaining campaign contributions was invested into the new political action and advocacy group called Ron Paul's Campaign for Liberty.[90] Refusal to endorse the Republican nominee[edit] At a September 10, 2008, press conference, Paul announced his general support of four third-party candidates: Cynthia McKinney
Cynthia McKinney
(Green Party); Bob Barr
Bob Barr
(Libertarian Party); Chuck Baldwin
Chuck Baldwin
(Constitution Party); and Ralph Nader
Ralph Nader
(independent). He said that each of them had pledged to adhere to a policy of balancing budgets, bringing the troops home, defending privacy and personal liberties, and investigating the Federal Reserve. Paul also said that under no circumstances would he be endorsing either of the two main parties' candidates (McCain – Republican Party, or Obama – Democratic Party) because there were no real differences between them, and because neither of them, if elected, would seek to make the fundamental changes in governance that were necessary. He urged instead that, rather than contribute to the “charade” that the two-party election system had become, the voters support the third-party candidates as a protest vote, to force change in the election process.[91][92] Later that same day, Paul gave a televised interview with Nader saying much the same again.[93] Two weeks later, "shocked and disappointed" that Bob Barr
Bob Barr
(the Libertarian nominee) had pulled out of attending the press conference at the last minute and had admonished Paul for remaining neutral and failing to say which specific candidate Paul would vote for in the general election, Paul released a statement saying that he had decided to endorse Chuck Baldwin, the Constitution Party candidate, for president.[94] Paul withdrew from active campaigning in the last weeks of the primary election period. He received 42,426 votes, or 0.03% of the total cast, in the general election.[95] 2012 presidential campaign[edit] Main article: Ron Paul
Ron Paul
presidential campaign, 2012 See also: Draft Ron Paul movement
Draft Ron Paul movement
and Republican Party presidential primaries, 2012 2012 Republican primary campaign[edit] Paul won several early straw polls for the 2012 Republican presidential nomination[96] and in late April 2011, he formed an official exploratory committee.[97][98] He participated in the first Republican presidential debate on May 5, 2011[99] and on May 13, 2011, Paul formally announced his candidacy in an interview on ABC's Good Morning America.[100] He placed second in the 2011 Ames Straw Poll, missing first by 0.9%.[101] In December 2011, with Paul's increased support, the controversy over racist and homophobic statements in several Ron Paul newsletters in the 1980s and early 1990s once again gained media attention.[102] During this time Paul supporters asserted that he was continually ignored by the media despite his significant support, citing examples of where television news shows would fail to mention Paul in discussions of the Republican presidential hopefuls even when he was polling second.[103][104][105] Iowa Campaign[edit] Ron Paul’s presidential campaign managers Jesse Benton, John Tate and Demetri Kesari paid former Iowa State Senator Kent Sorenson $73,000 to switch his support from Rep. Michele Bachmann
Michele Bachmann
to Paul. In court papers filed in August 2014, Sorenson said that he had been paid by both presidential campaigns for his endorsement and plead guilty to criminal charges stemming from the incident.[106] Paul came in third in the Iowa Republican Caucus held on January 3, 2012. Out of a turnout of 121,503 votes, Paul took 26,036 (21%) of the certified votes. Rick Santorum
Rick Santorum
and Mitt Romney
Mitt Romney
finished in a virtual tie for first place with 25% each,[107] although Ron Paul
Ron Paul
had ultimately won Iowa at the Republican National Convention gathering 22 delegates to Mitt Romney's 5. In the New Hampshire Primary held on January 10, 2012, Paul received 23% of the votes and came in second after Romney's 39%.[108] South Carolina, Florida, Nevada[edit] Paul's results then declined, despite the withdrawal of candidates Michele Bachmann, Jon Huntsman and Rick Perry. He had fourth-place finishes in the next two primaries, on January 21 in South Carolina (with 13% of the vote[109]) and on January 31 in Florida (where he received 7% of the vote[110][111][112]).

Paul speaking at a rally at Lindenwood University
Lindenwood University
in St. Charles, Missouri

On February 4, Paul finished third in Nevada with 18.8% of the vote.[113] Three non-binding primaries were held on February 7; Paul took 3rd place in Colorado[114] and Missouri[115] with 13% and 12% of the vote respectively. He fared better in Minnesota[116] with 27%, finishing second to Rick Santorum. On May 14, Paul's campaign announced that due to lack of funds (though despite financial backing from financiers Peter Thiel
Peter Thiel
and Mark Spitznagel[117]) he would no longer actively campaign for votes in the 11 remaining primary states, including Texas
Texas
and California, that had not yet voted.[9][118] He would, however, continue to seek to win delegates for the national party convention in the states that had already voted. Irregularities[edit] In June, a group of 132 supporters of Paul, demanding the freedom as delegates to the upcoming Republican party national convention to cast votes for Paul, filed a lawsuit in U.S. District Court against the Republican National Committee
Republican National Committee
and 55 state and territorial Republican party organizations for allegedly coercing delegates to choose Mitt Romney as the party’s presidential nominee.[119] The suit alleged that there had been “a systematic campaign of election fraud at state conventions,” employing rigging of voting machines, ballot stuffing, and falsification of ballot totals. The suit further pointed to incidents at state conventions, including acts of violence and changes in procedural rules, allegedly intended to deny participation of Paul supporters in the party decision-making and to prevent votes from being cast for Paul. An attorney representing the complainants said that Paul campaign advisor Doug Wead
Doug Wead
had voiced support for the legal action.[119] Paul himself told CNN
CNN
that although the lawsuit was not a part of his campaign’s strategy and that he had not been advising his supporters to sue, he was not going to tell his supporters not to sue, if they had a legitimate argument. “If they’re not following the rules, you have a right to stand up for the rules. I think for the most part these winning caucuses that we've been involved in we have followed the rules. And the other side has at times not followed the rules.”[120] Republican National convention[edit] Paul declined to speak at the Republican National Convention as a matter of principle, saying that the convention planners had demanded that his remarks be vetted by the Romney campaign and that he make an unqualified endorsement of Romney.[121] Paul had felt that "It wouldn’t be my speech... That would undo everything I’ve done in the last 30 years. I don’t fully endorse him for president.”[121] Many of Paul's supporters and delegates walked out of the convention in protest over rules adopted by the convention that reduced their delegate count and that would make it harder for non-establishment candidates to win the party's nomination in future elections.[122] Supporters and media commentators had noted that the delegations from states where Paul had had the most support were given the worst seats in the convention hall, while delegations from regions with no electoral votes, such as the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and Puerto Rico, were given prime seats at the front.[123][124] Refusal to endorse the Republican nominee[edit] As in 2008, in 2012 Paul ultimately refused to endorse the ticket selected by the Republican Party. He said that there was no essential difference between Romney and his Democratic opponent, President Obama, on the most critical policies: "I've been in this business a long time and believe me there is essentially no difference from one administration to another no matter what the platforms... The foreign policy stays the same, the monetary policy stays the same, there’s no proposal for any real cuts and both parties support it."[125] Paul received 26,204 write-in votes, or 0.02% of the total cast in the election.[126] Political party identification[edit] Throughout his entire tenure in Congress, Paul has represented his district as a member of the Republican Party. However, he has frequently taken positions in direct opposition to the other members and the leadership of the party, and he has sometimes publicly questioned whether he really belonged in the party. Paul voted for Dwight Eisenhower
Dwight Eisenhower
for president in 1956 when he was 21 years old.[127] He had been a lifelong supporter of the Republican Party by the time he entered politics in the mid-1970s.[127] He was one of the first elected officials in the nation to support Ronald Reagan's presidential campaign,[128] and he actively campaigned for Reagan in 1976 and 1980.[129] After Reagan's election in 1980, Paul quickly became disillusioned with the Reagan administration's policies. He later recalled being the only Republican to vote against Reagan budget proposals in 1981,[130][131] aghast that "in 1977, Jimmy Carter proposed a budget with a $38 billion deficit, and every Republican in the House voted against it. In 1981, Reagan proposed a budget with a $45 billion deficit – which turned out to be $113 billion – and Republicans were cheering his great victory. They were living in a storybook land."[128] He expressed his disgust with the political culture of both major parties in a speech delivered in 1984 upon resigning from the House of Representatives to prepare for a (failed) run for the Senate, and he eventually apologized to his libertarian friends for having supported Reagan.[130]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has original text related to this article: Ron Paul's 1987 Resignation Letter to the RNC

By 1987, Paul was ready to sever all ties to the Republican Party, as he explained in a blistering resignation letter: "Since [1981] Ronald Reagan and the Republican Party have given us skyrocketing deficits, and astoundingly a doubled national debt. How is it that the party of balanced budgets, with control of the White House and Senate, accumulated red ink greater than all previous administrations put together? … There is no credibility left for the Republican Party as a force to reduce the size of government. That is the message of the Reagan years."[127][129] A month later he announced he would seek the 1988 Libertarian Party nomination for president. During the 1988 campaign, Paul called Reagan "a dramatic failure"[129] and complained that "Reagan's record is disgraceful. He starts wars, breaks the law, supplies terrorists with guns made at taxpayers' expense and lies about it to the American people."[132] Paul predicted that "the Republicans are on their way out as a major party,"[130] and he said that, although registered as a Republican, he had always been a libertarian at heart.[130][131] Paul returned to his private medical practice and managing several business ventures after losing the 1988 election; but by 1996, he was ready to return to politics, this time running on the Republican Party ticket again. He said that he had never read the entire Libertarian platform when he ran for president as a Libertarian in 1988, and that "I worked for the Libertarians on my terms, not theirs."[133] He added that in terms of a political label he preferred to call himself "a constitutionalist. In Congress I took an oath to uphold the Constitution, not the (Republican) platform."[133] When he lost the Republican Party presidential primary election in 2008, Paul criticized the two major political parties, saying that there was no real difference between the parties and that neither of them truly intended to challenge the status quo. He refused to endorse the Republican Party's nominee for president, John McCain, and lent his support to third-party candidates instead.[134][135] In the 2012 presidential campaign, during which he acknowledged it was unlikely that he would win the Republican Party nomination,[136] Paul again asserted that he was participating in the Republican Party on his own terms, trying to persuade the rest of the party to move toward his positions rather than joining in with theirs.[137] He expressed doubt that he would support any of his rivals should they win the nomination, warning that, “If the policies of the Republican Party are the same as the Democrat Party and they don't want to change anything on foreign policy, they don't want to cut anything, they don't want to audit the Fed and find out about monetary policy, they don't want to have actual change in government, that is a problem for me."[138] On that same theme he said in another interview, "I would be reluctant to jump on board and tell all of the supporters that have given me trust and money that all of a sudden, I'd say, [all] we've done is for naught. So, let's support anybody at all … even if they disagree with everything that we do."[139] Political positions[edit] Main article: Political positions of Ron Paul

Paul at the 2007 National Right to Life Committee
National Right to Life Committee
Convention in Kansas City, Missouri, June 15, 2007

Paul has been described as conservative and libertarian.[13] According to University of Georgia
University of Georgia
political scientist Keith Poole, Paul had the most conservative voting record of any member of Congress from 1937 to 2002,[140][141] and is the most conservative of the candidates that had sought the 2012 Republican nomination for president,[142] on a scale primarily measuring positions on the role of government in managing the economy – not positions on social issues or foreign policy matters.[143] Other analyses, in which key votes on domestic social issues and foreign policy factor more heavily, have judged Paul much more moderate. The National Journal, for instance, rated Paul only the 145th most conservative member of the House of Representatives (out of 435) based on votes cast in 2010.[144][145] The foundation of Paul's political philosophy is the conviction that "the proper role for government in America is to provide national defense, a court system for civil disputes, a criminal justice system for acts of force and fraud, and little else."[146] He has been nicknamed "Dr. No,"[20] reflecting both his medical degree and his insistence that he will "never vote for legislation unless the proposed measure is expressly authorized by the Constitution."[30] Defense[edit] Paul's foreign policy of nonintervention[147] made him the only 2008 Republican presidential candidate to have voted against the Iraq War Resolution in 2002. He advocates withdrawal from the United Nations, and from the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, for reasons of maintaining strong national sovereignty.[148] He voted for the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Terrorists in response to the September 11 attacks, but suggested war alternatives such as authorizing the president to grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal targeting specific terrorists. An opponent of the Iraq War
Iraq War
and potential war with Iran, he has also criticized neoconservatism and U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East, arguing that both inadvertently cause terrorist reprisals against Americans, such as the 9/11 attacks. Paul has stated that "Israel is our close friend" and that it is not the place of the United States to "dictate how Israel runs her affairs".[149] Domestic[edit] Paul endorses constitutional rights, such as the right to keep and bear arms, and habeas corpus for political detainees. He opposes the Patriot Act, federal use of torture, presidential autonomy, a national identification card, warrantless domestic surveillance, and the draft. Paul also believes that the notion of the separation of church and state is currently misused by the court system: "In case after case, the Supreme Court has used the infamous 'separation of church and state' metaphor to uphold court decisions that allow the federal government to intrude upon and deprive citizens of their religious liberty."[150] Sometime within the same month but much after the event of authorities executing a lock-down in sequence to the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, Paul commented on the tactics used by governing forces into a harsh criticism that he has written as a "military-style occupation of an American city".[11] Economic[edit] Paul is a proponent of Austrian School
Austrian School
economics; he has authored six books on the subject, and displays pictures of Austrian School economists Friedrich Hayek, Murray Rothbard, and Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
(as well as of President Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
and Chicago School economist Milton Friedman)[151] on his office wall. He regularly votes against almost all proposals for new government spending, initiatives, or taxes;[152] he cast two thirds of all the lone negative votes in the House during a 1995–1997 period.[20] He has pledged never to raise taxes[153] and states he has never voted to approve a budget deficit. Paul believes that the country could abolish the individual income tax by scaling back federal spending to its fiscal year 2000 levels;[154][155] financing government operations would be primarily by excise taxes and non-protectionist tariffs. He endorses eliminating most federal government agencies, terming them unnecessary bureaucracies. On April 15, 2011, Paul was one of four Republican members of Congress to vote against Rep. Paul Ryan's budget proposal, known as "The Path to Prosperity."[156] Paul has consistently warned of hyperinflation as far back as 1981.[157] While Paul believes the longterm decrease of the U.S. dollar's purchasing power by inflation is attributable to its lack of any commodity backing, he does not endorse a "return" to a gold standard – as the U.S. government has established during the past – but instead prefers to eliminate legal tender laws and to remove the sales tax on gold and silver, so that the market may freely decide what type of monetary standard(s) there shall be.[158] Since 1999, he has introduced bills into each Congress seeking to eliminate the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
System in a single year.[159][160][161] He endorses free trade, rejecting membership in the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) and the World Trade Organization
World Trade Organization
as "managed trade". Environmental[edit] As a free-market environmentalist, he asserts private property rights in relation to environmental protection and pollution prevention.[162] He called global warming a hoax in a 2009 Fox Business
Fox Business
interview, saying, "You know, the greatest hoax I think that has been around in many, many years if not hundreds of years has been this hoax on the environment and global warming."[163] He acknowledges there is clear evidence of rising temperatures in some parts of the globe, but says that temperatures are cooling in other parts.[164] Healthcare[edit] Paul has stated that "The government shouldn't be in the medical business." He pushes to eliminate federal involvement with and management of health care, which he argues would allow prices to decrease due to the fundamental dynamics of a free market.[165] He also opposes federal government influenza inoculation programs.[166] Immigration[edit] Paul endorses increased border security and opposes welfare for illegal immigrants, birthright citizenship and amnesty;[167] he voted for the Secure Fence Act of 2006. Ballots and voting[edit] He is an outspoken proponent of increased ballot access for third-party candidates.[168] He has sought to repeal the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, also known as the Motor Voter law.[169] Secession[edit] Paul has stated that secession from the United States "is a deeply American principle" and that "If the possibility of secession is completely off the table there is nothing to stop the federal government from continuing to encroach on our liberties and no recourse for those who are sick and tired of it."[170] Paul wrote the remarks in a post on his Congressional website in one of his final public statements as a member of Congress, noting that many petitions had been submitted to the White House calling for secession in the wake of the November 2012 election.[171] Social issues[edit] He terms himself "strongly pro-life",[172] "an unshakable foe of abortion",[173] and believes regulation or ban[174] on medical decisions about maternal or fetal health is "best handled at the state level".[175][176] His abortion-related legislation, such as the Sanctity of Life Act, is intended to negate Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade
and to get "the federal government completely out of the business of regulating state matters."[177] Paul says his years as an obstetrician led him to believe life begins at conception.[178] Paul opposes the federal War on Drugs,[179] and believes the states should decide whether to regulate or deregulate drugs such as medical marijuana.[180] Citing the Ninth and Tenth Amendments, Paul advocates states' rights to decide how to regulate social matters not cited directly by the Constitution. He opposes federal regulation of the death penalty[175] (although he opposes capital punishment),[181] of education,[182] and of marriage, and endorsed revising the military's "don't ask, don't tell" policy to concern mainly disruptive sexual behavior (whether heterosexual or homosexual).[183] Paul was critical of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, arguing that it sanctioned federal interference in the labor market and did not improve race relations. He once remarked: "The Civil Rights Act of 1964 not only violated the Constitution and reduced individual liberty; it also failed to achieve its stated goals of promoting racial harmony and a color-blind society".[184] Paul opposes affirmative action.[185] Newsletters controversy[edit] Main article: Ron Paul
Ron Paul
newsletters Beginning in 1978, for more than two decades Paul and his associates published a number of political and investment-oriented newsletters bearing his name (Dr. Ron Paul's Freedom Report, The Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Survival Report, the Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Investment Letter, and the Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Political Report).[186] By 1993, a business through which Paul was publishing the newsletters was earning in excess of $900,000 per year.[186] A number of the newsletters, particularly in the period between 1988 and 1994 when Paul was no longer in Congress, contained material that later proved controversial. Topics included conspiracy theories, anti-government militia movements, and race wars.[186][187] During Paul's 1996 congressional election campaign, and his 2008 and 2012 presidential primary campaigns, critics charged that some of the passages reflected racist, anti-Semitic, and homophobic bigotry.[20][188][189][190] In a 1996 interview, Paul did not deny writing the newsletters and defended some of their contents, but specified that he opposes racism.[191][192][193] In March 2001, Paul said he did not write the commentaries, but stopped short of denying authorship in 1996 because his campaign advisers had thought it would be too confusing and that he had to live with the material published under his name.[194][195] In 2011, Paul's spokesperson Jesse Benton said Paul had "taken moral responsibility because they appeared under his name and slipped through under his watch."[196] Post-congressional career[edit] In April 2013, Paul founded the Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Institute for Peace and Prosperity, a foreign policy think tank that seeks to promote his non-interventionist views.[197] The institute is part of his larger foundation Foundation for Rational Economics and Education. In the same month, he began to offer the Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Curriculum, a homeschool online curriculum developed by Gary North and taught from a "free market and Christian" perspective; it is free from grades kindergarten–5 and available to paid members from 6–12.[198] In June 2013, Paul criticized the NSA surveillance program and praised Edward Snowden
Edward Snowden
for having performed a "great service to the American people by exposing the truth about what our government is doing in secret".[199] On March 28, 2017, Paul predicted the markets would lower during the year and said President Trump had taken a risk with crediting himself for the postelection market surge, reasoning Washington was still predominantly unchanged.[200] Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Channel[edit] In 2013, Paul established the " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Channel", an Internet broadcast. Its slogan is "Turn Off Your TV. Turn On the Truth."[201] Speaking about the channel, Paul said, "I was at a debate one time a couple years ago, where I didn't think I got a fair shake. In a two-hour debate, I had 89 seconds. I thought, maybe there's something wrong with the media. Maybe they're not covering us fairly. I'm just using it as a pun, but there’s a bit of truth to this. We don't get a fair shake. The people who believe in liberty and limited government don't expect it from the ordinary media." Speaking about his youth appeal, he noted, "They don’t sit and watch TV and turn the programs on at seven o'clock to watch us like that – so I thought the technology was there. The country is ripe for the continuation of this revolution."[202] In May 2015, Ron Paul
Ron Paul
ended all relationships with the Voices of Liberty
Liberty
and the Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Channel to start a new internet broadcast called the Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Liberty
Liberty
Report. According to Paul himself, it will not cost a thing, unlike the previous Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Channel. In the announcement of the ended relationship, Paul said, "But the message I have always tried to deliver over the years has always been the same, and that is spreading the message of liberty. Right now I am very much engaged in doing that through the internet. But, I believe we can do better. Right now, the program has changed to the Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Liberty Report, and that is what we do, we report on liberty in context of what is going on in daily activity and what is going on in the news." Paul went on to say that it will be more locally controlled, unlike the previous Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Channel. Paul continued to say it will be produced out of Texas, instead of California.[203] Spokesman for Stansberry Research[edit] In April 2015, Paul began appearing in infomercials warning about an upcoming financial meltdown as a result of the imminent crash of the world’s currencies.[204][205] He urges listeners to read America 2020: The Survival Blueprint, a book written by Porter Stansberry.[206][not in citation given] 2016 presidential election[edit] Paul endorsed his son, Senator Rand Paul, in the Republican primary and campaigned for him in Iowa.[207] After his son dropped out, Paul had said that Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders
may be the most pro-liberty candidate, because of his opposition to cronyism with Wall Street and wars.[208] Paul was disappointed in the Libertarian Party for nominating Gary Johnson for President of the United States
President of the United States
and told independent voters that Jill Stein
Jill Stein
was a better candidate for those who "lean towards progressivism and liberalism".[209] Paul received one electoral vote from a Texas
Texas
faithless elector, South Texas
Texas
College political science professor William Greene (who had been pledged to Donald Trump),[210] in the 2016 presidential election,[211][212] making Paul the oldest person ever to receive an electoral vote. Personal life[edit]

Paul at a rally in Erlanger, Kentucky, on October 2, 2010, along with his son, Senator Rand Paul
Rand Paul
of Kentucky, and his grandson, William Paul (pictured from right to left)

Paul has been married to Carol (Carolyn) Wells since 1957.[213] They met in 1952 when Wells asked Paul to be her escort to her 16th birthday party.[214][215] They have five children, who were baptized Episcopalian:[13] Ronald, Lori, Randal, Robert, and Joy. Paul's son Randal is the junior United States senator from the state of Kentucky. Raised a Lutheran, Paul later became a Baptist.[216] Since 1995, Carol Paul has published the Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Family Cookbook, a collection of recipes she and her friends contributed, and which was sold in part to support Ron Paul's political campaigns.[217] His life and career is the subject of the 2012 film Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Uprising.[218] Paul and his wife currently reside in Lake Jackson, Texas.[219] Publications relating to Ron Paul[edit] Books[edit]

Ron Paul's rEVOLution: The Man and the Movement He Inspired, by Brian Doherty, 2012[220]

Films[edit]

I.O.U.S.A.
I.O.U.S.A.
features Paul among the cast. Brüno, a 2009 film by Sacha Baron Cohen
Sacha Baron Cohen
in which Paul has a cameo appearance Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Uprising, a 2012 film by Wiliam Lewis[221] Atlas Shrugged
Atlas Shrugged
Part III: Who Is John Galt?, a 2014 adaptation of Atlas Shrugged in which Paul has a cameo appearance.

Bibliography[edit] Main article: Ron Paul
Ron Paul
bibliography

Paul, Ron (1981). Gold, Peace, and Prosperity: The Birth of a New Currency (PDF). Lake Jackson, Texas: Foundation for Rational Economics and Education. OCLC 7877384. Retrieved July 30, 2007.  Paul, Ron; Lehrman, Lewis; U.S. Gold
Gold
Commission (September 1982). The Case for Gold: A Minority Report of the U.S. Gold
Gold
Commission (PDF). Washington, DC: Cato Institute
Cato Institute
(2d ed. Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
Institute, 2007). ISBN 0-932790-31-3. OCLC 8763972. Retrieved July 30, 2007.  Paul, Ron (1983). Abortion and Liberty. Lake Jackson, Texas: Foundation for Rational Economics and Education. ISBN 0-912453-02-8. OCLC 9682249.  Paul, Ron (1983). Ten Myths About Paper Money: And One Myth About Paper Gold. Lake Jackson, Texas: Foundation for Rational Economics and Education. OCLC 11765863.  Paul, Ron (1984). Mises and Austrian Economics: A Personal View (PDF). Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
Institute (2d ed. 2004). OCLC 19968524. Retrieved July 30, 2007.  Paul, Ron (1987). Freedom Under Siege: The U.S. Constitution After 200 Years. Lake Jackson, Texas: Foundation for Rational Economics and Education (2d ed. Ludwig von Mises
Ludwig von Mises
Institute, 2007). OCLC 19697005.  Paul, Ron (1990). Challenge to Liberty: Coming to Grips with the Abortion Issue. Lake Jackson, Texas: Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Enterprises. OCLC 46960450.  Paul, Ron (1991). The Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Money Book. Plantation Publishing. ISBN 0-521-44733-X.  Paul, Ron (2000). A Republic, If You Can Keep It. Lake Jackson, Texas: Foundation for Rational Economics and Education. OCLC 45414993. Archived from the original on September 4, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2011.  Paul, Ron (2002). The Case for Defending America. Lake Jackson, Texas: Foundation for Rational Economics and Education. OCLC 49744552.  Paul, Ron (2002). The Ron Paul – Liberty
Liberty
In Media Awards–2001. Jersey City, NJ: Palisade Business Press. ISBN 1-893958-84-1.  Paul, Ron (2003). The Ron Paul – Liberty
Liberty
In Media Awards – Vol. 2–2002. Jersey City, NJ: Palisade Business Press.  Paul, Ron (2004). The Ron Paul – Liberty
Liberty
In Media Awards – Vol. 3–2003. Jersey City, NJ: Palisade Business Press. ISBN 1-893958-24-8.  Upton, Fred; Paul, Ron (2005). Indecency in the Media: Rating and Restricting Entertainment Content: Should the House Pass H.R. 3717, the Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act?. Washington, DC: Congressional Digest Corp. OCLC 81150568.  Rangel, Charles B.; Paul, Ron (2006). Compulsory National Service: 2006–2007 Policy Debate Topic: Should the All-Volunteer Force be Replaced by Universal, Mandatory National Service?. Bethesda, Maryland: Congressional Digest Corp. OCLC 84912971.  Paul, Ron (2007). A Foreign Policy of Freedom: Peace, Commerce, and Honest Friendship. Lake Jackson, Texas: Foundation for Rational Economics and Education. ISBN 0-912453-00-1. OCLC 145174995.  Paul, Ron (2008). Pillars of Prosperity. Auburn, Alabama: Ludwig von Mises Institute. ISBN 1-933550-24-4.  Paul, Ron; Haddad, Philip; Marsh, Roger (April 2008). Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Speaks. Guilford, Connecticut: Lyons Press. ISBN 1-59921-448-2. OCLC 199459258.  Paul, Ron (2008). The Revolution: A Manifesto. New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 0-446-53751-9. OCLC 191881970.  Paul, Ron (2009). End the Fed. New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-0-446-54919-6. OCLC 318878539.  Paul, Ron (2011). Liberty
Liberty
Defined: 50 Essential Issues That Affect Our Freedom. New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4555-0145-8.  Paul, Ron (2013). The School Revolution: A New Answer for Our Broken Education System. New York, NY: Grand Central Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4555-7717-0. OCLC 828057047. 

Other contributions[edit]

Belloc, Hilaire; Chesterton, Cecil (2007) [1911]. The Party System. Paul, Ron (foreword). Norfolk, Virginia: IHS Press. ISBN 1-932528-11-3. OCLC 173299105.  Fortman, Erik; Lavello, Randy (2004). Webs of Power. Paul, Ron (interview). Austin, Texas: Van Cleave Publishing. ISBN 0-9759670-0-2. OCLC 61026033.  Haugen, David M.; Musser, Susan, eds. (2007). Human Embryo Experimentation. Paul, Ron (Chapter 9: No form of stem cell research should be federally funded). Detroit, Michigan: Greenhaven Press. ISBN 0-7377-3243-1. OCLC 84152907. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Haugen, David M., ed. (2007). National Security. Paul, Ron (Chapter 1–7: The federal debt is a threat to national security). Detroit, Michigan: Greenhaven Press. ISBN 0-7377-3761-1. OCLC 144227284. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Jaeger, James; Baehr, Theodore; Griffin, G. Edward; Paul, Ron; Vieira, Edwin (2007). Fiat Empire: Why the Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Violates the U.S. Constitution (DVD). Beverly Hills, California: Cornerstone-Matrixx Entertainment. OCLC 192133806.  Minns, Michael Louis (2001). How to Survive the IRS. Paul, Ron (foreword). Fort Lee, NJ: Barricade Books. ISBN 1-56980-170-3. OCLC 44860846.  Paul, Ron; Hayashi, Terry; Pardo, Victoriano & Fisher, Edwin (August 1, 1969). "Evaluation of Renal Biopsy in Pregnancy Toxemia". Obstetrics and Gynecology. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. 34 (2): 235–241. PMID 5798269.  Paul, Ron (1999). "Being Pro-Life is Necessary to Defend Liberty". International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy. MCB University Press, Ltd. 19 (3–4): 11. doi:10.1108/01443339910788712. ISSN 0144-333X. OCLC 89482648.  Paul, Ron; Bartlett, Roscoe et al. (2001). The United Nations
United Nations
& the New World Order (Videotape). Brunswick, OH: American Portrait Films, Inc. ISBN 1-57341-132-9. OCLC 56793278.  Pearl, Sandy; Beutel, Bill; Alis, Bob; Weingold, Dave; Paul, Ron; Bartsch, Ed (1980). Born Again (Videotape). Athens, GA: University of Georgia Instructional Resources Center. OCLC 7407395.  Skousen, Mark; Weber, Chris; Ketcher, Michael, eds. (1987). The Closing Door. Paul, Ron (introduction). Bethel, Connecticut: Institute for the Preservation of Wealth (worldcat.org/oclc/35396237 2d ed. 1988). ISBN 0-938689-03-7. OCLC 17209571. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Vieira, Jr., Edwin (1983). Pieces of Eight. Paul, Ron (foreword). Fort Lee, NJ: Sound Dollar Committee. ISBN 978-0-8159-6226-7. OCLC 9919612.  von NotHaus, Bernard, ed. (September 1, 2003). The Liberty
Liberty
Dollar Solution to the Federal Reserve. Paul, Ron (Chapter 21: Abolish the Fed). Evansville, Indiana: American Financial Press. ISBN 0-9671025-2-9. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)

See also[edit]

Conservatism
Conservatism
portal Libertarianism
Libertarianism
portal Houston portal

List of federal political scandals in the United States

References[edit]

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Ron Paul
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Texas
Straight Talk. Archived from the original on March 27, 2012. Retrieved January 28, 2012.  ^ Paul, Ron (May 22, 2007). "Patriotism". Congressional Record. U.S. House of Representatives. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ Paul, Ron (January 6, 2009). "Opportunities for Peace and Nonintervention". LewRockwell.com. ^ " Ron Paul
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Responds to President Obama's Middle East Speech".  ^ Paul, Ron (June 13, 2002). "Restoring First Amendment Protections of Religion and Religious Speech to the U.S. House of Representatives". Archived from the original on December 5, 2010. Retrieved December 8, 2010.  ^ Will, George F (February 18, 2007). "A Cheerful Anachronism". Newsweek. Retrieved March 17, 2008.  ^ Copeland, Libby (July 9, 2006). "Congressman Paul's Legislative Strategy? He'd Rather Say Not". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ Kartch, John (April 24, 2007). "Rep. Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Signs Presidential Taxpayer Protection Pledge". Americans for Tax Freedom. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ Paul, Ron (January 30, 2003). "End the Income Tax – Pass the Liberty
Liberty
Amendment". Congressional Record. U.S. House of Representatives. Archived from the original on March 1, 2008. Retrieved March 8, 2008.  ^ "Paul Want Less Government, Less Taxes, and Abolish IRS". Antiwar President. September 13, 2007. Archived from the original on July 5, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ "Final vote results for roll call 277". Clerk of the House of Representatives. April 15, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.  ^ Five Myths About the Gold
Gold
Standard, Congressman Ron Paul, Congressional Record. 97th Congress, First Session. Volume 127, Part II. February 23, 1981. No. 28: "I believe such a standard to be not only desirable and feasible, but absolutely necessary if we aim to avoid the very real possibility of hyperinflation in the near future, and economic collapse. But in Washington today we have five myths about the gold standard." ^ " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
in New Hampshire". June 5, 2007. Archived from the original (YouTube) on July 23, 2015.  ^ "H.R. 1148: Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Board Abolition Act". 106th Congress, 1999-03-17. Retrieved January 23, 2012.  ^ "H.R. 1094: Federal Reserve
Federal Reserve
Board Abolition Act". 112th Congress, 2011-03-15. Retrieved January 23, 2012.  ^ Paul, Ron (September 11, 2007). "Question and Answer session following Keynote speech at the Johns Hopkins Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies forum "Foreign Policy: A View from a Presidential Candidate"". Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Audio. Archived from the original on March 24, 2009. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ " Texas
Texas
Straight Talk
Talk
(01/06/2012)." Archived February 28, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. Accessed February 5, 2013. ^ Anchor: David Asman (2009-11-04). America's Nightly Scoreboard. 7 minutes in. Fox Business
Fox Business
Network.  ^ "On the Issues: Global Warming". :. Retrieved March 10, 2013.  ^ Paul, Ron (May 5, 2004). " Free market
Free market
Medicine". LewRockwell.com. Retrieved November 14, 2008.  ^ Malcolm, Arthur (April 30, 2009) " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
pooh-poohs swine flu; yet another grab for more Fed control!" Archived April 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine., L.A. Times blogsite. Retrieved October 7, 2009. ^ Paul, Ron. "Issue: Border Security and Immigration Reform". Ron Paul 2008. Archived from the original on June 4, 2010. Retrieved June 20, 2010.  ^ Paul, Ron (July 15, 2004). "End the Two-Party Monopoly!". Congressional Record. House of Representatives. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ "H.R. 2139: To Repeal the National Voter Registration Act of 1993". 108th Congress, 2003-05-15. Retrieved January 23, 2012.  ^ Paul, Ron (November 19, 2012). "Ron Paul: ' Secession
Secession
is a deeply American principle'". Politico.  ^ Paul, Ron (November 19, 2012). "Secession: Are we free to go?". Texas
Texas
Straight Talk. Archived from the original on December 12, 2012.  ^ Paul, Ron (October 27, 1999). "Providing for Consideration of H.R. 2260, Pain Relief Promotion Act of 1999". Congressional Record. U.S. House of Representatives. Archived from the original on September 8, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2007.  ^ Paul, Ron (2007). "Life and Liberty". Ron Paul
Ron Paul
2008. Archived from the original on October 24, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ Paul, Ron (January 31, 2006). "Federalizing Social Policy". Congressional Record. U.S. House of Representatives. Archived from the original on December 29, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2008.  ^ a b Lofton, John (August 2007). "Excerpts From Our Exclusive Ron Paul Interview". American View. Archived from the original on October 8, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ "Paul says merger plans must be derailed: 'You cannot amend the Constitution with a treaty'". Election 2008 Q&A. WorldNetDaily. July 10, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ Eddlem, Thomas R. (May 2, 2005). "Who had the right to rule?". The New American. American Opinion Publishing, Inc. Retrieved October 5, 2007.  ^ Murtagh, Joseph (June 28, 2007). "An Interview with Presidential Candidate Congressman Ron Paul". Muckraker Report. Team Liberty. Archived from the original on October 18, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2007.  ^ Paul, Ron (April 17, 2004). "The War on Drugs
War on Drugs
is a War on Doctors". Congressional Record. U.S. House of Representatives. Archived from the original on August 2, 2008. Retrieved November 14, 2008.  ^ "H.R. 2592". Library of Congress. July 23, 2001. Retrieved November 14, 2008.  ^ Rockwell, Lew (December 13, 2010) "Ron Paul, Defender of Human Dignity"[dead link], LewRockwell.com ^ " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
on Education: Republican Representative (TX-14)". On the Issues. September 1, 2007. Retrieved October 23, 2007.  ^ Paul, Ron (June 5, 2007). "Transcript of June 5 "CNN/WMUR/New Hampshire Union Leader" Republican presidential debate". CNN. Retrieved November 14, 2008.  ^ Paul, Ron. "The Trouble With the '64 Civil Rights Act". LewRockwell.com. Ron Paul. Retrieved November 14, 2015.  ^ " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
on the Issues". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on February 20, 2009. Retrieved December 22, 2011.  ^ a b c Kirchick, James (January 8, 2008). "Angry White Man: The Bigoted Past of Ron Paul". The New Republic. Retrieved February 17, 2012.  ^ Kirchick, James (January 17, 2012). "More Selections from Ron Paul's Newsletters". The New Republic. Retrieved February 17, 2012.  ^ Bernstein, Alan (May 23, 1996). "Newsletter Excerpts Offer Ammunition to Paul's Opponent/GOP Hopeful Quoted on Race, Crime". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved February 17, 2012.  ^ Camia, Catalina (May 22, 1996). "Candidate's Comments on Blacks Questioned". Dallas Morning News: 8A.  ^ "Old Issue Causing New Problem for Ron Paul". Houston Chronicle. December 27, 2011. Retrieved February 17, 2012.  ^ Legum, Judd (December 27, 2011). "Fact Check: Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Personally Defended Racist Newsletters". ThinkProgress.org. Retrieved May 13, 2015.  ^ "Ron Paul, In 1996, 'Did Not Deny' Controversial Statement In Newsletter". Huffington Post. December 26, 2011. Retrieved May 13, 2015.  ^ Newsletter excerpts offer ammunition to Paul's opponent, archived from the original on May 12, 2007  ^ Gwynne, S. C. (October 2001). "Dr. No". Texas
Texas
Monthly.  ^ Smith, Sonia (December 21, 2011). "Ron Paul's old newsletters come into focus". Texas
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Monthly.  ^ Kucinich, Jackie (December 12, 2011). "Paul's story changes on racial comments". USA Today. Retrieved January 11, 2012.  ^ Wyler, Grace (April 12, 2013). " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Is Launching His Own Foreign Policy Institute". BusinessInsider.com. Retrieved May 12, 2013.  ^ " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
launches libertarian-edged home school curriculum". Fox News. April 8, 2013.  ^ Weiner, Rachel (June 10, 2013). " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
praises Edward Snowden". The Washington Post.  ^ Pei, Anna (March 29, 2017). "Ron Paul: The 'euphoria' in the markets has passed". CNBC.  ^ Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Channel (registration required) ^ Wing, Nick (July 9, 2013). "'The Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Channel' Launching This Summer, Wants You To 'Turn Off Your TV,' 'Turn On The Truth'". The Huffington Post.  ^ " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Ends Relationship with Voices of Liberty
Liberty
– Campaign for Liberty". Campaign for Liberty. Retrieved April 3, 2016.  ^ Moody, Chris (June 11, 2015). "Ron Paul's apocalypse is now". CNN. Retrieved September 22, 2015.  ^ Hook, Janet (May 21, 2015). " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Ads Warn of Financial Crisis". WSJ. Retrieved September 22, 2015.  ^ Bishop, Tricia (August 10, 2007). "$1.5 million payback ordered in SEC suit". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved September 22, 2015.  ^ Gillespie, Nick (August 14, 2015). "Updated: Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Endorses Son Rand as "Best Hope" to Lead Country". Reason. Retrieved March 10, 2017.  ^ http://redalertpolitics.com/2016/02/05/no-libertarian-ron-paul-slams-ted-cruz-says-sanders-pro-free-market/ ^ Hensch, Mark (3 October 2016). " Ron Paul
Ron Paul
to independents: Vote Green Party". The Hill. Retrieved 15 August 2017.  ^ Patrick Svitek (January 9, 2017). "Rogue Texas
Texas
elector explains decision to back Ron Paul". The Texas
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Tribune.  ^ Kiersten Schmidt; Wilson Andrews (December 19, 2016). "A Historic Number of Electors Defected, and Most Were Supposed to Vote for Clinton". The New York Times.  ^ Patrick Svitek; Bobby Blanchard; Aliyya Swaby (December 19, 2016). " Texas
Texas
electors cast 36 votes for Trump, 1 for Kasich, 1 for Ron Paul". The Texas
Texas
Tribune.  ^ Paul, Carol (March 16, 2007). "The American Dream – Through the Eyes of Mrs. Ron Paul". Daily Paul. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved March 22, 2008.  ^ Sheri & Bob Stritof. "Carol and Ron Paul
Ron Paul
Marriage Profile". Archived October 24, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "Ron Paul". Biography TV. Retrieved 2016-04-03.  ^ Husna Haq. "Election 101: Ron Paul
Ron Paul
sets sights on 2012. Ten things to know about him. – What is his family and religious background?". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 9, 2011.  ^ McDevitt, Caitlin (November 29, 2011). "Ron Paul's family publishes 2012 cookbook". Politico. Retrieved June 16, 2013. . For earlier versions see: Paul, Carol (1997). The Ron Paul
Ron Paul
family cookbook. Clute, TX. p. 16. OCLC 793200538.  and Paul, Carol (2002). The Ron Paul
Ron Paul
family spring cookbook: including "The American dream, through the eyes of Mrs. Ron Paul". Clute, TX. p. 32. OCLC 793200539.  ^ Debbie Lewis. "Dr. Ron Paul: Systematic extinction of the GOP" Archived April 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.. PRonlinenews.com. June 2, 2012 ^ Craig Hlavaty; Houston Chronicle (July 2, 2013). "Vince Vaughn spotted mingling at Ron Paul's barbecue in Lake Jackson". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved April 3, 2016.  ^ Scribd Ron Paul's rEVOLution: The Man and the Movement He Inspired by Brian Doherty Archived March 6, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. ^ PRonlinenews.com Saturday, June 2, 2012 Dr. Ron Paul: Systematic extinction of the GOP by Debbie Lewis Archived April 20, 2016, at the Wayback Machine.

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positions

Candidates: Michele Bachmann
Michele Bachmann
(campaign) Herman Cain
Herman Cain
(campaign) Mark Callahan Jack Fellure Newt Gingrich
Newt Gingrich
(campaign) Stewart Greenleaf Jon Huntsman (campaign) Gary Johnson
Gary Johnson
(campaign) Fred Karger Andy Martin Thaddeus McCotter
Thaddeus McCotter
(campaign) Jimmy McMillan Roy Moore Ron Paul
Ron Paul
(campaign) Tim Pawlenty
Tim Pawlenty
(campaign) Rick Perry
Rick Perry
(campaign) Buddy Roemer
Buddy Roemer
(campaign) Rick Santorum
Rick Santorum
(campaign)

Libertarian Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee: Gary Johnson

campaign positions

VP nominee: Jim Gray

Candidates: Jim Duensing R. J. Harris Carl Person Sam Sloan R. Lee Wrights

Green Party

Convention

Nominee: Jill Stein
Jill Stein
(campaign) VP nominee: Cheri Honkala

Candidates: Stewart Alexander Roseanne Barr Kent Mesplay

Other third-party and independent candidates

American Independent Party

Nominee Tom Hoefling

Candidates Wiley Drake Virgil Goode
Virgil Goode
(campaign) Edward C. Noonan Laurie Roth

American Third Position Party

Nominee Merlin Miller VP nominee Virginia Abernethy

America's Party

Nominee Tom Hoefling

Constitution Party

Convention

Nominee Virgil Goode
Virgil Goode
(campaign) VP nominee Jim Clymer

Candidates Darrell Castle Laurie Roth Robby Wells

Freedom Socialist Party

Nominee Stephen Durham

Grassroots Party

Nominee Jim Carlson

Justice Party

Nominee Rocky Anderson VP nominee Luis J. Rodriguez

Objectivist Party

Nominee Tom Stevens

Party for Socialism and Liberation

Nominee Peta Lindsay

Peace and Freedom Party

Nominee Roseanne Barr VP nominee Cindy Sheehan

Candidates Stewart Alexander Rocky Anderson Stephen Durham Peta Lindsay

Prohibition Party

Nominee Jack Fellure

Candidates James Hedges

Reform Party

Nominee Andre Barnett

Candidates Laurence Kotlikoff Darcy Richardson Buddy Roemer
Buddy Roemer
(campaign) Robert David Steele Robby Wells

Socialist Equality Party

Nominee Jerry White

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee James Harris

Socialist Party

Nominee Stewart Alexander
Stewart Alexander
(campaign) VP nominee Alejandro Mendoza

Independents

Candidates Lee Abramson Randy Blythe Jeff Boss Robert Burck Terry Jones Joe Schriner

Draft movements

Michael Bloomberg
Michael Bloomberg
(movement)

State results

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of Columbia Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Other 2012 elections: House Senate Gubernatorial

v t e

United States Libertarian Party

Chairpersons of the LNC

D. Nolan S. Nolan Crane Bergland Clark Grant VerHagen Turney Walter Gingell Dasbach Bergland Lark Neale Dixon Redpath Hinkle Neale Sarwark

Presidential tickets

1972 Hospers/Nathan 1976 MacBride/Bergland 1980 Clark/Koch 1984 Bergland/Lewis 1988 Paul/Marrou 1992 Marrou/Lord 1996 Browne/Jorgensen 2000 Browne/Olivier 2004 Badnarik/Campagna 2008 Barr/Root 2012 Johnson/Gray 2016 Johnson/Weld

Parties by state and territory

State

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Territory

District of Columbia Puerto Rico

Conventions

1972 (Denver) 1973 (Strongsville) 1974 (Irving) 1975 (New York City) 1976 (Washington) 1977 (San Francisco) 1978 (Boston) 1979 (Los Angeles) 1980 (Los Angeles) 1981 (Denver) 1983 (New York City) 1985 (Phoenix) 1987 (Seattle) 1989 (Philadelphia) 1991 (Chicago) 1993 (Salt Lake City) 1996 (Washington) 1998 (Washington) 2000 (Anaheim) 2002 (Indianapolis) 2004 (Atlanta) 2006 (Portland) 2008 (Denver) 2010 (St. Louis) 2012 (Las Vegas) 2014 (Columbus) 2016 (Orlando) 2018 (New Orleans)

Affiliated organizations

College Libertarians Libertarian National Committee Radical Caucus Outright Libertarians

Related articles

Libertarianism Committee to Form a Libertarian Party Dallas Accord Electoral history History Libertarian pledge

Libertarianism
Libertarianism
portal

v t e

Patriot Act

Titles I · II · III · IV · V · VI · VII · VIII · IX · X (History)

Acts modified

Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 Electronic Communications Privacy Act Computer Fraud and Abuse Act Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act Money Laundering Control Act Bank Secrecy Act Right to Financial Privacy Act Fair Credit Reporting Act Immigration and Nationality Act of 1952 Victims of Crime Act of 1984 Telemarketing and Consumer Fraud and Abuse Prevention Act

People

George W. Bush John Ashcroft Alberto Gonzales Patrick Leahy Orrin Hatch Jon Kyl Dianne Feinstein Viet D. Dinh Joe Biden Michael Chertoff Barack Obama Eric Holder Chuck Schumer Lamar Smith Bob Graham Jay Rockefeller Arlen Specter Mike Oxley Dick Armey Paul Sarbanes Trent Lott Tom Daschle Russ Feingold Ellen Huvelle Ron Paul Lisa Murkowski Ron Wyden Dennis Kucinich Larry Craig John E. Sununu Richard Durbin Bernie Sanders Jerrold Nadler John Conyers, Jr. Butch Otter

Government organizations

Federal Bureau of Investigation Department of Justice Select Committee on Intelligence Department of the Treasury FinCEN Department of State National Institute of Standards and Technology Customs Service U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement

Non-government organizations

American Civil Liberties Union American Library Association Center for Democracy and Technology Center for Public Integrity Electronic Frontier Foundation Electronic Privacy Information Center Humanitarian Law Project

Authority control

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