The ROMANI (also spelled ROMANY; /ˈroʊməni/ , /ˈrɒ-/ ), or ROMA,
are a traditionally nomadic ethnic group, living mostly in
the Americas and originating from the northern regions of the Indian
subcontinent , apparently from the region that is currently
occupied by the Indian states of
Haryana, and Punjab .
The Romani are widely known among English-speaking people by the
exonym _GYPSIES_ (or _Gipsies_), which some people consider pejorative
due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. They are a
dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located
in Europe, especially Central , Eastern and
France). The Romani originated in
Indiaand arrived in Mid-West Asia , and
years ago. They have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group,
Dom people, from whom they have been said to have separated from
or, at least, have a similar history to. Specifically, the ancestors
of both the Romani and the Dom left
North Indiasometime between the
sixth and eleventh century.
Since the 19th century, some Romani have also migrated to the
Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States
; and 800,000 in
Brazil, most of whose ancestors emigrated in the
nineteenth century from eastern Europe.
Brazilalso includes some
Romani descended from people deported by the government of Portugal
Inquisitionin the colonial era. In migrations since the
late nineteenth century, Romani have also moved to other countries in
South America and to Canada.
In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the
Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma
community were children of India. The conference ended with a
recommendation to the Government of
Indiato recognize the Roma
community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora
Romani languageis divided into several dialects , which add up
to an estimated number of speakers larger than two million. The total
Romani peopleis at least twice as large (several times as
large according to high estimates). Many Romani are native speakers of
the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed
languages combining the two; those varieties are sometimes called
* 1 Names
* 1.1 Exonyms
* 1.2 Endonyms
* 1.3 Romani usage
* 1.4 English usage
* 1.5 Other designations
* 2 Population and subgroups
* 2.1 Romani population
* 2.2 Romani subgroups
* 2.3 Diaspora
* 3 Origin
* 3.1 _Shahnameh_ legend
* 3.2 Linguistic evidence
* 3.3 Genetic evidence
* 3.4 Possible migration route
* 4 History
* 4.1 Arrival in
* 4.2 Early Modern history
* 4.3 Modern history
World War II
World War II
* 4.3.2 Post-1945
* 5 Society and traditional culture
* 5.1 Belonging and exclusion
* 5.2 Religion
* 5.2.1 Beliefs
* 5.2.2 Deities and saints
* 5.2.3 Ceremonies and practices
* 5.2.5 Other regions
* 5.3 Music
* 6 Contemporary art and culture
* 8 Persecutions
* 8.1 Historical persecution
* 8.2 Forced assimilation
* 8.3 Holocaust
* 9 Contemporary issues
* 9.1 Forced repatriation
* 10 Organizations and projects
* 11 Artistic representations
* 12 See also
* 13 Notes
* 14 References
* 15 Sources
* 16 Further reading
* 17 External links
Names of the Romani people
* French _bohème_, _bohémien_, from the Kingdom of
they were incorrectly believed to have come from, carrying writs of
protection from King Sigismund of
* French _gitan_, English _gypsy_, Spanish _gitano_, Italian
_gitano_, Turkish _kipti_, all from Greek Αἰγύπτιος
_Aigýptios_ "Egyptian" (corrupted form: Γύφτος _Gýftos_), and
Hungarian _faraonépe_ from Greek φαραώ _pharaó_ "pharaoh" –
referring to their allegedly Egyptian provenance. Usage of "gypsy"
and similarly derived words differs between groups as some Roma groups
use this word as a self-identifier while others consider this word a
racial slur .
* English _tzigane_ (for Hungarian gypsies), Spanish _zíngaro_ or
_cíngaro_, French _tzigane_, Old High German _zigeuner_, German
_Zigeuner_, Dutch _zigeuner_, Danish _sigøjner_, Swedish "zigenare",
Old Church Slavic ациганинъ _atsyganin_, Italian _zingaro_,
Romanian _țigan_, Hungarian _cigány_, Croatian _cigan_, Polish
_cygan_, Czech _cikán_, Portuguese _cigano_, Turkish _çingene_,
Slovak _cigán_ or _cigáň_, Venetian _singano_, Russian цыгане
_tsygane_, Ukrainian цигани _tsyhany_, Lithuanian _čigonai_,
Georgian _ციგანი_; from Greek ἀθίγγανος
_athínganos_ (corrupted form: τσιγγάνος _tsingános_),
"untouchable ". Due to the negative connotations of referring to
an ethnic group as "untouchable" words derived from this source are
usually considered derogatory and outdated by modern Roma peoples.
Arabic_Nawar _ and _
* Rom means man or husband in the
Romani language. It has the
variants dom and lom, related with the
Sanskritwords dam-pati, dama,
lom, lomaka(hairy) loman, roman . romaça .
* Another possible origin is from
Sanskritडोम doma .
Sanskritसिनधु (sindhu) is a river or stream of water in
general. In particular, it denotes the river
Indusand the country
around it (commonly called
Romani language, _Rom_ is a masculine noun, meaning 'man of
the Roma ethnic group' or 'man, husband', with the plural _Roma_. The
feminine of _Rom_ in the
Romani languageis _Romni_. However, in most
cases, in other languages _Rom_ is now used for people of all genders.
_Romani_ is the feminine adjective, while _Romano_ is the masculine
adjective. Some Romanies use _Rom_ or _Roma_ as an ethnic name, while
others (such as the
Sinti, or the
Romanichal) do not use this term
as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group.
Sometimes, _rom_ and _romani_ are spelled with a double _r_, i.e.,
_rrom_ and _rromani_. In this case _rr_ is used to represent the
phoneme /ʀ/ (also written as _ř_ and _rh_), which in some Romani
dialects has remained different from the one written with a single
_r_. The _rr_ spelling is common in certain institutions (such as the
INALCO Institute in Paris), or used in certain countries, e.g.,
Romania, to distinguish from the endonym /homonym for
român, pl. români_).
A Romani wagon pictured in 2009 in
Fields Road is a popular spot for travelling people)
English language(according to the Oxford English Dictionary
), _Rom_ is a noun (with the plural _Roma_ or _Roms_) and an
adjective, while _Romani_ (_Romany_) is also a noun (with the plural
_Romani_, _the Romani_, _Romanies_ or _Romanis_) and an adjective.
Both _Rom_ and _Romani_ have been in use in English since the 19th
century as an alternative for Gypsy. _Romani_ was initially spelled
_Rommany_, then _Romany_, while today the _Romani_ spelling is the
most popular spelling. Occasionally, the double _r_ spelling (e.g.,
_Rroma_, _Rromani_) mentioned above is also encountered in English
The term _Roma_ is increasingly encountered during recent decades,
as a generic term for the Romani people.
Because all Romanies use the word _Romani_ as an adjective, the term
became a noun for the entire ethnic group. Today, the term _Romani_
is used by some organizations – including the
United Nationsand the
US Library of Congress. However, the
Council of Europe
Council of Europeand other
organizations consider that _Roma_ is the correct term referring to
all related groups, regardless of their country of origin, and
recommend that _Romani_ be restricted to the language and culture:
Romani language, Romani culture .
The standard assumption is that the demonyms of the Romani people,
Lom and Dom share the same origin.
Gypsy (term) A Romani wagon in
The English term _Gypsy_ (or _Gipsy_) originates from the Middle
English _gypcian_, short for _Egipcien_. The Spanish term _Gitano_ and
French _Gitan_ have similar etymologies. They are ultimately derived
from the Greek Αιγύπτιοι (_Aigyptioi_), meaning Egyptian, via
Latin. This designation owes its existence to the belief, common in
the Middle Ages, that the Romani, or some related group (such as the
Dom people), were itinerant Egyptians. According to
one narrative they were exiled from
Egyptas punishment for allegedly
harbouring the infant Jesus . As described in
Victor Hugo's novel
The Hunchback of Notre Dame_, the medieval French referred to the
Romanies as _Egyptiens_. The word _Gypsy_ in English has become so
pervasive that many Romani organizations use it in their own
This exonym is sometimes written with capital letter, to show that it
designates an ethnic group . However, the word is sometimes
considered derogatory because of its negative and stereotypical
Council of Europe
Council of Europeconsider that 'Gypsy' or
equivalent terms, as well as administrative terms such as 'Gens du
Voyage' (referring in fact to an ethnic group but not acknowledging
ethnic identification) are not in line with European recommendations.
In North America, the word _Gypsy_ is most commonly used as a
reference to Romani ethnicity, though lifestyle and fashion are at
times also referenced by using this word.
Another common designation of the
Romani peopleis _Cingane_ (alt.
Tsinganoi, Zigar, Zigeuner), which probably derives from _Athinganoi
_, the name of a Christian sect with whom the Romani (or some related
group) became associated in the Middle Ages.
POPULATION AND SUBGROUPS
For a variety of reasons, many Romanies choose not to register their
ethnic identity in official censuses. There are an estimated four
Europe(as of 2002), although some high
estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million.
Romani populationsare found in the
Balkans, in some
Central European states, in Spain, France,
Russiaand Ukraine. Several
million more Romanies may live out of Europe, in particular in the
Middle East and in the Americas.
Like the Roma in general, many different ethnonyms are given to
subgroups of Roma. Sometimes a subgroup uses more than one endonym ,
is commonly known by an exonym and/or erroneously by the endonym of
another subgroup. The only name approaching an all-encompassing
self-description is _Rom_. Even when subgroups don't use the name,
they all acknowledge a common origin and a dichotomy between
themselves and _Gadjo _ (non-Roma). For instance, while the main
group of Roma in German-speaking countries refer to themselves as
Sinti, their name for their original language is _Romanes_.
Subgroups have been described as, in part, a result of the Hindu
caste system , which the founding population of _Rom_ almost certainly
experienced in their South Asian _urheimat _. _ Debret,
Jean-Baptiste (c. 1820), Interior of a gipsy's house in
_ Volkers, Emil (c. 1905), Camping gypsies near
Germany_ . _ Gypsies camping_. Welsh Romanies near
Many groups use names apparently derived from the Romani word _kalo_
or _calo_, meaning "black or "absorbing all light". This closely
resembles words for "black" and/or "dark" in Indo-Aryan languages
Sanskritकाल _kāla_ : "black", "of a dark colour").
Likewise the name of the Dom or
North India– to
whom the Roma have genetic, cultural and linguistic links – has
come to imply "dark-skinned", in some Indian languages. Hence names
such as _kale_ and _calé_ may have originated as an exonym and/or
euphemism for Roma.
Other endonyms for Romani include, for example:
* _Ashkali_ (or "Balkan Egyptians" ) – Albanian-speaking Roma
communities in the
* _Bashaldé _ – Hungarian-
Slovak Romadiaspora in the US from the
late 19th century.
* _CALé_ is the endonym used by both the Spanish Roma (_gitanos_)
and Portuguese Portuguese Roma _ciganos_; _Caló _ is "the language
spoken by the _calé_.
* _Erlides _ (also _Arlije_, _Yerlii_ or _Arli_) in Greece
* _Kaale_ , in
* Kale , _Kalá_, or _Valshanange_ –
Welsh Englishendonym used by
some Roma clans in Wales. (
Romanichalalso live in Wales.)
* _Khorakhanè_ , _Horahane_ or _Xoraxai_, also known as "Turkish
Roma" or "
MuslimRoma" – Greek Roma and Turkish Roma .
* _Lalleri _, from
Austria, Germany, and the western Czech Republic
(including the former
Lovari_, from Hungary, known in
_Machavaya_, _Machwaya_, or _Macwaia_.
Luri_, mainly in the Middle East.
Lyuli_, in Central Asian countries.
* _Rom _ in
* _Roma_ in Romania, commonly known by majority ethnic
_Țigani_, including many subgroups defined by occupation:
Boyashalso known as _Băieşi_, _Lingurari_, _Ludar_, _Ludari_,
or _Rudari_, who coalesced in the
Boyashor _băieşi_ is a Romanian word for "miners". _Lingurari_
means "spoon makers", _Ludar_,_Ludari_, and_Rudari_ may mean
"woodworkers" or "miners". (There is a semantic overlap due to the
homophony and/or merging of lemmas with different meanings from at
least two different languages: the Serbian _rudar_ miner, and _ruda_
stick, staff, rod, bar, pole (in Hungarian _rúd_, and in Romanian
* _Churari _, from Romanian _Ciurari_, "sieve makers", Zlătari
Ursari_ (bear trainers , from Moldovan /Romanian _urs_ "bear"),
* _Ungaritza _ blacksmiths and bladesmiths
* _Argintari _ silversmiths .
* _Aurari _ goldsmiths .
* _Florari _ flower sellers .
Kalderash_, from Romanian_caldarar_ meaning tinsmith, tinker,
kettlemaker; also in
* Roma or _Romové_, Czech Republic
* Roma or _Romská_, Slovakia
Romanichal, in the United Kingdom, emigrated also to the United
* _Romanisæl_ , in
* _Roms_ or _Manouche_ (from _manush_ "people" in Romani) in France.
Romungro_ or Carpathian Romani from eastern
neighbouring parts of the Carpathians
Sinti_ or _Zinti_, predominantly in Germany, and Northern
Italy; _Sinti_ do not refer to themselves as Roma, although their
language is called _Romanes_.
The Roma people have a number of distinct populations, the largest
being the Roma and the Iberian Calé or Caló, who reached Anatolia
Balkansabout the early 12th century, from a migration out of
Indiabeginning about 600 years earlier. They settled
, Macedonia ,
Slovakia, by order of volume, and Spain.
From the Balkans, they migrated throughout
Europeand, in the
nineteenth and later centuries, to the Americas. The Romani population
United Statesis estimated at more than one million.
There is no official or reliable count of the Romani populations
worldwide. Many Romani refuse to register their ethnic identity in
official censuses for fear of discrimination. Others are descendants
of intermarriage with local populations and no longer identify only as
Romani, or not at all.
As of the early 2000s, an estimated 3.8 to 9 million Romani people
Europeand Asia Minor . although some Romani organizations
estimate numbers as high as 14 million. Significant Romani
populations are found in the
Balkan peninsula, in some Central
European states, in
Ukraine. The total
number of Romani living outside
Europeare primarily in the Middle
East and North Africa and in the Americas, and are estimated in total
at more than two million. Some countries do not collect data by
Romani peopleidentify as distinct ethnicities based in part on
territorial, cultural and dialectal differences, and self-designation.
Origin of the Romani people
Findings suggest an Indian origin for Roma. Because Romani groups
did not keep chronicles of their history or have oral accounts of it,
most hypotheses about the Romani's migration early history are based
on linguistic theory. There is also no known record of a migration
Europefrom medieval times that can be connected
indisputably to Roma.
According to a legend reported in the Persian epic poem, the
Iranand repeated by several modern authors, the
Sasanianking Bahrām V Gōr learned towards the end of his reign
(421–39) that the poor could not afford to enjoy music, and he asked
the king of
Indiato send him ten thousand _luris_, male and female
lute-playing experts. When the luris arrived, Bahrām gave each one an
ox and a donkey and a donkey-load of wheat so that they could live on
agriculture and play music for free for the poor. But the luris ate
the oxen and the wheat and came back a year later with their cheeks
hollowed with hunger. The king, angered with their having wasted what
he had given them, ordered them to pack up their bags and go wandering
around the world.
The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that the roots of the
Romani languagelie in India: the language has grammatical
characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a large part
of the basic lexicon, for example, regarding body parts or daily
More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with
. It shares many phonetic features with Marwari , while its grammar is
closest to Bengali .
Romani and Domari share some similarities: agglutination of
postpositions of the second Layer (or case marking clitics) to the
nominal stem, concord markers for the past tense, the neutralisation
of gender marking in the plural, and the use of the oblique case as an
accusative. This has prompted much discussion about the relationships
between these two languages. Domari was once thought a "sister
language" of Romani, the two languages having split after the
departure from the
Indian subcontinent– but more recent research
suggests that the differences between them are significant enough to
treat them as two separate languages within the Central zone
(Hindustani ) group of languages. The Dom and the Rom therefore likely
descend from two different migration waves out of India, separated by
In phonology ,
Romani languageshares a number of isoglosses with the
Central branch of
Indo-Aryan languagesespecially in the realization
of some sounds of the Old Indo-Aryan. However, it also preserves a
number of dental clusters. In regards to verb morphology, Romani
follows the exact same pattern of northwestern languages such as
Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique enclitic pronouns
as person markers, lending credence to the theory of their Central
Indian origin and a subsequent migration to northwestern India. Though
the retention of dental clusters suggests a break from central
languages during the transition from Old to Middle Indo-Aryan, the
overall morphology suggests that the language participated in some of
the significant developments leading toward the emergence of New
Indo-Aryan languages. Numerals in the Romani , Domari and Lomavren
Hindiand Persian forms for comparison. Note that
Romani 7–9 are borrowed from Greek.
Two Gypsies in Spain, by
Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in
Indiaand migrated as a group. According to the study,
the ancestors of present scheduled tribes and scheduled caste
populations of northern
India, traditionally referred to collectively
Ḍoma, are the likely ancestral populations of modern
European Roma. In December 2012, additional findings appeared to
confirm the "Roma came from a single group that left northwestern
Indiaabout 1,500 years ago." They reached the
years ago and then spread throughout Europe. The team found that,
despite some isolation, the Roma were "genetically similar to other
Genetic research published in _
European Journal of Human Genetics_
"has revealed that over 70% of males belong to a single lineage that
appears unique to the Roma."
Genetic evidence supports the medieval migration from India. The
Romani have been described as "a conglomerate of genetically isolated
founder populations," while a number of common Mendelian disorders
among Romanies from all over
Europeindicates "a common origin and
founder effect ."
A study from 2001 by Gresham et al. suggests "a limited number of
related founders, compatible with a small group of migrants splitting
from a distinct caste or tribal group." The same study found that "a
single lineage… found across Romani populations, accounts for almost
one-third of Romani males." A 2004 study by Morar et al. concluded
that the Romani population "was founded approximately 32–40
generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring
approximately 16–25 generations ago."
Haplogroup H-M82 is a major lineage cluster in the Balkan Romani
group, accounting for approximately 60% of the total. Haplogroup H is
Europebut present in the
Indian subcontinentand Sri
A study of 444 people representing three different ethnic groups in
Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedoniafound mtDNA haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were
dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively).
Y-DNA composition of Romani in the Republic of Macedonia, based on 57
* Haplogroup H – 59.6%
* Haplogroup E – 29.8%
* Haplogroup I – 5.3%
* Haplogroup R – 3.%, of which the half are
R1band many are
* Haplogroup G – 1.8%
A Roma makes a complaint to a local magistrate in
Sándor Bihari, 1886
Y-DNA Haplogroup H1a occurs in Romani at frequencies 7–70%. Unlike
ethnic Hungarians, among Hungarian and Slovakian Romani
subpopulations, Haplogroup E-M78 and I1 usually occur above 10% and
sometimes over 20%. While among Slovakian and
dominant haplogroup is H1a, among
TokajRomani is Haplogroup J2a
(23%), while among
TaktaharkányRomani is Haplogroup I2a (21%).
Five, rather consistent founder lineages throughout the
subpopulations, were found among Romani – J-M67 and J-M92 (J2),
H-M52 (H1a1), and I-P259 (I1?). Haplogroup I-P259 as H is not found at
frequencies of over 3 percent among host populations, while
haplogroups E and I are absent in
South Asia. The lineages E-V13,
I-P37 (I2a) and R-M17 (R1a) may represent gene flow from the host
populations, excluding the Z93 branch of R1a, which is most frequent
among Romani. Bulgarian, Romanian and Greek Romani are dominated by
Haplogroup H-M82 (H1a1), while among Spanish Romani J2 is prevalent.
BelgradeRomani Haplogroup H prevails, while among
VojvodinaRomani, H drops to 7% and E-V13 rises to a prevailing level.
Among non-Roma Europeans Haplogroup H is extremely rare, peaking at
Hungarians, although the carriers might be of Romani
origin. H is found at 2% among
Slovaks, 2% among
Croats, 2% among
Macedonians, 1% among
Serbs, 1% among Bulgarians, 1% among
Austrians and Swiss, 1% among Turks . According to autosomal
analyses, between 2% and 4% of ethnic
Romaniansbelong to South Asian
genetics, which is apart from Middle Eastern and East Asian, while
Hungariansstood under 1%.
POSSIBLE MIGRATION ROUTE
They may have emerged from the modern Indian state of
migrating to the northwest (the
Indian subcontinent) around 250 BC. Their subsequent westward
migration, possibly in waves, is now believed to have occurred
beginning in about AD 500. It has also been suggested that emigration
Indiamay have taken place in the context of the raids by Mahmud
of Ghazni . As these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with
their families into the
Byzantine Empire. The author Ralph Lilley
Turner theorised a central Indian origin of Romani followed by a
migration to Northwest
Indiaas it shares a number of ancient
isoglosses with Central
Indo-Aryan languagesin relation to
realization of some sounds of Old Indo-Aryan. This is lended further
credence by its sharing the exact same pattern of northwestern
languages such as Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique
enclitic pronouns as person markers. The overall morphology suggests
that Romani participated in some of the significant developments
leading toward the emergence of New
Indo-Aryan languages, thus
indicating that the proto-Romani did not leave the Indian subcontinent
until late in the second half of the first millenium. The
migration of the Romanies through the Middle East and Northern Africa
History of the Romani people
ARRIVAL IN EUROPE
Though according to a 2012 genomic study, the Romani reached the
Balkansas early as the 12th century, the first historical records of
the Romani reaching south-eastern
Europeare from the 14th century: in
1322 after leaving Ireland on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Irish
Symon Semeonisencountered a migrant group of Romani
outside the town of
Crete, calling them "the
Cain"; his account is the earliest surviving
description by a Western chronicler of the Romani in Europe. In 1350
Sudheimmentioned a similar people with a unique language
whom he called _Mandapolos_, a word some think derives from the Greek
word _mantes_ (meaning prophet or fortune teller). Around 1360, a
fiefdom , called the _
Feudum Acinganorum_ was established in
which mainly used Romani serfs and to which the Romani on the island
were subservient. By the 1440s, they were recorded in Germany; and
by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden. Some Romani migrated from
Persiathrough North Africa, reaching the
Iberian Peninsulain the
15th century. The two currents met in France. _ First arrival of
the Romanies outside
Bernin the 15th century, described by the
chronicler as getoufte heiden_ ("baptized heathens") and drawn with
dark skin and wearing
Saracen-style clothing and weapons (Spiezer
Schilling , p. 749)
EARLY MODERN HISTORY
An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani
Their early history shows a mixed reception. Although 1385 marks the
first recorded transaction for a Romani slave in
Wallachia, they were
issued safe conduct by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1417. Romanies
were ordered expelled from the Meissen region of
Swedenin 1525, England in 1530 (see
Egyptians Act 1530), and Denmark
in 1536. In 1510, any Romani found in Switzerland were ordered put to
death, with similar rules established in England in 1554, and Denmark
in 1589, whereas
Portugalbegan deportations of Romanies to its
colonies in 1538.
A 1596 English statute, however, gave Romanies special privileges
that other wanderers lacked;
Francepassed a similar law in 1683.
Catherine the Great of
Russiadeclared the Romanies "crown slaves" (a
status superior to serfs ), but also kept them out of certain parts of
the capital . In 1595,
Ştefan Răzvanovercame his birth into
slavery, and became the
Voivode(Prince ) of
Since a royal edict by Charles II in 1695, Spanish gypsies had been
restricted to certain towns. An official edict in 1717 restricted
them to only 75 towns and districts, so that they would not be
concentrated in any one region. In the
Great Gypsy Round-up, Romani
were arrested and imprisoned by the
Spanish Monarchyin 1749.
Although some Romani could be kept as slaves in
Moldaviauntil abolition in 1856, the majority traveled as free nomads
with their wagons, as alluded to in the spoked wheel symbol in the
Romanies flag . Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic
cleansing , abduction of their children, and forced labor . In
England, Romani were sometimes expelled from small communities or
hanged; in France, they were branded and their heads were shaved; in
Bohemia, the women were marked by their ears being
severed. As a result, large groups of the Romani moved to the East,
Poland, which was more tolerant, and Russia, where the Romani
were treated more fairly as long as they paid the annual taxes.
Romani began emigrating to North America in colonial times, with
small groups recorded in
Virginiaand French Louisiana . Larger-scale
Roma emigration to the
United Statesbegan in the 1860s, with groups
Romanichalfrom Great Britain. The largest number immigrated in the
early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of
Kalderash. Many Romani
also settled in South America.
Sintiand other Romani about to be
deported from Germany, May 22, 1940.
World War II
World War II
World War II, the
Nazisembarked on a systematic genocide of
the Romani, a process known in Romani as the _
were marked for extermination and sentenced to forced labor and
imprisonment in concentration camps .
They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen
(paramilitary death squads) on the Eastern Front . The total number
of victims has been variously estimated at between 220,000 and
1,500,000; even the lower figure would make the
Porajmosone of the
largest mass killings in history.
The treatment of Romani in Nazi partner states differed markedly. In
the Independent State of
Croatia, the separatist
physically killed around 25,000 Roma, almost the entire Roma
population. The concentration camp system of Jasenovac , run by the
Ustasamilitia and the Croat political police, were responsible for
the deaths of between 15,000 and 20,000 Roma.
Czechoslovakia, they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum,"
and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce
their population. This policy was implemented with large financial
incentives, threats of denying future welfare payments, with
misinformation, or after administering drugs.
An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report
(December 2005), concluded that the Communist authorities had
practiced an assimilation policy towards Romanis, which "included
efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani
community. .. The problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the
Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists,"
said the Czech Public Defender of Rights, recommending state
compensation for women affected between 1973 and 1991. New cases were
revealed up until 2004, in both the
Czech Republicand Slovakia.
Swedenand Switzerland "all have histories of
coercive sterilization of minorities and other groups."
SOCIETY AND TRADITIONAL CULTURE
Romani society and culture
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_ Münster, Sebastian (1552), "A Gipsy Family", The Cosmographia_
(facsimile of a woodcut), Basle. Nomadic Roma family traveling
The traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family .
Virginityis essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often
marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the
Romani practice of child marriage . Romani law establishes that the
man's family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only
traditional families still follow this rule.
Once married, the woman joins the husband's family, where her main
job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs, as well as
to take care of her in-laws. The power structure in the traditional
Romani household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men
in general have more authority than women. Women gain respect and
authority as they get older. Young wives begin gaining authority once
they have children.
Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by
("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma (and by most
older generations of
Sinti). This regulation affects many aspects of
life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human
body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce
emissions), as well as the rest of the lower body. Clothes for the
lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed
separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different
place. Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the
dwelling place. The mother is considered impure for forty days after
Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead,
who remain impure for a period of time. In contrast to the practice of
cremating the dead, Romani dead must be buried.
are both known from the time of the
Rigveda, and both are widely
Hinduismtoday (although the tendency is for Hindus to
practice cremation, while some communities in South
Indiatend to bury
their dead). Some animals are also considered impure, for instance
cats because they lick their hindquarters. Horses, in contrast, are
not considered impure because they cannot do so.
BELONGING AND EXCLUSION
ROMANIPEN (also _romanypen_, _romanipe_, _romanype_, _romanimos_,
_romaimos_, _romaniya_) is a complicated term of Romani philosophy
that means totality of the Romani spirit, Romani culture , Romani Law
, being a Romani, a set of Romani strains.
An ethnic Romani is considered a
Gadjo (non-Romani)in the Romani
society if he has no Romanipen. Sometimes a non-Romani may be
considered a Romani if he has Romanipen. Usually this is an adopted
child. As a concept,
Romanipenhas been the subject of interest to
numerous academic observers. It has been hypothesized that it owes
more to a framework of culture rather than simply an adherence to
historically received rules.
Christian Romanies during the pilgrimage at
Saintes-Maries-de-la-Merin France, 1980s
Romani peopleare Christian, others
Muslim, some retained their
ancient faith of
Hinduismfrom their original homeland of
others have their own religion and political organization.
The ancestors of modern-day
Romani peoplewere previously
Islamdepending on their respective regions
through which they had migrated.
Muslim Romaare found in
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina,
Kosovo, Macedonia , and
Bulgaria, forming a very significant proportion of the Romani people.
In neighboring countries such as
Greecemost of the Romani inhabitants
follow the practice of
Orthodoxy. It is likely that the adherence to
differing religions prevented families from engaging in intermarriage.
Deities And Saints
Ceferino Giménez Mallais considered a patron saint of the
Romani peoplein Roman Catholicism.
Saint Sarah, or Sara e Kali, has
also been venerated as a patron saint in the same manner as the
Blessed Ceferino Giménez Malla. Since the turn of the 21st century,
Sara e Kaliis understood to have been
Kalian Indian deity brought
Indiaby the refugee ancestors of the Roma people; as the Roma
became Christianized, she was absorbed in a syncretic way and
worshipped as a saint. Gypsy fortune-teller in Poland, by Antoni
Kozakiewicz , 1884
Mother Goddess figurines have been found in the excavations of the
IndusValley Civilisation in Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, in the Sindh
– Punjab –
Haryanaarea , and Mata
Kali is still worshipped in
Saint Sarahis now increasingly being considered as
"a Romani Goddess, the Protectress of the Roma" and an "indisputable
link with Mother India".
Ceremonies And Practices
Romanies often adopt the dominant religion of their host country in
the event that a ceremony associated with a formal religious
institution is necessary, such as a baptism or funeral (their
particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship remain
preserved regardless of such adoption processes). The Roma continue to
Shaktism", a practice with origins in India, whereby a
female consort is required for the worship of a god. Adherence to this
practice means that for the Roma who worship the Christian God, prayer
is conducted through the
Virgin Mary, or her mother,
Shaktismcontinues over one thousand years after the people's
separation from India.
Besides the Roma elders, who serve as spiritual leaders, priests,
churches, or bibles do not exist among the Romanies – the only
exception is the Pentecostal Roma.
Costume of a Romani woman (most likely
For the Roma communities that have resided in the
numerous centuries, often referred to as "Turkish Gypsies", the
following histories apply for religious beliefs:
Albania– The majority of Albania's Roma people are Muslims.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovinaand
Islamis the dominant
religion among the Roma.
Bulgaria– In northwestern Bulgaria, in addition to
Christianityis the dominant faith among Romani people,
though a major conversion to Eastern Orthodox
Romani peoplehas occurred. In southeastern Bulgaria,
dominant religion among Romani people, with a smaller section of the
Romani population, declaring themselves as "Turks", continuing to mix
ethnicity with Islam.
Croatia– Following the Second World War , a large number of
Muslim Romarelocated to
Croatia(the majority moving from Kosovo).
Greece– The descendants of groups, such as Sepečides or
Sevljara, Kalpazaja, Filipidži and others, living in Athens,
Greeceand Greek Macedonia are mostly Orthodox
Christians, with Islamic beliefs held by a minority of the population.
Following the Peace Treaty of Lausanne of 1923, many
Turkeyin the subsequent population exchange between
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina(around 1900)
Kosovo– The vast majority of the Roma population in
* Macedonia – The majority of Roma people are followers of
Romania– According to the 2002 census , the majority of Romani
minority living in
Romaniaare Orthodox Christians , while 6.4% are
Pentecostals , 3.8% Roman Catholics , 3% Reformed , 1.1% Greek
Catholics , 0.9% Baptists , 0.8% Seventh-Day Adventists . In Dobruja
, there is a small community that are
Muslimand also speak Turkish.
Serbia– Most Roma people in
Serbiaare Orthodox Christian, but
there are some
Muslim Romain Southern Serbia, who are mainly refugees
Russiathe Roma populations are also
families of Balkan migrants continue to live in these locations. Their
ancestors settled on the Crimean peninsula during the 17th and 18th
centuries, but then migrated to Ukraine, southern
Povolzhie (along the Volga River). Formally,
Islamis the religion
that these communities align themselves with and the people are
recognized for their staunch preservation of the
Most Eastern European Romanies are Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox
Muslim. Those in Western
mostly Roman Catholic or
Protestant– in southern Spain, many
Romanies are Pentecostal , but this is a small minority that has
emerged in contemporary times. In Egypt, the Romanies are split into
Romani music Young Hungarian Romani performing a
Romani musicplays an important role in Central and Eastern European
countries such as Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro,
Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, Slovakia,
Sloveniaand Romania, and the style and performance practices of
Romani musicians have influenced European classical composers such as
Johannes Brahms. The _lăutari _ who perform at
traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Romani.
Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers
in the _lăutari_ tradition are
Taraful Haiducilor. Bulgaria's
popular "wedding music", too, is almost exclusively performed by
Romani musicians such as
Ivo Papasov, a virtuoso clarinetist closely
associated with this genre and Bulgarian pop-folk singer
Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist
Georges Cziffra, are Romani, as are many prominent performers of
Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in
Moldova, although not Romanies themselves, draw heavily on Romani
music, as do
Spitalul de Urgenţăin Romania,
Goran Bregovićin Serbia,
Darko Rundekin Croatia, Beirut and Gogol
Bordello in the United States.
Another tradition of
Romani musicis the genre of the Romani brass
band , with such notable practitioners as
Boban Markovićof Serbia,
and the brass _lăutari_ groups
Fanfare Ciocărliaand Fanfare din
Cozmesti of Romania.
Many musical instruments like violins and guitars are said to have
originated from the Romani. Many dances such as the flamenco of Spain
and Oriental dances of
Egyptare also said to have originated from
The distinctive sound of
Romani musichas also strongly influenced
bolero , jazz , and flamenco (especially _cante jondo _) in Spain.
European-style gypsy jazz ("jazz Manouche" or "
Sintijazz") is still
widely practiced among the original creators (the Romanie People); one
who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist
Contemporary artists in this tradition known internationally include
Jimmy Rosenberg, Paulus
The Romanies of
Turkeyhave achieved musical acclaim from national
and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special
holidays. Their music is usually performed on instruments such as the
darbuka , gırnata and cümbüş .
CONTEMPORARY ART AND CULTURE
Romani contemporary art
Romani contemporary artis art created by Romani people. It emerged
at the climax of the process that began in Central and Eastern Europe
in the late-1980s, when the interpretation of the cultural practice of
minorities was enabled by a paradigm shift, commonly referred to in
specialist literature as the
Cultural turn. The idea of the "cultural
turn" was introduced; and this was also the time when the notion of
cultural democracy became crystallized in the debates carried on at
various public forums.
Civil societygained strength, and civil
politics appeared, which is a prerequisite for cultural democracy.
This shift of attitude in scholarly circles derived from concerns
specific not only to ethnicity, but also to society, gender and class.
Most Romani speak one of several dialects of the
an Indo-Aryan language, with roots in Sanskrit. They also often speak
the languages of the countries they live in. Typically, they also
incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of
those countries and especially words for terms that the Romani
language does not have. Most of the _Ciganos_ of Portugal, the Gitanos
of Spain, the
Romanichalof the UK, and Scandinavian Travellers have
lost their knowledge of pure Romani, and respectively speak the mixed
languages Caló ,
Scandoromani. Most of the
speaker communities in these regions consist of later immigrants from
eastern or central Europe.
There are no concrete statistics for the number of Romani speakers,
Europeand globally. However, a conservative estimation has
been made at 3.5 million speakers in
Europeand a further 500,000
elsewhere, although the actual number may be considerably higher.
This makes Romani the second largest minority language in Europe,
behind Catalan .
In relation to dialect diversity, Romani works in the same way as
most other European languages. Cross-dialect communication is
dominated by the following features:
* All Romani speakers are bilingual , and are accustomed to
borrowing words or phrases from a second language ; this makes it
difficult when trying to communicate with Romanis from different
* Romani was traditionally a language shared between extended family
and a close-knit community. This has resulted in the inability to
comprehend dialects from other countries. This is the reason Romani is
sometimes associated as being number of different languages.
* There is no tradition or example of a literary standard for Romani
speakers to use as a guideline for their language use.
One of the most enduring persecutions against the
their enslavement. Slavery was widely practiced in medieval
including the territory of present-day
Romaniafrom before the
founding of the principalities of
13th–14th century. Legislation decreed that all the Romani living
in these states, as well as any others who immigrated there, were
classified as slaves. Slavery was gradually abolished during the
1840s and 1850s.
The exact origins of slavery in the
Danubian Principalitiesare not
known. There is some debate over whether the
Romani peoplecame to
Moldaviaas free men or were brought as slaves.
Nicolae Iorgaassociated the Roma people's arrival with the
1241 Mongol invasion of
Europeand considered their slavery as a
vestige of that era, in which the
Romanianstook the Roma as slaves
Mongolsand preserved their status to use their labor. Other
historians believe that the Romani were enslaved, while captured
during the battles, with the Tatars. The practice of enslaving war
prisoners may also have been adopted from the Mongols.
Some Romani may have been slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols
or Tatars, but most of them migrated from south of the
end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of
By then, the institution of slavery was already established in
Moldaviaand possibly in both principalities. After the Roma migrated
into the area, slavery became a widespread practice by the majority
population. The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually
merged into the Roma population.
Some branches of the
Romani peoplereached Western
Europein the 15th
century, fleeing as refugees from the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.
Although the Romani were refugees from the conflicts in southeastern
Europe, they were often suspected by certain populations in the West
of being associated with the Ottoman invasion because of their
physical features seemed related to the Turks. (The Imperial Diet at
Landau and Freiburg in 1496–1498 declared that the Romani were spies
of the Turks). In Western Europe, such suspicions and discrimination
against a people who were a visible minority resulted in persecution,
often violent, with efforts to achieve ethnic cleansing until the
modern era. In times of social tension, the Romani suffered as
scapegoats; for instance, they were accused of bringing the plague
during times of epidemics .
Spainconducted _The Great Roundup_ of Romani (Gitanos) in
its territory. The Spanish Crown ordered a nationwide raid that led to
the break-up of families as all able-bodied men were interned into
forced labor camps in a half-hearted attempt at ethnic cleansing. The
measure was eventually reversed and the Gypsies were freed as protests
began to arise in different communities, sedentary gypsies being
highly esteemed and protected in rural Spain.
Later in the 19th century, Romani immigration was forbidden on a
racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English-speaking
Argentinain 1880 prohibited immigration by Roma, as did the
United Statesin 1885.) _ Deportation of Roma from
Germany, 1940 (photograph by the Rassenhygienische Forschungsstelle_)
Habsburg Monarchyunder Maria Theresa (1740–1780), a series
of decrees tried to force the Romanies to permanently settle , removed
rights to horse and wagon ownership (1754), renamed them as "New
Citizens" and forced Romani boys into military service if they had no
trade (1761), forced them to register with the local authorities
(1767), and prohibited marriage between Romanies (1773). Her successor
Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the
use of the Romani language, punishable by flogging.
In Spain, attempts to assimilate the
Gitanoswere under way as early
as 1619, when
Gitanoswere forcibly settled, the use of the Romani
language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate
workhouses and their children sent to orphanages. King Charles III
took on a more progressive attitude to Gitano assimilation,
proclaiming their equal rights as Spanish citizens and ending official
denigration based on their race. While he prohibited the nomadic
lifestyle, the use of the Calo language , Romani clothing, their trade
in horses and other itinerant trades, he also forbade any form of
discrimination against them or barring them from the guilds. The use
of the word _gitano_ was also forbidden to further assimilation,
substituted for "New Castilian", which was also applied to former Jews
Most historians agree that Charles III pragmática failed due to
three main reasons, ultimately derived from its implementation outside
major cities and in marginal areas: The difficulty the Gitano
community faced in changing its nomadic lifestyle, the marginal
lifestyle in which the community had been driven by society and the
serious difficulties of applying the pragmática in the fields of
education and work. One author ascribes its failure to the overall
rejection by the wider population of the integration of the Gitanos.
Other examples of forced assimilation include
Norway, where a law
was passed in 1896 permitting the state to remove children from their
parents and place them in state institutions. This resulted in some
1,500 Romani children being taken from their parents in the 20th
The persecution of the Romanies reached a peak during
World War II
World War IIin
the _Porajmos_, the genocide perpetrated by the
Holocaust . In 1935, the
Nuremberg lawsstripped the Romani people
living in Nazi
Germanyof their citizenship, after which they were
subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later
genocide in extermination camps . The policy was extended in areas
occupied by the
Nazisduring the war, and it was also applied by their
allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia,
Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Romanis, it
is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims. Ian
Hancock , director of the Program of Romani Studies at the University
Texasat Austin , proposes a figure of up to a million and a half,
while an estimate of between 220,000 and 500,000 was made by Sybil
Milton, formerly senior historian of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial
Museum. In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of
Moraviawas so thorough that the
Distribution of the
Europe(2007 Council of
Europe"average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)
Antiziganist protests in
Sofia, 2011 Main article: Modern
Romani peopleare associated with poverty, are accused of
high rates of crime and behaviours that are perceived by the rest of
the population as being antisocial or inappropriate. Partly for this
reason, discrimination against the
Romani peoplehas continued to the
present day, although efforts are being made to address them.
Amnesty Internationalreports continued instances of Antizigan
discrimination during the 20th Century, particularly in Romania,
Kosovo. The European
Union has recognized that discrimination against Romani must be
addressed, and with the national Roma integration strategy they
encourage member states to work towards greater Romani inclusion and
upholding the rights of the Romani in the European union .
Serbiaalso include up to 97.000 Roma
ROMA ESTIMATE PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES
The Romanis of
Kosovohave been severely persecuted by ethnic
Albanians since the end of the
KosovoWar , and the region's Romani
community is, for the most part, annihilated.
Czechoslovakiacarried out a policy of sterilization of Romani women,
starting in 1973. The dissidents of the
Charter 77denounced it in
1977–78 as a genocide , but the practice continued through the
Velvet Revolutionof 1989. A 2005 report by the Czech government's
independent ombudsman, Otakar Motejl, identified dozens of cases of
coercive sterilization between 1979 and 2001, and called for criminal
investigations and possible prosecution against several health care
workers and administrators.
In 2008, following the brutal rape and subsequent murder of an
Italian woman in
Romeat the hands of a young man from a local Romani
encampment, the Italian government declared that Italy's Romani
population represented a national security risk and that swift action
was required to address the _emergenza nomadi_ (_nomad emergency_).
Specifically, officials in the Italian government accused the Romanies
of being responsible for rising crime rates in urban areas.
The 2008 deaths of Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic , two Roma
children who drowned while Italian beach-goers remained unperturbed,
brought international attention to the relationship between Italians
and the Roma people. Reviewing the state of play in 2012, one Belgian
On International Roma Day, which falls on 8 April, the significant
proportion of Europe's 12 million Roma who live in deplorable
conditions will not have much to celebrate. And poverty is not the
only worry for the community. Ethnic tensions are on the rise. In
2008, Roma camps came under attack in Italy, intimidation by racist
parliamentarians is the norm in Hungary. Speaking in 1993, Václav
Havel prophetically remarked that "the treatment of the Roma is a
litmus test for democracy": and democracy has been found wanting. The
consequences of the transition to capitalism have been disastrous for
the Roma. Under communism they had jobs, free housing and schooling.
Now many are unemployed, many are losing their homes and racism is
increasingly rewarded with impunity.
The 2016 Pew Research poll found that Italians, in particular, hold
strong anti-Roma views, with 82% of Italians expressing negative
opinions about Roma. In
Poland47%, in the UK 45%, in
Sweden42%, in Germany
40%, and in the
Netherlands37% have an unfavourable view of Roma.
Main article: Expulsion of
In the summer of 2010 French authorities demolished at least 51
illegal Roma camps and began the process of repatriating their
residents to their countries of origin. This followed tensions
between the French state and Roma communities, which had been
heightened after French police opened fire and killed a traveller who
drove through a police checkpoint, hitting an officer, and attempted
to hit two more officers at another checkpoint. In retaliation a group
of Roma, armed with hatchets and iron bars, attacked the police
station of Saint-Aignan, toppled traffic lights and road signs and
burned three cars. The French government has been accused of
perpetrating these actions to pursue its political agenda. EU Justice
Viviane Redingstated that the
take legal action against
Franceover the issue, calling the
deportations "a disgrace". Purportedly, a leaked file dated 5 August,
sent from the Interior Ministry to regional police chiefs included the
instruction: "Three hundred camps or illegal settlements must be
cleared within three months, Roma camps are a priority."
ORGANIZATIONS AND PROJECTS
World Romani Congress
European Roma Rights Centre
Gypsy Lore Society
International Romani Union
Decade of Roma Inclusion, multinational project
International Romani DayApril 8
Paris Bordone, c. 1530, Elizabeth , at right, is shown as a
gypsy fortune-teller Main article:
Romani people in fiction
Many depictions of
Romani peoplein literature and art present
romanticized narratives of their supposed mystical powers of fortune
telling or their supposed irascible or passionate temper paired with
an indomitable love of freedom and a habit of criminality. Romani were
a popular subject in Venetian painting from the time of
the start of the 16th century; the inclusion of such a figure adds an
exotic oriental flavour to scenes. A Venetian Renaissance painting by
Paris Bordone(ca. 1530,
Strasbourg) of the
Holy Familyin Egypt
makes Elizabeth , a gypsy fortune-teller ; the scene is otherwise
located in a distinctly European landscape.
Particularly notable are classics like the story _
Carmen_ by Prosper
Mérimée and the opera based on it by
The Hunchback of Notre Dame_,
The Castafiore Emerald_ and
Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes' _La Gitanilla_. The Romani were also depicted in
_A Midsummer Night\'s Dream _, _
As You Like It
As You Like It_, _
Othello_ and _The
Tempest _, all by
The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the
Soviet Union, a
classic example being the 1975 _Tabor ukhodit v Nebo _. A more
realistic depiction of contemporary Romani in the
Romani lay actors speaking in their native dialects, although still
playing with established clichés of a Romani penchant for both magic
and crime, was presented by
Emir Kusturicain his _Time of the Gypsies
_ (1988) and _
Black Cat, White Cat_ (1998). The films of Tony Gatlif
, a French director of Romani ethnicity, like _Les Princes_ (1983),
Latcho Drom_ (1993) and _Gadjo Dilo_ (1997) also portray gypsy life.
August von Pettenkofen
August von Pettenkofen: _Gipsy Children_ (1885),
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh: _The Caravans – Gypsy Camp near Arles_ (1888,
oil on canvas)
* Environmental racism in
King of the Gypsies
R v Krymowski_
Timeline of Romani history
* Itinerant groups in
* Nomadic tribes in
List of Romani people
List of Romani settlements
* ^ Most estimates for numbers of Romani victims of the Holocaust
fall between 200,000 and 500,000, although figures ranging between
90,000 and 4 million have been proposed. Lower estimates do not
include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed
study by Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the U.S. Holocaust
Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of 220,000,
probably higher, possibly closer to 500,000. Ian Hancock, Director of
the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and
Documentation Center at the University of
Texasat Austin, argues in
favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000.
* ^ Lewis, M. Paul, ed. (2009). "Ethnologue: Languages of the
World" (online) (16th ed.). Dallas, TX : SIL. Retrieved 15 September
Ian Hancock's 1987 estimate for 'all Gypsies in the world' was
6 to 11 million.
* ^ "EU demands action to tackle Roma poverty". _BBC News_. 5 April
* ^ "The Roma". Nationalia. Retrieved 20 November 2015.
* ^ "Rom". _Encyclopædia Britannica_. Retrieved 15 September 2010.
... estimates of the total world Romani population range from two
million to five million.
* ^ "The Marginalization of Shadow Minorities (Roma) and Its Impact
on Opportunities". _Books.google.com_. p. 117. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
* ^ _A_ _B_ Kayla Webley (13 October 2010). "Hounded in Europe,
Roma in the U.S. Keep a Low Profile". Time. Retrieved 3 October 2015.
Today, estimates put the number of Roma in the U.S. at about one
* ^ "Falta de políticas públicas para ciganos é desafio para o
governo" (in Portuguese). R7. 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2012. The
SpecialSecretariat for the Promotion of Racial Equality estimates the
number of "ciganos" (Romanis) in
Brazilat 800,000 (2011). The 2010
IBGE Brazilian National Census encountered gypsy camps in 291 of
Brazil's 5,565 municipalities.
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_
Recent Migration of Roma in Europe, A study by Mr. Claude Cahn and
Professor Elspeth Guild, page 87–88 (09.2010 figures)
* ^ "Türkiye\'deki Kürtlerin sayısı!" (in Turkish). 6 June
2008. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
* ^ "Türkiye’deki Çingene nüfusu tam bilinmiyor. 2, hatta 5
milyon gibi rakamlar dolaşıyor Çingenelerin arasında". _Hurriyet_
(in Turkish). TR . 8 May 2005. Retrieved 2 January 2016.
* ^ Estimated by the
Society for Threatened Peoples
* ^ "The Situation of Roma in Spain" (PDF). Open Society Institute.
2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2007. Retrieved
15 September 2010. The Spanish government estimates the number of
_Gitanos_ at a maximum of 650,000.
* ^ "DiagnÃ³stico social de la comunidad gitana en EspaÃ±a"
(PDF). _Msc.es_. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
* ^ 2011 census data, based on table 7 Population by ethnicity,
gives a total of 621,573 Roma in Romania. This figure is disputed by
other sources, because at the local level, many Roma declare a
different ethnicity (mostly Romanian, but also Hungarian in
Transylvaniaand Turkish in Dobruja). Many are not recorded at all,
since they do not have ID cards . International sources give higher
figures than the official census(
UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe,
World Bank, International Association for Official Statistics).
* ^ "Rezultatele finale ale Recensământului din 2011 – Tab8.
Populaţia stabilă după etnie – judeţe, municipii, oraşe,
comune" (XLS) (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics
(Romania) . 5 July 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013. However, various
organizations claim that there are 2 million Romanis in Romania. See
* ^ "Situation of Roma in
Franceat crisis proportions". EurActiv
Network. 7 December 2005. Retrieved 21 October 2015. According to the
report, the settled Gypsy population in
Franceis officially estimated
at around 500,000, although other estimates say that the actual figure
is much closer to 1.2 million.
* ^ Gorce, Bernard (22 July 2010). "Roms, gens du voyage, deux
La Croix. Retrieved 21 October 2016. The
ban prevents statistics on ethnicity to give a precise figure of
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