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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

The ROMANI (also spelled ROMANY; /ˈroʊməni/ , /ˈrɒ-/ ), or ROMA, are a traditionally nomadic ethnic group, living mostly in Europe
Europe
and the Americas and originating from the northern regions of the Indian subcontinent , apparently from the region that is currently occupied by the Indian states of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
, Haryana
Haryana
, and Punjab .

The Romani are widely known among English-speaking people by the exonym _GYPSIES_ (or _Gipsies_), which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity. They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe, especially Central , Eastern and Southern Europe
Southern Europe
(including Turkey
Turkey
, Spain
Spain
and Southern France
France
). The Romani originated in Northern India
India
and arrived in Mid-West Asia , and Europe
Europe
around 1,000 years ago. They have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people, from whom they have been said to have separated from or, at least, have a similar history to. Specifically, the ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India
North India
sometime between the sixth and eleventh century.

Since the 19th century, some Romani have also migrated to the Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States ; and 800,000 in Brazil
Brazil
, most of whose ancestors emigrated in the nineteenth century from eastern Europe. Brazil
Brazil
also includes some Romani descended from people deported by the government of Portugal during the Inquisition
Inquisition
in the colonial era. In migrations since the late nineteenth century, Romani have also moved to other countries in South America and to Canada.

In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India. The conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India
India
to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora .

The Romani language
Romani language
is divided into several dialects , which add up to an estimated number of speakers larger than two million. The total number of Romani people
Romani people
is at least twice as large (several times as large according to high estimates). Many Romani are native speakers of the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed languages combining the two; those varieties are sometimes called Para-Romani.

CONTENTS

* 1 Names

* 1.1 Exonyms * 1.2 Endonyms * 1.3 Romani usage * 1.4 English usage * 1.5 Other designations

* 2 Population and subgroups

* 2.1 Romani population * 2.2 Romani subgroups * 2.3 Diaspora

* 3 Origin

* 3.1 _Shahnameh_ legend * 3.2 Linguistic evidence * 3.3 Genetic evidence * 3.4 Possible migration route

* 4 History

* 4.1 Arrival in Europe
Europe
* 4.2 Early Modern history

* 4.3 Modern history

* 4.3.1 World War II
World War II
* 4.3.2 Post-1945

* 5 Society and traditional culture

* 5.1 Belonging and exclusion

* 5.2 Religion

* 5.2.1 Beliefs * 5.2.2 Deities and saints * 5.2.3 Ceremonies and practices * 5.2.4 Balkans
Balkans
* 5.2.5 Other regions

* 5.3 Music

* 6 Contemporary art and culture * 7 Language
Language

* 8 Persecutions

* 8.1 Historical persecution * 8.2 Forced assimilation * 8.3 Holocaust

* 9 Contemporary issues

* 9.1 Forced repatriation

* 10 Organizations and projects * 11 Artistic representations * 12 See also * 13 Notes * 14 References * 15 Sources * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

NAMES

Main article: Names of the Romani people

EXONYMS

* French _bohème_, _bohémien_, from the Kingdom of Bohemia
Bohemia
, where they were incorrectly believed to have come from, carrying writs of protection from King Sigismund of Bohemia
Bohemia
. * French _gitan_, English _gypsy_, Spanish _gitano_, Italian _gitano_, Turkish _kipti_, all from Greek Αἰγύπτιος _Aigýptios_ "Egyptian" (corrupted form: Γύφτος _Gýftos_), and Hungarian _faraonépe_ from Greek φαραώ _pharaó_ "pharaoh" – referring to their allegedly Egyptian provenance. Usage of "gypsy" and similarly derived words differs between groups as some Roma groups use this word as a self-identifier while others consider this word a racial slur . * English _tzigane_ (for Hungarian gypsies), Spanish _zíngaro_ or _cíngaro_, French _tzigane_, Old High German _zigeuner_, German _Zigeuner_, Dutch _zigeuner_, Danish _sigøjner_, Swedish "zigenare", Old Church Slavic ациганинъ _atsyganin_, Italian _zingaro_, Romanian _țigan_, Hungarian _cigány_, Croatian _cigan_, Polish _cygan_, Czech _cikán_, Portuguese _cigano_, Turkish _çingene_, Slovak _cigán_ or _cigáň_, Venetian _singano_, Russian цыгане _tsygane_, Ukrainian цигани _tsyhany_, Lithuanian _čigonai_, Georgian _ციგანი_; from Greek ἀθίγγανος _athínganos_ (corrupted form: τσιγγάνος _tsingános_), "untouchable ". Due to the negative connotations of referring to an ethnic group as "untouchable" words derived from this source are usually considered derogatory and outdated by modern Roma peoples. * Arabic
Arabic
_Nawar _ and _ Zott_.

ENDONYMS

* Rom means man or husband in the Romani language
Romani language
. It has the variants dom and lom, related with the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words dam-pati, dama, lom, lomaka(hairy) loman, roman . romaça . * Another possible origin is from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
डोम doma . * Sanskrit
Sanskrit
सिनधु (sindhu) is a river or stream of water in general. In particular, it denotes the river Indus
Indus
and the country around it (commonly called Sindh
Sindh
).

ROMANI USAGE

In the Romani language
Romani language
, _Rom_ is a masculine noun, meaning 'man of the Roma ethnic group' or 'man, husband', with the plural _Roma_. The feminine of _Rom_ in the Romani language
Romani language
is _Romni_. However, in most cases, in other languages _Rom_ is now used for people of all genders.

_Romani_ is the feminine adjective, while _Romano_ is the masculine adjective. Some Romanies use _Rom_ or _Roma_ as an ethnic name, while others (such as the Sinti
Sinti
, or the Romanichal) do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group.

Sometimes, _rom_ and _romani_ are spelled with a double _r_, i.e., _rrom_ and _rromani_. In this case _rr_ is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/ (also written as _ř_ and _rh_), which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single _r_. The _rr_ spelling is common in certain institutions (such as the INALCO Institute in Paris), or used in certain countries, e.g., Romania
Romania
, to distinguish from the endonym /homonym for Romanians(_sg. român, pl. români_).

ENGLISH USAGE

A Romani wagon pictured in 2009 in Grandborough
Grandborough
(Grandborough Fields Road is a popular spot for travelling people)

In the English language
English language
(according to the Oxford English Dictionary ), _Rom_ is a noun (with the plural _Roma_ or _Roms_) and an adjective, while _Romani_ (_Romany_) is also a noun (with the plural _Romani_, _the Romani_, _Romanies_ or _Romanis_) and an adjective. Both _Rom_ and _Romani_ have been in use in English since the 19th century as an alternative for Gypsy. _Romani_ was initially spelled _Rommany_, then _Romany_, while today the _Romani_ spelling is the most popular spelling. Occasionally, the double _r_ spelling (e.g., _Rroma_, _Rromani_) mentioned above is also encountered in English texts.

The term _Roma_ is increasingly encountered during recent decades, as a generic term for the Romani people.

Because all Romanies use the word _Romani_ as an adjective, the term became a noun for the entire ethnic group. Today, the term _Romani_ is used by some organizations – including the United Nations
United Nations
and the US Library of Congress. However, the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and other organizations consider that _Roma_ is the correct term referring to all related groups, regardless of their country of origin, and recommend that _Romani_ be restricted to the language and culture: Romani language
Romani language
, Romani culture .

The standard assumption is that the demonyms of the Romani people, Lom and Dom share the same origin.

OTHER DESIGNATIONS

See also: Gypsy (term) A Romani wagon in Germany
Germany
in 1935

The English term _Gypsy_ (or _Gipsy_) originates from the Middle English _gypcian_, short for _Egipcien_. The Spanish term _Gitano_ and French _Gitan_ have similar etymologies. They are ultimately derived from the Greek Αιγύπτιοι (_Aigyptioi_), meaning Egyptian, via Latin
Latin
. This designation owes its existence to the belief, common in the Middle Ages, that the Romani, or some related group (such as the Middle Eastern Dom people), were itinerant Egyptians. According to one narrative they were exiled from Egypt
Egypt
as punishment for allegedly harbouring the infant Jesus . As described in Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
's novel _ The Hunchback of Notre Dame_, the medieval French referred to the Romanies as _Egyptiens_. The word _Gypsy_ in English has become so pervasive that many Romani organizations use it in their own organizational names.

This exonym is sometimes written with capital letter, to show that it designates an ethnic group . However, the word is sometimes considered derogatory because of its negative and stereotypical associations. The Council of Europe
Council of Europe
consider that 'Gypsy' or equivalent terms, as well as administrative terms such as 'Gens du Voyage' (referring in fact to an ethnic group but not acknowledging ethnic identification) are not in line with European recommendations. In North America, the word _Gypsy_ is most commonly used as a reference to Romani ethnicity, though lifestyle and fashion are at times also referenced by using this word.

Another common designation of the Romani people
Romani people
is _Cingane_ (alt. Tsinganoi, Zigar, Zigeuner), which probably derives from _Athinganoi _, the name of a Christian sect with whom the Romani (or some related group) became associated in the Middle Ages.

POPULATION AND SUBGROUPS

ROMANI POPULATION

Main article: Romani populations

For a variety of reasons, many Romanies choose not to register their ethnic identity in official censuses. There are an estimated four million Romani people
Romani people
in Europe
Europe
(as of 2002), although some high estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million. Significant Romani populationsare found in the Balkans
Balkans
, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia
Russia
and Ukraine. Several million more Romanies may live out of Europe, in particular in the Middle East and in the Americas.

ROMANI SUBGROUPS

Like the Roma in general, many different ethnonyms are given to subgroups of Roma. Sometimes a subgroup uses more than one endonym , is commonly known by an exonym and/or erroneously by the endonym of another subgroup. The only name approaching an all-encompassing self-description is _Rom_. Even when subgroups don't use the name, they all acknowledge a common origin and a dichotomy between themselves and _Gadjo _ (non-Roma). For instance, while the main group of Roma in German-speaking countries refer to themselves as Sinti
Sinti
, their name for their original language is _Romanes_.

Subgroups have been described as, in part, a result of the Hindu caste system , which the founding population of _Rom_ almost certainly experienced in their South Asian _urheimat _. _ Debret, Jean-Baptiste (c. 1820), Interior of a gipsy's house in Brazil
Brazil
_ . _ Volkers, Emil (c. 1905), Camping gypsies near Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
, Germany_ . _ Gypsies camping_. Welsh Romanies near Swansea
Swansea
, 1953

Many groups use names apparently derived from the Romani word _kalo_ or _calo_, meaning "black or "absorbing all light". This closely resembles words for "black" and/or "dark" in Indo-Aryan languages (e.g. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
काल _kāla_ : "black", "of a dark colour"). Likewise the name of the Dom or Dombapeople of North India
North India
– to whom the Roma have genetic, cultural and linguistic links – has come to imply "dark-skinned", in some Indian languages. Hence names such as _kale_ and _calé_ may have originated as an exonym and/or euphemism for Roma.

Other endonyms for Romani include, for example:

* _Ashkali_ (or "Balkan Egyptians" ) – Albanian-speaking Roma communities in the Balkans
Balkans
* _Bashaldé _ – Hungarian- Slovak Romadiaspora in the US from the late 19th century. * _CALé_ is the endonym used by both the Spanish Roma (_gitanos_) and Portuguese Portuguese Roma _ciganos_; _Caló _ is "the language spoken by the _calé_. * _Erlides _ (also _Arlije_, _Yerlii_ or _Arli_) in Greece * _Kaale_ , in Finland
Finland
and Sweden
Sweden
. * Kale , _Kalá_, or _Valshanange_ – Welsh Englishendonym used by some Roma clans in Wales. ( Romanichalalso live in Wales.) * _Khorakhanè_ , _Horahane_ or _Xoraxai_, also known as "Turkish Roma" or " Muslim
Muslim
Roma" – Greek Roma and Turkish Roma . * _Lalleri _, from Austria
Austria
, Germany, and the western Czech Republic (including the former Sudetenland
Sudetenland
). * _ Lovari_, from Hungary, known in Serbia
Serbia
as _Machvaya_, _Machavaya_, _Machwaya_, or _Macwaia_. * _ Luri_, mainly in the Middle East. * _ Lyuli_, in Central Asian countries. * _Rom _ in Italy
Italy
.

* _Roma_ in Romania, commonly known by majority ethnic Romaniansas _Țigani_, including many subgroups defined by occupation:

* Boyashalso known as _Băieşi_, _Lingurari_, _Ludar_, _Ludari_, or _Rudari_, who coalesced in the Apuseni Mountainsof Transylvania
Transylvania
. Boyashor _băieşi_ is a Romanian word for "miners". _Lingurari_ means "spoon makers", _Ludar_,_Ludari_, and_Rudari_ may mean "woodworkers" or "miners". (There is a semantic overlap due to the homophony and/or merging of lemmas with different meanings from at least two different languages: the Serbian _rudar_ miner, and _ruda_ stick, staff, rod, bar, pole (in Hungarian _rúd_, and in Romanian _rudă_. * _Churari _, from Romanian _Ciurari_, "sieve makers", Zlătari "gold smiths" * _ Ursari_ (bear trainers , from Moldovan /Romanian _urs_ "bear"), * _Ungaritza _ blacksmiths and bladesmiths * _Argintari _ silversmiths . * _Aurari _ goldsmiths . * _Florari _ flower sellers . * _ Lăutari_ singers. * _ Kalderash_, from Romanian_caldarar_ meaning tinsmith, tinker, kettlemaker; also in Bessarabiaand Ukraine
Ukraine
.

* Roma or _Romové_, Czech Republic * Roma or _Romská_, Slovakia * Romanichal, in the United Kingdom, emigrated also to the United States , Canada
Canada
and Australia
Australia
* _Romanisæl_ , in Norway
Norway
and Sweden
Sweden
. * _Roms_ or _Manouche_ (from _manush_ "people" in Romani) in France. * _ Romungro_ or Carpathian Romani from eastern Hungary
Hungary
and neighbouring parts of the Carpathians * _ Sinti
Sinti
_ or _Zinti_, predominantly in Germany, and Northern Italy
Italy
; _Sinti_ do not refer to themselves as Roma, although their language is called _Romanes_.

DIASPORA

Main article: Romani diaspora
Romani diaspora

The Roma people have a number of distinct populations, the largest being the Roma and the Iberian Calé or Caló, who reached Anatolia and the Balkans
Balkans
about the early 12th century, from a migration out of northwestern India
India
beginning about 600 years earlier. They settled in present-day Turkey
Turkey
, Greece
Greece
, Serbia
Serbia
, Romania
Romania
, Moldova
Moldova
, Bulgaria , Macedonia , Hungary
Hungary
and Slovakia
Slovakia
, by order of volume, and Spain. From the Balkans, they migrated throughout Europe
Europe
and, in the nineteenth and later centuries, to the Americas. The Romani population in the United States
United States
is estimated at more than one million.

There is no official or reliable count of the Romani populations worldwide. Many Romani refuse to register their ethnic identity in official censuses for fear of discrimination. Others are descendants of intermarriage with local populations and no longer identify only as Romani, or not at all.

As of the early 2000s, an estimated 3.8 to 9 million Romani people lived in Europe
Europe
and Asia Minor . although some Romani organizations estimate numbers as high as 14 million. Significant Romani populations are found in the Balkan peninsula
Balkan peninsula
, in some Central European states, in Spain
Spain
, France
France
, Russia
Russia
, and Ukraine
Ukraine
. The total number of Romani living outside Europe
Europe
are primarily in the Middle East and North Africa and in the Americas, and are estimated in total at more than two million. Some countries do not collect data by ethnicity.

The Romani people
Romani people
identify as distinct ethnicities based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences, and self-designation.

ORIGIN

Main article: Origin of the Romani people

Findings suggest an Indian origin for Roma. Because Romani groups did not keep chronicles of their history or have oral accounts of it, most hypotheses about the Romani's migration early history are based on linguistic theory. There is also no known record of a migration from India
India
to Europe
Europe
from medieval times that can be connected indisputably to Roma.

_SHAHNAMEH_ LEGEND

According to a legend reported in the Persian epic poem, the _ Shahnameh
Shahnameh
_, from Iran
Iran
and repeated by several modern authors, the Sasanian
Sasanian
king Bahrām V Gōr learned towards the end of his reign (421–39) that the poor could not afford to enjoy music, and he asked the king of India
India
to send him ten thousand _luris_, male and female lute-playing experts. When the luris arrived, Bahrām gave each one an ox and a donkey and a donkey-load of wheat so that they could live on agriculture and play music for free for the poor. But the luris ate the oxen and the wheat and came back a year later with their cheeks hollowed with hunger. The king, angered with their having wasted what he had given them, ordered them to pack up their bags and go wandering around the world.

LINGUISTIC EVIDENCE

The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that the roots of the Romani language
Romani language
lie in India: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a large part of the basic lexicon, for example, regarding body parts or daily routines.

More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi
Hindi
and Punjabi . It shares many phonetic features with Marwari , while its grammar is closest to Bengali .

Romani and Domari share some similarities: agglutination of postpositions of the second Layer (or case marking clitics) to the nominal stem, concord markers for the past tense, the neutralisation of gender marking in the plural, and the use of the oblique case as an accusative. This has prompted much discussion about the relationships between these two languages. Domari was once thought a "sister language" of Romani, the two languages having split after the departure from the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
– but more recent research suggests that the differences between them are significant enough to treat them as two separate languages within the Central zone (Hindustani ) group of languages. The Dom and the Rom therefore likely descend from two different migration waves out of India, separated by several centuries.

In phonology , Romani language
Romani language
shares a number of isoglosses with the Central branch of Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
especially in the realization of some sounds of the Old Indo-Aryan. However, it also preserves a number of dental clusters. In regards to verb morphology, Romani follows the exact same pattern of northwestern languages such as Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique enclitic pronouns as person markers, lending credence to the theory of their Central Indian origin and a subsequent migration to northwestern India. Though the retention of dental clusters suggests a break from central languages during the transition from Old to Middle Indo-Aryan, the overall morphology suggests that the language participated in some of the significant developments leading toward the emergence of New Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
. Numerals in the Romani , Domari and Lomavren languages, with Hindi
Hindi
and Persian forms for comparison. Note that Romani 7–9 are borrowed from Greek.

HINDI ROMANI DOMARI LOMAVREN PERSIAN

1 ek ekh, jekh yika yak, yek yak, yek

2 do duj dī lui du, do

3 tīn trin tærən tərin se

4 cār štar štar išdör čahār

5 pāñc pandž pandž pendž pandž

6 che šov šaš šeš šaš, šeš

7 sāt ifta xaut haft haft

8 āţh oxto xaišt hašt hašt

9 nau inja na nu nuh, noh

10 das deš des las dah

20 bīs biš wīs vist bist

100 sau šel saj saj sad

GENETIC EVIDENCE

Two Gypsies in Spain, by Francisco Iturrino

Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India
India
and migrated as a group. According to the study, the ancestors of present scheduled tribes and scheduled caste populations of northern India
India
, traditionally referred to collectively as the Ḍoma, are the likely ancestral populations of modern European Roma. In December 2012, additional findings appeared to confirm the "Roma came from a single group that left northwestern India
India
about 1,500 years ago." They reached the Balkans
Balkans
about 900 years ago and then spread throughout Europe. The team found that, despite some isolation, the Roma were "genetically similar to other Europeans."

Genetic research published in _ European Journal of Human Genetics_ "has revealed that over 70% of males belong to a single lineage that appears unique to the Roma."

Genetic evidence supports the medieval migration from India. The Romani have been described as "a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations," while a number of common Mendelian disorders among Romanies from all over Europe
Europe
indicates "a common origin and founder effect ."

A study from 2001 by Gresham et al. suggests "a limited number of related founders, compatible with a small group of migrants splitting from a distinct caste or tribal group." The same study found that "a single lineage… found across Romani populations, accounts for almost one-third of Romani males." A 2004 study by Morar et al. concluded that the Romani population "was founded approximately 32–40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring approximately 16–25 generations ago."

Haplogroup H-M82 is a major lineage cluster in the Balkan Romani group, accounting for approximately 60% of the total. Haplogroup H is uncommon in Europe
Europe
but present in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and Sri Lanka .

A study of 444 people representing three different ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
found mtDNA haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively).

Y-DNA composition of Romani in the Republic of Macedonia, based on 57 samples:

* Haplogroup H – 59.6% * Haplogroup E – 29.8% * Haplogroup I – 5.3% * Haplogroup R – 3.%, of which the half are R1b
R1b
and many are R1a
R1a
* Haplogroup G – 1.8%

A Roma makes a complaint to a local magistrate in Hungary
Hungary
, by Sándor Bihari, 1886

Y-DNA Haplogroup H1a occurs in Romani at frequencies 7–70%. Unlike ethnic Hungarians, among Hungarian and Slovakian Romani subpopulations, Haplogroup E-M78 and I1 usually occur above 10% and sometimes over 20%. While among Slovakian and TiszavasvariRomani the dominant haplogroup is H1a, among TokajRomani is Haplogroup J2a (23%), while among TaktaharkányRomani is Haplogroup I2a (21%). Five, rather consistent founder lineages throughout the subpopulations, were found among Romani – J-M67 and J-M92 (J2), H-M52 (H1a1), and I-P259 (I1?). Haplogroup I-P259 as H is not found at frequencies of over 3 percent among host populations, while haplogroups E and I are absent in South Asia
South Asia
. The lineages E-V13, I-P37 (I2a) and R-M17 (R1a) may represent gene flow from the host populations, excluding the Z93 branch of R1a, which is most frequent among Romani. Bulgarian, Romanian and Greek Romani are dominated by Haplogroup H-M82 (H1a1), while among Spanish Romani J2 is prevalent. Among Kosovo
Kosovo
and Belgrade
Belgrade
Romani Haplogroup H prevails, while among Vojvodina
Vojvodina
Romani, H drops to 7% and E-V13 rises to a prevailing level.

Among non-Roma Europeans Haplogroup H is extremely rare, peaking at 5% among Hungarians
Hungarians
, although the carriers might be of Romani origin. H is found at 2% among Slovaks, 2% among Croats
Croats
, 2% among Macedonians, 1% among Serbs
Serbs
, 1% among Bulgarians, 1% among Austrians and Swiss, 1% among Turks . According to autosomal analyses, between 2% and 4% of ethnic Romaniansbelong to South Asian genetics, which is apart from Middle Eastern and East Asian, while Hungarians
Hungarians
stood under 1%.

POSSIBLE MIGRATION ROUTE

They may have emerged from the modern Indian state of Rajasthan
Rajasthan
, migrating to the northwest (the Punjab region
Punjab region
, Sindh
Sindh
and Baluchistan of the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
) around 250 BC. Their subsequent westward migration, possibly in waves, is now believed to have occurred beginning in about AD 500. It has also been suggested that emigration from India
India
may have taken place in the context of the raids by Mahmud of Ghazni . As these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
. The author Ralph Lilley Turner theorised a central Indian origin of Romani followed by a migration to Northwest India
India
as it shares a number of ancient isoglosses with Central Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
in relation to realization of some sounds of Old Indo-Aryan. This is lended further credence by its sharing the exact same pattern of northwestern languages such as Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique enclitic pronouns as person markers. The overall morphology suggests that Romani participated in some of the significant developments leading toward the emergence of New Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
, thus indicating that the proto-Romani did not leave the Indian subcontinent until late in the second half of the first millenium. The migration of the Romanies through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe
Europe

HISTORY

Main article: History of the Romani people

ARRIVAL IN EUROPE

Though according to a 2012 genomic study, the Romani reached the Balkans
Balkans
as early as the 12th century, the first historical records of the Romani reaching south-eastern Europe
Europe
are from the 14th century: in 1322 after leaving Ireland on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Irish Franciscan
Franciscan
monk Symon Semeonisencountered a migrant group of Romani outside the town of Heraklion
Heraklion
(Candia), in Crete
Crete
, calling them "the descendants of Cain
Cain
"; his account is the earliest surviving description by a Western chronicler of the Romani in Europe. In 1350 Ludolphusof Sudheimmentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called _Mandapolos_, a word some think derives from the Greek word _mantes_ (meaning prophet or fortune teller). Around 1360, a fiefdom , called the _ Feudum Acinganorum_ was established in Corfu
Corfu
, which mainly used Romani serfs and to which the Romani on the island were subservient. By the 1440s, they were recorded in Germany; and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden. Some Romani migrated from Persia
Persia
through North Africa, reaching the Iberian Peninsula
Iberian Peninsula
in the 15th century. The two currents met in France. _ First arrival of the Romanies outside Bern
Bern
in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden_ ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen
Saracen
-style clothing and weapons (Spiezer Schilling , p. 749)

EARLY MODERN HISTORY

An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves in Bucharest
Bucharest
.

Their early history shows a mixed reception. Although 1385 marks the first recorded transaction for a Romani slave in Wallachia
Wallachia
, they were issued safe conduct by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1417. Romanies were ordered expelled from the Meissen region of Germany
Germany
in 1416, Lucerne
Lucerne
in 1471, Milan
Milan
in 1493, France
France
in 1504, Catalonia
Catalonia
in 1512, Sweden
Sweden
in 1525, England in 1530 (see Egyptians Act 1530), and Denmark in 1536. In 1510, any Romani found in Switzerland were ordered put to death, with similar rules established in England in 1554, and Denmark in 1589, whereas Portugal
Portugal
began deportations of Romanies to its colonies in 1538.

A 1596 English statute, however, gave Romanies special privileges that other wanderers lacked; France
France
passed a similar law in 1683. Catherine the Great of Russia
Russia
declared the Romanies "crown slaves" (a status superior to serfs ), but also kept them out of certain parts of the capital . In 1595, Ştefan Răzvanovercame his birth into slavery, and became the Voivode
Voivode
(Prince ) of Moldavia
Moldavia
.

Since a royal edict by Charles II in 1695, Spanish gypsies had been restricted to certain towns. An official edict in 1717 restricted them to only 75 towns and districts, so that they would not be concentrated in any one region. In the Great Gypsy Round-up, Romani were arrested and imprisoned by the Spanish Monarchyin 1749.

Although some Romani could be kept as slaves in Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia
Moldavia
until abolition in 1856, the majority traveled as free nomads with their wagons, as alluded to in the spoked wheel symbol in the Romanies flag . Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic cleansing , abduction of their children, and forced labor . In England, Romani were sometimes expelled from small communities or hanged; in France, they were branded and their heads were shaved; in Moravia
Moravia
and Bohemia
Bohemia
, the women were marked by their ears being severed. As a result, large groups of the Romani moved to the East, toward Poland
Poland
, which was more tolerant, and Russia, where the Romani were treated more fairly as long as they paid the annual taxes.

MODERN HISTORY

Romani began emigrating to North America in colonial times, with small groups recorded in Virginia
Virginia
and French Louisiana . Larger-scale Roma emigration to the United States
United States
began in the 1860s, with groups of Romanichalfrom Great Britain. The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Romani also settled in South America. Sinti
Sinti
and other Romani about to be deported from Germany, May 22, 1940.

World War II

Main article: Porajmos
Porajmos

During World War II
World War II
, the Nazis
Nazis
embarked on a systematic genocide of the Romani, a process known in Romani as the _ Porajmos
Porajmos
_. Romanies were marked for extermination and sentenced to forced labor and imprisonment in concentration camps .

They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen (paramilitary death squads) on the Eastern Front . The total number of victims has been variously estimated at between 220,000 and 1,500,000; even the lower figure would make the Porajmos
Porajmos
one of the largest mass killings in history.

The treatment of Romani in Nazi partner states differed markedly. In the Independent State of Croatia
Croatia
, the separatist Ustasaorganization physically killed around 25,000 Roma, almost the entire Roma population. The concentration camp system of Jasenovac , run by the Ustasamilitia and the Croat political police, were responsible for the deaths of between 15,000 and 20,000 Roma.

Post-1945

In Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
, they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum," and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population. This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future welfare payments, with misinformation, or after administering drugs.

An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report (December 2005), concluded that the Communist authorities had practiced an assimilation policy towards Romanis, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community. .. The problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists," said the Czech Public Defender of Rights, recommending state compensation for women affected between 1973 and 1991. New cases were revealed up until 2004, in both the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia. Germany, Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and Switzerland "all have histories of coercive sterilization of minorities and other groups."

SOCIETY AND TRADITIONAL CULTURE

Main article: Romani society and culture

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_ Münster, Sebastian (1552), "A Gipsy Family", The Cosmographia_ (facsimile of a woodcut), Basle. Nomadic Roma family traveling in Moldavia
Moldavia
, 1837

The traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family . Virginityis essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Romani practice of child marriage . Romani law establishes that the man's family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow this rule.

Once married, the woman joins the husband's family, where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs, as well as to take care of her in-laws. The power structure in the traditional Romani household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men in general have more authority than women. Women gain respect and authority as they get older. Young wives begin gaining authority once they have children.

Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by Hindu
Hindu
purity laws ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma (and by most older generations of Sinti
Sinti
). This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce emissions), as well as the rest of the lower body. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is considered impure for forty days after giving birth.

Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. In contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Romani dead must be buried. Cremation
Cremation
and burial are both known from the time of the Rigveda
Rigveda
, and both are widely practiced in Hinduism
Hinduism
today (although the tendency is for Hindus to practice cremation, while some communities in South India
India
tend to bury their dead). Some animals are also considered impure, for instance cats because they lick their hindquarters. Horses, in contrast, are not considered impure because they cannot do so.

BELONGING AND EXCLUSION

Main articles: Romanipenand Gadjo (non-Romani)

ROMANIPEN (also _romanypen_, _romanipe_, _romanype_, _romanimos_, _romaimos_, _romaniya_) is a complicated term of Romani philosophy that means totality of the Romani spirit, Romani culture , Romani Law , being a Romani, a set of Romani strains.

An ethnic Romani is considered a Gadjo (non-Romani)in the Romani society if he has no Romanipen. Sometimes a non-Romani may be considered a Romani if he has Romanipen. Usually this is an adopted child. As a concept, Romanipenhas been the subject of interest to numerous academic observers. It has been hypothesized that it owes more to a framework of culture rather than simply an adherence to historically received rules.

RELIGION

Christian Romanies during the pilgrimage at Saintes-Maries-de-la-Merin France, 1980s

Some Romani people
Romani people
are Christian, others Muslim
Muslim
, some retained their ancient faith of Hinduism
Hinduism
from their original homeland of India
India
, others have their own religion and political organization.

Beliefs

The ancestors of modern-day Romani people
Romani people
were previously Hindu
Hindu
, but adopted Christianity
Christianity
or Islam
Islam
depending on their respective regions through which they had migrated. Muslim Romaare found in Turkey
Turkey
, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
, Albania
Albania
, Egypt
Egypt
, Kosovo
Kosovo
, Macedonia , and Bulgaria
Bulgaria
, forming a very significant proportion of the Romani people. In neighboring countries such as Greece
Greece
most of the Romani inhabitants follow the practice of Orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
. It is likely that the adherence to differing religions prevented families from engaging in intermarriage.

Deities And Saints

Blessed Ceferino Giménez Mallais considered a patron saint of the Romani people
Romani people
in Roman Catholicism. Saint Sarah, or Sara e Kali, has also been venerated as a patron saint in the same manner as the Blessed Ceferino Giménez Malla. Since the turn of the 21st century, Sara e Kaliis understood to have been Kali
Kali
an Indian deity brought from India
India
by the refugee ancestors of the Roma people; as the Roma became Christianized, she was absorbed in a syncretic way and worshipped as a saint. Gypsy fortune-teller in Poland, by Antoni Kozakiewicz , 1884

Mother Goddess figurines have been found in the excavations of the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilisation in Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, in the Sindh – Punjab – Haryana
Haryana
area , and Mata Kali
Kali
is still worshipped in India. Therefore, Saint Sarahis now increasingly being considered as "a Romani Goddess, the Protectress of the Roma" and an "indisputable link with Mother India".

Ceremonies And Practices

Romanies often adopt the dominant religion of their host country in the event that a ceremony associated with a formal religious institution is necessary, such as a baptism or funeral (their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship remain preserved regardless of such adoption processes). The Roma continue to practice " Shaktism
Shaktism
", a practice with origins in India, whereby a female consort is required for the worship of a god. Adherence to this practice means that for the Roma who worship the Christian God, prayer is conducted through the Virgin Mary
Virgin Mary
, or her mother, Saint Anne
Saint Anne
Shaktism
Shaktism
continues over one thousand years after the people's separation from India.

Besides the Roma elders, who serve as spiritual leaders, priests, churches, or bibles do not exist among the Romanies – the only exception is the Pentecostal Roma.

Balkans

Costume of a Romani woman (most likely Muslim Roma).

For the Roma communities that have resided in the Balkans
Balkans
for numerous centuries, often referred to as "Turkish Gypsies", the following histories apply for religious beliefs:

* Albania
Albania
– The majority of Albania's Roma people are Muslims. * Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Montenegro
Montenegro
Islam
Islam
is the dominant religion among the Roma. * Bulgaria
Bulgaria
– In northwestern Bulgaria, in addition to Sofia
Sofia
and Kyustendil, Christianity
Christianity
is the dominant faith among Romani people, though a major conversion to Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
among Romani people
Romani people
has occurred. In southeastern Bulgaria, Islam
Islam
is the dominant religion among Romani people, with a smaller section of the Romani population, declaring themselves as "Turks", continuing to mix ethnicity with Islam. * Croatia
Croatia
– Following the Second World War , a large number of Muslim Romarelocated to Croatia
Croatia
(the majority moving from Kosovo). * Greece
Greece
– The descendants of groups, such as Sepečides or Sevljara, Kalpazaja, Filipidži and others, living in Athens, Thessaloniki, central Greece
Greece
and Greek Macedonia are mostly Orthodox Christians, with Islamic beliefs held by a minority of the population. Following the Peace Treaty of Lausanne of 1923, many Muslim Romamoved to Turkey
Turkey
in the subsequent population exchange between Turkey
Turkey
and Greece.

Muslim
Muslim
Romanies in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(around 1900)

* Kosovo
Kosovo
– The vast majority of the Roma population in Kosovo
Kosovo
is Muslim. * Macedonia – The majority of Roma people are followers of Islam
Islam
.

* Romania
Romania
– According to the 2002 census , the majority of Romani minority living in Romania
Romania
are Orthodox Christians , while 6.4% are Pentecostals , 3.8% Roman Catholics , 3% Reformed , 1.1% Greek Catholics , 0.9% Baptists , 0.8% Seventh-Day Adventists . In Dobruja , there is a small community that are Muslim
Muslim
and also speak Turkish. * Serbia
Serbia
– Most Roma people in Serbia
Serbia
are Orthodox Christian, but there are some Muslim Romain Southern Serbia, who are mainly refugees from Kosovo.

Other Regions

In Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia
Russia
the Roma populations are also Muslim
Muslim
as the families of Balkan migrants continue to live in these locations. Their ancestors settled on the Crimean peninsula during the 17th and 18th centuries, but then migrated to Ukraine, southern Russia
Russia
and the Povolzhie (along the Volga River). Formally, Islam
Islam
is the religion that these communities align themselves with and the people are recognized for their staunch preservation of the Romani language
Romani language
and identity.

Most Eastern European Romanies are Roman Catholic , Eastern Orthodox , or Muslim
Muslim
. Those in Western Europe
Europe
and the United States
United States
are mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant
Protestant
– in southern Spain, many Romanies are Pentecostal , but this is a small minority that has emerged in contemporary times. In Egypt, the Romanies are split into Christian and Muslim
Muslim
populations.

MUSIC

Main article: Romani music Young Hungarian Romani performing a traditional dance

Romani musicplays an important role in Central and Eastern European countries such as Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
, Albania, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Romani musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
and Johannes Brahms
Johannes Brahms
. The _lăutari _ who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Romani.

Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers in the _lăutari_ tradition are Taraful Haiducilor. Bulgaria's popular "wedding music", too, is almost exclusively performed by Romani musicians such as Ivo Papasov, a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre and Bulgarian pop-folk singer Azis.

Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra, are Romani, as are many prominent performers of manele . Zdob şi Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova
Moldova
, although not Romanies themselves, draw heavily on Romani music, as do Spitalul de Urgenţăin Romania, Shantelin Germany, Goran Bregovićin Serbia, Darko Rundekin Croatia, Beirut and Gogol Bordello in the United States.

Another tradition of Romani musicis the genre of the Romani brass band , with such notable practitioners as Boban Markovićof Serbia, and the brass _lăutari_ groups Fanfare Ciocărliaand Fanfare din Cozmesti of Romania.

Many musical instruments like violins and guitars are said to have originated from the Romani. Many dances such as the flamenco of Spain and Oriental dances of Egypt
Egypt
are also said to have originated from them.

The distinctive sound of Romani musichas also strongly influenced bolero , jazz , and flamenco (especially _cante jondo _) in Spain. European-style gypsy jazz ("jazz Manouche" or " Sinti
Sinti
jazz") is still widely practiced among the original creators (the Romanie People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt
Django Reinhardt
. Contemporary artists in this tradition known internationally include Stochelo Rosenberg, Biréli Lagrène, Jimmy Rosenberg, Paulus Schäfer and Tchavolo Schmitt.

The Romanies of Turkey
Turkey
have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays. Their music is usually performed on instruments such as the darbuka , gırnata and cümbüş .

CONTEMPORARY ART AND CULTURE

Main article: Romani contemporary art

Romani contemporary artis art created by Romani people. It emerged at the climax of the process that began in Central and Eastern Europe in the late-1980s, when the interpretation of the cultural practice of minorities was enabled by a paradigm shift, commonly referred to in specialist literature as the Cultural turn. The idea of the "cultural turn" was introduced; and this was also the time when the notion of cultural democracy became crystallized in the debates carried on at various public forums. Civil society
Civil society
gained strength, and civil politics appeared, which is a prerequisite for cultural democracy. This shift of attitude in scholarly circles derived from concerns specific not only to ethnicity, but also to society, gender and class.

LANGUAGE

Main article: Romani language
Romani language

Most Romani speak one of several dialects of the Romani language
Romani language
, an Indo-Aryan language, with roots in Sanskrit. They also often speak the languages of the countries they live in. Typically, they also incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of those countries and especially words for terms that the Romani language does not have. Most of the _Ciganos_ of Portugal, the Gitanos of Spain, the Romanichalof the UK, and Scandinavian Travellers have lost their knowledge of pure Romani, and respectively speak the mixed languages Caló , Angloromany, and Scandoromani. Most of the speaker communities in these regions consist of later immigrants from eastern or central Europe.

There are no concrete statistics for the number of Romani speakers, both in Europe
Europe
and globally. However, a conservative estimation has been made at 3.5 million speakers in Europe
Europe
and a further 500,000 elsewhere, although the actual number may be considerably higher. This makes Romani the second largest minority language in Europe, behind Catalan .

In relation to dialect diversity, Romani works in the same way as most other European languages. Cross-dialect communication is dominated by the following features:

* All Romani speakers are bilingual , and are accustomed to borrowing words or phrases from a second language ; this makes it difficult when trying to communicate with Romanis from different countries * Romani was traditionally a language shared between extended family and a close-knit community. This has resulted in the inability to comprehend dialects from other countries. This is the reason Romani is sometimes associated as being number of different languages. * There is no tradition or example of a literary standard for Romani speakers to use as a guideline for their language use.

PERSECUTIONS

Main article: Antiziganism

HISTORICAL PERSECUTION

One of the most enduring persecutions against the Romani people
Romani people
was their enslavement. Slavery was widely practiced in medieval Europe
Europe
, including the territory of present-day Romania
Romania
from before the founding of the principalities of Moldavia
Moldavia
and Wallachia
Wallachia
in the 13th–14th century. Legislation decreed that all the Romani living in these states, as well as any others who immigrated there, were classified as slaves. Slavery was gradually abolished during the 1840s and 1850s.

The exact origins of slavery in the Danubian Principalitiesare not known. There is some debate over whether the Romani people
Romani people
came to Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia
Moldavia
as free men or were brought as slaves. Historian Nicolae Iorgaassociated the Roma people's arrival with the 1241 Mongol invasion of Europe
Europe
and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, in which the Romanianstook the Roma as slaves from the Mongols
Mongols
and preserved their status to use their labor. Other historians believe that the Romani were enslaved, while captured during the battles, with the Tatars. The practice of enslaving war prisoners may also have been adopted from the Mongols.

Some Romani may have been slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols or Tatars, but most of them migrated from south of the Danube
Danube
at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia
Wallachia
. By then, the institution of slavery was already established in Moldavia
Moldavia
and possibly in both principalities. After the Roma migrated into the area, slavery became a widespread practice by the majority population. The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population.

Some branches of the Romani people
Romani people
reached Western Europe
Europe
in the 15th century, fleeing as refugees from the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans. Although the Romani were refugees from the conflicts in southeastern Europe, they were often suspected by certain populations in the West of being associated with the Ottoman invasion because of their physical features seemed related to the Turks. (The Imperial Diet at Landau and Freiburg in 1496–1498 declared that the Romani were spies of the Turks). In Western Europe, such suspicions and discrimination against a people who were a visible minority resulted in persecution, often violent, with efforts to achieve ethnic cleansing until the modern era. In times of social tension, the Romani suffered as scapegoats; for instance, they were accused of bringing the plague during times of epidemics .

In 1749, Spain
Spain
conducted _The Great Roundup_ of Romani (Gitanos) in its territory. The Spanish Crown ordered a nationwide raid that led to the break-up of families as all able-bodied men were interned into forced labor camps in a half-hearted attempt at ethnic cleansing. The measure was eventually reversed and the Gypsies were freed as protests began to arise in different communities, sedentary gypsies being highly esteemed and protected in rural Spain.

Later in the 19th century, Romani immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English-speaking world. ( Argentina
Argentina
in 1880 prohibited immigration by Roma, as did the United States
United States
in 1885.) _ Deportation of Roma from Asperg, Germany, 1940 (photograph by the Rassenhygienische Forschungsstelle_)

FORCED ASSIMILATION

In the Habsburg Monarchyunder Maria Theresa (1740–1780), a series of decrees tried to force the Romanies to permanently settle , removed rights to horse and wagon ownership (1754), renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Romani boys into military service if they had no trade (1761), forced them to register with the local authorities (1767), and prohibited marriage between Romanies (1773). Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the use of the Romani language, punishable by flogging.

In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanoswere under way as early as 1619, when Gitanoswere forcibly settled, the use of the Romani language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages. King Charles III took on a more progressive attitude to Gitano assimilation, proclaiming their equal rights as Spanish citizens and ending official denigration based on their race. While he prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language , Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades, he also forbade any form of discrimination against them or barring them from the guilds. The use of the word _gitano_ was also forbidden to further assimilation, substituted for "New Castilian", which was also applied to former Jews and Muslims.

Most historians agree that Charles III pragmática failed due to three main reasons, ultimately derived from its implementation outside major cities and in marginal areas: The difficulty the Gitano community faced in changing its nomadic lifestyle, the marginal lifestyle in which the community had been driven by society and the serious difficulties of applying the pragmática in the fields of education and work. One author ascribes its failure to the overall rejection by the wider population of the integration of the Gitanos.

Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway
Norway
, where a law was passed in 1896 permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions. This resulted in some 1,500 Romani children being taken from their parents in the 20th century.

HOLOCAUST

Main article: Porajmos
Porajmos

The persecution of the Romanies reached a peak during World War II
World War II
in the _Porajmos_, the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis
Nazis
during the Holocaust . In 1935, the Nuremberg laws
Nuremberg laws
stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany
Germany
of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps . The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis
Nazis
during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania
Romania
and Hungary.

Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Romanis, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims. Ian Hancock , director of the Program of Romani Studies at the University of Texas
Texas
at Austin , proposes a figure of up to a million and a half, while an estimate of between 220,000 and 500,000 was made by Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum. In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
was so thorough that the Bohemian Romanilanguage became extinct.

CONTEMPORARY ISSUES

Distribution of the Romani people
Romani people
in Europe
Europe
(2007 Council of Europe
Europe
"average estimates", totalling 9.8 million) Antiziganist protests in Sofia
Sofia
, 2011 Main article: Modern Antiziganism

In Europe, Romani people
Romani people
are associated with poverty, are accused of high rates of crime and behaviours that are perceived by the rest of the population as being antisocial or inappropriate. Partly for this reason, discrimination against the Romani people
Romani people
has continued to the present day, although efforts are being made to address them. Amnesty International
Amnesty International
reports continued instances of Antizigan discrimination during the 20th Century, particularly in Romania, Serbia, Slovakia
Slovakia
, Hungary
Hungary
, Slovenia
Slovenia
, and Kosovo
Kosovo
. The European Union has recognized that discrimination against Romani must be addressed, and with the national Roma integration strategy they encourage member states to work towards greater Romani inclusion and upholding the rights of the Romani in the European union . *projections for Serbia
Serbia
also include up to 97.000 Roma IDPs
IDPs
in Serbia
Serbia

ROMA ESTIMATE PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

COUNTRY

PERCENT

Bulgaria
Bulgaria
  10.33%

Macedonia   9.59%

Slovakia
Slovakia
  9.17%

Romania
Romania
  8.32%

Serbia*   8.18%

Hungary
Hungary
  7.05%

Turkey
Turkey
  3.83%

Albania
Albania
  3.18%

Montenegro
Montenegro
  2.95%

Moldova
Moldova
  2.49%

Greece
Greece
  2.47%

Czech Republic
Czech Republic
  1.96%

Spain
Spain
  1.62%

Kosovo
Kosovo
  1.47%

The Romanis of Kosovo
Kosovo
have been severely persecuted by ethnic Albanians since the end of the Kosovo
Kosovo
War , and the region's Romani community is, for the most part, annihilated.

Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
carried out a policy of sterilization of Romani women, starting in 1973. The dissidents of the Charter 77denounced it in 1977–78 as a genocide , but the practice continued through the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
of 1989. A 2005 report by the Czech government's independent ombudsman, Otakar Motejl, identified dozens of cases of coercive sterilization between 1979 and 2001, and called for criminal investigations and possible prosecution against several health care workers and administrators.

In 2008, following the brutal rape and subsequent murder of an Italian woman in Rome
Rome
at the hands of a young man from a local Romani encampment, the Italian government declared that Italy's Romani population represented a national security risk and that swift action was required to address the _emergenza nomadi_ (_nomad emergency_). Specifically, officials in the Italian government accused the Romanies of being responsible for rising crime rates in urban areas.

The 2008 deaths of Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic , two Roma children who drowned while Italian beach-goers remained unperturbed, brought international attention to the relationship between Italians and the Roma people. Reviewing the state of play in 2012, one Belgian magazine observed:

On International Roma Day, which falls on 8 April, the significant proportion of Europe's 12 million Roma who live in deplorable conditions will not have much to celebrate. And poverty is not the only worry for the community. Ethnic tensions are on the rise. In 2008, Roma camps came under attack in Italy, intimidation by racist parliamentarians is the norm in Hungary. Speaking in 1993, Václav Havel prophetically remarked that "the treatment of the Roma is a litmus test for democracy": and democracy has been found wanting. The consequences of the transition to capitalism have been disastrous for the Roma. Under communism they had jobs, free housing and schooling. Now many are unemployed, many are losing their homes and racism is increasingly rewarded with impunity.

The 2016 Pew Research poll found that Italians, in particular, hold strong anti-Roma views, with 82% of Italians expressing negative opinions about Roma. In Greece
Greece
67%, in Hungary
Hungary
64%, in France
France
61%, in Spain
Spain
49%, in Poland
Poland
47%, in the UK 45%, in Sweden
Sweden
42%, in Germany 40%, and in the Netherlands
Netherlands
37% have an unfavourable view of Roma.

FORCED REPATRIATION

Main article: Expulsion of Romani people
Romani people
from France
France

In the summer of 2010 French authorities demolished at least 51 illegal Roma camps and began the process of repatriating their residents to their countries of origin. This followed tensions between the French state and Roma communities, which had been heightened after French police opened fire and killed a traveller who drove through a police checkpoint, hitting an officer, and attempted to hit two more officers at another checkpoint. In retaliation a group of Roma, armed with hatchets and iron bars, attacked the police station of Saint-Aignan, toppled traffic lights and road signs and burned three cars. The French government has been accused of perpetrating these actions to pursue its political agenda. EU Justice Commissioner Viviane Redingstated that the European Commission
European Commission
should take legal action against France
France
over the issue, calling the deportations "a disgrace". Purportedly, a leaked file dated 5 August, sent from the Interior Ministry to regional police chiefs included the instruction: "Three hundred camps or illegal settlements must be cleared within three months, Roma camps are a priority."

ORGANIZATIONS AND PROJECTS

* World Romani Congress * European Roma Rights Centre * Gypsy Lore Society * International Romani Union * Decade of Roma Inclusion, multinational project * International Romani DayApril 8

ARTISTIC REPRESENTATIONS

Paris Bordone, c. 1530, Elizabeth , at right, is shown as a gypsy fortune-teller Main article: Romani people in fiction

Many depictions of Romani people
Romani people
in literature and art present romanticized narratives of their supposed mystical powers of fortune telling or their supposed irascible or passionate temper paired with an indomitable love of freedom and a habit of criminality. Romani were a popular subject in Venetian painting from the time of Giorgione
Giorgione
at the start of the 16th century; the inclusion of such a figure adds an exotic oriental flavour to scenes. A Venetian Renaissance painting by Paris Bordone(ca. 1530, Strasbourg
Strasbourg
) of the Holy Family
Holy Family
in Egypt makes Elizabeth , a gypsy fortune-teller ; the scene is otherwise located in a distinctly European landscape.

Particularly notable are classics like the story _ Carmen
Carmen
_ by Prosper Mérimée and the opera based on it by Georges Bizet
Georges Bizet
, Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
's _ The Hunchback of Notre Dame_, Herge's _ The Castafiore Emerald_ and Miguel de Cervantes
Miguel de Cervantes
' _La Gitanilla_. The Romani were also depicted in _A Midsummer Night\'s Dream _, _ As You Like It
As You Like It
_, _ Othello
Othello
_ and _The Tempest _, all by William Shakespeare
William Shakespeare
.

The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
, a classic example being the 1975 _Tabor ukhodit v Nebo _. A more realistic depiction of contemporary Romani in the Balkans
Balkans
, featuring Romani lay actors speaking in their native dialects, although still playing with established clichés of a Romani penchant for both magic and crime, was presented by Emir Kusturicain his _Time of the Gypsies _ (1988) and _ Black Cat, White Cat_ (1998). The films of Tony Gatlif , a French director of Romani ethnicity, like _Les Princes_ (1983), _ Latcho Drom_ (1993) and _Gadjo Dilo_ (1997) also portray gypsy life.

*

August von Pettenkofen
August von Pettenkofen
: _Gipsy Children_ (1885), Hermitage Museum
Hermitage Museum
*

Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
: _The Caravans – Gypsy Camp near Arles_ (1888, oil on canvas) *

Carmen
Carmen
*

Esméralda

SEE ALSO

* _ Romani people
Romani people
portal

* Environmental racism in Europe
Europe
* King of the Gypsies * R v Krymowski_ * Rajasthani people * Timeline of Romani history

GENERAL

* Itinerant groups in Europe
Europe
* Nomadic tribes in India
India

LISTS

* List of Romani people * List of Romani settlements

NOTES

* ^ Most estimates for numbers of Romani victims of the Holocaust fall between 200,000 and 500,000, although figures ranging between 90,000 and 4 million have been proposed. Lower estimates do not include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed study by Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of 220,000, probably higher, possibly closer to 500,000. Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas
Texas
at Austin, argues in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000.

REFERENCES

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* ^ _Sterilised Roma accuse Czechs_, BBC, 12 March 2007 * ^ "For Gypsies, Eugenics is a Modern Problem – Czech Practice Dates to Soviet Era", _ Newsdesk_, June 12, 2006 * ^ "Final Statement of the Public Defender of Rights in the Matter of Sterilisations Performed in Contravention of the Law and Proposed Remedial Measures". The Office of The Public Defender of Rights. December 23, 2005. Archived from the original on 2007-11-28. Retrieved 2010-09-15. * ^ Hooper, John (November 2, 2007). "Italian woman\'s murder prompts expulsion threat to Romanians". _The Guardian_. London. * ^ de Zulueta, Tana (2009-03-30). "Italy\'s new ghetto?". _The Guardian_. London. * ^ Kooijman, Hellen (6 April 2012). "Bleak horizon". EU: Presseurop. Retrieved 6 April 2012. * ^ "Negative opinions about Roma, Muslims in several European nations". Pew Research Center
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SOURCES

* Achim, Viorel (2004). _The Roma in Romanian History_. Budapest: Central European UniversityPress. ISBN 963-9241-84-9 . * Fraser, Angus (1992), _The Gypsies_, Oxford, UK: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-15967-3 * Hancock, Ian (2001), _Ame sam e rromane džene_ , New York: The Open Society Institute * Hancock, Ian F. (2002) . _Ame Sam E Rromane Dz̆ene_. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN 978-1-902806-19-8 . * Helsinki Watch (1991), _Struggling for Ethnic Identity: Czechoslovakia's Endangered Gypsies_, New York: Helsinki Watch * Hübshmanová, Milena (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". _Rombase_. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz. * Lemon, Alaina (2000). _Between Two Fires: Gypsy Performance and Romani Memory from Pushkin to Post-Socialism_. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-2456-3 . * Matras, Yaron; Popov, Vesselin (2001). _Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire_. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press. * Matras, Yaron (2005). _Romani: A Linguistic Introduction_. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02330-6 . * Matras, Yaron (2002). _Romani: A Linguistic Introduction_. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63165-5 . Retrieved 2009-07-16. * "Gypsies, The World's Outsiders", _National Geographic_, pp. 72–101, April 2001 * Nemeth, David J. (2002). _The Gypsy-American_. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen. * Sutherland, Ann (1986). _Gypsies: The Hidden Americans_. Waveland. ISBN 978-0-88133-235-3 . * Silverman, Carol (1995). "Persecution and Politicization: Roma (Gypsies) of Eastern Europe". _Cultural Survival Quarterly_.

FURTHER READING

* Radenez Julien. _Recherches sur l\'histoire des Tsiganes (2014)_. * Kalwant Bhopal; Martin Myers (2008). _Insiders, Outsiders and Others: Gypsies and Identity_. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN 978-1-902806-71-6 . * Auzias, Claire (2002), _Les funambules de l'histoire_ (in French) (Éditions la Digitale ed.), Baye * Werner Cohn (1973). _The Gypsies_. Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-201-11362-4 . * De Soto, Hermine (2005). "Roma and Egyptians in Albania: From Social Exclusion to Social Inclusion". Washington, DC, US: World Bank Publications. * Fonseca, Isabel (1995). _Bury me standing: the Gypsies and their journey_. New York: AA Knopf. * V. Glajar; D. Radulescu (2008). _Gypsies in European Literature and Culture_. Palgrave Macmillan
Palgrave Macmillan
US. ISBN 978-0-230-61163-4 . * Gray, RD; Atkinson, QD (2003). "Language-tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin". _Nature _. 426: 435–439. PMID 14647380 . doi :10.1038/nature02029 . * David Gresham; et al. (2001). "Origins and divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)" (PDF). _American Journal of Human Genetics_. Stanford. 69 (6): 1314–31. PMC 1235543  _. PMID 11704928 . doi :10.1086/324681 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-04-21. * Kalaydjieva, Luba (2001). et al.. "Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages" (PDF). European Journal of Human Genetics_. Stanford. 9: 97–104. PMID 11313742 . doi :10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200597 . Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-02-13. . * Ringold, Dena (2000), _Roma & the Transition in Central & Eastern Europe: Trends & Challenges_, Washington, DC, USA: World Bank . * Turner, Ralph L (1926), "The Position of Romani in Indo-Aryan", _Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society_, 3rd, 5 (4): 145–88 * McDowell, Bart (June 1970). _Gypsies, wanderers of the world_. National Geographic Society. Special
Special
Publications Division. * Sancar Seckiner's comprehensible book South (Güney), published July 2013, consists of 12 article and essays. One of them, _Ikiçeşmelik_, highlights Turkish Romani People's life. Ref. ISBN 978-605-4579-45-7 . * Sancar Seckiner' s new book Thilda's House (Thilda'nın Evi) , published March 2017, underlines struggle of Istanbul Romani People who have been swept away from nearby Kadikoy. Ref. ISBN 978-605-4160-88-4 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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European countries Roma links

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