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The Romani (also spelled Romany /ˈroʊməni/, /ˈrɒ-/), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe
Europe
and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent,[55][56][57] from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab
Punjab
and Sindh
Sindh
regions of modern-day India
India
and Pakistan.[56][57] A DNA study conducted by Indian and Estonian research facilities shows that the Roma/Romani/Gypsy and Sinti
Sinti
people originate from the Untouchable Dalit
Dalit
community from India.[58] The Romani are widely known among English-speaking people by the exonym Gypsies (or Gipsies), which some people consider pejorative due to its connotations of illegality and irregularity.[59] They are a dispersed people, but their most concentrated populations are located in Europe, especially Central, Eastern and Southern Europe
Southern Europe
(including Turkey, Spain
Spain
and Southern France). The Romani originated in Northern India
India
and arrived in Mid-West Asia, and Europe
Europe
around 1,000 years ago.[60] They have been associated with another Indo-Aryan group, the Dom people: the two groups have been said to have separated from each other or, at least, to share a similar history.[61] Specifically, the ancestors of both the Romani and the Dom left North India
India
sometime between the sixth and eleventh century.[60] Since the 19th century, some Romani have also migrated to the Americas. There are an estimated one million Roma in the United States;[6] and 800,000 in Brazil, most of whose ancestors emigrated in the nineteenth century from eastern Europe. Brazil
Brazil
also includes some Romani descended from people deported by the government of Portugal during the Inquisition
Inquisition
in the colonial era.[62] In migrations since the late nineteenth century, Romani have also moved to other countries in South America and to Canada.[63][page needed] In February 2016, during the International Roma Conference, the Indian Minister of External Affairs stated that the people of the Roma community were children of India.[64] The conference ended with a recommendation to the Government of India
India
to recognize the Roma community spread across 30 countries as a part of the Indian diaspora.[65] The Romani language
Romani language
is divided into several dialects, which add up to an estimated number of speakers larger than two million.[66] The total number of Romani people
Romani people
is at least twice as large (several times as large according to high estimates). Many Romani are native speakers of the language current in their country of residence, or of mixed languages combining the two; those varieties are sometimes called Para-Romani.[67]

Contents

1 Names

1.1 Exonyms 1.2 Endonyms 1.3 Romani usage 1.4 English usage 1.5 Other designations

2 Population and subgroups

2.1 Romani population 2.2 Romani subgroups 2.3 Diaspora

3 Origin

3.1 Shahnameh
Shahnameh
legend 3.2 Linguistic evidence 3.3 Genetic evidence 3.4 Possible migration route

4 History

4.1 Arrival in Europe 4.2 Early Modern history 4.3 Modern history

4.3.1 World War II 4.3.2 Post-1945

5 Society and traditional culture

5.1 Belonging and exclusion 5.2 Religion

5.2.1 Beliefs 5.2.2 Deities and saints 5.2.3 Ceremonies and practices 5.2.4 Balkans 5.2.5 Other regions

5.3 Music

6 Contemporary art and culture 7 Language 8 Persecutions

8.1 Historical persecution 8.2 Forced assimilation 8.3 Holocaust

9 Contemporary issues

9.1 Forced repatriation

10 Organizations and projects 11 Artistic representations 12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Sources 16 Further reading 17 External links

Names[edit] Main article: Names of the Romani people Exonyms[edit]

French bohème, bohémien, from the Kingdom of Bohemia, where they were incorrectly believed to have come from,[68][69] carrying writs of protection from King Sigismund of Bohemia.[70] French gitan, English gypsy, Spanish gitano, Italian gitano, Turkish kipti, all from Greek Αἰγύπτιος Aigýptios "Egyptian" (corrupted form: Γύφτος Gýftos), and Hungarian fáreónépe from Greek φαραώ pharaó "pharaoh" – referring to their allegedly Egyptian provenance.[70] Usage of "gypsy" and similarly derived words differs between groups as some Roma groups use this word as a self-identifier while others consider this word a racial slur. English tzigane (for Hungarian gypsies), Spanish zíngaro, cíngaro, French tzigane, Old High German zigeuner, German Zigeuner, Dutch zigeuner, Danish sigøjner, Swedish zigenare, Norwegian sigøynere Old Church Slavic ациганинъ atsyganin, Italian zingaro, Romanian țigan, Hungarian cigány, Serbo-Croatian
Serbo-Croatian
cigan, ciganin, Polish cygan, Czech cikán, Portuguese cigano, Turkish çingene, Slovak cigán or cigáň, Venetian singano, Russian цыгане tsygane, Ukrainian цигани tsyhany, Lithuanian čigonai, Georgian ციგანი; from Greek ἀθίγγανος athínganos (corrupted form: τσιγγάνος tsingános), "untouchable".[70][71][72][73] Due to the negative connotations of referring to an ethnic group as "untouchable" words derived from this source are usually considered derogatory and outdated by modern Roma peoples. Arabic
Arabic
Nawar and Zott.

Endonyms[edit] Rom means man or husband in the Romani language. It has the variants dom and lom, related with the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words dam-pati (lord of the house, husband), dama (to subdue), lom (hair), lomaka (hairy), loman, roman (hairy), romaça (man with beard and long hair).[74] Another possible origin is from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
डोम doma [member of a low caste of travelling musicians and dancers]. Sanskrit
Sanskrit
सिनधु sindhu is a river or stream of water in general. In particular, it denotes the river Indus
Indus
and the country around it (commonly called Sindh).[75] Romani usage[edit] In the Romani language, Rom is a masculine noun, meaning 'man of the Roma ethnic group' or 'man, husband', with the plural Roma. The feminine of Rom in the Romani language
Romani language
is Romni. However, in most cases, in other languages Rom is now used for people of all genders.[76] Romani is the feminine adjective, while Romano is the masculine adjective. Some Romanies use Rom or Roma as an ethnic name, while others (such as the Sinti, or the Romanichal) do not use this term as a self-ascription for the entire ethnic group.[77] Sometimes, rom and romani are spelled with a double r, i.e., rrom and rromani. In this case rr is used to represent the phoneme /ʀ/ (also written as ř and rh), which in some Romani dialects has remained different from the one written with a single r. The rr spelling is common in certain institutions (such as the INALCO Institute in Paris), or used in certain countries, e.g., Romania, to distinguish from the endonym/homonym for Romanians
Romanians
(sg. român, pl. români).[78] English usage[edit]

A Romani wagon pictured in 2009 in Grandborough
Grandborough
Fields (Grandborough Fields Road is a popular spot for travelling people)

In the English language
English language
(according to the Oxford English Dictionary), Rom is a noun (with the plural Roma or Roms) and an adjective, while Romani (Romany) is also a noun (with the plural Romani, the Romani, Romanies or Romanis) and an adjective. Both Rom and Romani have been in use in English since the 19th century as an alternative for Gypsy. Romani was initially spelled Rommany, then Romany, while today the Romani spelling is the most popular spelling. Occasionally, the double r spelling (e.g., Rroma, Rromani) mentioned above is also encountered in English texts. The term Roma is increasingly encountered,[79][80] as a generic term for the Romani people.[81][82][83] Because all Romanies use the word Romani as an adjective, the term became a noun for the entire ethnic group.[84] Today, the term Romani is used by some organizations – including the United Nations and the US Library of Congress.[78] However, the Council of Europe
Council of Europe
and other organizations consider that Roma is the correct term referring to all related groups, regardless of their country of origin, and recommend that Romani be restricted to the language and culture: Romani language, Romani culture.[76] The standard assumption is that the demonyms of the Romani people, Lom and Dom share the same origin.[85][86] Other designations[edit] Main article: Names of the Romani people

A Romani wagon in Germany
Germany
in 1935

The English term Gypsy (or Gipsy) originates from the Middle English gypcian, short for Egipcien. The Spanish term Gitano and French Gitan have similar etymologies. They are ultimately derived from the Greek Αιγύπτιοι (Aigyptioi), meaning Egyptian, via Latin. This designation owes its existence to the belief, common in the Middle Ages, that the Romani, or some related group (such as the Middle Eastern Dom people), were itinerant Egyptians.[87][88] According to one narrative they were exiled from Egypt
Egypt
as punishment for allegedly harbouring the infant Jesus.[89] As described in Victor Hugo's novel The Hunchback of Notre Dame, the medieval French referred to the Romanies as Egyptiens. The word Gypsy in English has become so pervasive that many Romani organizations use it in their own organizational names. This exonym is sometimes written with capital letter, to show that it designates an ethnic group.[90] However, the word is sometimes considered derogatory because of its negative and stereotypical associations.[82][91][92][93] The Council of Europe
Council of Europe
consider that 'Gypsy' or equivalent terms, as well as administrative terms such as 'Gens du Voyage' (referring in fact to an ethnic group but not acknowledging ethnic identification) are not in line with European recommendations.[76] In North America, the word Gypsy is most commonly used as a reference to Romani ethnicity, though lifestyle and fashion are at times also referenced by using this word.[94] Another common designation of the Romani people
Romani people
is Cingane (alt. Tsinganoi, Zigar, Zigeuner), which likely derives from Athinganoi, the name of a Christian sect with whom the Romani (or some related group) became associated in the Middle Ages.[88][95][96][97] Population and subgroups[edit] Romani population[edit] Main article: Romani populations For a variety of reasons, many Romanis choose not to register their ethnic identity in official censuses. There are an estimated 3.8 million Romani people
Romani people
in Europe
Europe
(as of 2002),[98] although some high estimates by Romani organizations give numbers as high as 14 million.[99] Significant Romani populations
Romani populations
are found in the Balkans, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia
Russia
and Ukraine. Several million more Romanies may live out of Europe, in particular in the Middle East and in the Americas.[100] Romani subgroups[edit] Like the Roma in general, many different ethnonyms are given to subgroups of Roma. Sometimes a subgroup uses more than one endonym, is commonly known by an exonym or erroneously by the endonym of another subgroup. The only name approaching an all-encompassing self-description is Rom.[101] Even when subgroups don't use the name, they all acknowledge a common origin and a dichotomy between themselves and Gadjo (non-Roma).[101] For instance, while the main group of Roma in German-speaking countries refer to themselves as Sinti, their name for their original language is Romanes. Subgroups have been described as, in part, a result of the Hindu
Hindu
caste system, which the founding population of Rom almost certainly experienced in their South Asian urheimat.[101][102]

Debret, Jean-Baptiste (c. 1820), Interior of a gipsy's house in Brazil .

Volkers, Emil (c. 1905), Camping gypsies near Düsseldorf, Germany .

Gypsies camping. Welsh Romanies near Swansea, 1953

Many groups use names apparently derived from the Romani word kalo or calo, meaning "black" or "absorbing all light".[103] This closely resembles words for "black" or "dark" in Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
(e.g., Sanskrit
Sanskrit
काल kāla: "black", "of a dark colour").[101] Likewise the name of the Dom or Domba
Domba
people of North India
India
– to whom the Roma have genetic,[104] cultural and linguistic links – has come to imply "dark-skinned", in some Indian languages.[105] Hence names such as kale and calé may have originated as an exonym or a euphemism for Roma. Other endonyms for Romani include, for example:

Ashkali (or "Balkan Egyptians" [sic]) – Albanian-speaking Roma communities in the Balkans[106] Bashaldé – Hungarian- Slovak Roma
Slovak Roma
diaspora in the US from the late 19th century.[107] Calé is the endonym used by both the Spanish Roma (gitanos) and Portuguese Roma ciganos;[108] Caló is "the language spoken by the calé". Erlides (also Arlije, Yerlii or Arli) in Greece Kaale, in Finland
Finland
and Sweden.[108][101] Kale, Kalá, or Valshanange – Welsh English
Welsh English
endonym used by some Roma clans in Wales.[109] ( Romanichal
Romanichal
also live in Wales.) Romani in Spain
Spain
are also attributed to the Kale.[13] Khorakhanè, Horahane or Xoraxai, also known as "Turkish Roma" or " Muslim
Muslim
Roma" – Greek Roma and Turkish Roma.[101] Lalleri, from Austria, Germany, and the western Czech Republic (including the former Sudetenland). Lovari, from Hungary,[110] known in Serbia
Serbia
as Machvaya, Machavaya, Machwaya, or Macwaia. [101] Lyuli, in Central Asian countries. Rom in Italy. Roma in Romania, commonly known by majority ethnic Romanians
Romanians
as Țigani, including many subgroups defined by occupation:

Boyash also known as Băieși, Lingurari, Ludar, Ludari, or Rudari, who coalesced in the Apuseni Mountains
Apuseni Mountains
of Transylvania. Boyash or băieși is a Romanian word for "miners". Lingurari means "spoon makers",[111] Ludar,Ludari, andRudari may mean "woodworkers" or "miners".[112] (There is a semantic overlap due to the homophony or merging of lemmas with different meanings from at least two different languages: the Serbian rudar miner, and ruda stick, staff, rod, bar, pole (in Hungarian rúd,[113] and in Romanian rudă.[114] Churari,[115] from Romanian Ciurari, "sieve makers", Zlătari "gold smiths"[101] Ursari
Ursari
(bear trainers, from Moldovan/Romanian urs "bear"),[101] Ungaritza blacksmiths and bladesmiths Argintari silversmiths. Aurari goldsmiths. Florari flower sellers. Lăutari
Lăutari
singers. Kalderash, from Romanian caldarar meaning tinsmith, tinker, kettlemaker; also in Bessarabia
Bessarabia
and Ukraine.

Roma or Romové, Czech Republic Roma or Romská, Slovakia Romanichal, in the United Kingdom,[108][101] emigrated also to the United States, Canada
Canada
and Australia[116] Romanisæl, in Norway
Norway
and Sweden. Roms or Manouche
Manouche
(from manush "people" in Romani) in France.[101][117] Romungro
Romungro
or Carpathian Romani from eastern Hungary
Hungary
and neighbouring parts of the Carpathians[118] Sinti
Sinti
or Zinti, predominantly in Germany,[108][101] and Northern Italy; Sinti
Sinti
do not refer to themselves as Roma, although their language is called Romanes.[101]

Diaspora[edit] Main article: Romani diaspora The Roma people have a number of distinct populations, the largest being the Roma and the Iberian Calé or Caló, who reached Anatolia and the Balkans
Balkans
about the early 12th century, from a migration out of northwestern India
India
beginning about 600 years earlier.[119][120] They settled in present-day Turkey, Greece, Serbia, Romania, Moldova, Bulgaria, Macedonia, Hungary
Hungary
and Slovakia, by order of volume, and Spain. From the Balkans, they migrated throughout Europe
Europe
and, in the nineteenth and later centuries, to the Americas. The Romani population in the United States
United States
is estimated at more than one million.[121] Brazil
Brazil
has the second largest Romani population in the Americas, estimated at approximately 800,000 by the 2011 census. The Romani people are mainly called by non-Romani ethnic Brazilians as ciganos. Most of them belong to the ethnic subgroup Calés (Kale), of the Iberian peninsula. Juscelino Kubitschek, Brazilian president during 1956–1961 term, was 50% Czech Romani by his mother's bloodline; and Washington Luís, last president of the First Brazilian Republic (1926–1930 term), had Portuguese Kale ancestry. There is no official or reliable count of the Romani populations worldwide.[122] Many Romani refuse to register their ethnic identity in official censuses for fear of discrimination.[123][better source needed] Others are descendants of intermarriage with local populations and no longer identify only as Romani, or not at all. As of the early 2000s, an estimated 3.8[98][page needed] to 9 million Romani people
Romani people
lived in Europe
Europe
and Asia Minor.[124][page needed] although some Romani organizations estimate numbers as high as 14 million.[125] Significant Romani populations are found in the Balkan peninsula, in some Central European states, in Spain, France, Russia, and Ukraine. The total number of Romani living outside Europe
Europe
are primarily in the Middle East and North Africa and in the Americas, and are estimated in total at more than two million. Some countries do not collect data by ethnicity. The Romani people
Romani people
identify as distinct ethnicities based in part on territorial, cultural and dialectal differences, and self-designation.[126][127][128][129] Origin[edit] Main article: Origin of the Romani people Findings suggest an Indian origin for Roma.[119][120][130] Because Romani groups did not keep chronicles of their history or have oral accounts of it, most hypotheses about the Romani's migration early history are based on linguistic theory.[131] There is also no known record of a migration from India
India
to Europe
Europe
from medieval times that can be connected indisputably to Roma.[132] Shahnameh
Shahnameh
legend[edit] According to a legend reported in the Persian epic poem, the Shahnameh, from Iran
Iran
and repeated by several modern authors, the Sasanian
Sasanian
king Bahrām V Gōr learned towards the end of his reign (421–39) that the poor could not afford to enjoy music, and he asked the king of India
India
to send him ten thousand luris, male and female lute-playing experts. When the luris arrived, Bahrām gave each one an ox and a donkey and a donkey-load of wheat so that they could live on agriculture and play music for free for the poor. But the luris ate the oxen and the wheat and came back a year later with their cheeks hollowed with hunger. The king, angered with their having wasted what he had given them, ordered them to pack up their bags and go wandering around the world.[133] Linguistic evidence[edit] The linguistic evidence has indisputably shown that the roots of the Romani language
Romani language
lie in India: the language has grammatical characteristics of Indian languages and shares with them a large part of the basic lexicon, for example, regarding body parts or daily routines.[134] More exactly, Romani shares the basic lexicon with Hindi
Hindi
and Punjabi. It shares many phonetic features with Marwari, while its grammar is closest to Bengali.[135] Romani and Domari share some similarities: agglutination of postpositions of the second Layer (or case marking clitics) to the nominal stem, concord markers for the past tense, the neutralisation of gender marking in the plural, and the use of the oblique case as an accusative.[136] This has prompted much discussion about the relationships between these two languages. Domari was once thought to be a "sister language" of Romani, the two languages having split after the departure from the Indian subcontinent – but later research suggests that the differences between them are significant enough to treat them as two separate languages within the Central zone (Hindustani) group of languages. The Dom and the Rom therefore likely descend from two different migration waves out of India, separated by several centuries.[61][137] In phonology, Romani language
Romani language
shares a number of isoglosses with the Central branch of Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
especially in the realization of some sounds of the Old Indo-Aryan. However, it also preserves a number of dental clusters. In regards to verb morphology, Romani follows the exact same pattern of northwestern languages such as Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique enclitic pronouns as person markers, lending credence to the theory of their Central Indian origin and a subsequent migration to northwestern India. Though the retention of dental clusters suggests a break from central languages during the transition from Old to Middle Indo-Aryan, the overall morphology suggests that the language participated in some of the significant developments leading toward the emergence of New Indo-Aryan languages.[138] Numerals in the Romani, Domari and Lomavren languages, with Hindi
Hindi
and Persian forms for comparison.[139] Note that Romani 7–9 are borrowed from Greek.

Hindi Romani Domari Lomavren Persian

1 ek ekh, jekh yika yak, yek yak, yek

2 do duj dī lui du, do

3 tīn trin tærən tərin se

4 cār štar štar išdör čahār

5 pāñc pandž pandž pendž pandž

6 che šov šaš šeš šaš, šeš

7 sāt ifta xaut haft haft

8 āţh oxto xaišt hašt hašt

9 nau inja na nu nuh, noh

10 das deš des las dah

20 bīs biš wīs vist bist

100 sau šel saj saj sad

Genetic evidence[edit]

Two Gypsies in Spain, by Francisco Iturrino

Genetic findings in 2012 suggest the Romani originated in northwestern India
India
and migrated as a group.[119][120][140] According to the study, the ancestors of present scheduled tribes and scheduled caste populations of northern India, traditionally referred to collectively as the Ḍoma, are the likely ancestral populations of modern European Roma.[141] In December 2012, additional findings appeared to confirm the "Roma came from a single group that left northwestern India
India
about 1,500 years ago."[120] They reached the Balkans
Balkans
about 900 years ago[119] and then spread throughout Europe. The team found that, despite some isolation, the Roma were "genetically similar to other Europeans."[119][120] Genetic research published in European Journal of Human Genetics "has revealed that over 70% of males belong to a single lineage that appears unique to the Roma."[142] Genetic evidence supports the medieval migration from India. The Romani have been described as "a conglomerate of genetically isolated founder populations,"[143] while a number of common Mendelian disorders among Romanies from all over Europe
Europe
indicates "a common origin and founder effect."[143][144] A study from 2001 by Gresham et al. suggests "a limited number of related founders, compatible with a small group of migrants splitting from a distinct caste or tribal group."[145] The same study found that "a single lineage… found across Romani populations, accounts for almost one-third of Romani males."[145] A 2004 study by Morar et al. concluded that the Romani population "was founded approximately 32–40 generations ago, with secondary and tertiary founder events occurring approximately 16–25 generations ago."[146] Haplogroup H-M82 is a major lineage cluster in the Balkan Romani group, accounting for approximately 60% of the total.[147] Haplogroup H is uncommon in Europe
Europe
but present in the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
and Sri Lanka. A study of 444 people representing three different ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia
Republic of Macedonia
found mtDNA haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively).[148] Y-DNA composition of Romani in the Republic of Macedonia, based on 57 samples:[149]

Haplogroup H – 59.6% Haplogroup E – 29.8% Haplogroup I – 5.3% Haplogroup R – 3.%, of which the half are R1b
R1b
and many are R1a Haplogroup G – 1.8%

A Roma makes a complaint to a local magistrate in Hungary, by Sándor Bihari, 1886

Y-DNA Haplogroup H1a occurs in Romani at frequencies 7–70%. Unlike ethnic Hungarians, among Hungarian and Slovakian Romani subpopulations, Haplogroup E-M78 and I1 usually occur above 10% and sometimes over 20%. While among Slovakian and Tiszavasvari
Tiszavasvari
Romani the dominant haplogroup is H1a, among Tokaj
Tokaj
Romani is Haplogroup J2a (23%), while among Taktaharkány
Taktaharkány
Romani is Haplogroup I2a (21%).[150] Five, rather consistent founder lineages throughout the subpopulations, were found among Romani – J-M67 and J-M92 (J2), H-M52 (H1a1), and I-P259 (I1?). Haplogroup I-P259 as H is not found at frequencies of over 3 percent among host populations, while haplogroups E and I are absent in South Asia. The lineages E-V13, I-P37 (I2a) and R-M17 (R1a) may represent gene flow from the host populations, excluding the Z93 branch of R1a, which is most frequent among Romani people
Romani people
in Turkey. Bulgarian, Romanian and Greek Romani are dominated by Haplogroup H-M82 (H1a1), while among Spanish Romani J2 is prevalent.[151] Among Kosovo
Kosovo
and Belgrade
Belgrade
Romani Haplogroup H prevails, while among Vojvodina
Vojvodina
Romani, H drops to 7% and E-V13 rises to a prevailing level.[152] Among non-Roma Europeans Haplogroup H is extremely rare, peaking at 7% among Albanians
Albanians
from Tirana[153] and 11% among Bulgarian Turks. It occurs at 5% among Hungarians,[150] although the carriers might be of Romani origin.[151] Among non Roma-speaking Europeans at 2% among Slovaks,[154] 2% among Croats,[155] 1% among Macedonians from Skopje, 3% among Macedonian Albanians,[156] 1% among Serbs
Serbs
from Belgrade,[157] 3% among Bulgarians from Sofia,[158] 1% among Austrians and Swiss,[159] 3% among Romanians
Romanians
from Ploiesti, 1% among Turks.[154] Possible migration route[edit] They may have emerged from the modern Indian state of Rajasthan,[160] migrating to the northwest (the Punjab
Punjab
region, Sindh
Sindh
and Baluchistan of the Indian subcontinent) around 250 BC. Their subsequent westward migration, possibly in waves, is now believed to have occurred beginning in about AD 500.[120] It has also been suggested that emigration from India
India
may have taken place in the context of the raids by Mahmud of Ghazni. As these soldiers were defeated, they were moved west with their families into the Byzantine Empire.[161] The author Ralph Lilley Turner
Ralph Lilley Turner
theorised a central Indian origin of Romani followed by a migration to Northwest India
India
as it shares a number of ancient isoglosses with Central Indo-Aryan languages
Indo-Aryan languages
in relation to realization of some sounds of Old Indo-Aryan. This is lent further credence by its sharing the exact same pattern of northwestern languages such as Kashmiri and Shina through the adoption of oblique enclitic pronouns as person markers. The overall morphology suggests that Romani participated in some of the significant developments leading toward the emergence of New Indo-Aryan languages, thus indicating that the proto-Romani did not leave the Indian subcontinent until late in the second half of the first millennium.[138][162]

The migration of the Romanies through the Middle East and Northern Africa to Europe

History[edit] Main article: History of the Romani people Arrival in Europe[edit] Though according to a 2012 genomic study, the Romani reached the Balkans
Balkans
as early as the 12th century,[163] the first historical records of the Romani reaching south-eastern Europe
Europe
are from the 14th century: in 1322 after leaving Ireland on a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Irish Franciscan
Franciscan
monk Symon Semeonis encountered a migrant group of Romani outside the town of Heraklion
Heraklion
(Candia), in Crete, calling them "the descendants of Cain"; his account is the earliest surviving description by a Western chronicler of the Romani in Europe. In 1350 Ludolphus
Ludolphus
of Sudheim
Sudheim
mentioned a similar people with a unique language whom he called Mandapolos, a word some think derives from the Greek word mantes (meaning prophet or fortune teller).[164] Around 1360, a fiefdom, called the Feudum Acinganorum was established in Corfu, which mainly used Romani serfs and to which the Romani on the island were subservient.[165] By the 1440s, they were recorded in Germany;[166] and by the 16th century, Scotland and Sweden.[167] Some Romani migrated from Persia
Persia
through North Africa, reaching the Iberian Peninsula in the 15th century. The two currents met in France.[168]

First arrival of the Romanies outside Bern
Bern
in the 15th century, described by the chronicler as getoufte heiden ("baptized heathens") and drawn with dark skin and wearing Saracen-style clothing and weapons (Spiezer Schilling, p. 749)

Early Modern history[edit]

An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Romani slaves in Bucharest.

Their early history shows a mixed reception. Although 1385 marks the first recorded transaction for a Romani slave in Wallachia, they were issued safe conduct by Holy Roman Emperor Sigismund in 1417.[169][page needed] Romanies were ordered expelled from the Meissen region of Germany
Germany
in 1416, Lucerne
Lucerne
in 1471, Milan
Milan
in 1493, France
France
in 1504, Catalonia
Catalonia
in 1512, Sweden
Sweden
in 1525, England in 1530 (see Egyptians Act 1530), and Denmark
Denmark
in 1536.[169][page needed] In 1510, any Romani found in Switzerland were ordered put to death, with similar rules established in England in 1554, and Denmark
Denmark
in 1589, whereas Portugal
Portugal
began deportations of Romanies to its colonies in 1538.[169][page needed] A 1596 English statute gave Romanies special privileges that other wanderers lacked. France
France
passed a similar law in 1683. Catherine the Great of Russia
Russia
declared the Romanies "crown slaves" (a status superior to serfs), but also kept them out of certain parts of the capital.[170] In 1595, Ștefan Răzvan
Ștefan Răzvan
overcame his birth into slavery, and became the Voivode
Voivode
(Prince) of Moldavia.[169][page needed] Since a royal edict by Charles II in 1695, Spanish gypsies had been restricted to certain towns.[171] An official edict in 1717 restricted them to only 75 towns and districts, so that they would not be concentrated in any one region. In the Great Gypsy Round-up, Romani were arrested and imprisoned by the Spanish Monarchy
Spanish Monarchy
in 1749. During the latter part of the 17th century around the time of the Franco-Dutch War
Franco-Dutch War
both France
France
and Holland needed thousands of men to fight. Some recruitment took the form of rounding up vagrants and the poor to work the galleys and provide labour force for the armies. With this background, Gypsies were targets by both the French and the Dutch. After the wars, and into the first decade of the 18th century, Gypsies were slaughtered with impunity throughout Holland. Gypsies, called ‘heiden’ by the Dutch, wandered throughout the rural areas of Europe
Europe
and became the societal pariahs of the age. Gypsy-hunt or heidenjachten, translated as “heathen hunt” happened throughout Holland in an attempt to eradicate them.[172] Although some Romani could be kept as slaves in Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia until abolition in 1856, the majority traveled as free nomads with their wagons, as alluded to in the spoked wheel symbol in the Romanies flag.[173] Elsewhere in Europe, they were subject to ethnic cleansing, abduction of their children, and forced labor. In England, Romani were sometimes expelled from small communities or hanged; in France, they were branded and their heads were shaved; in Moravia
Moravia
and Bohemia, the women were marked by their ears being severed. As a result, large groups of the Romani moved to the East, toward Poland, which was more tolerant, and Russia, where the Romani were treated more fairly as long as they paid the annual taxes.[174] Modern history[edit] Romani began emigrating to North America in colonial times, with small groups recorded in Virginia
Virginia
and French Louisiana. Larger-scale Roma emigration to the United States
United States
began in the 1860s, with groups of Romanichal
Romanichal
from Great Britain. The largest number immigrated in the early 1900s, mainly from the Vlax group of Kalderash. Many Romani also settled in South America.

Sinti
Sinti
and other Romani about to be deported from Germany, May 22, 1940.

World War II[edit] Main article: Porajmos During World War II, the Nazis
Nazis
embarked on a systematic genocide of the Romani, a process known in Romani as the Porajmos.[175] Romanies were marked for extermination and sentenced to forced labor and imprisonment in concentration camps. They were often killed on sight, especially by the Einsatzgruppen (paramilitary death squads) on the Eastern Front.[176] The total number of victims has been variously estimated at between 220,000 and 1,500,000; even the lower figure would make the Porajmos
Porajmos
one of the largest mass killings in history.[177] The treatment of Romani in Nazi partner states differed markedly. In the Independent State of Croatia, the separatist Ustasa
Ustasa
organization killed around 25,000 Roma, almost the entire Roma population. The concentration camp system of Jasenovac, run by the Ustasa
Ustasa
militia and the Croat political police, were responsible for the deaths of between 15,000 and 20,000 Roma.[178] Post-1945[edit] In Czechoslovakia, they were labeled a "socially degraded stratum," and Romani women were sterilized as part of a state policy to reduce their population. This policy was implemented with large financial incentives, threats of denying future welfare payments, with misinformation, or after administering drugs.[179][180] An official inquiry from the Czech Republic, resulting in a report (December 2005), concluded that the Communist authorities had practised an assimilation policy towards Romanis, which "included efforts by social services to control the birth rate in the Romani community. .. The problem of sexual sterilisation carried out in the Czech Republic, either with improper motivation or illegally, exists," said the Czech Public Defender of Rights, recommending state compensation for women affected between 1973 and 1991.[181] New cases were revealed up until 2004, in both the Czech Republic
Czech Republic
and Slovakia. Germany, Norway, Sweden
Sweden
and Switzerland "all have histories of coercive sterilization of minorities and other groups."[182] Society and traditional culture[edit] Main article: Romani society and culture

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Münster, Sebastian (1552), "A Gipsy Family", The Cosmographia (facsimile of a woodcut), Basle.

Nomadic Roma family traveling in Moldavia, 1837

The traditional Romanies place a high value on the extended family. Virginity
Virginity
is essential in unmarried women. Both men and women often marry young; there has been controversy in several countries over the Romani practice of child marriage. Romani law establishes that the man's family must pay a bride price to the bride's parents, but only traditional families still follow this rule. Once married, the woman joins the husband's family, where her main job is to tend to her husband's and her children's needs, as well as to take care of her in-laws. The power structure in the traditional Romani household has at its top the oldest man or grandfather, and men in general have more authority than women. Women gain respect and authority as they get older. Young wives begin gaining authority once they have children. Romani social behavior is strictly regulated by Hindu
Hindu
purity laws[183] ("marime" or "marhime"), still respected by most Roma (and by most older generations of Sinti). This regulation affects many aspects of life, and is applied to actions, people and things: parts of the human body are considered impure: the genital organs (because they produce emissions), as well as the rest of the lower body. Clothes for the lower body, as well as the clothes of menstruating women, are washed separately. Items used for eating are also washed in a different place. Childbirth is considered impure, and must occur outside the dwelling place. The mother is considered impure for forty days after giving birth. Death is considered impure, and affects the whole family of the dead, who remain impure for a period of time. In contrast to the practice of cremating the dead, Romani dead must be buried.[184] Cremation
Cremation
and burial are both known from the time of the Rigveda, and both are widely practiced in Hinduism
Hinduism
today (although the tendency is for Hindus to practice cremation, while some communities in South India tend to bury their dead).[185] Some animals are also considered impure, for instance cats because they lick their hindquarters. Horses, in contrast, are not considered impure because they cannot do so.[186] Belonging and exclusion[edit] Main articles: Romanipen
Romanipen
and Gadjo (non-Romani) Romanipen
Romanipen
(also romanypen, romanipe, romanype, romanimos, romaimos, romaniya) is a complicated term of Romani philosophy that means totality of the Romani spirit, Romani culture, Romani Law, being a Romani, a set of Romani strains. An ethnic Romani is considered a Gadjo (non-Romani) in the Romani society if he has no Romanipen. Sometimes a non-Romani may be considered a Romani if he has Romanipen. Usually this is an adopted child. As a concept, Romanipen
Romanipen
has been the subject of interest to numerous academic observers. It has been hypothesized that it owes more to a framework of culture rather than simply an adherence to historically received rules.[187] Religion[edit]

Christian Romanies during the pilgrimage at Saintes-Maries-de-la-Mer in France, 1980s

Some Romani people
Romani people
are Christian, others Muslim, some retained their ancient faith of Hinduism
Hinduism
from their original homeland of India, others have their own religion and political organization.[188] Beliefs[edit] The ancestors of modern-day Romani people
Romani people
were previously Hindu, but adopted Christianity
Christianity
or Islam
Islam
depending on their respective regions through which they had migrated.[189] Muslim Roma
Muslim Roma
are found in Turkey, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Albania, Egypt, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Bulgaria, forming a very significant proportion of the Romani people. In neighboring countries such as Greece
Greece
most of the Romani inhabitants follow the practice of Orthodoxy. It is likely that the adherence to differing religions prevented families from engaging in intermarriage.[190] Deities and saints[edit] Blessed Ceferino Giménez Malla
Ceferino Giménez Malla
is considered a patron saint of the Romani people
Romani people
in Roman Catholicism.[191] Saint Sarah, or Sara e Kali, has also been venerated as a patron saint in the same manner as the Blessed Ceferino Giménez Malla. Since the turn of the 21st century, Sara e Kali
Sara e Kali
is understood to have been Kali, an Indian deity brought from India
India
by the refugee ancestors of the Roma people; as the Roma became Christianized, she was absorbed in a syncretic way and worshipped as a saint.[192]

Gypsy fortune-teller in Poland, by Antoni Kozakiewicz, 1884

Mother Goddess figurines have been found in the excavations of the Indus
Indus
Valley Civilisation in Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, in the Sindh – Punjab
Punjab
Haryana
Haryana
area [Some Romani claim Punjab
Punjab
is their original habitat], and Mata Kali
Kali
[Mother Kali] is still worshipped in India. Therefore, Saint Sarah
Saint Sarah
is now increasingly being considered as "a Romani Goddess, the Protectress of the Roma" and an "indisputable link with Mother India".[192][193] Ceremonies and practices[edit] Romanies often adopt the dominant religion of their host country in the event that a ceremony associated with a formal religious institution is necessary, such as a baptism or funeral (their particular belief systems and indigenous religion and worship remain preserved regardless of such adoption processes). The Roma continue to practice "Shaktism", a practice with origins in India, whereby a female consort is required for the worship of a god. Adherence to this practice means that for the Roma who worship the Christian God, prayer is conducted through the Virgin Mary, or her mother, Saint Anne – Shaktism
Shaktism
continues over one thousand years after the people's separation from India.[194] Besides the Roma elders (who serve as spiritual leaders), priests, churches, or bibles do not exist among the Romanies – the only exception is the Pentecostal Roma.[194] Balkans[edit]

Costume of a Romani woman

For the Roma communities that have resided in the Balkans
Balkans
for numerous centuries, often referred to as "Turkish Gypsies", the following histories apply for religious beliefs:

Albania
Albania
– The majority of Albania's Roma people are Muslims.[195] Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
and Montenegro
Montenegro
Islam
Islam
is the dominant religion among the Roma.[196] Bulgaria
Bulgaria
– In northwestern Bulgaria, in addition to Sofia
Sofia
and Kyustendil, Christianity
Christianity
is the dominant faith among Romani people
Romani people
(a major conversion to Eastern Orthodox Christianity
Christianity
among Romani people has occurred). In southeastern Bulgaria, Islam
Islam
is the dominant religion among Romani people, with a smaller section of the Romani population, declaring themselves as "Turks", continuing to mix ethnicity with Islam.[196] Croatia
Croatia
– Following the Second World War, a large number of Muslim Roma relocated to Croatia
Croatia
(the majority moving from Kosovo).[196] Greece
Greece
– The descendants of groups, such as Sepečides or Sevljara, Kalpazaja, Filipidži and others, living in Athens, Thessaloniki, central Greece
Greece
and Greek Macedonia are mostly Orthodox Christians, with Islamic beliefs held by a minority of the population. Following the Peace Treaty of Lausanne of 1923, many Muslim Roma
Muslim Roma
moved to Turkey in the subsequent population exchange between Turkey
Turkey
and Greece.[196]

Muslim
Muslim
Romanies in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina
(around 1900)

Kosovo
Kosovo
– The vast majority of the Roma population in Kosovo
Kosovo
is Muslim.[196] Macedonia – The majority of Roma people are followers of Islam.[196] Romania
Romania
– According to the 2002 census, the majority of Romani minority living in Romania
Romania
are Orthodox Christians, while 6.4% are Pentecostals, 3.8% Roman Catholics, 3% Reformed, 1.1% Greek Catholics, 0.9% Baptists, 0.8% Seventh-Day Adventists.[197] In Dobruja, there is a small community that are Muslim
Muslim
and also speak Turkish.[196] Serbia
Serbia
– Most Roma people in Serbia
Serbia
are Orthodox Christian, but there are some Muslim Roma
Muslim Roma
in Southern Serbia, who are mainly refugees from Kosovo.[196]

Other regions[edit] In Ukraine
Ukraine
and Russia
Russia
the Roma populations are also Muslim
Muslim
as the families of Balkan migrants continue to live in these locations. Their ancestors settled on the Crimean peninsula during the 17th and 18th centuries, but then migrated to Ukraine, southern Russia
Russia
and the Povolzhie (along the Volga River). Formally, Islam
Islam
is the religion that these communities align themselves with and the people are recognized for their staunch preservation of the Romani language
Romani language
and identity.[196] Most Eastern European Romanies are Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, or Muslim.[198] Those in Western Europe
Europe
and the United States
United States
are mostly Roman Catholic or Protestant – in southern Spain, many Romanies are Pentecostal, but this is a small minority that has emerged in contemporary times.[194] In Egypt, the Romanies are split into Christian and Muslim
Muslim
populations.[199] Music[edit] Main article: Romani music

27 June 2009: Fanfare Ciocârlia
Fanfare Ciocârlia
live in Athens, Greece.

Street performance during the Khamoro
Khamoro
World Roma Festival in Prague, 2007.

Romani music
Romani music
plays an important role in Central and Eastern European countries such as Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, the Republic of Macedonia, Albania, Hungary, Slovakia, Slovenia
Slovenia
and Romania, and the style and performance practices of Romani musicians have influenced European classical composers such as Franz Liszt
Franz Liszt
and Johannes Brahms. The lăutari who perform at traditional Romanian weddings are virtually all Romani. Probably the most internationally prominent contemporary performers in the lăutari tradition are Taraful Haiducilor. Bulgaria's popular "wedding music", too, is almost exclusively performed by Romani musicians such as Ivo Papasov, a virtuoso clarinetist closely associated with this genre and Bulgarian pop-folk singer Azis. Many famous classical musicians, such as the Hungarian pianist Georges Cziffra, are Romani, as are many prominent performers of manele. Zdob și Zdub, one of the most prominent rock bands in Moldova, although not Romanies themselves, draw heavily on Romani music, as do Spitalul de Urgență in Romania, Shantel
Shantel
in Germany, Goran Bregović
Goran Bregović
in Serbia, Darko Rundek
Darko Rundek
in Croatia, Beirut and Gogol Bordello
Gogol Bordello
in the United States. Another tradition of Romani music
Romani music
is the genre of the Romani brass band, with such notable practitioners as Boban Marković
Boban Marković
of Serbia, and the brass lăutari groups Fanfare Ciocărlia
Fanfare Ciocărlia
and Fanfare din Cozmesti of Romania. Many musical instruments like violins and guitars are said[by whom?] to have originated from the Romani. Many dances such as the flamenco of Spain
Spain
and Oriental dances of Egypt
Egypt
are also said to have originated from them.[200] The distinctive sound of Romani music
Romani music
has also strongly influenced bolero, jazz, and flamenco (especially cante jondo) in Spain. European-style gypsy jazz ("jazz Manouche" or " Sinti
Sinti
jazz") is still widely practiced among the original creators (the Romanie People); one who acknowledged this artistic debt was guitarist Django Reinhardt. Contemporary artists in this tradition known internationally include Stochelo Rosenberg, Biréli Lagrène, Jimmy Rosenberg, Paulus Schäfer and Tchavolo Schmitt. The Romanies of Turkey
Turkey
have achieved musical acclaim from national and local audiences. Local performers usually perform for special holidays. Their music is usually performed on instruments such as the darbuka, gırnata and cümbüş.[201] Contemporary art and culture[edit] Main article: Romani contemporary art Romani contemporary art is art created by Romani people. It emerged at the climax of the process that began in Central and Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
in the late-1980s, when the interpretation of the cultural practice of minorities was enabled by a paradigm shift, commonly referred to in specialist literature as the Cultural turn. The idea of the "cultural turn" was introduced; and this was also the time when the notion of cultural democracy became crystallized in the debates carried on at various public forums. Civil society
Civil society
gained strength, and civil politics appeared, which is a prerequisite for cultural democracy. This shift of attitude in scholarly circles derived from concerns specific not only to ethnicity, but also to society, gender and class.[202] Language[edit] Main article: Romani language Most Romani speak one of several dialects of the Romani language,[203] an Indo-Aryan language, with roots in Sanskrit. They also often speak the languages of the countries they live in. Typically, they also incorporate loanwords and calques into Romani from the languages of those countries and especially words for terms that the Romani language does not have. Most of the Ciganos of Portugal, the Gitanos of Spain, the Romanichal
Romanichal
of the UK, and Scandinavian Travellers have lost their knowledge of pure Romani, and respectively speak the mixed languages Caló,[204] Angloromany, and Scandoromani. Most of the speaker communities in these regions consist of later immigrants from eastern or central Europe.[205] There are no concrete statistics for the number of Romani speakers, both in Europe
Europe
and globally. However, a conservative estimation has been made at 3.5 million speakers in Europe
Europe
and a further 500,000 elsewhere,[206] although the actual number may be considerably higher. This makes Romani the second largest minority language in Europe, behind Catalan.[205] In relation to dialect diversity, Romani works in the same way as most other European languages.[207] Cross-dialect communication is dominated by the following features:

All Romani speakers are bilingual, and are accustomed to borrowing words or phrases from a second language; this makes it difficult when trying to communicate with Romanis from different countries Romani was traditionally a language shared between extended family and a close-knit community. This has resulted in the inability to comprehend dialects from other countries. This is the reason Romani is sometimes associated as being number of different languages. There is no tradition or example of a literary standard for Romani speakers to use as a guideline for their language use.[207]

Persecutions[edit] Main article: Anti-Romanyism Historical persecution[edit] One of the most enduring persecutions against the Romani people
Romani people
was their enslavement. Slavery was widely practiced in medieval Europe, including the territory of present-day Romania
Romania
from before the founding of the principalities of Moldavia
Moldavia
and Wallachia
Wallachia
in the 13th–14th century.[208][page needed] Legislation decreed that all the Romani living in these states, as well as any others who immigrated there, were classified as slaves.[209] Slavery was gradually abolished during the 1840s and 1850s.[210][page needed] The exact origins of slavery in the Danubian Principalities
Danubian Principalities
are not known. There is some debate over whether the Romani people
Romani people
came to Wallachia
Wallachia
and Moldavia
Moldavia
as free men or were brought as slaves. Historian Nicolae Iorga
Nicolae Iorga
associated the Roma people's arrival with the 1241 Mongol invasion of Europe
Europe
and considered their slavery as a vestige of that era, in which the Romanians
Romanians
took the Roma as slaves from the Mongols
Mongols
and preserved their status to use their labor. Other historians believe that the Romani were enslaved, while captured during the battles, with the Tatars. The practice of enslaving war prisoners may also have been adopted from the Mongols.[208][page needed] Some Romani may have been slaves or auxiliary troops of the Mongols
Mongols
or Tatars, but most of them migrated from south of the Danube
Danube
at the end of the 14th century, some time after the foundation of Wallachia. By then, the institution of slavery was already established in Moldavia and possibly in both principalities. After the Roma migrated into the area, slavery became a widespread practice by the majority population. The Tatar slaves, smaller in numbers, were eventually merged into the Roma population.[211] Some branches of the Romani people
Romani people
reached Western Europe
Europe
in the 15th century, fleeing as refugees from the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans.[212] Although the Romani were refugees from the conflicts in southeastern Europe, they were often suspected by certain populations in the West of being associated with the Ottoman invasion because of their physical features seemed related to the Turks. (The Imperial Diet at Landau and Freiburg in 1496–1498 declared that the Romani were spies of the Turks). In Western Europe, such suspicions and discrimination against a people who were a visible minority resulted in persecution, often violent, with efforts to achieve ethnic cleansing until the modern era. In times of social tension, the Romani suffered as scapegoats; for instance, they were accused of bringing the plague during times of epidemics.[213] On July 30, 1749, Spain
Spain
conducted The Great Roundup of Romani (Gitanos) in its territory. The Spanish Crown ordered a nationwide raid that led to the break-up of families as all able-bodied men were interned into forced labor camps in an attempt at ethnic cleansing. The measure was eventually reversed and the Gypsies were freed as protests began to arise in different communities, sedentary gypsies being highly esteemed and protected in rural Spain.[214][215]

Later in the 19th century, Romani immigration was forbidden on a racial basis in areas outside Europe, mostly in the English-speaking world. ( Argentina
Argentina
in 1880 prohibited immigration by Roma, as did the United States
United States
in 1885.)[213]

Deportation of Roma from Asperg, Germany, 1940 (photograph by the Rassenhygienische Forschungsstelle)

Forced assimilation[edit] In the Habsburg Monarchy
Habsburg Monarchy
under Maria Theresa (1740–1780), a series of decrees tried to force the Romanies to permanently settle, removed rights to horse and wagon ownership (1754), renamed them as "New Citizens" and forced Romani boys into military service if they had no trade (1761), forced them to register with the local authorities (1767), and prohibited marriage between Romanies (1773). Her successor Josef II prohibited the wearing of traditional Romani clothing and the use of the Romani language, punishable by flogging.[216] In Spain, attempts to assimilate the Gitanos
Gitanos
were under way as early as 1619, when Gitanos
Gitanos
were forcibly settled, the use of the Romani language was prohibited, Gitano men and women were sent to separate workhouses and their children sent to orphanages. King Charles III took on a more progressive attitude to Gitano assimilation, proclaiming their equal rights as Spanish citizens and ending official denigration based on their race. While he prohibited the nomadic lifestyle, the use of the Calo language, Romani clothing, their trade in horses and other itinerant trades, he also forbade any form of discrimination against them or barring them from the guilds. The use of the word gitano was also forbidden to further assimilation, substituted for "New Castilian", which was also applied to former Jews and Muslims.[217][218] Most historians agree that Charles III pragmática failed due to three main reasons, ultimately derived from its implementation outside major cities and in marginal areas: The difficulty the Gitano community faced in changing its nomadic lifestyle, the marginal lifestyle in which the community had been driven by society and the serious difficulties of applying the pragmática in the fields of education and work. One author ascribes its failure to the overall rejection by the wider population of the integration of the Gitanos.[216][219] Other examples of forced assimilation include Norway, where a law was passed in 1896 permitting the state to remove children from their parents and place them in state institutions.[220] This resulted in some 1,500 Romani children being taken from their parents in the 20th century.[221] Holocaust[edit] Main article: Porajmos The persecution of the Romanies reached a peak during World War II
World War II
in the Porajmos, the genocide perpetrated by the Nazis
Nazis
during the Holocaust. In 1935, the Nuremberg laws
Nuremberg laws
stripped the Romani people living in Nazi Germany
Germany
of their citizenship, after which they were subjected to violence, imprisonment in concentration camps and later genocide in extermination camps. The policy was extended in areas occupied by the Nazis
Nazis
during the war, and it was also applied by their allies, notably the Independent State of Croatia, Romania
Romania
and Hungary. Because no accurate pre-war census figures exist for the Romanis, it is impossible to accurately assess the actual number of victims. Ian Hancock, director of the Program of Romani Studies at the University of Texas
Texas
at Austin, proposes a figure of up to a million and a half, while an estimate of between 220,000 and 500,000 was made by Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian of the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum.[a] In Central Europe, the extermination in the Protectorate of Bohemia
Bohemia
and Moravia
Moravia
was so thorough that the Bohemian Romani language became extinct. Contemporary issues[edit]

Distribution of the Romani people
Romani people
in Europe
Europe
(2007 Council of Europe "average estimates", totalling 9.8 million)[224]

Antiziganist protests in Sofia, 2011

Main article: Anti-Romanyism
Anti-Romanyism
§ Contemporary_anti-Romanyism In Europe, Romani people
Romani people
are associated with poverty, are accused of high rates of crime and behaviours that are perceived by the rest of the population as being antisocial or inappropriate.[225] Partly for this reason, discrimination against the Romani people
Romani people
has continued to the present day,[226][227] although efforts are being made to address them.[228] Amnesty International
Amnesty International
reports continued instances of Antizigan discrimination during the 20th Century, particularly in Romania, Serbia,[229] Slovakia,[230] Hungary,[231] Slovenia,[232] and Kosovo.[233] The European Union
European Union
has recognized that discrimination against Romani must be addressed, and with the national Roma integration strategy they encourage member states to work towards greater Romani inclusion and upholding the rights of the Romani in the European union.[234]

*projections for Serbia
Serbia
also include up to 97.000 Roma IDPs
IDPs
in Serbia[236]

Roma estimate percentage of population in European countries[235]

Country

Percent

Bulgaria

10.33%

Macedonia

9.59%

Slovakia

9.17%

Romania

8.32%

Serbia*

8.18%

Hungary

7.05%

Turkey

3.83%

Albania

3.18%

Montenegro

2.95%

Moldova

2.49%

Greece

2.47%

Czech Republic

1.96%

Spain

1.62%

Kosovo

1.47%

The Romanis of Kosovo
Kosovo
have been severely persecuted by ethnic Albanians
Albanians
since the end of the Kosovo
Kosovo
War, and the region's Romani community is, for the most part, annihilated.[237] Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
carried out a policy of sterilization of Romani women, starting in 1973.[238] The dissidents of the Charter 77
Charter 77
denounced it in 1977–78 as a genocide, but the practice continued through the Velvet Revolution
Velvet Revolution
of 1989.[239] A 2005 report by the Czech Republic's independent ombudsman, Otakar Motejl, identified dozens of cases of coercive sterilization between 1979 and 2001, and called for criminal investigations and possible prosecution against several health care workers and administrators.[240] In 2008, following the brutal rape and subsequent murder of an Italian woman in Rome
Rome
at the hands of a young man from a local Romani encampment,[241] the Italian government declared that Italy's Romani population represented a national security risk and that swift action was required to address the emergenza nomadi (nomad emergency).[242] Specifically, officials in the Italian government accused the Romanies of being responsible for rising crime rates in urban areas. The 2008 deaths of Cristina and Violetta Djeordsevic, two Roma children who drowned while Italian beach-goers remained unperturbed, brought international attention to the relationship between Italians and the Roma people. Reviewing the state of play in 2012, one Belgian magazine observed:

On International Roma Day, which falls on 8 April, the significant proportion of Europe's 12 million Roma who live in deplorable conditions will not have much to celebrate. And poverty is not the only worry for the community. Ethnic tensions are on the rise. In 2008, Roma camps came under attack in Italy, intimidation by racist parliamentarians is the norm in Hungary. Speaking in 1993, Václav Havel prophetically remarked that "the treatment of the Roma is a litmus test for democracy": and democracy has been found wanting. The consequences of the transition to capitalism have been disastrous for the Roma. Under communism they had jobs, free housing and schooling. Now many are unemployed, many are losing their homes and racism is increasingly rewarded with impunity.[243]

The 2016 Pew Research poll found that Italians, in particular, hold strong anti-Roma views, with 82% of Italians expressing negative opinions about Roma. In Greece
Greece
67%, in Hungary
Hungary
64%, in France
France
61%, in Spain
Spain
49%, in Poland
Poland
47%, in the UK 45%, in Sweden
Sweden
42%, in Germany 40%, and in the Netherlands
Netherlands
37% have an unfavourable view of Roma.[244] Forced repatriation[edit] Main article: Expulsion of Romani people
Romani people
from France In the summer of 2010 French authorities demolished at least 51 illegal Roma camps and began the process of repatriating their residents to their countries of origin.[245] This followed tensions between the French state and Roma communities, which had been heightened after French police opened fire and killed a traveller who drove through a police checkpoint, hitting an officer, and attempted to hit two more officers at another checkpoint. In retaliation a group of Roma, armed with hatchets and iron bars, attacked the police station of Saint-Aignan, toppled traffic lights and road signs and burned three cars.[246][247] The French government has been accused of perpetrating these actions to pursue its political agenda.[248] EU Justice Commissioner Viviane Reding
Viviane Reding
stated that the European Commission should take legal action against France
France
over the issue, calling the deportations "a disgrace". Purportedly, a leaked file dated 5 August, sent from the Interior Ministry to regional police chiefs included the instruction: "Three hundred camps or illegal settlements must be cleared within three months, Roma camps are a priority."[249] Organizations and projects[edit]

World Romani Congress European Roma Rights Centre Gypsy Lore Society International Romani Union Decade of Roma Inclusion, multinational project International Romani Day
International Romani Day
April 8

Artistic representations[edit]

Paris Bordone, c. 1530, Elizabeth, at right, is shown as a gypsy fortune-teller

Main article: Romani people
Romani people
in fiction Many depictions of Romani people
Romani people
in literature and art present romanticized narratives of their supposed mystical powers of fortune telling or their supposed irascible or passionate temper paired with an indomitable love of freedom and a habit of criminality. Romani were a popular subject in Venetian painting from the time of Giorgione
Giorgione
at the start of the 16th century; the inclusion of such a figure adds an exotic oriental flavour to scenes. A Venetian Renaissance painting by Paris Bordone
Paris Bordone
(ca. 1530, Strasbourg) of the Holy Family
Holy Family
in Egypt
Egypt
makes Elizabeth, a gypsy fortune-teller; the scene is otherwise located in a distinctly European landscape.[250] Particularly notable are classics like the story Carmen
Carmen
by Prosper Mérimée and the opera based on it by Georges Bizet, Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame, Herge's The Castafiore Emerald
The Castafiore Emerald
and Miguel de Cervantes' La Gitanilla. The Romani were also depicted in A Midsummer Night's Dream, As You Like It, Othello
Othello
and The Tempest, all by William Shakespeare. The Romani were also heavily romanticized in the Soviet Union, a classic example being the 1975 Tabor ukhodit v Nebo. A more realistic depiction of contemporary Romani in the Balkans, featuring Romani lay actors speaking in their native dialects, although still playing with established clichés of a Romani penchant for both magic and crime, was presented by Emir Kusturica
Emir Kusturica
in his Time of the Gypsies
Time of the Gypsies
(1988) and Black Cat, White Cat
Black Cat, White Cat
(1998). The films of Tony Gatlif, a French director of Romani ethnicity, like Les Princes (1983), Latcho Drom (1993) and Gadjo Dilo (1997) also portray gypsy life.

August von Pettenkofen: Gipsy Children (1885), Hermitage Museum

Vincent van Gogh: The Caravans – Gypsy Camp near Arles (1888, oil on canvas)

Carmen

Esméralda

See also[edit]

Romani people
Romani people
portal

Environmental racism in Europe King of the Gypsies R v Krymowski Rajasthani people Timeline of Romani history

General

Itinerant groups in Europe Nomadic tribes in India

Lists

List of Romani people List of Romani settlements

Notes[edit]

^ Most estimates for numbers of Romani victims of the Holocaust fall between 200,000 and 500,000, although figures ranging between 90,000 and 4 million have been proposed. Lower estimates do not include those killed in all Axis-controlled countries. A detailed study by Sybil Milton, formerly senior historian at the U.S. Holocaust Memorial Museum gave a figure of at least a minimum of 220,000, possibly closer to 500,000.[222] Ian Hancock, Director of the Program of Romani Studies and the Romani Archives and Documentation Center at the University of Texas
Texas
at Austin, argues in favour of a higher figure of between 500,000 and 1,500,000.[223]

References[edit]

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Sources[edit]

Achim, Viorel (2004). The Roma in Romanian History. Budapest: Central European University Press. ISBN 963-9241-84-9.  Fraser, Angus (1992), The Gypsies, Oxford, UK: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-15967-3  Hancock, Ian (2001), Ame sam e rromane džene, New York: The Open Society Institute  Hancock, Ian F. (2002) [2001]. Ame Sam E Rromane Dz̆ene. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN 978-1-902806-19-8.  Helsinki Watch (1991), Struggling for Ethnic Identity: Czechoslovakia's Endangered Gypsies, New York: Helsinki Watch  Hübshmanová, Milena (2003). "Roma – Sub Ethnic Groups". Rombase. Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz.  Lemon, Alaina (2000). Between Two Fires: Gypsy Performance and Romani Memory from Pushkin to Post-Socialism. Durham: Duke University
Duke University
Press. ISBN 0-8223-2456-3.  Matras, Yaron; Popov, Vesselin (2001). Gypsies in the Ottoman Empire. Hatfield: University of Hertfordshire Press.  Matras, Yaron (2005). Romani: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-02330-6.  Matras, Yaron (2002). Romani: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-63165-5. Retrieved 2009-07-16.  "Gypsies, The World's Outsiders", National Geographic, pp. 72–101, April 2001  Nemeth, David J. (2002). The Gypsy-American. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen.  Sutherland, Ann (1986). Gypsies: The Hidden Americans. Waveland. ISBN 978-0-88133-235-3.  Silverman, Carol (1995). "Persecution and Politicization: Roma (Gypsies) of Eastern Europe". Cultural Survival Quarterly. 

Further reading[edit]

Radenez Julien. Recherches sur l'histoire des Tsiganes (2014).  Kalwant Bhopal; Martin Myers (2008). Insiders, Outsiders and Others: Gypsies and Identity. Univ of Hertfordshire Press. ISBN 978-1-902806-71-6.  Auzias, Claire (2002), Les funambules de l'histoire (in French) (Éditions la Digitale ed.), Baye  Werner Cohn (1973). The Gypsies (PDF). Addison-Wesley Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-201-11362-4.  De Soto, Hermine (2005). "Roma and Egyptians in Albania: From Social Exclusion to Social Inclusion". Washington, DC, US: World Bank Publications.  Fonseca, Isabel (1995). Bury me standing: the Gypsies and their journey. New York: AA Knopf.  V. Glajar; D. Radulescu (2008). Gypsies in European Literature and Culture. Palgrave Macmillan
Palgrave Macmillan
US. ISBN 978-0-230-61163-4.  Gray, RD; Atkinson, QD (2003). "Indo-European". Nature. 426 (6965): 435–439. Bibcode:2003Natur.426..435G. doi:10.1038/nature02029. PMID 14647380.  David Gresham; et al. (2001). "Origins and divergence of the Roma (Gypsies)" (PDF). American Journal of Human Genetics. Stanford. 69 (6): 1314–31. doi:10.1086/324681. PMC 1235543 . PMID 11704928. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2003-04-21.  Kalaydjieva, Luba (2001). et al.. "Patterns of inter- and intra-group genetic diversity in the Vlax Roma as revealed by Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA lineages" (PDF). European Journal of Human Genetics. Stanford. 9 (2): 97–104. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5200597. PMID 11313742. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-02-13. . Ringold, Dena (2000), Roma & the Transition in Central & Eastern Europe: Trends & Challenges, Washington, DC, USA: World Bank . Turner, Ralph L (1926), "The Position of Romani in Indo-Aryan", Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society, 3rd, 5 (4): 145–88  McDowell, Bart (June 1970). Gypsies, wanderers of the world. National Geographic Society. Special
Special
Publications Division.  Sancar Seckiner's comprehensible book South (Güney), published July 2013, consists of 12 article and essays. One of them, Ikiçeşmelik, highlights Turkish Romani People's life. Ref. ISBN 978-605-4579-45-7. Sancar Seckiner' s new book Thilda's House (Thilda'nın Evi), published March 2017, underlines struggle of Istanbul Romani People who have been swept away from nearby Kadikoy. Ref. ISBN 978-605-4160-88-4.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Romani people.

European countries Roma links

History the Roma and Sinti
Sinti
in Germany . "General introduction", History of the Roma in Austria, AT: Uni Graz . "History of the Roma in Czech Republic". CZ: Rommuz. [dead link]. Deportation, EU: Romas Inti . History of some Roma Europeans Gypsies in France, 1566–2011, FYI France 

The concentration, labor, ghetto camps that the Roma were persecuted in during World War II

Auschwitz . "Hodonin", History: Camps, CZ: Holocaus . History, CZ: Lety memorial . "The situation of the Roma in the European Union" (resolution). European Parliament. 28 April 2005. [permanent dead link]. "Final report on the human rights situation of the Roma, Sinti
Sinti
and travellers in Europe". The European Commissioner for Human Rights (Council of Europe). 15 February 2006. . Shot in remote areas of the Thar desert in Northwest India, Jaisalmer Ayo: Gateway of the Gypsies on YouTube
YouTube
captures the lives of vanishing nomadic communities who are believed to share common ancestors with the Roma people – released 2004

Non-governmental organisations

European Roma Rights Centre . The Gypsy Lore Scociety . Roma Rights Network .

Museums and libraries

Museum of Romani Culture (in Czech), Brno, CZ . Studii romani (specialized library with archive), Sofia, BG . Documentation and Cultural Centre of German Sinti
Sinti
and Roma, Heidelberg, DE . Ethnographic Museum (in Polish), Tarnów, PL . "Who we Were, Who we Are: Kosovo
Kosovo
Roma Oral History Collection". March 2004. Archived from the original on 5 October 2011. . The most comprehensive collection of information on Kosovo's Roma in existence.

v t e

Romani diaspora

Settlements

Subgroups

Uncontested

Boyash Kalderash Lovari

Machvaya

Polska Roma Bergitka Roma Ruska Roma Servitka Roma Ursari Muslim
Muslim
Roma Ashkali Cascarots Erromintxela Finnish Kale Welsh Kale Romanichal Sinti Manouche Scandinavian Travellers (Tavinger, Romanisæl) Kawliya Black Dutch

Contested

Dom

Nawar

Bosha/Lom Lori Lyuli Garachi

By country

Albania Algeria Australia Austria Bosnia and Herzegovina Brazil Bulgaria Canada Croatia Czech Republic Czechoslovakia Egypt France Germany Greece Hungary Iraq Ireland Italy Kosovo Libya Macedonia Mexico Montenegro Morocco Portugal Romania Serbia Slovakia Slovenia Spain Sudan Syria Tunisia Turkey Ukraine United States Uruguay

Authority control

LCCN: sh85058109 GND: 4050473-6 NDL: 0057

.