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Romagna
Romagna
(Romagnol: Rumâgna) is an Italian historical region that approximately corresponds to the south-eastern portion of present-day Emilia-Romagna. Traditionally, it is limited by the Apennines to the south-west, the Adriatic
Adriatic
to the east, and the rivers Reno and Sillaro to the north and west. The region's major cities include Cesena, Faenza, Forlì, Imola, Ravenna, Rimini
Rimini
and City of San Marino
City of San Marino
(San Marino is a landlocked state inside the Romagna
Romagna
historical region). The region has been recently formally expanded with the transfer of seven comuni (Casteldelci, Maiolo, Novafeltria, Pennabilli, San Leo, Sant'Agata Feltria, Talamello) from the Marche
Marche
region,[1] which are a small number of comuni where Romagnolo dialect is spoken.

Map of Romagna, showing its administrative divisions (new territories not shown)

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Prehistory 2.2 Umbri
Umbri
and Gauls 2.3 Roman Republic 2.4 Roman Empire 2.5 Germanic migrations and Exarchate of Ravenna 2.6 Papal rule 2.7 In a re-united Italy

3 References 4 External links

Etymology[edit] The name Romagna
Romagna
comes from the Latin name Romania, which originally was the generic name for "land inhabited by Romans", and first appeared on Latin documents in the 5th century. It later took on the more detailed meaning of "territory subjected to Eastern Roman rule", whose citizens called themselves Romans (Romani in Latin; Ῥωμαῖοι, Rhomaîoi in Greek). Thus the term Romania came to be used to refer to the territory administered by the Exarchate of Ravenna
Ravenna
in contrast to other parts of Northern Italy
Italy
under Lombard rule, named Langobardia or Lombardy. Romania later became Romandìola in Vulgar Latin, meaning "little Romania", which became Romagna
Romagna
in modern times. History[edit]

The Caveja, the symbol of Romagna

Prehistory[edit] A number of archaeological sites in the region, such as Monte Poggiolo, show that Romagna
Romagna
has been inhabited since the Paleolithic age. Umbri
Umbri
and Gauls[edit] The Umbri, speaking an extinct Italic language
Italic language
called Umbrian, are the first traceable inhabitants of the region. The Etruscans also dwelt in some portions of Romagna. In the 5th Century BC, various Gaulish tribes, most notably the Lingones, Senoni
Senoni
and Boii, moved south into Italy, and sacked Rome in 390 BC. The Senoni
Senoni
utterly subjugated the Umbri
Umbri
and settled in Romagna. The Senoni
Senoni
extended further south to Ancona, with their capital Sena Gallica (Senigallia). The lands formerly inhabited by the Senoni
Senoni
were known as ager Gallicus (Gallic plain) to the Romans. According to the Italian linguist Giacomo Devoto, there are still a number of Celtic substrata in the Romagnolo dialect. Roman Republic[edit] Gallic predominance in the region was consistently challenged by the Romans. In the battle of Telamon, the Romans defeated the joint forces of the Celtic tribes, thus achieving a hegemony over the new Roman Province of Cisalpine Gaul
Gaul
centred at Mutina (modern Modena). After the Second Punic War, the pro-Carthaginian Lingones
Lingones
and Senoni were expelled. To consolidate the Roman rule in the region, the Via Aemilia was built from Ariminium (Rimini) to Piacentia (Piacenza), and a series of Roman colonies were founded. The most significant ones are Forum Livii (Forlì), Forum Cornelii (Imola) and Forum Popili (Forlimpopoli). After the Social War, the Lex Julia was introduced in 90 BC, and Roman citizenship
Roman citizenship
was granted to all municipia south of the River Po. In the first Roman civil war, between Gaius Marius
Gaius Marius
and Lucius Cornelius Sulla, most cities in the regions supported Marius. As a result, Forum Livii and Caesena were razed to ground, and the region was looted by Sulla's army. During the first triumvirate, the Roman Republic
Roman Republic
was divided along the infamous Rubicon. Most of modern Romagna
Romagna
was ruled by Julius Caesar, the notable exception of Ariminium, which is south of the river. In 49 BC, Caesar, who was residing in Ravenna
Ravenna
then, led the Legio XIII across the Rubicon
Rubicon
and ignited Caesar's civil war. Roman Empire[edit] After the decisive battle of Actium, Augustus
Augustus
started a century-long era of Pax Romana. All of Cisalpine Gaul
Gaul
had been incorporated into the Roman province
Roman province
of Italia. Around 7 BC, Augustus
Augustus
divided all of Italy
Italy
into eleven regiones, and most of Romagna
Romagna
(except Rimini) was in the eighth, Aemilia. By the beginning of the 3rd Century, Diocletian
Diocletian
re-divided the Empire into four prefectures, each divided into dioceses, and into provinces. Under the new system, Italy
Italy
was demoted to a mere Imperial province. Modern Romagna
Romagna
was organized into the Roman province
Roman province
of Flaminia et Picenum in the diocese of Italia Annonaria. Steadily Ravenna, which was surrounded by swamps and marshes, prospered and rose in importance, and a Roman fleet was based at the city. It had developed into a major port on the Adriatic. However, in 330, the capital of the Empire was transferred to Constantinople, so with the fleet that stationed at Ravenna, thus weakened the coastal defence in the Adriatic. Germanic migrations and Exarchate of Ravenna[edit] Stepping into the 5th Century, the Germanic migrations into the Empire further intensified. In 402, Emperor Honorius even moved the Western Roman Empire's capital from Mediolanum
Mediolanum
to Ravenna, mainly because of the region's defensive terrain. 8 years later, Alaric I
Alaric I
of the Visigoths
Visigoths
looted Rome. In 476, Odoacer
Odoacer
deposed Romulus in Ravenna, thus marking an end to the Western Empire. Encouraged by Emperor Zeno, Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Great
led the Ostrogoths into Italy. He entered Ravenna
Ravenna
and murdered Odoacer
Odoacer
in 493, establishing a twofold kingdom of the Romans and Goths. Under the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
Italy
Italy
was partly restored to its former prosperity. In 535 Justinian I
Justinian I
initiated the Gothic War. It was fought for 20 years, and the Ostrogoths
Ostrogoths
were finally subjugated. The peninsula, depopulated and devastated, was ruled by an exarch from Ravenna. However, Imperial authority was maintained for barely more than a decade. In 568 new Germanic tribes, the Lombards, entered Italy, and established their capital at Pavia. The Empire could barely defend the region around Ravenna
Ravenna
and Rome, connected by a narrow strip of land passing through Perugia, as well as a series of coastal cities. The Imperial frontier retreated to Bologna. In 727 the Lombard King Liutprand renewed war against the Byzantines, taking most of Romagna
Romagna
and besieging Ravenna
Ravenna
itself. These territories were returned to the Byzantines in 730. In 737 the king entered Romagna
Romagna
once more and took Ravenna. The exarch, Eutychius, retook the region in 740, with Venetian assistance. Eventually another Lombard king, Aistulf, conquered Romagna
Romagna
once more, and brought an end to the exarchate in 751.

The Abbazia di San Mercuriale, Forlì, built in 1180

Papal rule[edit] The Romagna
Romagna
was officially ceded to the Papal States
Papal States
by Rudolf I of Germany in 1278. However, Papal control over it was for long nominal. The area was divided among a series of regional lords, such as the Ordelaffi
Ordelaffi
of Forlì
Forlì
or the Malatesta of Rimini, many of them adhering to the Ghibelline
Ghibelline
party in opposition to the pro-papal Guelphs. This situation started to change in the late 15th century, when after their return to Rome stronger popes progressively reasserted their authority in the fragmented region. Parts of Romagna
Romagna
were also seized by other powers, including Venice, and most notably the Republic of Florence which took land up to Forlì
Forlì
and Cervia, building the famous city-fortress of Terra del Sole. The Florentine Romagna
Romagna
remained part of Tuscany
Tuscany
until the 1920s.

Joseph Anton Koch: Paolo da Malatesta and Francesca da Rimini surprised by Gianciotto Malatesta
Gianciotto Malatesta
(1805), depicting a historical event from around 1280.

Romagna
Romagna
in the 17th century

In 1500 Cesare Borgia, illegitimate son of Pope Alexander VI, carved for himself an ephemeral Duchy of Romagna, but his lands were reabsorbed into the Papal States
Papal States
after his fall. The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis divided Romagna
Romagna
between the Farnese family
Farnese family
of the Duchy of Parma and Piacenza, the House of Este
House of Este
of the Ferrara, and the Duchy of Modena
Modena
and Reggio, and the Papal States. The Duchy of Ferrara was later annexed by the Papal States
Papal States
on the extinction of the main d'Este line in 1597, with the cadet branch retaining the Imperial fiefs of Modena
Modena
and Reggio. This situation lasted until the French invasion of 1796, which brought tragic events (the massacre of Lugo, looting, heavy taxation, the destruction of Cesena
Cesena
University) but also innovative ideas in social and political fields. Under Napoleonic rule Romagna
Romagna
received recognition as an entity for the first time, with the creation of the provinces of the Pino (Ravenna) and Rubicone (Forlì). When in 1815 the Congress of Vienna
Congress of Vienna
restored the pre-war situation, secret anti-Papal societies were formed, and riots broke out in 1820, 1830–31 and 1848. This opposition was fuelled by the Mazzinian propaganda and the direct action of Giuseppe Garibaldi. Men like Felice Orsini, Piero Maroncelli and Aurelio Saffi
Aurelio Saffi
were among the protagonists of the Italian Risorgimento.

Piazza del Popolo in Cesena

In a re-united Italy[edit] However, after joining the unification of Italy
Italy
in 1860, Romagna
Romagna
was not awarded separate status by the Savoy monarchs, who were afraid of dangerous destabilizing tendencies in the wake of the popular figures cited above. In the early 20th century the autonomy of Romagna
Romagna
was advocated by Aldo Spallicci, Giuseppe Fuschini, Emilio Lussu and others. A movement proposing separation from Emilia-Romagna
Emilia-Romagna
was created in the 1990s. References[edit]

^ Marche
Marche
addio: all'Emilia Romagna
Romagna
sette Comuni dell'Alta Valmarecchia Corriere della Sera, July 29, 2009 (in Italian)

External links[edit]

"Other Romagna", a local institution La Romagna
Romagna
(in Italian) RomagnaOggi.it, a newspaper serving the region online (in Italian) Romagna2020.it, official website of a local committee promoting a 2020 Olympics bid (in Italian)

Authority control

GND: 4050474-8

Coordinates: 44°45′N 11°00′E / 44.750°N 11.000°E / 44

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