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Rogan josh
Rogan josh
( British English
British English
/ˌrəʊɡən ˈdʒəʊʃ/, American English /ˌroʊɡən ˈdʒoʊʃ/),[1] also written roghan josh or roghan ghosht, is an aromatic lamb or goat meat dish of Persian or Kashmiri origin,[2] which is one of the signature recipes of Kashmiri cuisine.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 Origin, ingredients, and cultural geography 3 Adaptations 4 Goat and beef rogan josh 5 References

Etymology[edit] A number of origins of the name have been suggested. Roughan means "clarified butter"[3] or "oil" in Persian and Urdu, while juš (alternatively romanised josh) means to "stew" or "braise"[4] and ultimately derives from the verb jušidan meaning "to boil". Rogan josh, by this definition, may mean "stewed in ghee".[4] An alternative etymology is that the name derives from either the Urdu word roghan (Urdu: روغن‬‎), "brown" or "red",[2] or the Kashmiri roghan, "red",[5] along with the word either for "meat", (gošt) often romanized as "rogan ghosht" or "gosht",[6] or a word meaning "juice", giving possible meanings of "red meat" or "red juice".[7] The exact etymology remains uncertain as both "rogan josh" and "rogan ghosht" are used to refer to the dish and it is unclear which of the names is the original.[6] Origin, ingredients, and cultural geography[edit] Rogan josh
Rogan josh
is a staple of Kashmiri cuisine
Kashmiri cuisine
and is one of the main dishes of the Kashmiri multi-course meal (the "Wazwan"). The dish was originally brought to Kashmir
Kashmir
by the Mughals, whose cuisine was in turn influenced by Persian cuisine. The unrelenting summer heat of the Indian plains took the Mughals frequently to Kashmir, which has a cooler climate because of its elevation and latitude.[3] Rogan josh
Rogan josh
consists of pieces of lamb or mutton braised with a gravy flavoured with garlic, ginger and aromatic spices (cloves, bay leaves, cardamom, and cinnamon), and in some versions incorporating onions or yogurt.[8] After initial braising, the dish may be finished using the dampokhtak slow cooking technique.[9] Its characteristic deep red colour traditionally comes from dried flowers or root of Alkanna tinctoria (ratan jot)[7] and from liberal amounts of dried, deseeded Kashmiri chilies (lal mirch). These chilies, whose flavor approximates that of paprika, are considerably milder than the typical dried cayenne pepper of Indian cuisine. The recipe's spice emphasises aroma rather than heat. Saffron is also part of some traditional recipes. There are significant differences in preparation between the Hindu and Muslim dishes in Kashmir: Muslims use praan, a local shallot tasting of garlic, and petals of maval, the Cockscomb flower, for colouring (and for its supposed "cooling" effect);[8] Hindus do not use praan, onion or garlic but add yogurt to give additional body and flavour.[8] Although the dish is from Jammu & Kashmir, it is a staple in British curry houses, whose menu is partly Bangladeshi cuisine, and is an example of dishes from the Subcontinent that got "co-opted" once they left the area (dosa as prepared in Glasgow
Glasgow
is cited as a prime example).[10] Adaptations[edit] While the traditional preparation uses whole dried chilies that are de-seeded, soaked in water, and ground to a paste, non-traditional shortcuts use either Kashmiri chili powder (available in Indian stores) or a mixture of paprika (predominantly) and cayenne pepper, adjusted to taste. (Madhur Jaffrey's recipe[11] calls for a 4:1 ratio of paprika to cayenne.) An updated version served in Sanjeev Kapoor's restaurants uses white and black cardamom, anise, and bay leaves.[12] Many western interpretations of the dish add tomatoes to the sauce. This is especially common with ready-made pour-over cooking sauces to the point where the dish may be considered tomato-based. The authenticity of including tomatoes is disputed: some authors state that tomatoes are not part of the traditional dish or of traditional Indian cuisine and should not be included.[13] However, other authors have specifically referred to rogan josh as a dish based around meat and tomatoes,[14] while others have identified tomatoes with a Punjabi version of the dish as opposed to a Kashmiri one.[15] Goat and beef rogan josh[edit] In India, rogan josh is often made with goat instead of mutton, since genuine lamb is less widely available than goat meat. There is a variety with beef as well, brisket being preferred.[16] References[edit]

^ Rogan Josh, Oxford Learners' Dictionary ^ a b Magon, Harminder Singh (2016). My Epicurean Journey. Friesen. p. 152.  ^ a b Collingham, Lizzie (2006-02-06). Curry: A Tale of Cooks and Conquerors. Oxford UP. p. 34. ISBN 9780199883813. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ a b From Bonbon to Cha-cha: The Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases, Oxford:OUP, 2009, p.297 ^ Chapman, Pat (2009). India: Food and Cooking. New Holland. p. 124. ISBN 9781845376192.  ^ a b Ayto, The Diner's Dictionary: Word Origins of Food and Drink, Oxford: OUP, 2012, p.309 ^ a b Wahhab, Iqbal (2016). The Cinnamon Club Cookbook. Bloomsbury. p. 106.  ^ a b c Panjabi, Camellia (1995). The Great Curries of India. Simon & Schuster. p. 54. ISBN 9780684803838. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ Singh (1973), p.58 ^ Monroe, Jo (2005). Star of India: The Spicy Adventures of Curry. John Wiley & Sons. p. 131. ISBN 9780470091883. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ Recipe Source: Rogan Josh - Madhur Jaffrey ^ Kapoor, Sanjeev (2011). How to Cook Indian: More Than 500 Classic Recipes for the Modern Kitchen. Stewart, Tabori & Chang. p. 39. ISBN 9781613121351. Retrieved 8 August 2013.  ^ Singh, Dharamjit (1973). Indian Cookery. Penguin. p. 21,58. ISBN 978-0140461411.  ^ Holkar, Shivaji Rao (1975). Cooking of the Maharajas. Viking. p. 225.  ^ Bhangal, Jasprit (2013). Indian Cooking with Four Ingredients. Troubador. p. 101. ISBN 9781780884868.  ^ Owen, Sri (1994). The Rice Book: The Definitive Book on Rice, with Hundreds of Exotic Recipes from Around the World. St. Martin's Press. p. 275. ISBN 9780312303396. Retrieved 8 August 2013. 

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Kashmiri

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Muhajir

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Punjabi

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Saraiki

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Sindhi

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Common dishes

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Pakistani diaspora

Balti (food) Chicken tikka
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Indian dishes by region

North

Aloo gobi Aloo Mutter Amritsari Papar Warian Baati Baingan bartha Barfi
Barfi
( Kaju barfi
Kaju barfi
/ Kaju katli) Bhatura Butter chicken Chana masala Chapati Chicken tikka Chole bhature Churma Dum Aloo Dal
Dal
makhani Dopiaza Egg curry Haleem Jeera aloo Kachori Kadai Kadai chicken Kadhi Kahwah Keema Khichra Khichdi Kulcha Korma Kulfi Laal maans Mattar paneer Makki di roti Mirchi Bada Mutton
Mutton
curry Murgh Musallam Naan Nihari Palak Paneer Pakora Paneer tikka Pasanda Raita Rajma Rogan josh Rumali roti Sai bhaji Sarson ka saag Shahi paneer Shami Kebab Tandoori chicken Paneer Tikka Masala

South

Appam Aviyal Baghara baingan Benne Dose Bhajji Bisi bele bath Bonda Chicken 65 Chicken Chettinad Chakna Curd rice Dahi chutney Dopiaza Dosa Double ka meetha Fish molee Hyderabadi biryani Hyderabadi haleem Idiappam Idli Injipuli Kaalan Kanji Kerala porotta Koottu Kozhakkattai Kuzhambu Lukhmi Mirchi ka salan Murukku Mysore Pak Pachadi Paniyaram Parotta Payasam Pongal Poriyal Pulihora Puttu Rasam Rice and curry Sakinalu Sambar Sheer korma Sevai Upma Uttapam Thalassery biryani Vada

West

Akuri Basundi Bhakri Bhelpuri Bombil fry Chinese bhel Chivda Chouriço Dahi vada Dhansak Dhokla Doodhpak Handvo Kadboli Khatkhate Khandvi Khichdi Kombdi vade Kuswar Misal Misal
Misal
Pav Pav bhaji Patoleo Patra ni machhi Pohe Sabudana Khichadi Sanna Sevpuri Shrikhand Solkadhi Sorpotel Thalipeeth Vada pav Veg Kolhapuri Vindaloo Xacuti

East

Alu Potala Rasa Beguni Bel Pana Bhuna Khicuhri Chakuli pitha Cham cham Chandrakanti Charchari Chhena gaja Chhena jalebi Chhena kheeri Chhena poda Chingudi Jhola Dahi baigana Dahi Machha Jalfrezi Indian Chinese cuisine Kati roll Luchi Machha Jhola Maachha Bihana Mathapuli Mishti Doi Ouu khatta Pakhala Pantua Pitha Prawn malai curry Rasabali Rasgulla Ras malai Sandesh Santula Sorshe Ilish

Miscellaneous

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Indian diaspora

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Chicken tikka
masala Fish head curry Phall Nasi kandar Pasembur Roti
Roti
canai

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