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Rodinia
Rodinia
(from the Russian родить, rodít, meaning "to beget, to give birth",[2] or родина", ródina, meaning "motherland, birthplace")[3][4] is a Neoproterozoic supercontinent that was assembled 1.3–0.9 billion years ago and broke up 750–633 million years ago.[5] Valentine & Moores 1970 were probably the first to recognise a Precambrian
Precambrian
supercontinent, which they named 'Pangaea I'.[5] It was renamed 'Rodinia' by McMenamin & McMenamin 1990 who also were the first to produce a reconstruction and propose a temporal framework for the supercontinent.[6] Rodinia
Rodinia
formed at c. 1.23 Ga by accretion and collision of fragments produced by breakup of an older supercontinent, Columbia, assembled by global-scale 2.0–1.8 Ga collisional events.[7] Rodinia
Rodinia
broke up in the Neoproterozoic with its continental fragments reassembled to form Pannotia
Pannotia
633–573 million years ago. In contrast with Pannotia, little is known yet about the exact configuration and geodynamic history of Rodinia. Paleomagnetic evidence provides some clues to the paleolatitude of individual pieces of the Earth's crust, but not to their longitude, which geologists have pieced together by comparing similar geologic features, often now widely dispersed. The extreme cooling of the global climate around 717–635 million years ago (the so-called Snowball Earth
Snowball Earth
of the Cryogenian Period) and the rapid evolution of primitive life during the subsequent Ediacaran and Cambrian
Cambrian
periods are thought to have been triggered by the breaking up of Rodinia
Rodinia
or to a slowing down of tectonic processes.[8]

Contents

1 Geodynamics

1.1 Paleogeographic reconstructions 1.2 Break up

2 Influence on paleoclimate and life 3 See also 4 References

4.1 Notes 4.2 Bibliography

5 External links

Geodynamics[edit]

Life timeline

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water

Single-celled life

photosynthesis

Eukaryotes

Multicellular life

Land life

Dinosaurs    

Mammals

Flowers

 

Earliest Earth
Earth
(−4540)

Earliest water

Earliest life

LHB meteorites

Earliest oxygen

Atmospheric oxygen

Oxygen crisis

Earliest sexual reproduction

Ediacara biota

Cambrian
Cambrian
explosion

Earliest humans

P h a n e r o z o i c

P r o t e r o z o i c

A r c h e a n

H a d e a n

Pongola

Huronian

Cryogenian

Andean

Karoo

Quaternary

Axis scale: million years Orange labels: ice ages. Also see: Human
Human
timeline and Nature timeline

Paleogeographic reconstructions[edit] The idea that a supercontinent existed in the early Neoproterozoic arose in the 1970s, when geologists determined that orogens of this age exist on virtually all cratons.[9][not in citation given] Examples are the Grenville orogeny
Grenville orogeny
in North America
North America
and the Dalslandian orogeny in Europe. Since then, many alternative reconstructions have been proposed for the configuration of the cratons in this supercontinent. Most of these reconstructions are based on the correlation of the orogens on different cratons.[10] Though the configuration of the core cratons in Rodinia
Rodinia
is now reasonably well known, recent reconstructions still differ in many details. Geologists try to decrease the uncertainties by collecting geological and paleomagnetical data. Most reconstructions show Rodinia's core formed by the North American craton (the later paleocontinent of Laurentia), surrounded in the southeast with the East European craton
East European craton
(the later paleocontinent of Baltica), the Amazonian craton
Amazonian craton
("Amazonia") and the West African craton; in the south with the Río de la Plata and São Francisco cratons; in the southwest with the Congo and Kalahari cratons; and in the northeast with Australia, India and eastern Antarctica. The positions of Siberia and North and South China north of the North American craton differ strongly depending on the reconstruction:[11][12]

SWEAT-Configuration (Southwest US-East Antarctica
Antarctica
craton): Antarctica is on the Southwest of Laurentia
Laurentia
and Australia is at the North of Antarctica.[13] AUSWUS-Configuration (Australia-western US): Australia is at the West of Laurentia. AUSMEX-Configuration (Australia-Mexico): Australia is at the location of nowadays Mexico relative to Laurentia. The "Missing-link" model by Li et al. 2008 which has South China between Australia and the west coast of Laurentia.[14] A revised "Missing-link" model is proposed in which Tarim Block serves as an extended or alternative missing-link between Australia and Laurentia.[15] Siberia attached to the western US (via the Belt Supergroup), as in Sears & Price 2000.[16] Rodinia
Rodinia
of Scotese.[17]

Little is known about the paleogeography before the formation of Rodinia. Paleomagnetic and geologic data are only definite enough to form reconstructions from the breakup of Rodinia[16] onwards. Rodinia is considered to have formed between 1.3 and 1.23 billion years ago and broke up again before 750 million years ago.[18] Rodinia
Rodinia
was surrounded by the superocean geologists are calling Mirovia
Mirovia
(from Russian мировой, mirovoy, meaning "global"). According to J.D.A. Piper, Rodinia
Rodinia
is one of two models for the configuration and history of the continental crust in the latter part of Precambrian
Precambrian
times. The other is Paleopangea, Piper's own concept.[19] Piper proposes an alternative hypothesis for this era and the previous ones. This idea rejects that Rodinia
Rodinia
ever existed as a transient supercontinent subject to progressive break-up in the latter part of Proterozoic
Proterozoic
times and instead that this time and earlier times were dominated by a single, persistent "Paleopangaea" supercontinent. As evidence, he suggests an observation that the palaeomagnetic poles from the continental crust assigned to this time conform to a single path between 825 and 633 million years ago and latterly to a near-static position between 750 and 633 million years.[8] This latter solution predicts that break-up was confined to the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
Period and produced the dramatic environmental changes that characterised the transition between Precambrian
Precambrian
and Phanerozoic
Phanerozoic
times. Break up[edit] In 2009 UNESCO's IGCP project 440, named ' Rodinia
Rodinia
Assembly and Breakup', concluded that Rodinia
Rodinia
broke up in four stages between 825–550 Ma:[20]

The break up was initiated by a superplume around 825–800 Ma whose influence—such as crustal arching, intense bimodal magmatism, and accumulation of thick rift-type sedimentary successions—have been recorded in South Australia, South China, Tarim, Kalahari, India, and the Arabian-Nubian Craton. Rifting progressed in the same cratons 800–750 Ma and spread into Laurentia
Laurentia
and perhaps Siberia. India (including Madagascar) and the Congo-Säo Francisco Craton
Craton
were either detached from Rodinia
Rodinia
during this period or simply never were part of the supercontinent. As the central part of Rodinia
Rodinia
reached the Equator around 750–700 Ma, a new pulse of magmatism and rifting continued the disassembly in western Kalahari, West Australia, South China, Tarim, and most margins of Laurentia. 650–550 Ma several events coincided: the opening of the Iapetus Ocean; the closure of the Braziliano, Adamastor, and Mozambique oceans; and the Pan-African orogeny. The result was the formation of Gondwana.

The Rodinia
Rodinia
hypothesis assumes that rifting did not start everywhere simultaneously. Extensive lava flows and volcanic eruptions of Neoproterozoic age are found on most continents, evidence for large scale rifting about 750 million years ago.[2] As early as 850 and 800 million years ago,[18] a rift developed between the continental masses of present-day Australia, East Antarctica, India and the Congo and Kalahari cratons on one side and later Laurentia, Baltica, Amazonia and the West African and Rio de la Plata cratons on the other.[21] This rift developed into the Adamastor Ocean
Adamastor Ocean
during the Ediacaran. Around 550 million years ago, on the boundary between the Ediacaran and Cambrian, the first group of cratons eventually fused again with Amazonia, West Africa
Africa
and the Rio de la Plata cratons.[22] This tectonic phase is called the Pan-African orogeny. It created a configuration of continents that would remain stable for hundreds of millions of years in the form of the continent Gondwana. In a separate rifting event about 610 million years ago (halfway in the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
period), the Iapetus Ocean
Iapetus Ocean
formed. The eastern part of this ocean formed between Baltica
Baltica
and Laurentia, the western part between Amazonia and Laurentia. Because the exact moments of this separation and the partially contemporaneous Pan-African orogeny
Pan-African orogeny
are hard to correlate, it might be that all continental mass was again joined in one supercontinent between roughly 600 and 550 million years ago. This hypothetical supercontinent is called Pannotia. Influence on paleoclimate and life[edit] Unlike later supercontinents, Rodinia
Rodinia
would have been entirely barren. Rodinia
Rodinia
existed before complex life colonized dry land. Based on sedimentary rock analysis Rodinia's formation happened when the ozone layer was not as extensive as it is today. Ultraviolet light discouraged organisms from inhabiting its interior. Nevertheless, its existence did significantly influence the marine life of its time. In the Cryogenian period the Earth
Earth
experienced large glaciations, and temperatures were at least as cool as today. Substantial areas of Rodinia
Rodinia
may have been covered by glaciers or the southern polar ice cap. Low temperatures may have been exaggerated during the early stages of continental rifting. Geothermal heating
Geothermal heating
peaks in crust about to be rifted; and since warmer rocks are less dense, the crustal rocks rise up relative to their surroundings. This rising creates areas of higher altitude, where the air is cooler and ice is less likely to melt with changes in season, and it may explain the evidence of abundant glaciation in the Ediacaran
Ediacaran
period.[2] The eventual rifting of the continents created new oceans and seafloor spreading, which produces warmer, less dense oceanic lithosphere. Due to its lower density, hot oceanic lithosphere will not lie as deep as old, cool oceanic lithosphere. In periods with relatively large areas of new lithosphere, the ocean floors come up, causing the eustatic sea level to rise. The result was a greater number of shallower seas. The increased evaporation from the larger water area of the oceans may have increased rainfall, which, in turn, increased the weathering of exposed rock. By inputting data on the ratio of stable isotopes 18O:16O[not in citation given] into computer models, it has been shown that, in conjunction with quick weathering of volcanic rock, this increased rainfall may have reduced greenhouse gas levels to below the threshold required to trigger the period of extreme glaciation known as Snowball Earth.[23] Increased volcanic activity also introduced into the marine environment biologically active nutrients, which may have played an important role in the development of the earliest animals. See also[edit]

Columbia for one possible reconstruction of an earlier supercontinent List of supercontinents Supercontinent
Supercontinent
cycle

References[edit] Notes[edit]

^ "Research paper suggests East Antarctica
Antarctica
and North America
North America
once linked". The Antarctic Sun. United States Antarctic Program. 26 August 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2012.  Reconstruction originally published in Goodge et al. 2008, Fig 3A, p. 238; research paper mentioned is Loewy et al. 2011. See also: Rejcek 2008. ^ a b c McMenamin & McMenamin 1990, chapter: The Rifting of Rodinia ^ Redfern 2001, p. 335 ^ Taube, Aleksandr M., R. S. Daglish, and M. A. Cantab. Russko-angliiskii Slovar' =: Russian-english Dictionary. Moskva: Russkii iazyk, 1993. Print. ISBN 5200018838 ^ a b Li et al. 2008 ^ Meert 2012, Supercontinents in Earth
Earth
history, p. 998 ^ Zhao et al. 2002; Zhao et al. 2004 ^ a b Piper 2013 ^ Dewey & Burke 1973; the name 'Rodinia' was first used in McMenamin & McMenamin 1990 ^ See for example the correlation between the North American Grenville and European Dalslandian orogenies in Ziegler 1990, p. 14; for the correlation between the Australian Musgrave orogeny and the Grenville orogeny
Grenville orogeny
see Wingate, Pisarevsky & Evans 2002, Implications for Rodinia
Rodinia
reconstructions, pp. 124–126; fig. 5, p. 127 ^ For a comparison of the SWEAT, AUSWUS, AUSMEX, and Missing-link reconstructions see Li et al. 2008, Fig. 2, p. 182. For a comparison between the "consensus" Rodinia
Rodinia
of Li et al. 2008 and the original proposal of McMenamin & McMenamin 1990 see Nance, Murphy & Santosh 2014, Fig. 11, p. 9. ^ Examples of reconstructions can be found in Stanley 1999, pp. 336–337; Weil et al. 1998, Fig. 6, p. 21; Torsvik 2003, Fig. ' Rodinia
Rodinia
old and new', p. 1380; Dalziel 1997, Fig. 11, p. 31; Scotese 2009, Fig. 1, p. 69 ^ Moores 1991; Goodge et al. 2008 ^ Li et al. 2008, Fig. 4, p. 188; fig. 8, p. 198 ^ Wen, Bin; Evans, David A. D.; Li, Yong-Xiang (2017-01-15). " Neoproterozoic paleogeography of the Tarim Block: An extended or alternative "missing-link" model for Rodinia?". Earth
Earth
and Planetary Science Letters. 458: 92–106. Bibcode:2017E&PSL.458...92W. doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.10.030.  ^ a b "Other Reconstructions for Rodinia
Rodinia
based on sources for Mojavia". Department of Geological Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder. May 2002. Retrieved 20 September 2010.  ^ Scotese 2009; Torsvik, Gaina & Redfield 2008 ^ a b Torsvik 2003, p. 1380 ^ Piper 2010 ^ Bogdanova, Pisarevsky & Li 2009, Breakup of Rodinia
Rodinia
(825–700 Ma), pp. 266–267 ^ Torsvik 2003, Fig. ' Rodinia
Rodinia
old and new', p. 1380 ^ See for example reconstructions in Pisarevsky et al. 2008, Fig. 4, p. 19 ^ Donnadieu et al. 2004[page needed]

Bibliography[edit]

Bogdanova, S. V.; Pisarevsky, S. A.; Li, Z. X. (2009). "Assembly and Breakup of Rodinia
Rodinia
(Some Results of IGCP Project 440)" (PDF). Stratigraphy and Geological Correlation. 17 (3): 259–274. Bibcode:2009SGC....17..259B. doi:10.1134/S0869593809030022. ISSN 0869-5938. Retrieved 7 February 2016.  Dalziel, I. W. (1997). "Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic geography and tectonics: Review, hypothesis, environmental speculation". Geological Society of America Bulletin. 109 (1): 16–42. Bibcode:1997GSAB..109...16D. doi:10.1130/0016-7606(1997)109<0016:ONPGAT>2.3.CO;2.  Dewey, J. F.; Burke, K. C. (1973). "Tibetan, Variscan, and Precambrian basement reactivation: products of continental collision". Journal of Geology. 81 (6): 683–692. Bibcode:1973JG.....81..683D. doi:10.1086/627920. JSTOR 30058995.  Donnadieu, Y.; Goddéris, Y.; Ramstein, G.; Nédélec, A.; Meert, J. G. (2004). "A 'snowball Earth' climate triggered by continental break-up through changes in runoff" (PDF). Nature. 428 (6980): 303–306. Bibcode:2004Natur.428..303D. doi:10.1038/nature02408. PMID 15029192. Retrieved 29 January 2016.  Goodge, J. W.; Vervoort, J. D.; Fanning, C. M.; Brecke, D. M.; Farmer, G. L.; Williams, I. S.; Myrow, P. M.; DePaolo, D. J. (2008). "A positive test of East Antarctica– Laurentia
Laurentia
juxtaposition within the Rodinia
Rodinia
supercontinent" (PDF). Science. 321 (5886): 235–240. Bibcode:2008Sci...321..235G. doi:10.1126/science.1159189. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 18621666. Retrieved 4 February 2016.  Li, Z. X.; Bogdanova, S. V.; Collins, A. S.; Davidson, A.; De Waele, B.; Ernst, R. E.; Fitzsimons, I. C. W.; Fuck, R. A.; Gladkochub, D. P.; Jacobs, J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Lul, S.; Natapov, L. M.; Pease, V.; Pisarevsky, S. A.; Thrane, K.; Vernikovsky, V. (2008). "Assembly, configuration, and break-up history of Rodinia: A synthesis" (PDF). Precambrian
Precambrian
Research. 160: 179–210. doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2007.04.021. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  Loewy, S. L.; Dalziel, I. W. D.; Pisarevsky, S.; Connelly, J. N.; Tait, J.; Hanson, R. E.; Bullen, D. (2011). "Coats Land crustal block, East Antarctica: A tectonic tracer for Laurentia?" (PDF). Geology. 39 (9): 859–862. doi:10.1130/G32029.1. Retrieved 24 January 2016. Lay summary (August 2011).  McMenamin, M. A.; McMenamin, D. L. (1990). The emergence of animals: the Cambrian
Cambrian
breakthrough. Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-06647-3.  Meert, J.G. (2012). "What's in a name? The Columbia (Paleopangaea/Nuna) supercontinent" (PDF). Gondwana
Gondwana
Research. 21 (4): 987–993. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2011.12.002. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  Meert, J.G.; Torsvik, T.H. (2003). "The making and unmaking of a Supercontinent: Rodinia
Rodinia
revisited" (PDF). Tectonophysics. 375: 261–288. Bibcode:2003Tectp.375..261M. doi:10.1016/S0040-1951(03)00342-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-23.  Moores, E. M. (1991). "Southwest US-East Antarctic (SWEAT) connection: a hypothesis" (PDF). Geology. 19 (5): 425–428. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(1991)019<0425:SUSEAS>2.3.CO;2. Retrieved 21 February 2016.  Nance, R. D.; Murphy, J. B.; Santosh, M. (2014). "The supercontinent cycle: a retrospective essay" (PDF). Gondwana
Gondwana
Research. 25 (1): 4–29. doi:10.1016/j.gr.2012.12.026. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  Piper, J. D. A. (2010). "Palaeopangaea in Meso- Neoproterozoic times: The palaeomagnetic evidence and implications to continental integrity, supercontinent form and Eocambrian break-up" (PDF). Journal of Geodynamics. 50 (3): 191–223. doi:10.1016/j.jog.2010.04.004. Retrieved 24 January 2016.  Piper, J. D. A. (2013). "A planetary perspective on Earth
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evolution: lid tectonics before plate tectonics" (PDF). Tectonophysics. 589: 44–56. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2012.12.042. Retrieved 1 February 2016.  Pisarevsky, S. A.; Murphy, J. B.; Cawood, P. A.; Collins, A. S. (2008). "Late Neoproterozoic and Early Cambrian
Cambrian
palaeogeography: models and problems" (PDF). Geological Society of London, Special Publications. 294 (1): 9–31. Bibcode:2008GSLSP.294....9P. doi:10.1144/SP294.2. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  Redfern, R. (2001). Origins: The Evolution
Evolution
of Continents, Oceans and Life. University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-3359-7. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  Scotese, C. R. (2009). "Late Proterozoic
Proterozoic
plate tectonics and palaeogeography: a tale of two supercontinents, Rodinia
Rodinia
and Pannotia" (PDF). Geological Society, London, Special
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Publications. 326 (1): 67–83. doi:10.1144/SP326.4. Retrieved 29 November 2015. Lay summary (February 2001).  Sears, J. W.; Price, R. A. (2000). "New look at the Siberian connection: No SWEAT". Geology. 28 (5): 423–426. Bibcode:2000Geo....28..423S. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2000)28<423:NLATSC>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 0091-7613.  Stanley, S. M. (1999). Earth
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System History. W. H. Freeman & Co. ISBN 0-7167-2882-6.  Torsvik, T. H. (2003). "The Rodinia
Rodinia
Jigsaw Puzzle" (PDF). Science. 300 (5624): 1379–1381. doi:10.1126/science.1083469. PMID 12775828. Retrieved 24 January 2016.  Torsvik, T. H.; Gaina, C.; Redfield, T. F. (2008). " Antarctica
Antarctica
and Global Paleogeography: From Rodinia, through Gondwanaland and Pangea, to the birth of the Southern Ocean and the opening of gateways" (PDF). In Cooper, A. K.; Barrett, P. J.; Stagg, H.; Storey, B.; Stump, E.; Wise, W.; the 10th ISAES editorial team. Antarctica: A Keystone in a Changing World. Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth
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Sciences (PDF). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. pp. 125–140. doi:10.3133/of2007-1047.kp11. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2016. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) Valentine; Moores, E. M. (1970). "Plate-tectonic Regulation of Faunal Diversity and Sea Level: a Model". Nature. 228: 657–659. doi:10.1038/228657a0. PMID 16058645.  Weil, A. B.; Van der Voo, R.; Mac Niocaill, C.; Meert, J. G. (1998). "The Proterozoic
Proterozoic
supercontinent Rodinia: paleomagnetically derived reconstructions for 1100 to 800 Ma" (PDF). Earth
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and Planetary Science Letters. 154 (1): 13–24. Bibcode:1998E&PSL.154...13W. doi:10.1016/S0012-821X(97)00127-1. Retrieved 6 February 2016.  Wingate, M. T. D.; Pisarevsky, S. A.; Evans, D. A. D. (2002). "Rodinia connections between Australia and Laurentia: no SWEAT, no AUSWUS?" (PDF). Terra Nova. 14 (2): 121–128. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3121.2002.00401.x. Retrieved 1 February 2016.  Ziegler, P. A. (1990). Geological Atlas of Western and Central Europe (2nd ed.). Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij BV. ISBN 90-6644-125-9.  Zhao, G.; Cawood, P. A.; Wilde, S. A.; Sun, M. (2002). "Review of global 2.1–1.8 Ga orogens: implications for a pre-Rodinia supercontinent" (PDF). Earth-Science Reviews. 59 (1): 125–162. Bibcode:2002ESRv...59..125Z. doi:10.1016/S0012-8252(02)00073-9. Retrieved 3 February 2016.  Zhao, G.; Sun, M.; Wilde, S. A.; Li, S. (2004). "A Paleo-Mesoproterozoic supercontinent: assembly, growth and breakup" (PDF). Earth-Science Reviews. 67 (1): 91–123. Bibcode:2004ESRv...67...91Z. doi:10.1016/j.earscirev.2004.02.003. Retrieved 3 February 2016. 

External links[edit]

Look up Rodinia
Rodinia
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Scotese Animation: Breakup of Rodinia
Rodinia
& Formation of Pacific Ocean "Dance of the Giant Continents: Washington's Earliest History" IGCP Special
Special
Project 440: mapping Proterozoic
Proterozoic
supercontinents, including Rodinia PALEOMAP Project: Plate Tectonic Animations (java)

v t e

Continents of the world

   

Africa

Antarctica

Asia

Australia

Europe

North America

South America

   

Afro-Eurasia

America

Eurasia

Oceania

   

Former supercontinents Gondwana Laurasia Pangaea Pannotia Rodinia Columbia Kenorland Nena Sclavia Ur Vaalbara

Historical continents Amazonia Arctica Asiamerica Atlantica Avalonia Baltica Cimmeria Congo craton Euramerica Kalaharia Kazakhstania Laurentia North China Siberia South China East Antarctica India

   

Submerged continents Kerguelen Plateau Zealandia

Possible future supercontinents Pangaea
Pangaea
Ultima Amasia Novopangaea

Mythical and hypothesised continents Atlantis Kumari Kandam Lemuria Meropis Mu Hyperborea Terra Australis

See also Regions of the world Continental fragment

.